Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: knee; osteoarthritis; biomechanics
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:03:03 CET)
To our best knowledge this is the first study to assess and compare lower limb biomechanics and gait pattern between patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty with use of fixed-bearing medial-pivot and multi-radius design implants. Results of this study show that there were no statistical differences between both types of implants and even though there was significant improvement in patient-reported outcome and gait pattern, those parameters still differ significantly in comparison to healthy volunteers. The problem with dissatisfaction after operative treatment may not lay in the procedure itself, but many different factors may contribute to it. Next studies comparing other designs of implants, as well as proper rehabilitation protocol should be performed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: biomechanics; gait; angular momentum; locomotion
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:34:48 CEST)
The goal of this study was to analyze the instability during stepping of young and older adults at fast and spontaneous speed. To this aim, the anteroposterior and the mediolateral distances between the body center of mass (COM) and the minimum moment axis (MMA) were computed. A total of 15 young adults (25y.o. [19-29]) and 15 older adults 68.7y.o. [63-77] volunteered for this study. For the computation of the distances, a complete biomechanical protocol combining two force platforms and a 3D motion capture analysis system was setup. The subjects were equipped with 47 reflective markers and were modeled as a frictionless multibody with 19 segments, 18 joints and 42 degrees of freedom and were asked to perform a stepping at both speeds. The stepping was divided in 5 phases with successive swing and double stance phases. The greater instability was observed during the swing phases. The distances indicate a significant higher instability at fast speed for both groups (p < 0.001) for all the phases. The anteroposterior distance also increases significantly for older adults highlighting greater instability while no differences were observed for the mediolateral distance all along the 5 phases suggesting higher risks of backward of forward falls during stepping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Biomechanics; Horse; Hydrotherapy; Kinematics; Spine
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:05:58 CEST)
Background: Water treadmill (WT) exercise is a popular modality for the training and rehabilitation of horses. However, evidence-based literature regarding the use of WT exercise, particularly using inclines, is lacking.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of recurring inclined WT sessions on equine epaxial muscles development.Methods: Six horses completed 24 sessions of 15 minutes of WT activity over four weeks. Horses walked with water at mid-cannon level at a treadmill incline of 4%. Back traces were measured at three and seven centimetres ventral to the dorsal midline at T5, T9, T14 and T18, prior to the first session (W0) and weekly for 4 weeks (W1-4). Results: Overall the back traces demonstrated progressive increases in muscle development (p<0.05), starting at W2 up to W4. At three centimetres ventral to the dorsal midline the most to least significant increases in gross muscle development were at T18, T5, T9 and T14, respectively and when measured at seven centimetres ventrally, the most to least significant increases were demonstrated at T5, T18 and T14 . It was noted that increases in thoracic back profile musculature were mainly observed within two to four weeks of the WT intervention.Conclusions: It has been concluded that repeated WT exercise on an incline setting has a significant effect on the rate and size of growth of equine thoracic back profile musculature. Muscle hypertrophy due to resistance training in the WT starts at 2 weeks within the programme, and it progresses as exercise continues to be performed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Glaucoma; Hysteresis; Biomechanics; ORA; Corvis
Online: 1 March 2023 (10:20:08 CET)
Biomechanics is a branch of biophysics that deals with mechanics applied to biology. The biomechanics of the cornea plays a significant role in managing patients with glaucoma. While evidence suggests a higher risk of glaucoma in patients with thin and stiffer corneas, it also affects the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). We reviewed the pertinent literature to help the understanding of corneal biomechanics and how it can help optimize clinical and surgical treatments and a better approach to diagnosing and managing patients with glaucoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: comfort; vibration; biomechanics; postural stabilization
Online: 23 May 2022 (12:14:30 CEST)
In future automated vehicles we will often engage in non-driving tasks and will not watch the road. This will affect postural stabilization and may elicit discomfort or even motion sickness in dynamic driving. Future vehicles shall accommodate this by properly designed seats and interiors whereas comfortable vehicle motion shall be achieved with smooth driving styles and well de-signed (active) suspensions. To support research and development in dynamic comfort, this paper presents validation of a multi-segment full body human model including visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback for postural stabilization. Dynamic driving is evaluated using a “sicken-ing drive” including a 0.2 Hz 4 m/s2 slalom. Vibration transmission is evaluated with compliant automotive seats, applying 3D platform motion and evaluating 3D translation and rotation of pelvis, trunk and head. The model matches human motion in dynamic driving and reproduces fore-aft, lateral and vertical oscillations. Visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback are shown to be essential in particular for head-neck stabilization. Active leg muscle control at the hips and knees is shown to be essential to stabilize the trunk in the high amplitude slalom condition but not in low amplitude horizontal vibrations. However, active leg muscle control can strongly affect 4-6 Hz vertical vibration transmission. Compared to the vibration tests, the dynamic driving tests show enlarged postural control gains to minimize trunk and head roll and pitch, and to align head yaw with the driving direction. Human modelling can create the required insights to achieve breakthrough comfort enhance-ments while enabling efficient development for a wide range of driving conditions, body sizes and other factors. Hence, modelling human postural control can accelerate innovation of seats and vehicle motion control strategies for (automated) vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0158.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: biomechanics; kinetics; kinematics; angulation; movement
Online: 16 September 2019 (04:08:13 CEST)
The injury rate in agility dogs is relatively high compared to the general population. No study to date has considered the biomechanical effects of the dog walk obstacle in agility trials, highlighting a research need. The aim of this study was to test for correlation between dog age, weight, speed, contact training method and agility experience and forelimb joint angulation and peak ground reaction forces (GRFs) over this obstacle. Dogs were filmed running across a Kennel Club (KC) standard dog walk whilst wearing reflective markers attached to specific anatomical points. A Tekscan Comformat and a Tekscan Walkway pressure mat were secured to the dog walk contact area and the ground at the end of the dog walk respectively. Joint angulation and peak forelimb GRFs were recorded and analysed. A key finding is that the way a dog will move across the obstacle changes depending on their level of experience, with experienced dogs showing increased flexion of the elbow joints and decreased extension of the carpus compared to inexperienced competitors. Higher speeds over the dog walk also resulted in significantly increased elbow joint flexion. Increased joint angulation and higher GRF’s are associated with a higher risk of injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1774.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: golf; pro-player; full swing; biomechanics
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:24:38 CEST)
Background: Pro-golfers are increasingly trained scientifically, but swing technique characteristics have not yet been conclusively determined for golf performance. We investigated the relationship between the player's thorax, pelvis and club based on a wireless biofeedback system. We also determined whether thoracic and pelvic changes during different swing phases have different effects on ball striking. Methods: Eight male professionals performed 10 successful full-swing shots using a 5-iron and applied the K-vest wireless biofeedback system for analysis. Results: Peak angular velocities between the pelvis, torso, and clubs were all significantly different (p<0.05) in the men's professional players. All players deviated more from the PGA players range metrics during the preparation stance. Excessive lateral pelvic bending angle, over-rotation, and hyperextension of the trunk were prevalent at the top of the backswing. Conclusions: Most players have an irrational sequence of pelvic, trunk and club rotation times, which is not conducive to improving club head speed and distance. Excessive pelvic rotation in the closed direction at the apex of the backswing is not conducive to maximizing the X-factor. At the moment of striking the ball, maintain a moderate forward trunk lean and full trunk rotation to avoid sports injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0271.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: CrossFit; coaching; neck injury; fitness; biomechanics
