BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0700.v1
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:11:09 CEST)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and its correlates of infrequent and frequent bullying victimization (=BV) among school-going adolescents in five “Association of Southeast Asian Nations” (ASEAN) member states. The cross-sectional sample comprised 33,184 school adolescents (14.6 years mean age) from five ASEAN countries of the “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2015. Results indicate that 30.6% of participants reported any past-month BV, 33.9% in boys and 27.5 in girls, ranging from 11.8% in Laos to 48.7% in the Philippines. In the adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis, students from the Philippines and Thailand, experience of hunger, sedentary behaviour, attending physical education classes, being underweight, being overweight or obese, ever amphetamine use, physically assaulted, school truancy, participation in a physical fight, injury, low peer support and psychological distress were associated with BV. Almost one in three adolescents were bullied and several associated variables were identified which can assist in targeting the strategies of intervention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1763.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Obesity; Adolescents; media; video
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:02:56 CEST)
One of the most important problems, which public health is called to face, is obesity. The World Health Organization (WHO) underlines that worldwide more than 380 million of overweight or obese children and adolescents exist. Although obesity is a multifactorial disease, excessive use of the screen seems to act in a way that affects obesity. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to study of the major problem, obesity in teenagers and its association with the hours of entertainment(referring to excessive hours of television use and viewing, video games and social media).In the present systematic literature review was carried out search for sources, through the scientific databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus for the period from 2010 to 2022.This systematic review provides public health evidence regarding the positive association of excessive screen time and of obesity and overweight in adolescents.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; adolescents; behavioral activation
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:48:51 CEST)
Depression continues to be a glaring global challenge. The most worrisome trend is eating up the youthful generation more than anyone could predict years back. As Addis & Martell (2004) note, these adolescents end up succumbing to conditions that can be traced wholly from depression. Behavioral activation can be a rewarding intervention that will go a long way in cutting down on these cases and ensure the youthful global population's lives are safeguarded if applied and monitored to ensure correct and collective implementation processes and systems. The insights and arguments presented in the research paper will focus on the utility of behavioral activation in reducing depression cases among adolescents.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0710.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress; determinants; adolescents; Bhutan
Online: 29 September 2020 (12:47:53 CEST)
The goal of the study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress (=PD) among adolescent school children in Bhutan. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were analysed from 7,576 adolescents (16 years median age) that took part in the “2016 Bhutan Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS).” PD was assessed with a 2-item screening measure (BMC Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-020-02888-3). Results indicate that the prevalence of PD was 15.8%, 12.8% among males and 18.4% among females. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, female sex, having no close friends, older age, bullying victimization, infrequently physically attacked, parental emotional neglect, parents never check home work, passive smoking trouble from alcohol use, ever had sex, high sedentary behaviour and having sustained a single or multiple serious injuries (past year) were associated with PD. In addition, adequate fruit and vegetable consumptions was protective against PD. Almost one in six students reported PD and several associated factors were identified which can aid prevention and control strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0690.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: adolescents; depression; Laos; psychometric testing
Online: 29 July 2020 (10:37:26 CEST)
This study aimed to develop a Laotian adolescent version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), determine its reliability and validity, and examine its factorial properties. The study targeted at 7,554 students in lower secondary schools and teacher training colleges in Lao PDR. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 2012 to 2014. Exploratory factor analysis performed in three age groups using the weighted least square mean and variance adjusted estimation with robust maximum likelihood methods. The factor structure for each age group was the same; therefore, data from the full sample were analyzed further. The model was then tested by confirmatory factor analysis. A 2-factor model was determined as a common model among the age groups by using paralleled analysis. We determined a best-fitting structure comprising two factors: “Negative affect” and “Positive affect.” The Cronbach’s alpha was .81. “Effort” items loaded on the “Somatic and retarded activity” factor in the original model but loaded on the “Positive affect” factor in the adolescent model. “Depressed affect,” “Somatic and retarded activity,” and “Interpersonal” items were combined into the “Negative affect” factor in the adolescent model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1927.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: COVID19; Children; Epilepsy; Adolescents; Pediatric; Pandemic
