ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0176.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: psychological distress/anxiety/depression; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items; factor structure; psychometric properties; structural validity; validation; measurement invariance; old age/elders/elderly; informal; family caregivers; spouse; adult children
Online: 9 August 2022 (08:44:11 CEST)
Dementia patients express a set of problematic and deteriorating symptoms, along self-care dependency. Overtime, the mental health of family caregivers of persons with dementia may suffer, putting them at a high risk for psychopathology, which may be associated with endangered wellbeing of demented people. This cross-sectional study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), DASS-12, DASS-21 in a convenient sample of 571 caregivers from northern Italy and southern Switzerland (Mean age = 53, SD = 12, range = 24–89 years). A bifactor structure of the three measures had the best fit; some items of the DASS-12/DASS-21 failed to load on their domain-specific factors. The three-factor structure was invariant across various groups (e.g., gender, education, etc.), expressed adequate reliability and convergent validity, and had strong positive correlation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Dementia type had no effect on distress scores, which were higher among females, adult children caregivers, those caring for dependent patients, and those who received help with care. For 54.9 and 38.8% of the latter, care was provided by relatives and health professionals, respectively. Since the DASS-8 expresses adequate psychometrics comparable with the DASS-21, it may be used as a brief measure of distress in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0190.v1
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:12:48 CEST)
Collaborative action between families and health professionals, in this case nurses, doctors, nutritionists, pharmacies in forming harmonious support is the philosophy of family centered nursing care which aims to involve families as the main focus in care. The aim of this literature review is to identify family-centered family member care: a literatu review. This language method uses literature reviews which are summaries of 10 articles in the publication years of 2020-2021 on search 4 databased electronic searches containing namely Scopus, ProQuest, Pubmed, and Scient Direct. This review used prisms. The eligibility of these studies were from its title, abstract, research methodology, results and discussion. The results of the review were presented in narrative form. The results of a review of 10 articles found that the form family centered care Conclusion: The family is considered a partner in the care of other family members. The concept of family centered care is a philosophy in nursing where the role of the family is very important in caring for family members who are sick.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0389.v1
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:44:53 CET)
The existence and family living with a sibling with a disability implies a dynamic and a structure with meaning to children and their circumstances. However, a sibling that accompanies, helps, or takes part in family life, usually is lower analysis compared with children with disabilities. The goal of this work is to analyze the behavior of children before siblings with disabilities. Following two children’s opinions in this context. It is intended to make some analysis about the children's behavior towards their sibling, and finally, seek reflection on the structure of family relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0458.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: family-supportive workplaces; corporate family responsibility; ethical leadership; authentic leadership; family-supportive supervisor behavior; chief executive officer
Online: 29 October 2021 (16:39:36 CEST)
Purpose: The goal of the present study was to investigate chief executives’ intention and potential to create a family-supportive culture in the Brazilian context, further assessing the role of their aspirations in their employees’ perceptions. Methodology: Two researchers conducted 60 minutes of online semi-structured interviews with CEOs of seven companies of different sizes (measured by the number of employees), economic sectors, and capital structure. To complement the data gathered from CEOs, we also conducted private and individual 30-minute online interviews with three employees from each company. Findings: A total of four categories and 11 sub-categories emerged from the analysis of CEO interviews, and four categories and six sub-categories emerged from the analysis of employee interviews. Originality: The results suggest that family-supportive culture is promoted through behaviors that are consistent with the organization’s core values, as well as through commitment of the agenda and resources of the company’s leadership team.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0105.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ICT; sensors; well-being; family-centred design; healthy lifestyle; family time
Online: 5 July 2018 (16:34:20 CEST)
Within the Active Living and Well-Being Project (RRP3), funded by the Republic of Slovenia and the European Regional Development Fund Investing in Your Future programme, we aim to develop different approaches and prototypes to provide ICT solutions for the family in order to connect its members, communicate, promote quality family time, active life, a health-friendly lifestyle and well-being, and integrate various sensor and user-based data sources into a smart city ecosystem platform. A mixed methodology, combined qualitative and quantitative approaches, was selected to conduct a study. An online survey with a structured questionnaire as well as semi-structured interviews were performed. Through the analysis of the results we tried to establish a family-centred design approach that would be inclusive as much as possible, creating benefits for all generations in order to develop interactive prototypes that would allow us to further test and verify different use-case scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0713.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Bivariate family, Kumaraswamy-G family; Marshall and Olkin shock model; maximum likelihood method; parameter induction; T-X family; Weibull distribution
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:33:09 CEST)
For bounded unit interval, we propose a new Kumaraswamy generalized (G) family of distributions from a new generator which could be an alternate to the Kumaraswamy-G family proposed earlier by Cordeiro and de-Castro in 2011. This new generator can also be used to develop alternate G-classes such as beta-G, McDonald-G, Topp-Leone-G, Marshall-Olkin-G and Transmuted-G for bounded unit interval. Some mathematical properties of this new family are obtained and maximum likelihood method is used for estimating the family parameters. We investigate the properties of one special model called a new Kumaraswamy-Weibull (NKwW) distribution. Parameter estimation is dealt and maximum likelihood estimators are assessed through simulation study. Two real life data sets are analyzed to illustrate the importance and flexibility of this distribution. In fact, this model outperforms some generalized Weibull models such as the Kumaraswamy-Weibull, McDonald-Weibull, beta-Weibull, exponentiated-generalized Weibull, gamma-Weibull, odd log-logistic-Weibull, Marshall-Olkin-Weibull, transmuted-Weibull, exponentiated-Weibull and Weibull distributions when applied to these data sets. The bivariate extension of the family is proposed and the estimation of parameters is given. The usefulness of the bivariate NKwW model is illustrated empirically by means of a real-life data set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0322.v1
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:45:48 CEST)
Albanian migration has always reflected a family character, be that before 1945 when Albania was not yet completely isolated, as well as after 1990 when borders were reopened. This feature characterized all types of movement, internal or international, permanent or seasonal migration, return migration or transnational movements, and remigration. The role of the family has been very important in making decisions regarding migration and answering questions from why to how to migrate, from when to where, whom to ask for help or how to invest remittances. Based on the case study of a rural area in Northern Albania, The Administrative Unit of Dajç, this article explores in detail the roles of family and kinship on decisions regarding return migration, the re-adjustment process, remigration or transnational life. By exploring the role of the family context in remigration and vice-versa the article reflects that the family biography – including the lifestyle, plans for the future or expectations - has changed due to previous migration experiences or challenges and difficulties when returning to the home country. It demonstrates how individual decisions to migrate or to ‘return home’ are negotiated and supported within families making transnational life a family project. The article adopts a new approach in the Albanian Migration Studies which may be implied on broader areas for further research in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Philosophy; Family-Centered Care; Nurse
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:31:41 CEST)
Introduction: Family-centered care (FCC) is currently taking a greater role in health care, due to the increasing empowerment of the parental experience. This literature aims to find out the study of the philosophy of child nursing services based on Family Centered CareMethode: The study of this literature through the search of scientific publications ranges from 201 7-2022. The databases used are Pubmed, Science Direct, and Proquest. The literature search was conducted according to the topic with four keyword groups based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and combined with Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT, keywords Child AND Family AND Centered AND Care. Result: The study of the philosophy of child nursing services based on Family Centered Care is conducted based on the study of ontology, epistomotogi and axiology. Family-centered care (FCC) is a philosophy that emphasizes partnerships between parents and health care staff. The FCC's basic principles in neonatal intensive care units (NICs) are unlimited parental presence and parental participation, shared responsibility and decision-making about infant hospital care, and open communication between parents and staff. A family-centered treatment approach has benefits such as maintaining a bond between the child and the family, allowing the family to engage in child care, and minimizing the negative effects of hospitalization on the child and family.Conclusion: FCC is beneficial for nurses in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of time in the care process and increases professional satisfaction. Therefore, the implementation of the FCC is more effective and the satisfaction of clients and families is more increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0102.v1
Subject: Keywords: bullying, character, education, teenager, family
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:39:46 CEST)
The research objective was to determine the problem of bullying in teenagers. The method used is a qualitative approach with literature study methods and a quantitative approach with the e-survey method. The results showed that bullying was rife in the school environment with teenagers aged 12-15. Verbal bullying occurs the most because it is the easiest to do. Bullying occurs with a group of people against one person because of peer influence. Family factors, school, the influence of friends, environmental conditions, and television shows influence bullying. Character Education can help overcome bullying in teenagers because it teaches the value of virtue in daily activities if given early and not during teenager. The conclusion found in this activity is that teenagers can become bullies because of family, school, peer influence, social conditions, and television broadcasts. Character Education is more effective if it is implemented since early childhood education and all relevant stakeholders must be actively involved in providing the Character Education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0219.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: phytochemistry; biological activities; Apocynaceae family
Online: 21 June 2019 (18:28:55 CEST)
This review aims at studying the phytochemistry and biological activities of some selected Apocynaceae plants. Eleven members of this family were reviewed for their phytochemistry and biological activities. Interestingly, the commonly isolated compounds reported from Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels, Secondatia floribunda A. DC, Carissa carandas, Tabernaemontana divaricate, Nerium oleander, Wrightia tinctoria, T. divaricate, Alstonia scholaris, Carrisa spinarum Linn, Thevetia peruviana and Caralluma lasiantha were triterpenoids, flavonoids, phytosterols, cardiac glycosides and lignans. All of them exhibited remarkable biological activities, mostly similar to each other. This review provides a detailed insight into the pharmacological activities of these selected members of this family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0061.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Cucurbitaceae; gourd family; nutraceutical; antioxidant