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:50:27 CEST)
The kipping handstand push-up (kHSPU) is an exercise performed by millions of people. The safety of kHSPUs has been questioned because of vertical impacts upon the head. Here, we measured the axial loads placed upon the head during kHSPUs and sought to identify other factors that may place participants at risk of injury. 16 volunteers from a single gym performed 3 sets of up to 7 kHSPUs with their head and one hand contacting force platforms. Forces were recorded continuously and video recording were made while performing the exercises. The force profiles showed distinct landing and kipping peaks. Participants landed with more force than during their normal headstand, but less than their body weight. The force on the head was greatest during the "kip," and was usually more than body weight. Participants who reported pain following kHSPUs moved their head into extension during the exercises. Forces to the head during kHSPUs were below forces proposed for damage to the young cervical spine, with minimum estimated safety factors of 4.3 for landing and 3.8 for kipping. While kipping handstand push-ups may be safe for young and previously uninjured athletes, they may be unsafe for those with previous injury or other compromising factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1439.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Corneal biomechanics; corneal resonance; acoustic vibrometry
Online: 19 May 2023 (11:24:59 CEST)
The cornea is the optical window to the brain. Its optical and structural properties are responsible for optical transparency and vision. The shape, elasticity, rigidity or stiffness are given by its biomechanical properties, whose stability results in ocular integrity and intraocular pressure dynamics. Here, we report in vivo observation of structural changes and biomechanical alterations of the human cornea induced by acoustic wave pressure within the frequency range of 50-350 Hz and 90 dB of sound pressure level. Central corneal thickness (CCT) and eccentricity (e2) were measured using Scheimpflug imaging and biomechanical properties [corneal hysteresis (CH) and intraocular pressure (IOP] were assessed with air-puff tonometry in 6 young healthy subjects. At the specific 150 Hz acoustic frequency, the variation in CCT and e2 were of 0.058 and 7.33 µm, respectively. Biomechanical alterations were also observed in both IOP (decrease of 3.60 mmHg) and CH that showed an increase of 0.40 mmHg.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: fibronectin; fibrillogenesis; extracellular matrix; biomechanics; mechanobiology
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:45:17 CEST)
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role as both structural scaffold and regulator of cell signal transduction in tissues. In times of ECM assembly and turnover, cells upregulate assembly of the ECM protein, fibronectin (FN). FN is assembled by cells into viscoelastic fibrils that can bind upward of 40 distinct growth factors and cytokines. These fibrils play a key role in assembling a provisional ECM during embryonic development and wound healing. Fibril assembly is also often upregulated during disease states, including cancer and fibrotic diseases. FN fibrils have unique mechanical properties, which allow them to alter mechanotransduction signals sensed and relayed by cells. Binding of soluble growth factors to FN fibrils alters signal transduction from these proteins, while binding of other ECM proteins, including collagens, elastins, and proteoglycans, to FN fibrils facilitates the maturation and tissue specificity of the ECM. In this review, we will discuss the assembly of FN fibrils from individual FN molecules; the composition, structure, and mechanics of FN fibrils; the interaction of FN fibrils with other ECM proteins and growth factors; the role of FN in transmitting mechanobiology signaling events; and approaches for studying the mechanics of FN fibrils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0058.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Polyurethane; Vascular graft,; Hyperelastic; Compliance, Biomechanics
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:38:30 CEST)
The lack of suitable autologous grafts and poor compliance of existing prostheses have prompted the study of novel materials for vascular graft design. Polyurethanes (PUs) were used in the past because they have high compliance and properties that are similar to those of native tissue. In this work, the mechanical properties of a group of PUs in two states (non-hydrated and hydrated) were studied using uniaxial tensile tests, strain sweep tests, and multi-step creep recovery tests. Additionally, a hyper-elastic model based on the Mooney–Rivlin strain density function was fitted and used to model the performances of the PUs under physiological pressure and geometry conditions. The tensile tests revealed a softening phenomenon after hydration, which could potentially reduce patient discomfort and risk of vascular trauma. The ultimate strength values after hydration were similar to those reported for other vascular conduits. The strain sweep showed a strong strain dependency of the modulus indicating non-linear viscoelasticity. In the creep-recovery tests, increasing the polyethylene glycol(PEG) content enhanced the viscous flow, while the elastic behavior was enhanced with the largest concentration of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). On the other hand, under simulated physiological conditions, the compliance of the PUs showed a cyclic behavior with the time and pressure but was not affected by the radii and thickness variation, which could increase the graft compliance and geometry mismatch. Nevertheless, the compliance could be tuned using the material composition. This paper studied the biomechanics of a group of materials under simulated physiological conditions (Temperature, hydration, and pressure) to select those that could perform better for further vascular graft design.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1000.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: postural stability; reduced gravity; manual handling; biomechanics
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:48:44 CEST)
The center of mass dynamics of human seated posture in a work environment under hypogravity (0<g<1) have rarely been investigated and it remains to be accomplished. The present study determined the difference in the body system of 32 participants working under simulated 1/6g (Moon) and 1g (Earth) for comparison reason using static and dynamic action measurements. This was based on analyzing the participant's center of mass before, during, and after the task when they started to get fatigued. According to this analysis, there is a positive relation (p<0.01) with a positive coefficient of correlation between CoM body shift down along the Y axis and gravity level for males and females. At the same time, the same positive relationship (p<0.01) between the tilt of the body back along the Z axis and the level of gravity was found only in females. This offers fresh perspectives for comprehending hypogravity. It can also improve workplace ergonomics, body stability, equipment design, and biomechanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0380.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Biomechanics; Respiration; Experimental Evaluation; Procedure; statistical Elaboration
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:12:34 CEST)
The paper addresses the problem of a statistically significant numerical evaluation of the biomechanics of respiration using the motion of the ribcage through the identification of the kinematics of the sixth rib. We report the results of an experimental campaign conducted using a RESPIRholter device prototype for efficient, comfortable, and numerical monitoring on two groups of volunteers, namely with healthy people and with chest operated patients. The results are reported in terms of statistical processing of the data extracted from the monitoring which are represented in plots of acquired motion characteristics with movement graphs in terms of angles and accelerations. This experimental campaign can be considered a first result for the construction of a database useful for a reference of diagnostics as reported by the discussed example case study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1519.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biomechanics; martial arts; impact force; maximum velocity
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:01:17 CEST)