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:00:40 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted health care worldwide. As the pandemic has been prolonged, quarantine restrictions have been lightened gradu-ally, which can influence outcomes of pediatric patients with chronic disease such as epi-lepsy by increase of susceptibility of the COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study was to determine impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on seizure control and identify potential risk factors that might worsen seizure attacks during the pandemic in children with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective chart review of 48 pediatric patients with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic from January 2016 to July 2022. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, 25% of pediatric patients experienced sei-zure worsening, showing an increase in seizure frequency or duration or both. Factors associated with worsening seizures during pandemic were: diagnosis of epi-lepsy less than one year, comorbid conditions with cerebral palsy or having a tracheosto-my or a PEG, and infection with other viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus A, influenza virus B) rather than COVID-19 infection. Our finding highlights the need to proactively monitor and regularly follow up (es-pecially short period of time) patients after they are diagnosed with epilepsy. It is also important to properly manage those who are susceptible to serious illness and keep sea-sonal viral infections under surveillance to manage exacerbated seizure in children with epilepsy. Furthermore, pediatric physicians should not overlook surveillance of seasonal respiratory viruses since quarantine restrictions are getting eased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; adolescents; parents; school
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:00:43 CEST)
Objectives: This study assessed the associations between parent intent to have their child receive COVID-19 vaccination, and demographic factors and various child activities including attendance at in-person education or childcare. Methods: Persons undergoing COVID-19 testing residing in Minnesota and Los Angeles County, California with children aged <12 years completed anonymous internet-based surveys between May 10 and September 6, 2021 to assess factors associated with intention to vaccinate their child. Factors influencing parents’ decision to have their child attend in person school or childcare were examined. Estimated adjusted odds rations (AORs, 95% CI) were computed between parents’ intentions regarding children’s COVID-19 vaccination and participation in school and extra-curricular activities using multinomial logistic regression. Results: Compared to parents intending to vaccinate their children (n=4,686 [77.2%]), those undecided (n=874 [14.4%] or without intention to vaccinate (n=508 [8.4%]) tended to be younger, non-White, less educated and themselves not vaccinated against COVID-19. Their children more commonly participated in sports (aOR:1.51 1.17-1.95) and in-person faith or community activities (aOR:4.71 (3.62-6.11). They further indicated that additional information regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness would influence their decision. COVID-19 mitigation measures were the most common factors influencing parents’ decision to have their child attend in-person class or childcare. Conclusions: Several demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with parents’ decision whether to vaccinate their <12-year-old children for COVID-19. Child participation in in-person activities was associated with parents’ intentions not to vaccinate. Tailored communications may be useful to inform parents’ decisions regarding safety and effectiveness of vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorder; Body Image; Adolescents.
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:34:57 CEST)
There is growing recognition of the adverse effects of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and eating disorder (ED) symptoms on adolescent health. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ED symptoms, BID, and their relationship in adolescents from public schools in Southern Brazil. A total of 782 schoolchildren (male: n=420, female: n=362); age: 15 ± 0,4 years) answered a self-administrated questionnaire to identify sociodemographic data. Children´s Figure Rating Scale was adopted to identify body image and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to investigate ED symptoms. Inferential statistics and hierarchical model-controlled logistic regression were used for association between variables. Most of the schoolchildren reported being satisfied with their bodies. However, we observed a higher prevalence of dissatisfaction among girls for being overweight and thinness among boys. Female students and students from schools located in the central area of the city showed higher chances of developing ED symptoms, and the absence of symptoms of ED appeared to act as a protective factor against BID in schoolchildren. Results of this study show the need to reflect on these factors that influence the development of ED and non-acceptance of their own body in a population concerned with their physical appearance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Children; Adolescents
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:53:18 CET)