Online: 8 March 2018 (03:48:02 CET)
Fruits of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz] are widely consumed in Mesoamerica, but little is known about the nutraceutical potential. This study aimed to determine the chemical compositions, antioxidant activities from the juice fruits from two commercial varieties of chayote cultivated in Mexico, as well as a proposal for the elaboration of chayote juices with stevia leaves and pineapple juice. The physicochemical properties of juice from virens levis (VL) and nigrum spinosum (NS) varieties were determined using standard methods. The juice of the two varieties differ significantly regarding the concentrations of total soluble solids, total sugars, but not vitamin C. The total concentration of phenolics in NS extracts was slightly higher than in VL (1005 and 856 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively) but the total flavonoid contents were similar (27 and 26 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively). Cucurbitacin D was predominant in both varieties. The radical scavenging capacities of VL and NS extracts varied slightly (IC50 = 0.45 to 0.65 mg mL−1), while the antioxidant activities were similar (~80%). The NS variety is particularly promising regarding nutraceutical application. The chayote juice combined with stevia and pineapple maintain the original nutraceutical characteristics from the fruit, but enhanced the organoleptic characteristics like density and sugar/acidity balance.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: philosophy; family-centered care; nurse; child
Online: 22 September 2022 (08:04:33 CEST)
Family-Centered Care (FCC) as a philosophy is defined as a care provider that emphasizes and involves the important role of the family. However, there are several obstacles in implementing family center care for children where parents have different perceptions from health workers. Parents are angry when they are involved in a job they consider to be a nurse's job and the attitude of nurses prevents parents from participating. This difference in perception causes the implementation of Family Center Care (FCC) has not been carried out optimally, this has an impact on discomfort during treatment. Along with the not yet optimal implementation of family center care when providing care to children, further discussion is needed regarding the philosophy of child nursing with a family center care approach. The reasons for the importance of implementing family center care include building a collaborative system, focusing on family strengths and resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0470.v1
Online: 24 August 2021 (13:59:30 CEST)
Background: The tsunami and earthquake occurred in 1927 and 2018 made life quality of Da’a Tribe women in refugee camps was affected by violence. It affects on women reproductive health in various aspects of life as high maternal mortality rate of 450 per 100 thousand live births and half of women victims of natural disasters have reproductive health problems such as anemia and malnutrition during pregnancy. The study objective is to explore the health quality of women related to the couple violence during the humanitarian crisis at refugees’ camps. Method: The population was 798 cases of violence. The 90 samples were selected by simple random sampling and calculated by Slovin method. Data analysis was done by descriptive qualitative and cross tabulation. The research location was Palu City. Results: The research findings showed that health quality of Da’a Tribe women after the couple violence is influenced by three factors, namely economic by 40%, psychological by 7%, violence during pregnancy 59.3%. Conclusion: Social life and women violence handling can be done by symbolizing the threat of criminal law for male perpetrators in accordance with applicable laws in Indonesia and improving the life quality of population, especially women in education and skills through empowering the family economy and increasing gender equality justice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0551.v1
Online: 20 April 2021 (14:24:08 CEST)
Diabetes is a chronic disease that often causes progressive complications in the elderly. Along with the decline in cognitive function in the elderly, it causes dependence on disciplined management of diabetes mellitus. This dependence causes a very important mentoring role to be given. The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge, attitudes, and family skills to care for the elderly with diabetes mellitus at home through the empowerment of elderly cadres in Lampung. This research method is a quasi-experimental research with a control group design with a total of 64 elderly respondents and 64 families selected by simple random sampling technique. The assessment used an instrument for assessing family abilities that the researcher developed included aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and skills. The results of the dependent t-test analysis showed a significant increase in the knowledge and skills variable in the intervention group (0.000) but decreased in the attitude variable with p 0.198. Meanwhile, the increase in value also occurred in the attitude and skill variables in the control group. So that the results of the independent t-test only showed a significant difference in the attitude score (0.000) with the highest score in the control group. So that there is no significant increase in the ability of the family after the implementation of elderly cadres empowerment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0351.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: family-school; home-school; parent engagement; family engagement; parent involvement; recruitment; prevention; intervention; mental health; partnership
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:10:14 CET)
Parent education programs, offered via family-school partnerships, offer an effective means for promoting the mental health and educational functioning of children and adolescents at a whole-of-school level. However, these programs often have low uptake. This study aimed to identify strategies for increasing the uptake of parent education programs within preschool and school settings. A three-round Delphi procedure was employed to obtain expert consensus on strategies that are important and feasible in educational settings. First, thirty experts rated statements identified from the literature and a stakeholder forum. Next, experts re-appraised statements, including new statements generated from the first round. Ninety statements were endorsed by ≥ 80% of the experts. Primary themes include strategies for program selection, strategies for increasing the accessibility of programs and the understanding of educational staff on parent engagement and child mental health, strategies for program development, promotion, and delivery, as well as strategies for increasing parent and community engagement. This study offers a set of consensus strategies for improving the uptake of parent education programs within family-school partnership.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0722.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Attitude, Family planning, knowledge, IUCD, Contraceptive, Reproductive
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:23:21 CET)
Background: Intrauterine device is a modern contraceptive method used in family planning process, it prevents conception (pregnancy) and it has duration of 12years. There some women of reproductive age who don’t use this method, which necessitates our concern to why they don’t use it. The aim of this study is to explore the knowledge and attitude toward utilization of IUCD as family planning method among women attending at Makambako RCH. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was used to assess knowledge and attitude concerning use of intrauterine contraceptive device among 384 women of reproductive age. Random sampling was conducted in which every individual had an equal chance to be selected and structured self-administered questionnaire were used to collect data. Data was entered to Microsoft excel and then exported to SPSS version 20.0 for further analysis. Results: Findings of the study about 333 (86.7%) respondents had knowledge on IUD while 51 (13.3%) they lack knowledge on IUD and they agreed it helps to prevent unwanted pregnancies and they heard it from social media like radio and television, health care providers, friends and school. About 46 (12%) of the respondents had positive attitude and used IUD method of family planning, and they got influence of using IUD from health care providers, 82 (21.4%) got influence of using IUD from their partners and 27 (7.0%) influenced to use IUD due to the side effects of other family planning methods like Depo Provera and pills. 25 (5.7%) were not influenced by anyone to use IUD as family planning method. While 338 (88.0%) participants had negative attitude on IUD method and had never used IUD as family planning method. Conclusion: The findings show that IUD usage was found to be poor and majority of them they didn’t prefer it, despite of having less complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Ethics, Ethical Culture and Sustainability, Family Business
Online: 29 March 2019 (12:09:05 CET)
Building an ethical culture is challenging and a basic requirement of the companies to embed transparency in their systems, creating a positive image; serving the internal and external communities. This paper based on detailed interviews of 12 family owned businesses over a period of 16 months explores how these companies build the ethical culture, identifying the ethical culture sustainability triggers, challenges and role of religion in such practices. The values, culture, community and social norms are identified as major ingredients of a sustainable ethical culture development and implementation of the ethical policies and procedures require institutional and structural mechanisms for effectiveness in family owned businesses. The findings at numerous occasions are in contrast to the literature, whereas, in other instances are similar. The religion, society, family image, the entrepreneurs themselves and their family members play a vital role. Non-interference in private matters of the employees, whistle blowing, code of ethics, training and awareness creation and a number of other factors play a leading role in ethical culture development in family businesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0328.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: family violence; self-control; meta-analysis; adolescence
Online: 18 September 2018 (05:39:34 CEST)
Theoretical studies propose an association between family violence and low self-control in adolescence, yet empirical findings of this association are inconclusive. The aim of the present research was to systematically summarize available findings on the relation between family violence and self-control across adolescence. We included 27 studies with 143 effect sizes, representing more than 25,000 participants of eight countries from early to late adolescence. Applying a multi-level meta-analyses, taking dependency between effect sizes into account while retaining statistical power, we examined the magnitude and direction of the overall effect size. Additionally, we investigated whether theoretical moderators (e.g., age, gender, country), and methodological moderators (cross-sectional/longitudinal, informant) influenced the magnitude of the association between family violence and self-control. Our results revealed that family violence and self-control have a small to moderate significant negative association (r = -.191). This association did not vary across gender, country, and informants. The strength of the association, however, decreased with age and in longitudinal studies. This finding provides evidence that researchers and clinicians may expect low self-control in the wake of family violence, especially in early adolescence. Recommendations for future research in the area are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0143.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Family Resilience; Caregiving; Elderly; Religious Coping; Nursing Philosophy
Online: 15 April 2022 (10:38:34 CEST)
This article presents an overview of the philosophical and theoretical foundations of the Family Resilience, The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, the Adjustment, and Adaptation Model in families caring for the elderly, The Concept of Religious Coping and its application in order to strengthen family resilience. It is based on the phenomenon the increasing elderly population worldwide has become a global problem, along with the fact that the extension of life expectancy in a person is also accompanied by a decrease in function due to degenerative processes, that require complex health care services. So far, the family is still the primary care setting of choice in the care of the elderly. However, as an informal caregiver, the family also has many limitations that cause the burden of caring for the elderly to become a source of stress in itself. Hence, it impacts the quality of care and the quality of life of the elderly themselves. Meanwhile, from various sources, it is known that religious coping is one of the sources of overcoming stress. So that a strategy is needed to strengthen family resilience in accepting the responsibility of health care for the elderly with a religious coping approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0020.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Alcohol drinking; Drug misuse; Family environment; Indonesian students.