Impact force and maximum velocity are important indicators of kick efficiency in fighting activities. Therefore, this systematic review compared the front kick (FK) and roundhouse kick (RK), including maximal and impact force, maximum velocity, maximum angular velocity, and execution time, at different target types and experience levels. The Web of Science, SportDiscus, and PubMed were systematically searched from January 1982 to May 2022, according to PRISMA guidelines. The normalized kicking values were compared using one-way ANOVA. Eighteen articles, including FK with a pooled sample of 113 elite men, 109 sub-elite men, and 46 novices, and 25 articles, including RK with a sample of 238 elite men, 143 sub-elite men, and 27 novice men, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The primary findings were that the impact forces of FK were higher than RK for the novice, sub-elite, and elite groups by 47% (p<0.01), 92% (p<0.01), and 120% (p<0.01), respectively. Moreover, the maximum foot velocity of RK was faster than FK for the sub-elite and elite groups by 44% (p<0.01) and 48% (p<0.01), respectively. The Elite group had 65% (p<0.01) higher knee extension angular velocity within RK than FK, and 138% (p<0.01) higher hip extension angular velocity within FK than RK.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental materials; finite element analysis; prosthodontics; biomechanics
Online: 20 October 2021 (10:00:45 CEST)
Evidence regarding the effect of the onlay preparation design for different CAD/CAM restorative materials considering the preservation of cusps is lacking. Molars were 3D modeled in four preparation designs for onlay restoration: traditional design with functional cusp coverage (TFC), non-retentive design with functional cusp coverage (NFC), traditional design with non-functional cusp coverage (TNFC), non-retentive design with non-functional cusp coverage (NNFC). Restorations were simulated with two CAD/CAM restorative materials: LD – lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD) and RC - resin composite (GrandioBloc). A 100 N axial load was applied to the occlusal surface simulating the centric contact point. Von Mises (VM) and maximum principal (Pmax) stresses were evaluated for restorations, cement layer and dental substrate. The non-retentive preparation design reduced the stress concentration in the tooth structure in comparison to the conventional retentive design. For LD onlays, the stress distribution on the restoration intaglio surface showed that the preparation design as well as the prepared cusp, influenced the stress magnitude. The non-retentive preparation design provided better load distribution in both restorative materials and more advantageous for tooth structure. The resin composite restoration on non-functional cusp is recommended when functional cusp is preserved, in order to associate conservative dentistry and low stress magnitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: aortic aneurysm model; elastin; aorta compliance; aortic biomechanics
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:46:54 CEST)
Aortic aneurysms (AA) occur in 4.8% of people causing 150,000 deaths annually. While endovascular aneurysm repairs reduce surgical morbidity, device-related failures (leak/displacement) are frequent highlighting the need for test models that better represent the mural geometry and compliance changes in human AAs. We aimed to develop and characterise an ex vivo porcine aortic model of AA. The optimal duration of tissue elastase exposure to emulate AA changes in elastin microstructure and content was determined using porcine aortic rings. Elastase-induced changes were quantified morphologically, and mechanical properties assessed via ring tensile testing. Subsequent experiments tested the potential for localised elastase treatment in a 1 cm segment of porcine aorta using a specially designed 3D printed test rig. The effect on pressure-diameter behaviour was investigated via inflation-extension testing. Elastase treatment produced time dependent decreases in elastin, resulting in an increased tensile modulus and circumferential length in the ring samples in the final phase of the J-shaped tissue stress-strain curves. In whole aortic segments, localised elastase-induced luminal degradation was successfully limited to a central region. The degree of elastin degradation achieved was sufficient to cause localised dilation with respect to controls under physiological pressures. Localised elastin degradation in porcine aortic segments is feasible and emulates the changes seen clinically in aortic aneurysms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: calvarium; bone; traumatic brain injury; biomechanics; pathology; fracture
Online: 22 March 2023 (10:23:44 CET)
Mild impacts to the head, particularly when repetitive in nature, are increasingly recognized to have a range of significant negative implications for brain health. Much of the ongoing research in the field is focused on the neurological consequences of these injuries, and the relationship between head impacts and long-term neurodegenerative conditions such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimer’s disease. However, our understanding of the complex relationship between applied mechanical force at impact, brain pathophysiology, and neurological function, remains incomplete. Past research has shown that mild head impacts, even below the threshold that results in cranial fracture, induce changes in cranial bone structure and morphology. These structural and physiological changes likely have implications for the transmission of mechanical force into the underlying brain parenchyma. Here, we review this evidence in the context of the current understanding of bone mechanosensitivity and the consequences of traumatic brain injuries or concussions. We postulate that heterogeneity of the calvarium including differing bone thickness due to prior impacts, age, or individual variability, may be a modulator of outcomes following subsequent head impacts. We advocate for greater consideration of cranial responses to head injury in both experimental and computer modeling of impact biomechanics, and raise the hypothesis that calvarial bone thickness represents a novel biomarker of brain injury vulnerability after head trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Sensor; optoelectronics; shear; force; biomechanics; gait; wearables; healthcare
Online: 23 February 2022 (13:35:58 CET)
The need for miniaturized shear force sensors is expanding, particularly for biomedical applications. Examples include measuring interfacial shear stresses between a human and an external device (e.g., footwear or a prosthesis). However, there are considerable challenges in designing a shear sensor for these applications due to the need for a small package, low power requirements, and resistance to interference from motion artifact and electromagnetic fields. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization sensor that measures two-axis shear force by detecting displacement between a color panel and a red, green, and blue light-sensing photodiode. The sensor response to applied displacements and forces was characterized under benchtop testing conditions. We also present the design of a prototype wireless version of the sensor for integration into footwear. The sensor exhibited strong agreement with gold standard measurements for two axis shear displacements (R2>0.99, RMSE≤5.0 µm) and forces (R2>0.99, RMSE≤0.94 N). This performance, along with the sensor’s scalability, miniaturized form, and low power requirements make it well-suited a variety of biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0046.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Postural Balance; Deep Reinforcement Learning; Postural Stabilisation; Biomechanics
Online: 8 June 2020 (10:25:54 CEST)
Learning to maintain postural balance while standing requires a significant fine coordination effort between the neuromuscular system and the sensory system. It is one of the key contributing factors towards fall prevention, especially in the older population. Using artificial intelligence (AI), we can similarly teach an agent to maintain a standing posture, and thus teach the agent not to fall. In this paper, we investigate the learning progress of an AI agent and how it maintains a stable standing posture through reinforcement learning. During training, the AI agent learnt three policies. First, it learnt to maintain the Centre-of-Gravity and Zero-Moment-Point in front of the body. Then, it learnt to shift the load of the entire body on one leg while using the other leg for fine tuning the balancing action. Finally, it started to learn the coordination between the two pre-trained policies. This study shows the potentials of using deep reinforcement learning in human movement studies. The learnt AI behaviour also exhibited attempts to achieve an unplanned goal because it correlated with the set goal (e.g. walking in order to prevent falling). The failed attempts to maintain a standing posture is an interesting by-product which can enrich the fall detection and prevention research efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1368.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; judo; biomechanics; knee injury; gender differences
Online: 20 September 2023 (08:40:06 CEST)