Background: The COVID 19 pandemic and associated public health measures have disrupted the lives of people around the world. It is already evident that the direct and indirect psychological and social effects of the COVID 19 pandemic are insidious and affect the mental health of young children and adolescents now and will in the future. The aim and objectives of this knowledge-synthesis study were to identify the impact of the pandemic on children’s and adolescent’s mental health and to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions employed during previous and the current pandemic to promote children’s and adolescent’s mental health. Methodology: We conducted the systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included experimental randomized, nonrandomized controlled trials; observational studies; and qualitative studies. Results: Of the 5,828 articles that we retrieved, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. We thematically analyzed and put up the major findings under the thematic areas of impact of pandemic on children and adolescent’s mental health. These studies reported that pandemics cause stress, worry, helplessness, and social and risky behavioral problems among children and adolescents (e.g., substance abuse, suicide, relationship problems, academic issues, absenteeism from work). Interventions such as art-based programs, support services, and clinician-led mental health and psychosocial services effectively decrease mental health issues among children and adolescents. Conclusion: Children and adolescents are more likely to experience high rates of depression and anxiety during and after a pandemic. It is critical that future researchers explore effective mental health strategies that are tailored to the needs of children and adolescents. Explorations of effective channels regarding the development and delivery of evidence-based, age-appropriate services are vital to lessen the effects and improve long-term capacities for mental health services for children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental preventive care; adolescents; risk factors
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:35:17 CET)
Abstract: The study aimed to determine the factors associated with the avoidance of dental preventive care in adolescents and their parents in the framework of The Youth and Parents Risk Factor Behavior Survey in Slovakia has been initiated during the years 2015/2016. The data were collected using two separate standardized questionnaires: (i) the questionnaire for adolescents (n=515) and (ii) the questionnaire for parents (n=681). The study group consisted of 57 adolescents (54.4% males) who did not visit the dentist for preventive care in the previous year. The control group consisted of 458 adolescents (35.8% males) who visited a dentist for preventive care at least once in the previous year. A significantly higher number of males (54.4%), older adolescents (21.4%) were not visiting dental preventive care regularly. Incomplete family (56.1%), stressful situations at home (17.5%), and feeling unwell were observed as the factors contributing to the avoidance of dental preventive care. More than 34.5% of adolescents were not visiting either dental preventive care but also pediatric preventive care (AOR=5.14; 95%CI=2.40, 10.99). Divorced mothers and mothers with household income lower than 900 € had significantly higher dental care avoidance in their children. A significantly higher percentage of fathers from the exposed group were not visiting dental preventive care regularly (47.8%; p< .05). The results of the study can be used as an educational intervention steps focusing on the influence of parental and adolescent behavior in dental preventive care.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0711.v1
Online: 29 September 2020 (12:49:06 CEST)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral hygiene (OH) and hand hygiene (HH) behaviour among school adolescents in three Caribbean countries. In all, 7,476 school adolescents (median age 14 years), from Dominican Republic, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago responded the cross-sectional “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2016-2017. The prevalence poor OH (tooth brushing <2 times/day) was 16.9%, poor HH (not always before meals) was 68.2%, poor HH (not always after toilet) was 28.4% and poor HH (not always with soap) was 52.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, current cannabis use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health and low parental support increased the odds for poor OH. Rarely or sometimes experiencing hunger, trouble from alcohol use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health, and low parental support were associated with poor HH (before meals, and/or after toilet, and/or with soap). The survey showed poor OH and HH behaviour practices. Several sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviours, poor mental health and low parental support were found associated with poor OH and/or HH behaviour that can assist with tailoring OH and HH health promotion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: engagement; adolescents; obesity; diet; prevention; management
Online: 5 June 2018 (11:21:25 CEST)
Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behaviour change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalisation of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices. The aim of this paper is to appraise these strategies, which may be used to improve effective engagement and thereby improve the dietary behaviours of adolescents now and in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: adolescents; depression; insomnia; mobile phone; Japanese
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:33:14 CEST)