Online: 3 September 2021 (14:46:44 CEST)
The family environment has an important role in determining children’s personality and behavior. This study examined the impact of the family environment on alcohol and drug misuse among Indonesian students. Data were obtained from the National Illicit Drug Use Survey of students in Indonesia in 2016, conducted in 18 provinces. The subjects were 35,340 students from 1284 schools and universities with an age range of 12-25 years. The survey used the self-administered modified NODC Structured Illicit Drug questionnaire. The results show that 13.7% of students ever drank alcohol and 2.1% of students misused drugs within the previous year. Among students who drank alcohol, 11% also used drugs. In the latter group, they were likely to have been victims of verbal and physical violence by their parents and never discussed any problems with their parents. Living with a family with existing risky behavior (alcohol drinking and/or drug misuse) was the strongest risk factor of alcohol drinking (aOR: 4.78; 4.27-5.37) and drug misuse (aOR: 2.32; 1.79-3.01). These results indicate that the family environment affects these risky behaviors in this target population. Making adjustments through parental support, control, and parenting style, particularly in initiating parent–child communication, may have benefits in preventing alcohol drinking and drug use in this target population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Grief; Advance Care Planning; Advanced Cancer, Family Caregivers
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:51:17 CEST)
Cancer patients and their family caregivers experience various losses when patients become terminally ill, yet little is known about the grief experienced by patients and caregivers and factors that influence grief as patients approach death. Additionally, few, if any, studies have explored associations between advance care planning (ACP) and grief resolution among cancer patients and caregivers. To fill this knowledge gap, the current study examined changes in grief over time in patients and their family caregivers and whether changes in patient grief are associated with changes in caregiver grief. We also sought to determine how grief changed following completion of advance directives. The sample included advanced cancer patients and caregivers (n=98 dyads) from Coping with Cancer III, a federally funded, multi-site prospective longitudinal study of end-stage cancer care. Participants were interviewed at baseline and at follow-up roughly 2 months later. Results suggest synchrony, whereby changes in patient grief were associated with changes in caregiver grief. We also found that patients who completed a living will (LW) experienced increases in grief, while caregivers of patients who completed a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order experienced reductions in grief, suggesting that ACP may prompt “grief work” in patients while promoting grief resolution in caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: family caregivers; labour force; labour supply; employment; China
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:49:44 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers must consider the economic trade-off between caregiving and paid employment. Prior literature has suggested labour force participation (LFP) to decline with caregiving intensity, but no study has evaluated this relationship by accounting for the presence of both kinks and discontinuities. Here we used respondents of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study baseline survey who were non-farming, of working-age (aged 45-60) and had a young grandchild and/or a parent/parent-in-law. For women and men separately, a caregiving threshold-adjusted probit model was used to assess the association between LFP and weekly unpaid caregiving hours. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Of the 3,718 respondents in the analysis, for men, LFP was significantly and inversely associated with caregiving that involved neither discontinuities nor kinks. For women, a kink was identified at the caregiving threshold of 8 hours per week such that before 8 hours, each caregiving hour was associated with an increase of 0.0257 in the marginal probability of LFP, but each hour thereafter was associated with a reduction of 0.0014 in the marginal probability of LFP. These results have implications for interventions that simultaneously advance policies of health, social care and labour force.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: autism genetics; family microarrays; pathway enrichment; network biology
Online: 10 November 2020 (12:33:35 CET)
The genetic heterogeneity of autism has stymied the search for causes and cures. Whole-genomic studies on large numbers of families have helped identify combinations of inherited and de novo signal. In the present work, we re-analyze DNA microarrays using a novel strategy that takes prior knowledge of genetic relationships into account and that was designed to boost signal important to our understanding of the molecular basis of autism. Our strategy was designed to identify significant genomic variation within a priori defined biological concepts and improves signal detection while lessening the severity of multiple test correction seen in standard analysis of genome-wide association data. Upon application of our approach using 3,244 biological concepts, we detected genomic variation in 68 biological concepts with significant association to autism in comparison to family-based controls. These concepts clustered naturally into a total of 19 classes, principally including cell adhesion, cancer, and immune response. The top-ranking concepts contained high percentages of genes already suspected to play roles in autism or in a related neurological disorder. In addition, many of the sets associated with autism at the DNA level also proved to be predictive of changes in gene expression within a separate population of autistic cases, suggesting that the signature of genomic variation may also be detectable in blood-based transcriptional profiles. This cross-validation with gene expression data from individuals with autism coupled with the enrichment within autism-related neurological disorders supported the possibility that the mutations play important roles in the onset of autism and should be given priority for further study. Our work provides new leads into the genetic underpinnings of autism and highlights the importance of reanalysis of genomic studies of complex disease using prior knowledge of genetic organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0296.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: oxidative stress; antioxidative system; Brassicaceae family; heavy metals
Online: 28 August 2019 (14:43:10 CEST)
Metal hyperaccumulating plants should have extremely efficient defence mechanisms, enabling growth and development in a polluted environment. Brassica species are known to display hyperaccumulation capability. Brassica juncea (Indiana mustard) v. Malopolska plants were exposed to trace elements, i.e., cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), at a concentration of 50 M and were then harvested after 96 hours for analysis. We observed a high index of tolerance (IT), higher than 90%, for all B. juncea plants treated with the four metals, and we showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn accumulation was higher in the above-ground parts than in the roots. We estimated the metal effects on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the levels of protein oxidation as well as on the activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The obtained results indicate that organo-specific ROS generation was higher in plants exposed to essential metal elements (i.e., Cu and Zn), compared with non-essential ones (i.e., Cd and Pb), in conjunction with SOD, CAT and APX activity and expression at the level of encoding mRNAs and existing proteins. In addition to the potential usefulness of B. juncea in the phytoremediation process, the data provide important information concerning plant response to the presence of trace metals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0304.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Pedicularis L. genus; Orobanchaceae family; Phytochemistry; Chemotaxonomy; Ethnopharmacology
Online: 29 June 2019 (10:34:48 CEST)
In this review, the relevance of plants belonging to the Pedicularis L. genus was explored from different points of view. Particular emphasys was given especially to the phytochemistry and the ethnopharmacology of the genus since several classes of natural compounds have been evidenced within it and several Pedicularis species are well known to be employed in the traditional medicine of many Asian countries. Nevertheless, some important conclusions on the chemotaxonomic and chemosystematic aspects of the genus were also provided for the first time. This work represents the first total comprehensive review on the genus Pedicularis.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: substance use; emotional intelligence; resilience; family functioning; adolescents
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:48:50 CEST)
The use of alcohol and tobacco is related to several variables which act as risk or protective factors, depending on the circumstances. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence, resilience and family functioning in adolescent use of alcohol and tobacco and to find emotional profiles for their use considering self-concept. The sample was made up of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 who filled out the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, the APGAR Scale, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescents and the Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire. The results revealed that emotional intelligence and resilience, specifically, stress management and family cohesion were significant in the group of nonusers. Family functioning acts as a predictor factor for onset of use of tobacco and alcohol. Positive expectancies about drinking alcohol were found to be a risk factor and the intrapersonal factor to be protective. Both stress management and family cohesion were protective factors against smoking. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed emotional profiles for users of both substances based on self-concept. Finally, the importance of the direction of the relationship between the variables studied for intervention in this problem should be mentioned. Responsible use by improving adolescent decision-making is one of the results expected from this type of intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0271.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: family functioning; aggressive behavior; emotional intelligence; adolescent values
Online: 24 December 2018 (05:19:54 CET)
Aggressive behavior in adolescence is influenced by a diversity of individual, family and social variables. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between family functioning, emotional intelligence and values for development of different types of aggression, as well as to establish profiles according to the predictor variables of aggression. To do this, a sample of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 were administered the Peer Conflict Scale, the Family Functionality Scale, the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens and the Values for Adolescent Development Scales. The study showed that stress management, positive adolescent development and family functioning predominated in nonaggressive subjects with higher scores than aggressors. There was also a negative relationship between the different types of aggression and emotional intelligence, positive values and family functioning. In addition, two different profiles were found. The first had low scores on all the variables, while the second profile had higher scores on all the variables except family functioning which was higher.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; anxiety; depression; family income; physical activity
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:59:08 CEST)
Background: Young adults, particularly university students might be at greater risk of developing psychological distress, and exhibiting symptoms of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to explore and compare the determinants and predictors of mental health (anxiety and depression) during and after COVID-19 lockdown among university students. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a sample size of 417 students. An online survey utilizing International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form (IPAQ-SF), General Anxiety Disorder–7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was distributed to Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman students via Google forms. Results: During lockdown, family income [χ2 (1, n=124) = 5.155, p=0.023], and physical activity [χ2 (1, n=134) = 6.366, p=0.012] were associated with anxiety, while depression was associated with gender [χ2 (1, n=75) = 4.655, p=0.031]. After lockdown, family income was found to be associated with both anxiety [χ2 (1, n=111) = 8.089, p=0.004], and depression [χ2 (1, n=115) =9.305, p=0.002]. During lockdown, family income (OR=1.60, p=0.018), and physical activity (OR=0.59, p=0.011) were predictors for anxiety, and gender (OR=0.65, p=0.046) being the only predictor for depression. After lockdown, family income was a predictor for both anxiety (OR=1.67, p=0.011), and depression (OR=1.70, p=0.009). Conclusion: Significant negative effects attributed to the COVID-19 lockdown, and certain factors predisposed to the worsening of mental health status in university students. Family income, physical activity level, and gender were some of the major determinants that influenced the anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0343.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Family violence; Machine Learning; Classification; ROC; Accuracy; COVID-19
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:51:20 CEST)
In Southern Asia, Bangladesh is a well-known developing country. Because of COVID-19, we continuously face challenges. Not only can these issues occur beyond economic or health concerns, but they also generate dangerous social problems, such as family abuse. Since the inception of this epidemic, multiple social crimes are looming. Remaining home during the lockout period enhances divorce rates. This research presents a customized forecast of family violence during the COVID-19 outbreak by using machine learning methods. In this paper, we have applied Random Forest, Logistic Regression, and Naive Bayes machine learning classifiers to predict family violence and discovered the feature importance. The performance of the classifiers is evaluated based on accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score. We have employed an oversampling strategy named synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) to solve the imbalance problem of our data. Even, we have tried to compare three machine learning model performances before and after balancing of normalization data. Finally, ROC analyses and confusion matrices were developed and analyzed by using data augmentation. Our proposed system with the random forest classifier performed better with 77% accuracy in comparison with other two machine learning classifiers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: DPP9; SNPs; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Survival; TCGA; DPP4 gene family
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:37 CET)
Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 9, DPP8, DPP4 and fibroblast activation protein (FAP) are the four enzymatically active members of the S9b protease family. Associations of DPP9 with human liver cancer, exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DPP9 and loss of function (LoF) variants have not been explored. Human genomic databases including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were interrogated to identify DPP9 LoF variants and associated cancers. Survival and gene signature analyses were performed on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) data. We found that DPP9 and DPP8 are intolerant to LoF variants. DPP9 LoF variants were most often associated with uterine carcinoma. Two DPP9 intronic SNPs that have been associated with lung fibrosis and COVID-19 were not associated with liver fibrosis or cancer. All four DPP4-like genes were overexpressed in liver tumours and their joint high expression was associated with poor survival in HCC. Increased DPP9 expression was associated with obesity in HCC patients.. High expression of genes that positively correlated with overexpression of DPP4, DPP8, and DPP9 were associated with very poor survival in HCC. Enriched pathways analysis of these positively correlated genes featured Toll-like receptor and SUMOylation pathways. This comprehensive data mining suggests that DPP9 is essential for human survival and the DPP4 protease family is important in cancer pathogenesis.