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most serious injury in judo. Therefore, its prevention is of great importance. The main mechanism of injury is the collapse of the knee in valgus, which usually occurs when there are deficits of strength and neuromuscular control of the core, external rotators and hip abductors, as well as limitations of ankle and hip mobility. In most sports there is a difference in the prevalence of this injury between both sexes, being more common in women. Therefore, in the present study we observed this possible intersexual disparity in the difference of movement patterns among elite judokas according to their sex, in order to identify those athletes with a higher risk of ACL injury. In addition, it was not observed differences between sexes in the performance of the Single Leg Squat test (SLS test); There was worse neuromuscular control of the non-dominant leg in men and women; No differences were observed in in the range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and hip external rotation between men and women, but there were differences in internal rotation, a movement whose restriction may be related to an increased risk of ACL injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0041.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: biomechanics, finite element modelling, pelvis, bone adaptation, musculoskeletal modelling
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:34:08 CEST)
This study presents the development of a number of finite element (FE) models of the pelvis using different continuum and structural modelling approaches. Four FE models were developed using different modelling approaches: continuum isotropic, continuum orthotropic, hybrid isotropic and hybrid orthotropic. The models were subjected to an iterative adaptation process based on the Mechanostat principle. Each model was adapted to a number of common daily living activities (walking, stair ascent, stair descent, sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit) by applying onto it joint and muscle loads derived using a musculoskeletal modelling framework. The resulting models, along with a structural model previously developed by the authors, were compared visually in terms of bone architecture, and their response to a single load case was compared to a continuum FE model derived from CT imaging data. The main findings of this study were that the continuum orthotropic model was the closest to the CT derived model in terms of load response albeit having less total bone volume, suggesting that the role of material directionality in influencing the maximum orthotropic Young's modulus should be included in continuum bone adaptation models. In addition, the hybrid models, where trabecular and cortical bone were distinguished, had similar outcomes, suggesting that the approach to modelling trabecular bone is less influential when the cortex is modelled separately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: bifurcation; cyclone; forks; hurricane; tree biomechanics; tree risk assessment; typhoon
Online: 30 March 2023 (12:55:40 CEST)
Practitioners who assess the risk associated with urban trees often factor in the presence or absence of visual tree defects when determining whether a tree may fail. While these defects are a main fixture in many tree risk assessment systems and best management practices, the research supporting their usefulness in predicting tree failure during storms is limited. When looking at past research involving populations of storm-damaged trees, there are several defects that have never predicted failure (or have been associated with reduced rates of failure). In this study, we took a closer look at four such defects: codominant branches; branch unions with included bark; multiple stems originating from the same point; and overextended branches. After Hurricane Ian, we revisited 1519 risk assessed trees where one of these four defects was identified as the primary condition of concern. Fourteen of these trees experienced branch failure during the storm (which hit the study area as a downgraded tropical storm). Upon closer inspection, none of these failures occurred at the defect of concern. Our findings indicate that none of the defects assessed appeared to increase the likelihood of tree failure in the species tested. Our results are in line with past research on these defects derived from post-storm assessments and analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0391.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Digestive tract; Colon; Biomechanics; Mechanical properties; Strain energy function; Hyperelasticity
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:25:46 CEST)
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a continuous channel through the body that consists of the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum. Its primary functions are to move the intake of food for digestion before storing and ultimately expulsion of feces from the rectum through the anal sphincter. The mechanical behavior of GI tissues thus plays a crucial role for GI function in health and disease. The mechanical properties are typically characterized by a constitutive biomechanical model, which is a mathematical representation of the relation between load and deformation in a tissue. Hence, validated biomechanical constitutive models are essential to characterize and simulate the mechanical behavior of the GI tract under physiological and pathological conditions. Numerous constitutive models have consequently been proposed over the past three decades, mainly inspired by work done in cardiovascular tissues. Here, a comprehensive review of these constitutive models is provided. This review is limited to studies where a model of the strain energy function is proposed to characterize the stress-strain relation of a GI tissue. Several needs are identified for more advanced modeling of GI biomechanics including: 1) Microstructural models that provide actual structure-function relations; 2) Validation of coupled electro-mechanical models accounting for active muscle contractions; 3) Human data under physiological and pathological conditions to develop and validate models. The findings from this review provide guidelines for using existing constitutive models as well as perspective and directions for future studies aimed at establishing new constitutive models for GI tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0188.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Plant biomechanics; turgor pressure; micro-compression; AFM; Arabidopsis thaliana; differentiation
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:42:19 CET)
Individual plant cells are the building blocks for all plantae and artificially constructed plant biomaterials, like biocomposites. Secondary cell walls (SCWs) are a key component for mediating mechanical strength and stiffness in both living vascular plants and biocomposite materials. In this paper, we study the structure and biomechanics of cultured plant cells during the cellular developmental stages associated with SCW formation. We use a model culture system that induces transdifferentiation of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to xylem vessel elements, upon treatment with dexamethasone (DEX). We group the transdifferentiation process into three distinct stages, based on morphological observations of the cell walls. The first stage includes cells with only a primary cell wall (PCW), the second covers cells that have formed a SCW, and the third stage includes cells with a ruptured tonoplast and partially or fully degraded PCW. We adopt a multi-scale approach to study the mechanical properties of cells in these three stages. We perform large-scale indentations with a micro-compression system and nanoscale indentations through atomic force microscopy (AFM), in three different osmotic conditions. We introduce a spring-based model to deconvolve the competing stiffness contributions from turgor pressure, PCW, SCW and cytoplasm in the stiffness of differentiating cells. Prior to triggering differentiation, cells in hypotonic pressure conditions are significantly stiffer than cells in isotonic or hypertonic conditions, highlighting the dominant role of turgor pressure. Plasmolyzed cells with a SCW reach similar levels of stiffness as cells with maximum turgor pressure. The stiffness of the PCW in all of these conditions is lower than the stiffness of the fully-formed SCW. Our results provide the first experimental characterization of the mechanics of SCW formation at single cell level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Ageing; CaReMoOC; Biomechanics; Motor Control; Rehabilitation; movement limitations; movement impairments
Online: 9 January 2020 (14:00:26 CET)