Subject: Keywords: tetraodon palembangensis; chromosome-level genome; genomic annotation; gene family
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:28:47 CEST)
The humpback puffer, Tetraodon palembangensis, also known as Pao palembangensis, is a species of poisonous freshwater pufferfish mainly distributed in Southeast Asia (Thailand, Laos, Malaysia and Indonesia). Despite interesting biological features, such as its very inactive nature, tetrodotoxin production and body expansion mechanisms, molecular research on the humpback puffer is still rare because of the lack of a high-quality reference genome. Here, we reported a first chromosome-level genome assembly of an adult humpback puffer, of which the genome size is 362 Mb with ~1.78 Mb contig N50 and ~15.8 Mb scaffold N50s. Based on the genome, ~61.5Mb (18.11%) repeat sequences were also identified, and totally 19,925 genes were annotated, 99.20% of which could be predicted with function using protein-coding function databases. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed with single-copy gene families from ten teleost fishes. The humpback puffer genome will be a valuable genomic resource to illustrate possible mechanisms of tetrodotoxin synthesis and tolerance, providing clues for future detailed studies of biological toxins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0167.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; apoptosis; viral replication; Bcl-2 protein family
Online: 18 September 2019 (03:05:26 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging human mosquito-transmitted pathogen of global concern, known to be associated with complications such as congenital defects and neurological disorders in adults. ZIKV infection is associated with induction of cell death. However, previous studies suggest that the virally-induced apoptosis occurs at a slower rate compared to the course of viral production. In this present study, we investigated the capacity of ZIKV to delay host cell apoptosis. We provide evidence that ZIKV has the ability to interfere with apoptosis whether it is intrinsically or extrinsically induced. In cells expressing viral replicon-type constructions, we show that this control is achieved through replication. Finally, our work highlights an important role for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein in the ability of ZIKV to control apoptotic pathways, avoiding premature cell death and thereby promoting virus replication in the host-cell.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0244.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: GH3 family; sequencing plants; potato; jasmonic acids; tissues; biotic
Online: 17 May 2018 (12:01:00 CEST)
Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3) is a phytohormone-responsive family of genes that has been found in many plant species. It is implicated in the biological activity of indolacetic (IAA) and jasmonic acids (JA), and also affects plant growth and developmental processes and some stresses. In this study, GH3 genes were identified in 48 plants, which belong to algae, moss, fern, gymnosperm and angiosperm. No GH3 representative gene has been found in algae, and our research identified 4 genes in mosses, 19 in ferns, 7 in gymnosperms, and numerous in Angiosperms. The results showed that GH3 genes mainly occur in seed plants. Phylogenetic analysis of all GH3 genes showed three separate clades. Group I was related to JA adenylation, group II was related to IAA adenylation, and group III was separated from group II but the function was not clear. The structure of GH3 protein indicated highly conserved sequence in the plant kingdom. The analysis of JA-adenylation related to gene expression of GH3 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) showed that StGH3.12 highly responded to Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Expression levels of StGH3.1, StGH3.11, and StGH3.12 were high in flower and StGH3.11 expression was also high in stolon. Our research revealed the evolution of the GH3 family, which is useful for studying the precise function about JA-adenylation GH3 genes in S. tuberosum under development and biotic stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pesticides; spirometry; respiratory symptoms; cholinesterase; rural workers; family farmers
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:25:38 CEST)
Pesticide exposure is a growing concern for public health. Although Brazil is the world's largest consumer of pesticides, few studies addressed the health effects among farmers. This study aimed to evaluate whether pesticide exposure is associated with respiratory outcomes among rural workers and relatives in Brazil during the crop and off-seasons. 82 family farmers were interviewed about occupational history and respiratory symptoms, and cholinesterase tests were conducted in the crop-season. Spirometry was performed during the crop and off-season. Respiratory outcomes were compared between seasons and multiple regressions were conducted to search for associations with exposure indicators. Participants were occupationally and environmentally exposed to multiple pesticides from an early age. During the crop and off-season, respectively, they presented a prevalence of 40% and 30.7% for cough, 30.7% and 24% for nasal allergies, and 24% and 17.3% for chest tightness. Significant relations between spirometry impairments and exposure indicators were found both during the crop and off-season. These findings provide complementary evidence about the association of pesticide exposure with adverse respiratory effects among family farmers in Brazil. This situation requires special attention as it may increase the risk of pulmonary dysfunctions, and the morbidity and mortality burden associated with these diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0146.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Circular Economy; sustainability; family business; model; case study; Mercadona
Online: 22 February 2018 (10:33:56 CET)
Sustainability addresses environmental and social issues affecting this and future generations. When family businesses perceive that the community is disrupted, recognize an environmental problem and respond by implementing new environmental policies or regulations, the family business’s socio-emotional values press to transition to a more sustainable production system, such as the ‘Circular Economy.’ Drawing on the Dubin (1978) methodology—a paradigm for building models through deduction—we design a sustainable model, which shows family businesses’ responses to changes in the environment. It explains the reasons why family firms transition to the Circular Economy, based on the theory of Socio-Emotional Wealth (SEW). We check the model through the case study of the food retail leader in the Spanish market—Mercadona—which applies policies about energy, resources and waste to become a Circular Economy business model. Because of the strong family character of Mercadona, this case can be useful for the decision-making of other family businesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: primary health care; family health strategy; health personnel; adaptation; psychological
Online: 8 February 2022 (16:23:26 CET)
The aim was to analyze the coping strategies used by primary health care (PHC) professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted with professionals working in primary health care units in São José do Rio Preto, a large city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. For data collection we used an instrument developed by the researchers, containing sociodemographic and professional variables, as well as the Problem Coping Modes Scale (EMEP). We evaluated 333 PHC professionals. A difference was observed between the scores of the four coping strategies (p<0.001), with the highest score for the problem-focused strategy (3.8) and the lowest score for the emotion-focused strategy (2.4). Physicians had the lowest scores in coping strategies focused on religious practices/fantastical thinking (p<0.001) and pursuit of social support (p=0.045), while community health agents had the highest scores in these coping strategies). Professionals working in PHC have different coping strategies for the problems and stressful situations experienced in the work environment. These strategies can involve more positive attitudes focused on confrontation and problem solving, to emotional responses that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial of the problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Tiebout model; fiscal zoning; single-family zoning; property taxation; Miami
Online: 10 January 2022 (15:21:18 CET)
This paper examines certain implications from the literature on Tiebout’s model of local gov-ernment service provision, particularly Hamilton’s extension of the model to include local control of land use and property taxation. Our empirical analysis focuses on the use of fiscal zoning to lower property tax rates, a topic that has not been addressed in the extensive Tiebout literature. Using data for over 100 municipalities in the Miami, Florida, metropolitan area, we specify property tax rates as a function of fiscal zoning measures, other municipal characteristics, and tax mimicking. We conclude that single-family zoning is by far the most important variable ex-plaining municipal property tax rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: cumulative family risk; child maltreatment; early adversity; DNA methylation; SLC6A4
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:26:29 CEST)
Exploring the contribution of proximal family risk factors on SLC6A4 DNA methylation in children with a history of maltreatment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medical Education; Healthcare; Family Medicine; Medicine; Public Administration & Public Policy
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:03:35 CEST)
Little is known about family medicine academic staff in Taiwan, and basic data about this workforce may aid healthcare decision makers. We analysed data on Taiwan’s 13 medical schools collected by the Taiwan Association of Family Medicine from June to September 2019. Items included medical school names and total staff, and the gender, age, degree, working title (part-time/full-time), academic level, and sub-specialty of each current family medicine faculty member. A total of 116 family medicine faculty members were reported; most were male (n= 85, 73.3%). Ages ranged between 30 and 69 years, with a mean (SD) age of 43.3 (8.09). Faculty members with a master’s degree were the largest group (n= 49, 42.2%), and most were academic lecturers (n=49, 42.2%). Additionally, only about one-fourth (n=26, 22.4%) of family medicine faculty in medical schools were full-time, while the other three-fourths (n=90, 77.6%) were part-time faculty; most were located in northern Taiwan (n=79, 68.1%) and specialized in gerontology and geriatrics (n=55, 47.4%) and hospice palliative care (n=53, 45.7%). Our research provides the most complete census of family medicine academic physicians in medical schools in Taiwan. The results inform efforts to improve the establishment and development of family medicine departments in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0068.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Mitochondrial Encephalohepatopathy, Trio-family, autosomal recessive, GEMINI tool, ClinVar database
Online: 5 May 2021 (15:02:57 CEST)
Mitochondrial Encephalohepatopathy (MEH) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder usually accompanied by microcephaly, white matter changes, cardiac and hepatic failure. Here, we applied the whole-exome sequencing (WES) framework on a trio family data with unaffected non-consanguineous parents and proband (neonate girl) with this inherited disorder. A total of 2,928,402 variants were observed with 2,613,746 SNPs, 112,336 multiple nucleotide polymorphisms (MNPs), 72,610 insertions, 113,207 deletions and 16,503 mixed variants. These variations are responsible for 82,813,631 effects on various genomic regions. Our pipeline uncovered candidate gene mutations from these variants and retained a handful of 5,277 variants harboring 3,598 genes, out of which, 8 genes codes for non-coding RNA while 178 genes are those with high impact severity. Among these 178 variants, 125 are de-novo variants that are not previously reported in the ClinVar database. Consistent to previous studies, the leftover high impact severity genes are involved in encephalopathy, Leigh syndrome, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, global developmental disorder, seizures, spastic paraplegia, premature ovarian failure, mitochondrial myopathy-cerebellar, ataxia-pigmentary, retinopathy syndrome, ocular and retinal degeneration, deafness, intellectual disability, cardiofacioneurodevelopmental syndrome etc. All these clinical features were also observed in the patient studied. The current analysis highlights and expands the genetic architecture of the MEH phenotype. Furthermore, this pipeline on trio family data significantly broadens the concept of its usefulness as a first-tier diagnostic method in the detection of complex multisystem phenotypic disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0148.v1
Subject: Keywords: Husband Consent; Family Planning; Spousal Communication; Young Mothers; Peri-Urban
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:15:15 CEST)
Men are perceived as significant barriers to the uptake of contraception in some communities, and lack of spousal communication regarding contraception is evident in some studies conducted in South-West and Northern Nigeria. The objective is to identify and discuss how husband consent to family planning (FP) and spousal communication influence family planning use among peri-urban dwellers in Nigeria. The study was limited to the primary dataset collected among young mothers that resides in peri-urban between the age of 15-30 years in South West, Nigeria. The result showed that the use of family planning was high among the respondents whose husband give consent to the use of family planning, and respondents who had appropriate spousal communication. Similarly, respondents whose spouse asks questions or whose husband advises on communication are likely to use FP. On the other hand, respondents whose husband didn’t give consent, respondents with inappropriate communication with the spouse, respondents whose spouses didn’t give advice, and those whose spouses didn’t ask questions are less likely to use FP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: older adult; happiness; family type; socio-physical environment; social activities
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:33:26 CET)
This study used secondary data from the 2017 Korean Community Health Survey to compare the associations of socio-physical environment, social support networks, and social activities with happiness among older adults with three different family types. As per the results, there was a significant difference in happiness index between the three groups (F = 86.688, p < .001). Older adults living alone (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57–0.99) and those living with family (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65–0.99) showed greater happiness as the frequency of contact with family increased. Older adults living with only their spouse showed an increase in happiness when their contact with friends was higher (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.56–0.84). It was confirmed that there were differences in factors influencing happiness according to the family type of the older adults in this study. Therefore, the happiness of older adults needs to be adequately ensured, while considering their various circumstances, including family type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: School coexistence; cyberbullying; education; family; victims; prevention; management; training; perceptions
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:12:16 CET)
The present work analyzes university students' perceptions on cyberbullying. More specifically, the main objective was to understand the level of concern displayed by young students in teacher training programs regarding cyberbullying; our analysis includes their degree of self-confidence and their commitment when faced with this problem, their self-reported training on the subject, and the measures they consider adequate to approach it in the educational context. Using a survey research design, 408 students from Early Childhood Education, Primary Education Degrees, and the Master’s Degree in Secondary Education, and Vocational Training from national public universities participated. The results shed light upon the coexistence of three differentiated profiles of teachers in training when faced with cyberbullying. However, although there is clear evidence of the high level of concern regarding this problem in every case, they placed more importance on raising awareness of the issue with families, prevention, management and training as basic pillars for re-directing the worrisome reality experienced in educational centers. The need to include these contents in the initial training of future education professionals, for overcoming cyberbullying, and the importance of collaborative work between parents and educators are the conclusions of this research study that are in agreement with other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0532.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: MDR transporters; MATE family; NorM; MD simulation; loops; sodium ions
Online: 30 August 2018 (14:43:53 CEST)
The multidrug resistance transporter NorM is an important drug resistance pump and plays a critical role in multidrug resistance in bacteria and mammals. In this study we carried out molecular dynamics simulation to study the mechanism of Na+ binding and dynamical structures of two long loops in the substrate-releasing process in substrate binding NorM. Our simulation study identified several key residues (D41, E261 D377) along the Na+ binding pathway and a multi-state ion-binding mechanism is proposed based on the simulation study. In this proposed model, the transport of Na+ is a multi-stage process with D41 being the first station for binding to Na+, followed by Na+ binding to the second station E262 and finally to the cation-binding site of E262 and D377. During the transport of Na+, the transmembrane components TM1, TM7 and TM2 are rearranged to facilitate the ion transport as well conformational changes of NorM to a closed state. Further, substrate-bound simulation revealed that Loop3-4 and Loop9-10 control the substrate-releasing process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: family planning service and COVID-19; maternal; Neonatal and child health service and COVID-19; sexual behaviour and COVID-19; SARSCOVID-2 and family planning
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:39:05 CEST)
Introduction: Since its discovery in late 2019, the novel coronavirus (SARSCOVID-2) that causes COVID-19 has spread fast, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to designate the disease a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020.The epidemic has profoundly altered the preexisting global sexual and reproductive health landscape .The virus’s load has put ordinary services in jeopardy and harmed other health priorities. This encompasses both the provision and the supply of contraceptives, sexual health, new born and maternal health services. This Scoping review therefore mapped the availability evidence on the impact and effects of the COVID-19 disease outbreak on sexual and reproductive health. Methods: The methodological framework by Arksey and O’Malley guided this scoping review. A literature search was conducted from the following databases: Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, WOS, and AJOL. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist were used to document the review process. The Strobe critical review checklist was used to determine the quality of the included studies. Results:19 studies were reviewed, out of which 4 were cross sectional studies, 1 was an observational study, 1 was a descriptive analytical study and the rest were qualitative studies .Majority of the studies showed evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service, maternal and child services, and three studies reported on COVID-19 and sexual behaviour. Five of the nineteen included studies reported on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service. Conclusion: This scoping review has granted the assessment of the impact of novel SARS-CoV-2 on Sexual and reproductive health services with regards to sexual behaviour, family planning and maternal, neonatal and child health. From the 18 articles identified and reviewed, the overall responses stipulated a significant reduction in client’s utilization of services due to challenges experiences in service implementation such as stock outs. In addition, low demand for reproductive health services by clients due to restrictions imposed on the movements of people to curb the spread of the virus. It is therefore important that Governments and relevant stakeholders in Maternal and Sexual Reproductive Health prioritize development of policies and practices that protect women from the impacts of the pandemic. Furthermore, regular audits to detect trends in MSRH are necessary to inform on going mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Eco-Efficiency; Human Capital Efficiency; family farms; TOPSIS-CRITIC; sustainable development
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:24:26 CEST)
Small and medium-sized family farms are the place of life and source of income for about half of the population. The aim of the analysis was to determine the relationship between Eco-Efficiency, Human Capital Efficiency in small and medium-sized family farms. The analyses were carried out using an economic measure (value of agricultural production per work hour calculated per 1 ha) and synthetic measures: human capital and environmental measures. The synthetic measures were determined using the CRITIC-TOPSIS method by defining weights for variables used in the synthetic measures. The analyses covered five countries, namely: Lithuania (960 farms), Moldova (532 farms), Poland (696 farms), Romania (872 farms), and Serbia (524 farms). All the countries qualified for analysis are characterised by a high fragmentation of agricultural holdings. The analyses carried out allowed us to formulate the following conclusions: the Eco-Efficiency and Human Capital Efficiency indexes increase with area for small and medium-sized family agricultural farms. An increase in the Eco-Efficiency index with an increase in farm area leads to a suspicion that the smaller the farm area is, the more extensive the agricultural production being carried out. In addition, an increase in human capital efficiency with an increase in the area of a farm indicates that there is inefficiency in the utilisation of human capital resources in the agricultural farms studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: informal caregiving; unpaid family caregivers; labour force participation; income; labour supply
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:58:39 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers might suffer losses in income as a result of care provision. Here we used data from the baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study to assess the relationship between hours of weekly caregiving provided to grandchildren/parents/parents-in-law and individual’s monthly employment income. Our study sample comprised 3,718 middle-aged Chinese adults who were of working age (45-60 years). For women and men separately, we used a likelihood-based method to determine a caregiving threshold in a two-stage Heckman selection procedure. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Our analysis revealed a negative association between caregiving and income for women that depended on a caregiving threshold of 63-hours per week. There was an absence of caregiving-income relationship among men. These results offer new insights into the opportunity costs of unpaid caregiving and support tailored policies to protect the financial well-being of female caregivers.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; health literacy; information sharing; family well-being; preventive measures
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:40:50 CET)
Objective: We tested a model of individual health literacy information sharing with family members, personal preventive behaviours and family well-being during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Hong Kong. Methods: We analysed data of 1501 randomly selected Chinese adults from a cross-sectional survey in Hong Kong from 9 to 23 April, 2020. Individual health literacy about COVID-19 with the items extracted from the questionnaire in World Health Organization Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE) Action Plan Guidance for COVID-19 preparedness and response, COVID-19 information sharing with family members, preventive behaviours against COVID-19 and family well-being were measured. Structural equation modelling analysis tested the proposed model. Findings: COVID-19 information sharing with family members partially mediated the association between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours. The direct eﬀect of 0.24 was shown, and the indirect eﬀect through COVID-19 information sharing with family members was small at 0.03 (Z = 3.66, p < 0.001). Family well-being was associated with personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. The model was adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic status factors and had good ﬁt with RMSEA = 0.04, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.96, and SRMR = 0.02. Conclusion: COVID-19 information sharing with family members was a partial mediator between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. Strategies for enhancing health literacy and preventive measures against COVID-19 are needed to promote family well-being in the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainability; decision analysis; family security services; residential fire insurance; risk aversion
Online: 21 October 2020 (13:41:16 CEST)
This paper explores decision analysis on product integration of family security services and residential fire insurance in the London and Taiwan markets by using the proposed mathematical models for counting sustainable value. This paper shows the five main different results between London and Taiwan markets with ten different parameters of the family security market, to find out the optimal number of family security integrated services for each security company in London. The improvement of the risk aversion effect based on risk and financial management will enhance the market share of the private security industries in the London and Taiwan markets. The results of this research can serve as a reference for the decision-making of private security industries on product integration under sustainable value consideration. The research findings highlight the potential benefits for both the private security industry and the insurance industry in their design and negotiation for product integration to improve both of business operation and achieve corporate social responsibility goals to match the sustainability in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0455.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Hedgehog signaling pathway; GLI family; protein arginine methyl transferase; signal transduction
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:58:05 CEST)
The glioma-associated oncogene (GLI) family consists of GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3 in mammals, and is the effector in the Hedgehog signaling pathway. This family has important roles in the development and homeostasis of various tissues. To achieve these roles, the GLI family has widespread outputs. GLI activity is therefore strictly regulated at multiple levels, including via post-translational modifications for context-dependent GLI target gene expression. Conversely, dysregulated GLI activation has strong links with a variety of cancers. The protein arginine methyl transferase (PRMT) family is also associated with embryogenesis, homeostasis, and cancer via epigenetic modifications and signal transduction. In the PRMT family, PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT7 reportedly regulate GLI1 and GLI2 activity. PRMT1 methylates GLI1 to upregulate its activity and target gene expression. Cytoplasmic PRMT5 methylates GLI1 and is involved in GLI1 protein stabilization. In contrast, nucleic PRMT5 interacts with MENIN to suppress growth arrest-specific protein 1 expression, which assists Hedgehog ligand binding to Patched, indirectly resulting in downregulated GLI1 activity. PRMT7-mediated GLI2 methylation upregulates its activity through the dissociation of GLI2 and Suppressor of Fused. Therefore, PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT7 regulate GLI activity at multiple levels, and PRMT-mediated GLI dysregulation may be involved in cancer formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0133.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial interest; youth, family; entrepreneurial eco-system; principal component analysis
Online: 10 February 2020 (15:52:32 CET)
As entrepreneurial interest is believed to represent a causal factor increasing entrepreneurship, research has begun to explore how family systems affect youth entrepreneurial interests. In the present study, we attempt to identify different types of family influence on the entrepreneurial interests of young people. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 1,633 Spanish youths, who were 15 to 18 years old, and another questionnaire was used to obtain data from 839 parents. Principal Component Analysis identified unique family types and revealed that they have differential associations to entrepreneurial interest among youths. These findings reaffirm the influence of family on the entrepreneurial ecosystem and the promotion of an entrepreneurial family cuture. This study further suggests that early attention should focus on the detection of entrepreneurial interest among youths so that actions can be implemented in the families of low-interest youths to incentivize an entrepreneurial family culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0025.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Bayes estimator, Bregman divergence, Density ratio, Exponential family, Log--Huber loss.
Online: 4 March 2019 (09:43:12 CET)
This paper considers estimating the ratio of two distributions with different parameters and common supports. We consider a Bayesian approach based on the Log--Huber loss function which is resistant to outliers and useful to find robust M-estimators. We propose two different types of Bayesian density ratio estimators and compare their performance in terms of Bayesian risk function with themselves as well as the usual plug-in density ratio estimators. Some applications such as classification and divergence function estimation are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Chinese family business; intergenerational succession intention; institutional environment; innovation investment; innovation output
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:39:47 CEST)
In the development and growth of family businesses, succession is an unsolvable problem, which is also a popular focus of academic research. For a family firm, succession may be a strategic decision but also a long-term and intricate "footrace." It will have a significant impact on the long-term viability of a family firm if it is not handled appropriately. This study mainly explores the influences of family business owners' intergenerational succession intention on their family firms’ innovation strategy in China. In addition, this study further examines the moderating role of the institutional environment in the above relationship. Therefore, the data in this article comes from a survey of 271 family businesses in eight different regions of China. Also, this paper can aid the smooth transition of intergenerational transmission of small and medium-sized family businesses in addition to the untroubled development of technological innovation activities. Specifically, the institutional environment plays a negative moderating role in the relationship between family succession, radical succession, technological innovation, and a positive regulating role in the relationship between single equity succession and technological innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Docosahexaenoic acid; Chemoprevention; Bcl-2 family; Experimental Study; Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis.