In healthy ageing, capacity declines in the neural, muscular, and skeletal systems, and each system decline has its effect on the execution of complex motor tasks. This decline in capacity can result in the inability to stand up (sit-to-stand, sit-to-walk), which is a key movement for independence. The mechanisms leading to mobility limitations or inabilities are complex, overlapping, and interdependent and the complementary fields of biomechanics, motor control, and physiology need to be combined to understand these mechanisms. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of age-related compensation in standing up and to consider the limitations of these results when analysing standing up in daily life using the Capacity, Reserve, Movement Objectives, and Compensation (CaReMoOC) framework that combines biomechanics, motor control, and physiology. A literature search was performed in the search engine Scopus, using the keywords and their synonyms: strateg*(approach, technique, way) AND, sit-to-walk OR sit-to-stand OR rise (raise, arise, stand, stand-up) AND chair (seat). Inclusion criteria were: biomechanics or motor control on sit-to-stand or sit-to-walk in healthy and/or frail adults (<60y) and elderly (>60y), and/or osteoarthritis patients as a specific case of ageing related decline. The review shows that movement compensations in standing up manifest as changes in planned trajectory (Compensation by Selection) and in muscle recruitment (Compensation by Reorganisation). However, as most studies in the literature typically use standardized experimental protocols where movement compensation is restricted, these studies cannot be directly translated to functional tasks, such as the mobility of the elderly in their homes, communities, and clinic. Compensation must be included in future studies in order to facilitate clinical translation. Specifically, future studies in the standing up task should 1) determine the effect of varying arm use strategies (e.g., armrests, knees, chair, cane) on trunk and both lower limb and upper limb joint loading, 2) analyse control strategies in elderly people, 3) determine the biomechanical implications of asymmetry, and 4) incorporate assessments of age-related physical and neural decline as well as changes in psychological priorities.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.3390/sci1030060
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: biomechanics; dynamic stability; inertial measurement unit; MCL tear; static stability
Online: 15 October 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
Injuries to the ligaments of the knee are extremely common among athletes who participate in high-risk sports, or any sport that requires frequent cutting motions, jumping, or contact. In order to determine the best way to heal these injuries, it is important to understand not just the pathology of the injury, but also the biomechanical factors that are affected, including stability and steadiness. While many studies have been done to examine the stability of healthy knees, there is little to no existing literature on stability of knees afflicted by injury. In order to surpass this obstacle, static steadiness and dynamic stability data was collected using the Lockhart Monitor phone application and Xsens accelerometers, respectively, both before and after completion of a course of physical therapy in a patient with a grade 2 medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear. These results were then used to determine the degree to which the prescribed physical therapy protocol was effective in healing the MCL, which can be useful for tweaking the individual protocol for future conservative treatment and management of the injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Design optimization; Computer simulation; musculoskeletal model; Biomechanics; Ballet shoes; Pirouette
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:32:35 CEST)
The beautiful and stable posture is essential for ballet. Especially the pirouette which dancers balance themselves on their one leg is one of the most impressive postures. During the pirouette motion, loads from the rotation and the body weight are concentrated to the one leg. Proper ballet shoes can reduce the muscle burden and improve the stability. Four types of shoes; bare feet, running shoes, pointe shoes, and dance sneakers are analyzed. The motion capture system and SIMM are used for the analysis of muscle burden and stability during pirouette. The major 6 muscles in the leg (beceps femoris long head, beceps femoris short head, soleus, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and gastrocnemius lateralis) are analyzed, and the effect of rotating velocity is considered. Dance sneakers are outstanding for improving the stability and lessening the muscle burdens in all conditions for beginners. That comes from the design feature of the divided shoe soles and protecting the ankle of the axis leg. With the results and analysis, the direction for design optimization of ballet shoes is suggested. Consequently, this research is about the verification of sports equipment using computer simulation with the musculoskeletal model from a scientific viewpoint of biomechanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: optical fiber sensors; Fabry-Perot sensors; orthodontic biomechanics; rapid palatal expansion.
Online: 28 June 2023 (11:13:48 CEST)
We present a novel method for online measurement of multi-point opening distances of midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion (RPE) using fiber optic Fabry-Perot (F-P) sensors. The sensor consists of an optical fiber with a cut flat end face and an optical reflector, which are implanted into the palatal base structure of an expander and is capable of measuring the precise distance between two optical reflective surfaces. As a demonstration, a 3D printed skull model containing the maxilla and zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) was produced and a miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expander (MARPE) with two guide rods was used to generate the midpalatal suture expansion. The reflected spectrums of the sensors were used to dynamically extract cavity length information for full process monitoring of expansion. The dynamic opening of the midpalatal suture during the gradual activation of the expander was measured, and a displacement resolution of 2.5 μm was demonstrated. The angle of expansion was derived and the results suggested that the midpalatal suture was opened with a slightly V type expansion of 0.03 rad at the first loading and subsequently expanded in parallel. This finding might be useful for understanding the mechanical mechanisms that lead to different types of expansion. The use of a fiber-optic sensor for mounting the rapid palatal expander facilitates biomechanical studies and experimental and clinical evaluation of the effects of RPE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0332.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomechanics; Orthodontic force; Torque; Tooth Movement; Removable Thermoplastic Appliance; Aging; Aligners
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:10:51 CET)
The aim of this study is to study the effect of aging in different media (deionized water and artificial saliva) on the force/torque generation by thermoplastic orthodontic aligners. Ten thermoformed aligners made of Essix ACE® thermoplastic sheets were aged in deionized water and in artificial saliva over two weeks at 37 C, five in each medium. The force/torque generated on upper second premolar (Tooth 25) of a resin model was measured at day 0 (before aging), 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14, using a biomechanical test set-up. The results showed that the thermocycling of aligners has no significant impact on their force/torque decay. No significant differences were also found in force/torque between the aligners stored in deionized water nor artificial saliva. The vertical extrusion-intrusion forces were measured in the range of 1.4 to 4.6 N, the horizontal oro-vestibular forces were 1.3 to 2.5 N, while the torques on mesio-distal rotation were 5.4 to 41.7 Nmm. It could be concluded that the influence of saliva on the mechanical properties can be classified as insignificant, and no significant difference between artificial aging in deionized water or artificial saliva was observed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wearables; machine learning; biomechanics; inertial sensors; electromyography; digital health; estimation; regression
Online: 1 November 2019 (10:41:04 CET)
Wearable sensors have the potential to enable comprehensive patient characterization and optimized clinical intervention. Critical to realizing this vision is accurate estimation of biomechanical time-series in daily-life, including joint, segment, and muscle kinetics and kinematics, from wearable sensor data. The use of physical models for estimation of these quantities often requires many wearable devices making practical implementation more difficult. However, regression techniques may provide a viable alternative by allowing the use of a reduced number of sensors for estimating biomechanical time-series. Herein, we review 46 articles that used regression algorithms to estimate joint, segment, and muscle kinematics and kinetics. We present a high-level comparison of the many different techniques identified and discuss the implications of our findings concerning practical implementation and further improving estimation accuracy. In particular, we found that several studies report the incorporation of domain knowledge often yielded superior performance. Further, most models were trained on small datasets in which case nonparametric regression often performed best. No models were open-sourced, and most were subject-specific and not validated on impaired populations. Future research should focus on developing open-source algorithms using complementary physics-based and machine learning techniques that are validated in clinically impaired populations. This approach may further improve estimation performance and reduce barriers to clinical adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Dentistry; Orthodontics; Biomechanics; Torque; Force; Tooth Movement; Removable Thermoplastic Appliance; Thermoforming; Aging.