Online: 20 January 2022 (13:41:39 CET)
The purpose of the current study was directed to investigate the effectiveness of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a chemopreventive agent on experimentally induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis; Material and methods: 40 Syrian male hamsters, five weeks old, were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals in each as follows, GI: Topical application of liquid paraffin alone (thrice a week for 14 weeks), GII: Topical application of 7, 12 dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) alone (0.5 % in liquid paraffin, thrice a week for 14 weeks), GIII: Topical application of DMBA (0.5 % in liquid paraffin, thrice a week for 14 weeks) + Oral administration of DHA (125 mg/kg b.w. in 1 ml distilled water by oral gavage, thrice a week for 14 weeks on alternative days of DMBA application), GIV : Oral administration of DHA alone (125 mg/kg b.w. in 1 ml distilled water by oral gavage, thrice a week for 14 weeks); Results: Gross observations and histopathological findings revealed a-GI: normal stratified squamous epithelium b- GII: well and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) c-: GIII: showed variable results ranges from hyperkeratosis, hyperkeratosis and focal hyperplasia, mild dysplasia, and well differentiated SCC with superficial invasion of tumor cells not extended to deeper areas d: GIV: normal similar to GI. Immunohistochemical results revealed that oral DHA treatment to DMBA treated hamsters restored the normal expression of bcl-2; Conclusion: DHA has the potential to be a dietary chemopreventive agent due to its capacity to improve carcinogen detoxification and to block/suppress the initiation and promotion stages of experimentally produced HBP carcinogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0169.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescents; diabetes type I; quality of life; family conflicts; fear of injecting
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:54:28 CEST)
A good management of diabetes requires at the same time self-regulation behaviour and a balanced involvement of family components. This study’s aims were: understanding fear of injections and perceptions of family conflicts in preadolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers, comparing their perceptions, and identifying the risk factors impacting patients’ quality of life. Participants were one hundred and two patients (Mean age = 14.63, SD = 2.43; age range = 10-19 years; Females = 52) and their mothers (Mean age = 46.94, SD = 6.2, age range = 27-63 years), who filled in self and proxy-report questionnaires. Twenty % of patients and 14.7% of their mothers reported clinical score for fear of self-injection and blood testing. Mothers reported higher fear of injecting and family conflicts compared with the patients. Age, fear of injecting and family conflicts impacted significantly on patients’ quality of life perceptions. Clinical consideration and recommendations are given basing on the empirical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0081.v2
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:17:28 CEST)
Background The link between age at marriage and first birth in explaining completed family size is not always direct, due to heterogeneity in circumstances, that compel individual women to marry or initiate childbearing at a particular age. We analyzed data for 1020 women aged 45-49 in 2014 of the 1965-1969 birth cohort from the 2013-14 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS). Methods We fitted a bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression to establish the relationship between a mother’s age at first marriage and at first birth on completed family size (CFS). Chi-square test of proportions measuring differences in proportions and relative risk ratios (RRR) with confidence intervals at 95% are reported. Results Our results show that the average CFS was 6.7 (95% CI: 6.5 – 6.9) among women completing their reproductive span in 2014 with mean age at first marriage and birth being 18.3 years (95% CI: 18.0 – 18.5) and 18.9 years (95% CI: 18.7 – 19.1) respectively. Women marrying at younger ages and having their first birth at younger ages were more likely (RRR: 1.187; 95% CI: 1.138-1.239 and RRR: 0.195; 95% CI: 0.074-0.511 respectively) to have higher CFS than their compatriots that initiated both marriage and childbearing at or after age 22 controlling for covariates as presented in the controlled model. The independent effects model shows that the risk of having 1-3 children compared to 6 or more children was lower (RRR: 0.073; 95% CI: 0.009-0.611; RRR: 0.136; 95% CI: 0,046-0.402 and RRR: 0.421; 05% CI: 0.135-1.312) for women whose ages at first marriage were <15, 15-18 and 19-21 respectively relative to 22+. Women with 1-3 children were 2.5 times more likely to use contraception than women with 6 or more children. Conclusion Having no education, being a rural resident and having a medium household wealth all increase the risk of having higher CFS. Women that marry before age 19 have a higher likelihood of having 6 or more children by the end of their reproductive period. The study concludes that apart from a woman’s age at first marriage and first birth, a complex network of factors interact to determined CFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0282.v1
Subject: Keywords: reproductive coercion; intimate partner violence; sexual violence; reproductive autonomy; women; family violence
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:00:14 CEST)
Background: Reproductive coercion and abuse (RCA) is a hidden form of violence against women. It includes behaviours intended to control or dictate a woman’s reproductive autonomy, for the purpose of either preventing or promoting pregnancy. Main text: In this commentary, we argue that there is a lack of conceptual clarity around RCA that is a barrier to developing a robust evidence base. Furthermore, we suggest that there is a poor understanding of the way that RCA intersects with other types of violence (intimate partner violence; sexual violence) and – as a result – inconsistent definition and measurement in research and practice. To address this, we propose a new way of understanding RCA that centres perpetrator intent and the presence of fear and control. Recommendations for future research are also discussed. Conclusion: We suggest that IPV and SV are the mechanisms through which RCA is perpetrated. In other words, RCA cannot exist without some other form of co-occurring violence in a relationship. This has important implications for research, policy and practice including for screening and identification of women in reproductive healthcare settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0611.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: LRR-RLK family; Gossypium; expansion; phylogenetic analysis; gene expression profile; stress defense
Online: 30 September 2018 (16:18:37 CEST)
Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been reported to play important roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, no comprehensive analysis of this family has been performed in Gossypium, which are important economic crop and suffer various stresses in growth and development. Here we conducted a comprehensive analysis of LRR-RLK family in four Gossypium species (G. arboreum, G. barbadense, G. hirsutum and G. raimondii). A total of 1641 LRR-RLK genes were identified in the four Gossypium species involved in our study. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree revealed that all the LRR-RLK genes were divided into 21 subgroups. Exon-intron organization structure of LRR-RLK genes kept relative conserved in subfamilies and between Arabidopsis and Gossypium. Subfamilies XI and XII were found dramatically expanded in Gossypium. Tandem duplication acted as an important mechanism in expansion of Gossypium LRR-RLK gene family. Function analysis suggested that plant hormone signaling and plant-pathogen interaction pathway were enriched in Gossypium LRR-RLK genes. Promoters analysis and expression profiles analysis revealed that Gossypium LRR-RLK genes were extensively regulated by TFs, phytohormone and various environmental stimuli, and play key roles in stress defense and diverse development processes. Our study provided valuable information for further function study of Gossypium LRR-RLK genes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0110.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: carbonic anhydrases; CA gene family; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; model alga; metabolic role; photosynthesis
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:21:25 CET)
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metalloenzymes that are omnipresent in nature. The CAs catalyze the basic reaction of reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3− and H+ in all living organisms. Photosynthetic organisms contain six evolutionarily different classes of CAs, namely, α-CAs, β-CAs, γ-CAs, δ-CAs, ζ-CAs, and θ-CAs. Many of the photosynthetic organisms contain multiple isoforms of each CA family. Model alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains fifteen CAs belonging to three different CA gene families. Out of the fifteen CAs, three belong to α-CA gene family, nine to β-CA gene family, and three are γ-CAs. The multiple copies of the CAs in each gene family may be due to gene duplications within the particular CA gene family. The CAs of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are localized in different subcellular compartments of this unicellular alga. The presence of a large number of CAs and their diverse subcellular localization within a single cell suggests the importance of these enzymes in metabolic and biochemical roles they perform in this unicellular alga. In the present review, we update the information on molecular biology of all the fifteen CAs and their metabolic and biochemical roles in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We also present a hypothetical model showing the known functions of CAs and predicting the functions of CAs for which precise metabolic roles are yet to be discovered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes self-management; family support; glycemic uncontrolled; type 2 DM; systematic review
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:27:28 CEST)
Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing in the wide world. The managing of diabetes care emphasized the self-management education and support into patients’ care and family care. Objective: to review and synthesizes the effectiveness of DSME strategies involving family as a key person to provide social support for diabetes mellitus self-management of glycemic uncontrolled patients Method: Three databases through PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed to assess the relevant articles. The following search terms: “type 2 diabetes,” “self-management,” “family support,” and “glycemic uncontrolled.” We summarized details of family support on self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients for 14 existing studies. Results: A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. Those studies have a heterogeneous of the education strategies, support perceived, follow-ups strategies and outcomes among type 2 DM. Family integration on diabetes self-management education (DSME) has a positive impact on several outcomes including, self-care behaviors, psychological outcomes, self-efficacy and clinical outcomes Conclusions: This systematic review found robust data related to the integration of family support on diabetes self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients. Consequently, the improvement in outcomes was identified. Implications: The findings suggest model of family engagement is better and needed for sustaining the diabetes care in the long-term care
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: family; infantile hemiplegia; modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy; Physical Therapy modalities; upper extremity.