Online: 17 February 2023 (07:07:06 CET)
The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of artificial aging by thermocycling and mechanical loading on force/torque delivery by thermoplastic orthodontic aligners. Ten thermoformed aligners made of Zendura™ thermoplastic polyurethane sheets were aged over two weeks in deionized water by thermocycling alone (n=5) and by both thermocycling and mechanical loading (n=5). The force/torque generated on upper second premolar (Tooth 25) of a plastic model was measured before aging (as control), and after 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 days of aging, using a biomechanical set-up. Before aging, the extrusion-intrusion forces were in the range of 2.4 to 3.0 N, the oro-vestibular forces were 1.8 to 2.0 N, and the torques on mesio-distal rotation were 13.6 to 40.0 Nmm. Pure thermocycling had no significant effect on the force decay of the aligners. However, there was a significant decrease in force/torque after 2 days of aging for both thermocycling and mechanical loading aging group, which is no longer significant over 14 days of aging. In conclusion, artificial aging of aligners in deionized water with thermocycling and mechanical loading results in a significant decrease in force/torque generation. However, the mechanical loading of aligners has a greater impact than thermocycling alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0409.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: cervical alignment; cervical laminoplasty; spinal cord; finite element analysis; cervical spine biomechanics
Online: 31 March 2022 (13:58:12 CEST)
Background: Cervical laminoplasty is a useful for treatment of cervical myelopathy. However, this procedure has limitations for kyphotic cervical alignments. We used the finite element (FE) analysis and investigated the biomechanical changes in an intact and laminoplasty models with lordosis, straight, and kyphosis cervical alignments. Methods: A three-dimensional FE model of the cervical spine (C2-C7) with ligaments was created from computed tomography. The model was modified with the following cobb angles and the C3-C6 laminoplasty was conducted; a) laminoplasty-lordotic model (LM-L; C2-C7 angle: -10°), b) laminoplasty-straight model (LM-S; C2-C7 angle: 0°), and c) laminoplasty-kyphotic model (LM-K; C2-C7 angle: 10°). A pure moment with a compressive follower load of 100N to represent the weight of the head/cranium and cervical muscle stabilization was applied to these models. The range of motion (ROM), annular stress, nucleus stress and facet forces were analyzed. Results: ROM of LM-K increased when compared to the other models except for flexion. The LM-K had the highest mobility with 49% increase in ROM observed under extension, compared to the intact model. In all motion except for flexion, LM-L models’ ROM decreased by more than 10%, and LM-S and LM-K models’ ROM increased by more than 10% at C2-C7 compared to the intact model. The annular stresses and nucleus stresses in LM-K were higher compared to the other models. The maximum increase in annular stresses was about 194% in LM-K compared to the intact model, observed at the C3-C4 segment. The facet contact forces were lowest in the LM-K, compared to the other models.Conclusions: Patients with a cervical kyphosis alignment are at a disadvantage of increased kyphosis compared to cases with lordosis or straight alignment and should be treated with caution.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Biomechanics; Ageing; Human Movement; Mobility Impairments; Capacity; Reserve; Compensation; Geriatrics; Modelling; Rehabilitation
Online: 9 January 2020 (14:03:05 CET)
To prevent, mitigate and treat movement impairments, we need to recognize early signs of decline and understand how to best compensate for limitations. The mechanisms leading to movement impairments are complex, overlapping, and interdependent and the fields of biomechanics, motor control, and physiology must be combined to understand these mechanisms. This article introduces CaReMoOC, a framework incorporating neuromusculoskeletal capacity (accumulation of neuromusculoskeletal resources over the lifespan), reserve (task-specific difference between capacity and task demand), movement objectives (considerations made to plan a movement), and compensation (use of NMSK resources to respond to the task demand). The framework is demonstrated for healthy ageing, providing an overview of age-related capacity decline (neural, skeletal, muscular system) and shifted weighting of movement objectives (energy, pain, stability, speed) relevant for biomechanics and motor control. Two forms of compensation are Compensation for Capacity, when capacity does not meet the task demands, and Compensation for Movement Objectives, when the movement is changed due to for example a fear of falling. Understanding the interrelationships between decline in the variables within capacity and the effect on compensation strategies will provide benefit in preventing mobility impairments and will support clinicians in their rehabilitation practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0924.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Corneal biomechanics; optical coherence elastography; optical coherence tomography; intraocular pressure, mechanical wave propagation
Online: 25 April 2023 (10:40:48 CEST)
Assessing corneal biomechanics in vivo has long been a challenge in the field of ophthalmology. Although recent wave-based optical coherence elastography (OCE) methods have shown promise in this area, the effect of intraocular pressure (IOP) on mechanical wave propagation in the cornea remains unclear. To address this, we constructed an artificial eye model and performed surface wave OCE measurements in the radial directions (54–324°) of the silicone cornea at varying IOP levels (10–40 mmHg). The results demonstrated increases in wave propagation speeds (mean ± STD) from 6.55 ± 0.09 m/s (10 mmHg) to 9.82 ± 0.19 m/s (40 mmHg), leading to an estimate of Young’s modulus, which increased exponentially from 145.23 ± 4.43 kPa to 326.44 ± 13.30 kPa. Our implementation of an artificial eye model highlighted that the impact of IOP on Young’s modulus (ΔE = 165.59 kPa, IOP: 10–40 mmHg) was more significant than the effect of stretching of the silicone cornea (ΔE = 15.79 kPa, relative elongation: 0.98%–6.49%). Our study sheds light on the potential of using an artificial eye model in OCE research for corneal biomechanics. Furthermore, it is critical to consider the impact of IOP on measurement results when utilizing wave-based OCE in clinical settings for enhanced assessment of corneal biomechanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1076.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: minimum foot clearance (MFC); tripping prevention; falls prevention; machine learning; gait prediction; gait biomechanics
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:46:30 CEST)
Tripping is the largest cause of falls and low swing foot ground clearance during the mid-swing phase, particularly at the critical gait event known as Minimum Foot Clearance (MFC) is the major risk factor for tripping-related falls. Intervention strategies to increase MFC height can be effective if applied in real-time based on feed-forward prediction. The current study investigated the capability of machine learning models to classify the MFC into various categories using toe-off kinematics data. Specifically, three MFC sub-categories (less than 1.5cm, between 1.5-2.0cm and higher than 2.0cm) were predicted applying machine learning approaches. A total of 18,490 swing phase gait cycles’ data were extracted from six healthy young adults, each walking for 5-minutes at a constant speed of 4km/h on a motorised treadmill. Both K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) and Random-Forest were utilised for prediction based on the data from toe-off for five consecutive frames (0.025s duration). Foot kinematics data were obtained from inertial measurement unit attached to the mid-foot, recording tri-axial linear accelerations and angular velocities of the local coordinate. KNN and Random-Forest achieved 84% and 86% accuracy, respectively, in classifying MFC into the three sub-categories with run time of 0.39 seconds and 13.98 seconds respectively. The KNN-based model was found to be more effective if incorporated into an active exoskeleton as the intelligent system to control MFC based on the preceding gait event, toe-off due to its quicker computation time. The machine learning based prediction model shows promise for the prediction of critical MFC data indicating higher tripping risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: atherosclerosis; biomechanics; border detection; coronary artery disease; optical coherence to-mography; stents; vulnerable plaque
Online: 7 April 2022 (08:13:34 CEST)
Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intravascular, near-infrared light-based imaging modality capable of reaching axial resolutions of 10-20 µm. This resolution allows for accurate determination of high-risk plaque features, such as thin cap fibroatheroma; however, visualisation of morphological features alone still provides unreliable positive predictive capability for plaque progression or future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Biomechanical simulation could assist in this prediction, but this requires extracting morphological features from intravascular imaging to construct accurate three-dimensional simulations of patients’ arteries. Extracting these features is a laborious process, often carried out manually by trained experts. To address this challenge, numerous techniques have emerged to automate these processes while simultaneously overcoming difficulties associated with OCT imaging, such as its limited penetration depth. This systematic review summarises advances in automated segmentation techniques from the past five years (2016-2021) with a focus on their application to the three-dimensional reconstruction of vessels and their subsequent simulation. We discuss four categories based on the feature being processed, namely: coronary lumen; plaque characteristics and subtypes; artery layers; and stents. Areas for future innovation are also discussed as well as their potential for future translation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0443.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Keywords: Corneal Biomechanics; Corneal structure; Corneal Aberrations; Optical Density; Scheimpflug imaging; Ocular Response Analyzer.
Online: 28 October 2021 (15:24:20 CEST)
Optical properties of the cornea are responsible for correct vision, ultrastructure allows optical transparency and biomechanical properties governs the shape, elasticity or stiffness of the cor-nea affecting ocular integrity and intraocular pressure. Therefore, optical aberrations, corneal transparency, structure and biomechanics play a fundamental role in the optical quality of hu-man vision, ocular health and refractive surgery outcomes. However, the convergence of those properties is not yet reported at macroscopic scale within the hierarchical structure of the cornea. This work explores the relationships between biomechanics, structure and optical properties (corneal aberrations and optical density) at macrostructural level of the cornea through dual Placido-Scheimpflug imaging and air-puff tonometry systems in a healthy young adult popula-tion. Results showed convergence between optical transparency, corneal macrostructure and biomechanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0278.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: ocular biomechanics; intraocular pressure (iop); fluid structure interaction (fsi); arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian mesh (ale)
Online: 25 September 2019 (08:16:34 CEST)
Purpose: To improve numerical simulation of the non-contact tonometry test by using Arbitrary Eulerian-Lagrangian deforming mesh in the coupling between computational fluid dynamics model of an air jet and finite element model of the human eye. Methods: Computational fluid dynamics model simulated impingement of the air puff and consisted of 25920 wedge6 elements and employed Spallart-Allmaras model to simulate capture turbulence of the air jet. The time span of the jet wais 30 ms and maximum Reynolds number
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: running; energy expenditure; running efficiency; upper-trunk; lower-trunk; movement; inertial measurement units; biomechanics; elite
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:31:02 CEST)
Running is a basic form of human locomotion and one of the most popular sports worldwide. While the leg biomechanics of running have been studied extensively, few studies have focused on the upper-body movement. However, an effective arm swing and longitudinal rotation of the shoulders play an important role in running efficiency as they must compensate for the longitudinal torques generated by the legs. The aim of this study is to assess the upper-body rotation using wearable inertial sensors and to elucidate its relation to energy expenditure. Eighty-six junior elite middle and long-distance runners (37 female, 49 male) performed an incremental treadmill test with sensors attached on both shoulders, tibiae and the sacrum. Mean and total horizontal shoulder and pelvis rotation per stride were derived while energy costs were determined using respiratory gas analysis and blood sampling. Results show that shoulder and pelvis rotation increase with running speed. While shoulder rotation is more pronounced in female than in male runners, there is no sex difference for pelvis rotation. Energy cost of running and upper trunk rotation prove to be slightly negatively correlated. In conclusion, upper body rotation appears to be an individual characteristic influenced by a sex-specific body mass distribution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0910.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Myopia; peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation; Peripapillary staphyloma; gamma peripapillary atrophy; border tissue; optic nerve sheaths; biomechanics
Online: 12 May 2023 (09:00:13 CEST)
Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation (PICC) is a yellow-orange lesion, located at the outer border of the myopic conus. First described as a localized detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium, its intrachoroidal location was later disclosed, justifying its current name. PICC is related to other myopic complications like posterior staphyloma, but its pathogenesis is not clear to date. Although it has been considered a benign condition, most eyes with PICC show visual field defects, leading to diagnostic uncertainty as these deficits resemble those observed in glaucoma. Furthermore, eyes with PICC can develop macular detachment with retinoschisis. Finally, misdiagnosis of PICC as a metastatic choroidal tumor may lead to unnecessary and anxiety-provoking investigation. Advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging have improved the visualization of ocular structures, contributing to the understanding of PICC. Recently high optic nerve sheaths traction forces during eye movements in highly myopic eyes have been suggested as promoters of PICC, renewing interest around this condition. However, a review of PICC is still lacking. Therefore, we aimed to provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of the current state of the art, focusing on OCT documentation, pathophysiology and potential future perspectives based on biomechanics of the optic nerve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2175.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: medical and rehabilitation robotics; biomechanics; parallel manipulator; cable-driven; kinematic analysis; robot design; mechanism synthesis; compliant mechanism
Online: 30 September 2023 (09:47:54 CEST)
The ankle is a complex joint with a high injury incidence. Rehabilitation Robotics applied to the ankle is a very active research field. We present cable-driven reconfigurable robot kinematics and statics. We studied how the tendons pull mid-foot bones around the talocrural and subtalar axes. Likewise, we propose a hybrid serial-parallel mechanism analogous to the ankle. Then, using screw theory, we synthesized a cable-driven robot with the human ankle in the closed-loop kinematics. We incorporate a draw-wire sensor to measure the axes’ pose and compute the product of exponentials. We reconfigure the cables to balance the tension and pressure forces using the axis projection on the base and platform planes. Likewise, we also computed the workspace to show that the reconfigurable design fits several sizes. The data used is from anthropometry and statistics. Finally, we validated the robot’s statics with MuJoCo for various cable length groups corresponding to the axes’ range of motion. We suggested a platform adjusting system and an alignment method. The design is lightweight, and the cable-driven robot has advantages over rigid parallel robots, such as Stewart platforms. We will use compliant actuators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: ergonomics; senior drivers; ingress; entry; egress; exit; somatic movement; biomechanics of the movement; movement strategies; car design.