Online: 17 July 2020 (08:04:27 CEST)
Objective: To assess the functionality of the affected upper limb in children diagnosed with hemiplegia aged between 4 and 8 years after applying low-intensity modified constraint-induced movement therapy(mCIMT). Methods: Prospective case series study. A mCIMT protocol was applied for five weeks, with two hours of containment per day. The study variables were: quality of movement of the upper limb, spontaneous use, participation of the affected upper limb in activities of daily living, dynamic joint position, grasp-release action, grasp strength, supination and extension elbow movements. Four measurements were performed, using the QUEST scale, the SHUEE Evaluation, a hand dynamometer and a goniometer. Results: The sample was composed of 8 children with moderate manual ability. Statistically significant differences were detected in all the studied variables (p<0.05). The greatest increase occurred in spontaneous use from assessment 1-4 (p = 0.01), reaching 88.87% active participation in bimanual tasks. The quality of movement of the upper limb obtained a significant value due to the increase in dissociated movements and grasp (p = 0.01). Conclusion: A low dose (50 hours) of mCIMT increased the functionality of children diagnosed with congenital hemiplegia between 4 and 8 years of age with moderate manual ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0122.v1
Subject: Keywords: social skill deficits; major depression; stress; state marker; introvert personality; family supporting satisfaction
Online: 7 May 2020 (12:37:06 CEST)
Background: Social skills deficits are present in 43.3% of major depressed patients and significantly impact health-related quality of life. However, studies concerning social deficits as state-dependent markers of depression are limited. Objective: To delineate the effects of severity of depression, personality characteristics, family support satisfaction and self-esteem on social skills in clinical depression. Methods: We recruited 150 patients with major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder and assessed 1) Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), 2) Social Skill Inventory (SSI), 3) Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR) Questionnaire 4) Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and 5) Maudsley Personal Inventory (MPI). Results: Social skills deficits were significantly associated with female gender, age < 40 years, depression severity, introvert / neurotic personality, and lowered family support satisfaction and self-esteem. A large part of the variance (47.2%) in social skills deficits was predicted by satisfaction of family support, introvert personality, and low self-esteem. Exploratory Factor Analysis showed that a bifactorial model best fitted the data with a) a general factor loading highly on BDI-II, SSI emotional and social, APGAR, RSES, MPI_introvert and MPI_neurotic scores, and b) a single-group factor loading on both SSI, RSES, and MPI introvert scores. Conclusion: In clinical depression, social skills deficits covary with increasing severity of depression and thus constitute a state marker of depression, and independently from severity of depression covary with introvert personality features. As such, remission of social skills deficits may emerge as a novel objective for the treatment of depression and prevention of new episodes.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Huntington's disease; quality of life; family caregiving; reliability and validity; factor analysis; Poland
Online: 27 May 2019 (11:53:51 CEST)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare genetic neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms and a progressing deterioration of cognitive functions. Complex issues resulting from the hereditary nature of HD, the complexity of symptoms and the concealed onset of the disease have a great impact on the quality of life of family carers. The caregivers are called as “forgotten people” in HD family, also in genetic counseling. This study aims to explore the reliability and validity of the Huntington’s Disease Quality of Life Battery for carers (HDQoL-C) within a Polish population. 90 carers recruited from the Enroll-HD study in Polish research centres of the European Huntington`s Disease Network completed a polish translation of the HDQoL-C. Data was subjected to Principle Components Analysis and reliability measures. The Polish version of the shortened versions of the HDQoL–C is similarly valid compared to the original English version and suitable for use within this population. The HDQoL-C has previously demonstrated a wide range of benefits for practitioners in capturing and understanding carer experience and these benefits can now be extended to Polish speaking populations.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: HBOC; statewide random sampling; cancer survivorship; targeted intervention; tailored intervention; black participants; family recruitment
Online: 5 September 2019 (16:16:34 CEST)
We compared the efficacy of a tailored and a targeted intervention designed to increase clinical breast exam (CBE), mammography, and genetic services/testing among young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) (diagnosed <45 years old) and their blood relatives. A two-arm cluster randomized trial recruited a random sample of YBCS from the Michigan cancer registry and up to two of their blood relatives. Participants were stratified according to race and randomly assigned as family units to the tailored (n=637) or the targeted (n=595) intervention. Approximately 40% of participants were Black; 12% YBCS and 27% relatives were living in more than 20 different U.S. States. Higher screening rates were reported by YBCS (CBE p=0.05; mammography p=0.04) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.04) in the tailored arm, and by White/Other YBCS (CBE p=0.02) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.03). YBCS genetic testing rates increased from 22% to 26% (p=0.11). Black YBCS and relatives reported higher self-efficacy and intention for genetic testing, and higher satisfaction and intervention acceptance. The tailored intervention improved CBE and mammography uptake - despite having minimal contact with participants. Professional referrals will improve genetic testing uptake. Intervention materials increased self-efficacy and satisfaction for Black women but could not overcome multiple access barriers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0553.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Nutrition; family day care; intervention; implementation science; ECEC; child day care centres; RE-AIM; Public Health
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:49:48 CET)
Objective: To highlight opportunities for future nutrition intervention research within early childhood and education care (ECEC) settings, with a focus on generating evidence that has applicability to real-world policy and practice. Methods: An overview of opportunities to progress the field was developed by authors using a collaborative writing approach and informed by recent research in the field. The group developed a list of recommendations aligned with the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Pairs of authors drafted individual sections of the manuscript, which was then reviewed by a separate pair. The first and senior author consolidated all sections of the manuscript and sought critical input on draft iterations of the manuscript. Results: Interventions that employ digital platforms (Reach) in ECEC settings, as well as research in the family day care setting (Effectiveness) were identified as areas of opportunities. Research understanding the determinants of and effective strategies for dissemination (Adoption), implementation of nutrition programs, in addition to de-implementation (Implementation) of inappropriate nutrition practices, is warranted. For maintenance, there is a need to better understand sustainability and sustainment of interventions, in addition to undertaking policy-relevant research. Conclusions: The ECEC setting is prime for innovative and practical nutrition intervention research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0433.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: music therapy; preterm infants; family-centered care; parents; self-care; wellbeing; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
Online: 19 November 2018 (08:49:11 CET)
Background: Parents of preterm infants face major mental health challenges in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Family-centered music therapy actively integrates and empowers parents in their infant’s care. With the aim to better understand and address parental needs separately from their babies’, a music therapy (MT) self-care group was implemented as part of clinical practice at the hospital Clínica de la Mujer in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: The group is provided for both parents twice a week in the NICU. Music guided relaxations, breathing techniques, and self-expression are at the center of the MT group sessions. Parents complete a pre/post self-administered Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) including anxiety levels, stress levels, mood and motivation. Results: Parents highly value the MT self-care group at the NICU. On average there is a 37% improvement in anxiety levels, 28% in stress levels, and 12% in mood, restfulness and motivation. Being able to relax, to distract themselves from their worries and having time for themselves are amongst the most frequently mentioned benefits. Conclusions: Addressing parents’ needs separately form their babies’ treatment with culturally sensitive interventions aimed to improve parental mental health, is essential for continuing the development of family-centered music therapy interventions in the NICU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0352.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: gene network; network analysis; transcription regulation network; Cytoscape; gene family evolution; divergence; A. thaliana; abiotic stress
Online: 15 November 2018 (09:02:34 CET)
Phylostratigraphic analysis is a way to look anew on phylogenetic data in the evolutionary aspect. It allows counting the evolutionary age based on the analysis of genes, their orthologs and finding the last common ancestor. We performed phylostratigraphic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana genes associated with several types of abiotic stresses (heat, cold, water-related, light, osmotic, salt, and oxidative) determined by the Gene Ontology annotation. Comparison of the distributions of ages of genes associated with stresses of different type has shown the heat stress to involve older genes while the light stress – younger genes. At the same time, all types of stress are characterized by a significantly higher proportion of old genes (common to all eukaryotes) compared to the whole set of A.thaliana genes. This can be explained by the involvement of basic molecular processes in plant cells into the stress response. Reconstruction and graphical analysis of the gene network of the heat stress educed several clusters associated with different response functions. Some of these clusters contain only ancient genes. The results obtained show that the phylostratigraphic analysis reveals the fundamental features of the organization of gene networks and their evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0169.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: melanoma initiating cells; CD133; drug resistance; apoptosis; caspase activation; CRISPR-Cas9 knockout; AKT; BAD; BCL-2 family
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:11:10 CEST)
Malignant melanoma is a lethal skin cancer containing melanoma-initiating cells (MIC), implicated in tumorigenesis, invasion, and drug resistance, and characterized by elevated expression of stem cell markers, such as CD133. We previously showed that siRNA knockdown of CD133 enhances apoptosis induced by the MEK inhibitor trametinib in melanoma cells. The current study investigates underlying mechanisms of CD133’s anti-apoptotic activity in patient-derived BAKP and POT cells, harboring difficult-to-treat NRASQ61K and NRASQ61R drivers, after CRISPR-Cas9 CD133 knockdown or Dox-inducible expression of CD133. To maintain stable expression of CD133, MACS-sorted CD133(+) positive cells were expanded by ROCK-mediated conditional reprogramming of BAKP melanoma cells (BAKR). BAKR showed increased survival via reduced apoptosis after exposure to trametinib or DTIC, compared to BAKP. CRISPR-Cas9- mediated CD133 knockdown in BAKR cells (BAKR-T3) re-sensitized the cells, while CRISPR-Cas9 knockdown of CD133 in parental BAKP and POT cells even further increased trametinib-induced apoptosis (cleaved PARP) by reducing levels of anti-apoptotic BCL-xL, p-AKT, and p-BAD, and increasing pro-apoptotic BAD and active BAX. Dox-induced CD133 overexpression had the opposite effect, and blocked trametinib-induced apoptosis in both cell lines, coincident with elevated p-AKT, p-BAD, BCL-2 and BCL-xL and decreased levels of the active form of BAX and caspases-3 and -9. The roles of CD133 in AKT and BAD phosphorylation, or in the upregulation of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, was further investigated by AKT knockout with siRNA, or inhibition of BCL-2 family members with navitoclax (ABT-263). Similar to CD133 knockdown, AKT1/2 siRNA knockdown in BAKP cells also reduced p-BAD. CD133 knockdown (T3)-mediated reduction of pBAD levels was equivalent in AKT-knockdown or AKT control cells indicating that CD133 may be upstream of AKT signaling. In BAKP cells treated with trametinib and/or ABT-263, effects of ABT-263 mirrored CD133 knockdown, since levels of active BAX and cleaved-PARP in BAKP-SC (CD133-) cells increased to the same level as that exhibited by BAKP-T3 cells (CD133+). CD133 may therefore activate a survival pathway where 1) increased phosphorylation of AKT induces 2) phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD, 3) decrease in the active form of BAX, and 4) reduction in caspase-mediated PARP cleavage, indicating apoptosis suppression leading to drug resistance in melanomas. Targeting survival pathways by which CD133 may confer chemoresistance in MICs can contribute to development of more effective treatments for patients with high-risk melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0360.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: DNA alphabets, genomes, percentages of n-plets, binary-oppositions, tensor family of matrices, tetra-groupings, quantum biology, algebraic holography.