Online: 19 July 2023 (12:48:06 CEST)
During normal ageing, physical changes take place, namely in terms of the biomechanical, musculoskeletal, and psychomotor systems, that reduce strength, flexibility, motor coordination, balance, and precision of movements. This article analyses the motion behaviour of a sample of 49 senior and pre-senior subjects during the process of entry to (ingress) and exit from (egress) new car models not experienced before, obtained over five days at the Geneva International Motor Show. The methodological process is based on visual studies using photography and video to analyse motion behaviour. This investigation identifies five entry movement strategies and three exit movement strategies in three types of vehicle groups. The movements adopted in the egress of the vehicle were more complex and difficult, in general, than those observed for ingress, requiring greater flexibility, agility/dexterity, and physical strength of subjects, involving more contact or support with vehicle parts. The main factor that influences movement strategies is essentially related to subjects’ levels of physical capacity and previous experiences. In conclusion, there are no significant changes in the subjects’ somatic movement strategies based on vehicle types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: biomechanics; posture; hyperlordosis; hyperkyphosis; machine learning; artificial intelligence; explainable artificial intelligence; human-in-the-loop; confident learning; label errors
Online: 29 March 2023 (14:08:32 CEST)
Postural deficits such as hyperlordosis (hollow back) or hyperkyphosis (hunchback) are relevant health issues. Diagnoses depend on the experience of the examiner and are therefore often subjective and prone to errors. Machine learning (ML) methods in combination with explainable ar-tificial intelligence (XAI) tools have proven useful for providing an objective, data-based orien-tation. However, only a few works have considered posture parameters, leaving the potential of more human-friendly XAI interpretations still untouched. Therefore, the present work proposes an objective, data-driven ML system for medical decision support that enables especially human-friendly interpretations using counterfactual explanations (CFs). Posture data for 1151 subjects were recorded by means of stereophotogrammetry. An expert-based classification of the subjects regarding the presence of hyperlordosis or hyperkyphosis was initially performed. Using a Gaussian progress classifier, the models were trained and interpreted using CFs. Label errors were flagged and re-evaluated using confident learning. Very good classification performances for both hyperlordosis and hyperkyphosis were found, whereby the re-evaluation and correction of the test labels led to a significant improvement (MPRAUC = 0.97). A statistical evaluation showed that the CFs seemed to be plausible in general. In the context of personalized medicine, the present study’s approach could be of importance for reducing diagnostic errors and thereby improving the individual adaptation of therapeutic measures. Likewise, it could be a basis for the development of apps for preventive posture assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0112.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: biosensing; biomechanics; cellular viscoelasticity; vibrations; nonlinear acoustics; acousto-optics; gas bubbles; acoustic frequency combs; artificial intelligence; physics-informed neural networks
Online: 7 July 2022 (05:48:59 CEST)
Gas bubbles present in liquids underpin many natural phenomena and human-developed technologies that improve the quality of life. Since all living organisms are predominantly made of water, they may also contain gas bubbles—introduced both naturally and artificially—that can serve as biomechanical sensors operating in hard-to-reach places inside a living body and emitting signals that can be detected by common equipment used in ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging procedures. This kind of biosensors is the focus of the present article, where we critically review the emergent sensing technologies based on acoustically driven oscillations of gas bubbles in liquids and bodily fluids. This review is intended for a broad biosensing community and transdisciplinary researchers translating novel ideas from theory to experiment and then to practice. To this end, all discussions in this review are written in a language that is accessible to non-experts in specific fields of acoustics, fluid dynamics and acousto-optics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: anthropometry; biomechanics; coordinate measuring machines; in vivo; kinematics; mechanical sensors; sensor arrays; human ankle model, operational amplifiers; pose estimation; position measurement; rehabilitation robotics; biomedical informatics; product of exponentials formula; Riemmanian manifolds
Online: 7 February 2022 (11:50:24 CET)
The human ankle is a complex joint, most commonly represented as talocrural and subtalar axes. It is difficult to locate and take in vivo measurements of the ankle joint. There are no instruments for patients lying on a bed or the floor; that can be used in outdoor or remote sites. We have developed a "Turmell-meter" to address these issues. We started with the study of ankle anatomy and anthropometry, then we used the product of exponentials’ formula to visualize the movements. Furthermore, we built a prototype using human proportions and statistics. For pose estimation, we used a trilateration method by applying tetrahedral geometry. Additionally, we computed the axis direction by fitting 3D circles, plotting the manifold and chart as an ankle joint model. We presented the results of simulations, a prototype comprising 45 parts, specifically designed draw-wire sensors, and electronics. Finally, we tested the device by capturing positions and fitting them into the bi-axial ankle model as a Riemannian manifold. The Turmell-meter is intended to be a hardware platform for human ankle joint axis estimation, it is adjustable and has an easy setup. The proposed model has the properties of a chart in a geometric manifold, we provided the details