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:49:51 CEST)
The article presents the author's results of studying hidden rules of structural organizations of long DNA sequences in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. The results concern some rules of percentages (or probabilities) of n-plets in genomes. To reveal such rules, the author considers genomic DNA nucleotide sequences as multilayers sequences of n-plets and studies the percentage contents of n-plets in different layers. Unexpected rules of invariance of total sums of percentages in certain tetra-groupings of n-plets in different layers of genomic DNA sequences are revealed. These discovered rules are candidates for the role of universal genomic rules. A tensor family of matrix representations of interrelated DNA-alphabets of 4 nucleotides, 16 doublets, 64 triplets, and 256 tetraplets is used in the study. This matrix approach allows revealing algebraic properties of the mentioned genetic rules of probabilities, which are useful for developing algebraic and quantum biology. Some analogies of the discovered genetic phenomena with phenomena of Gestalt psychology are noted and discussed. The author connects the received results about the genomic percentages rules with a supposition of P. Jordan, who is one of the creators of quantum mechanics and quantum biology, that life's missing laws are the rules of chance and probability of the quantum world. Additional attention is paid to the algebraic features of the system of structured DNA alphabets and their relationship with the methods of algebraic holography, known in the technique of processing discrete signals. The concept of algebraic-holographic genetics is being developed for the understanding of inherited holographic properties of organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Knighthood; international law; Canon Law; order of knighthood; sovereign; royal family; jus honorum; fons honorum; jure sanguinis
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:28:56 CET)
Legal debates on the deposed sovereigns’ rights have emerged since 20th century. Among them, the right to appoint knights by heads of deposed royal families is one of the focal points. The author begins with a comprehensive review of legal debates on the subject. Six principles on the appointment are extracted from the review. Then, a new interpretation is proposed, wherein the legitimacy to confer honours and the legitimacy of the orders of knighthood themselves have to be considered separately. Under this method of interpretation, the criterion to judge the legitimacy of an appointment of knight is both the jus honorum of the head of the family and the order of knighthood itself being legitimate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0695.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Domestic violence, crimes against women, the impact of Corona on the family, male domination, women in Jordanian culture
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:59:09 CEST)
Objectives: The study aimed to uncover the percentages of battered women in Jordan, its causes, forms, and relationship to several social factors. Methodology: The study was conducted on a random, targeted sample of (1308) women based on social sample survey method and electronic questionnaire tool for data collection, the Descriptive statistical method and chi-square test were used to examine statistically significant differences. Results: The study found that the percentage of battered women reached 17.1% during Corona pandemic in 2020, and the increase in men's violence against women during this period of was in large and medium degrees according to the sample. Husbands were the most practicing violence against their wives at 37.5%, followed by fathers against daughters at 28.6%, and brothers against sisters at 26.8%. The causes of male violence are due to social factors represented by male domination culture, interference by family and relatives, and economic factors represented by the high cost of living, low household income and poverty. The most common forms of violence are verbal, physical, and psychological. The study found that women in southern Jordan, who are poorer and less educated, and who live in a large family, are the most abused. The study recommended activating family and community service and reform offices, solving problems of deteriorating economic situation and individual poverty, and enlightening community awareness of the dangers of domestic violence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: family farming; agroecology; rural settlements; circle of sustainability; agricultural ecology; Paulo Freire; participant research; land reform; generating themes
Online: 9 May 2019 (13:05:59 CEST)
In the Brazilian Amazon, rural settlements are increasingly isolated by large-scale production farms, jeopardizing their sustainability and the good living of family farmers. Works were carried out in settlements to measure sustainability. However, the majority does not consider the participation and the collectively of those involved. In this way, we propose to evaluate, in a collective and participatory way, the sustainability and good living of the SDP São Paulo Rural Settlement, of the northern Amazon of Mato Grosso. We used the didactic-pedagogical method Circle of Sustainability, developed from five points: 1st - circle of investigation of generating themes; 2nd - circle of the history of the subject world; 3rd - circle of diagnosis of rural settlements; 4th - circle of exchange of knowledge; and 5th - circle of sustainable perceptions and narratives. The historical, socioeconomic and cultural characterization of the settlement allowed us to understand how sustainability and good living are being built in the settlement history process. Sustainability and good living are dialectical processes, are under construction, in movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: H3K27M; DIPG; p53; APR-246; Jumonji family histone demethylases; GSK-J4, radiation; DNA damage repair; glutathione depletion; oxidative stress induction
Online: 6 December 2019 (04:34:45 CET)
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive pediatric brainstem tumor with a 5-year survival of <1%. Up to 80% of DIPG tumors contain a specific K27M mutation in one of two genes encoding histone H3 (H3K27M). Furthermore, p53 mutations found in >70-80% of H3K27M DIPG, and mutant p53 status is associated with a decreased response to radiation treatment and worse overall prognosis. Recent evidence indicates that H3K27M mutation disrupts tri-methylation at H3K27 leading to aberrant gene expression. Jumonji family histone demethylases collaborates with H3K27 mutation in DIPG by erasing H3K27 trimethylation and thus contributing to derepression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. Since the first line treatment for pediatric DIPG is fractionated radiation, we investigated the effects of Jumonji demethylase inhibition with GSK-J4, and mutant p53 targeting/oxidative stress induction with APR-246, on radio-sensitization of human H3K27M DIPG cells. Both APR-246 and GSK-J4 displayed growth inhibitory effects as single agents in H3K27M DIPG cells. Furthermore, both of these agents elicited mild radiosensitizing effects in human DIPG cells (sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs) of 1.12 and 1.35, respectively; p<0.05). Strikingly, a combination of APR-246 and GSK-J4 displayed a significant enhancement of radiosensitization, with SER of 1.50 (p<0.05) at sub-micro-molar concentrations of the drugs (0.5 μM). The molecular mechanism of the observed radiosensitization appears to involve DNA damage repair deficiency triggered by APR-246/GSK-J4, leading to the induction of apoptotic cell death. Thus, a therapeutic approach of combined targeting of mutant p53, oxidative stress induction, and Jumonji demethylase inhibition with radiation in DIPG warrants further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: BRCA1, BRCA2, Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, Lynch Syndrome, Hereditary cancer, Family history screening. Risk assessment, Digital tool, Health information technology
Online: 25 July 2018 (09:59:26 CEST)
The number of individuals meeting criteria for genetic counseling and testing for hereditary cancer syndromes (HCS) is far less than the number that actually receive it. To facilitate identification of patients at risk for HCS, Counsyl developed a digital identification tool (digital ID tool) to match personal and family cancer history to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) BRCA-related Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC), Lynch syndrome, and polyposis testing criteria in one-to-one, automated fashion. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of the digital ID tool to accurately identify histories that do and do not meet NCCN testing criteria. Methods: Third-party recorded three-generation pedigrees were retrospectively reviewed by a certified genetic counselor (CGC) to determine if independent events included in pedigree histories met NCCN guidelines, and were then sorted into groups: high risk events (meets criteria) and low risk events (does not meet criteria). Events were entered into the digital ID tool to determine the extent of its concordance with events sorted by CGC review. Statistical tests of accuracy were calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: 197 pedigrees were reviewed consecutively representing 765 independent events for analysis across groups. 382/382 (100%) high risk events identified by the digital ID tool and 381/383 (99.47%) low risk events identified by the digital ID tool were concordant with CGC sorting. The digital ID tool had a sensitivity of 100% (99.04-100% CI) and specificity of 99.48% (98.13-99.94% CI). The overall accuracy of the digital ID tool was estimated to be 99.74% (99.06-99.97% CI), reflecting the rate at which the digital ID tool reached the same conclusion as that of CGC review of pedigree events for the recommendation of genetic testing for individuals at risk for HCS. Conclusions: The digital ID tool accurately matches NCCN criteria in one-to-one fashion to identify at-risk individuals for HCS and may be useful in clinical practice, specifically for BRCA-related HBOC and Lynch Syndrome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Food; feeding style; eating trends; food interactions, food intake; food preparation; food management; food insecurity; meal planning; parent; child; family food environment; COVID-19; systematic review
Online: 4 August 2022 (05:26:38 CEST)
Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by dramatic changes in household food dynamics that can significantly influence health. This systematic literature review presents parental perspectives of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food preparation and meal routines, as well as other food-related behaviors, capturing both favorable and unfavorable changes in the family food environment (FFE). Themes and trends are identified and associations with other lifestyle factors are assessed. In overall, families enjoyed more time together around food, including planning meals, cooking, and eating together. Eating more diverse foods and balanced meals was combined with overeating and increased snacking, as parents became more permissive towards food; however, food insecurity increased among families with the lowest income. Adoption of meal planning skills and online shopping behavior emerged alongside behaviors aimed at self-sufficiency, such as bulk purchasing and stockpiling. These results are an important first step in recognizing how this pandemic may be affecting the FFE, including low-income families. Future obesity prevention and treatment initiatives, but also ongoing efforts to address food management, parental feeding practices, and food insecurity, can account for these changes moving forward.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0245.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: CD209; L-SIGN; CD209L; D-SIGN; C-type lectin; Cell Adhesion Molecule; C-type lectin domain family 4 member M; CLEC4M; LSECtin; CLEC4G; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
Online: 9 November 2020 (09:25:09 CET)
C-type lectin CD209/DC-SIGN and CD209L/L-SIGN proteins are distinct cell adhesion and pathogen recognition receptors that mediate cellular interactions and recognize a wide range of pathogens including, viruses such as SARS, SARS-CoV-2, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Pathogens exploit CD209L family proteins to promote infection and evade the immune recognition system. CD209L and CD209 are widely expressed in SARS-CoV-2 target organs and can contribute to infection and pathogenesis. CD209L family receptors are highly susceptible to alternative splicing and genomic polymorphism, which may influence virus tropism and transmission in vivo. The carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) and the neck/repeat region represent the key features of CD209L family proteins that are also central to facilitating cellular ligand interactions and pathogen recognition. While, the neck/repeat region is involved in oligomeric dimerization, the CRD recognizes the mannose containing structures present on specific glycoproteins such as those found on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Considering the role of CD209L and related proteins in diverse pathogen recognition, this review article discusses the recent advances in the cellular and biochemical characterization of CD209 and CD209L and their roles in viral uptake, which has important implications in understanding the host-pathogen interaction, the viral pathobiology and driving vaccine development of SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0639.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing, transcription factors binding sites prediction; cooperative binding of transcription factors; composite elements; motifs conservation; classification of transcription factors; ETS transcription factor family; direct binding of transcription factors; overlap of motifs
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:43:09 CEST)
Background: Transcription factors (TFs) are main regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. The cooperative binding to genomic DNA of at least two TFs is the widespread mechanism of transcription regulation. Cooperating TFs can be revealed through the analysis of co-occurrence of their motifs. Methods: We applied Motifs Co-Occurrence Tool (MCOT) that predicted pairs of spaced or overlapped motifs (composite elements, CEs) for a single ChIP-seq dataset. We improved MCOT capability for prediction of asymmetric CEs with one of participating motifs possessing higher conservation than another does. Results: Analysis of 119 ChIP-seq datasets for 45 human TFs revealed that almost for all families of TFs the co-occurrence with an overlap between motifs of target TFs and more conserved partner motifs was significantly higher than that for less conserved partner motifs. The asymmetry toward partner TFs was the most clear for partner motifs of TFs from ETS family. Conclusion: Co-occurrence with an overlap of less conserved motif of a target TF and more conserved motifs of partner TFs explained a substantial portion of ChIP-seq data lacking conserved motifs of target TFs. Among other TF families, conservative motifs of TFs from ETS family were the most prone to mediate interaction of target TFs with its weak motifs in ChIP-seq.