Adolescents spend an increasing amount of time on mobile phones. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between duration of mobile phone use and insomnia and depression in senior high school students. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 295 senior high school students in Japan. Mobile phones were owned by 98.6% of students; 58.6% of students used mobile phones for more than 2 h daily and 10.5% used them for 5 h daily. The risk of insomnia was significantly high in students who used mobile phones for 5 h or more (OR: 3.89 [95% CI: 1.21-12.49]). There was no significant association between depression and duration of mobile phone use. However, individuals who spent 120 min or more using mobile phones for social network services (OR: 3.63 [1.20-10.98]) and online chats (OR: 3.14 [1.42-6.95]) were at risk for depression. Excessive mobile phone use is associated with unhealthy sleep habits and insomnia. Moreover, the excessive use of the social network services and online chats are related to depression rather than duration of mobile phone use. Adolescents should use mobile phones appropriately to avoid sleep disturbances and the impairment of mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: emotional regulation; sleep habits; anxiety; children; adolescents
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:56:27 CEST)
Background: Previous research studies have suggested the importance of studying the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Some investigations have especially focused on how emotional regulation could impact sleep habits in children and adolescents. Therefore, these researchers have stated there exists a two-way direction in this relationship. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of emotional regulation on sleep habits in Spanish children and adolescents, and the mediating role of anxiety in this relationship. Method: Participants were 953 Spanish parents who completed the assessment protocol according to their children and adolescents’ information. Results: The results revealed moderate-strong correlations between emotional regulation problems and sleep habits disturbances (r=0.375, p<0.001), trait (r=0.488, p<0.001) and state (r=0.589, p<0.001) anxiety. Also, emotional regulation showed a direct impact on sleep habits (β=0.011, p=0.005). Trait and state anxiety demonstrated a significant mediating role in the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Conclusions: Emotional regulation may have an impact on sleep habits during childhood and adolescence, suggesting the importance of early intervention focused on the emotions management and the prevention of sleep habits disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: MVPA; VPA; social norms; children; adolescents; perception
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:47:16 CEST)
Our study points out that there is a discrepancy between the self-perceived levels of own MVPA and VPA and the perceived descriptive norms of peers’ MVPA and VPA. Adolescents underestimate the prevalence of sufficient MVPA and VPA, and thus perceived descriptive norms in MVPA and VPA are worse than levels of own MVPA and VPA. These findings indicate room for targeted intervention based on the social norms based approaches to increase the physical activity of adolescents or at least strengthen their actual positive behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0911.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; adolescents; social networks; social desirability
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:43:26 CEST)
Social networks have become an ubiquitous aspect of adolescents' life, providing new ways to connect and communicate with peers. However, little is known about the impact of social net-works on adolescents' emotional intelligence (EI), a crucial skill for social and identity development. The aim of the present study is to explore the time spent and reasons for using social net-works and their relationship with emotional intelligence in adolescents and young adults (15-19 years). After signing informed consent, participants completed a battery of questionnaires offered via secure online form. The results showed that teenagers spend more than 3 h/day on Whatsapp, more than 2 h/day on Instagram and less on Facebook (26m per day); girls prefer to use Whatsapp and Instagram, boys opt for Facebook. Most participants use social media when bored and/or to communicate with friends. Moreover, time spent on social media has a relationship with stress management with some aspects of EI (assertiveness, self-actualization, optimism, etc.). EI and social desirability have a significant relationship, especially in the sphere of adaptability. Based on the results obtained, future perspectives and training are suggested with the aim of adapting to the constant changes in the new technological reality.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Mentalization; Secure Attachment; Nonsuicidal Self-Injury; Adolescents
Online: 26 December 2022 (03:50:08 CET)
This paper, which is one of the few in the world dealing with this topic, presented the psychologist's work based on the concepts of mentalization and internal working models (IWMs) of attachment, with an adolescent girl who was prone to nonsuicidal self-injury. Gaga, a student in the first grade of high school, had visible scars from cutting her hands on the inner sides of both forearms. Gaga told the psychologist that her mother believes that this is an attempt to draw attention to her problems, and even a suicide attempt. Together with Gaga, the psychologist made a formulation of her mental difficulties. The main aim of the psychologist's work with Gaga was to control unpleasant impulses and emotions, so as to eliminate self-injury. This aim has been achieved through three global tasks: 1) that Gaga, in the relationship with the psychologist, builds her IWMs as positive, so that she can see herself as a person who is worthy of the love and support of close people; 2) to develop a stable capacity for mentalization; 3) to apply this acquired skills in the interpretation of her affective experiences. The mentalizing approach in working with Gaga was based on an attitude of emotional warmth, acceptance and authentic interest in her inner world. The psychologist's work with Gaga led to her better self-control, which resulted in the cessation of her self-injury. In her work with a psychologist, Gaga acquired positive IWMs, which she transferred into other significant interpersonal relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Social; Emotional; Intellectual Development; Children; Adolescents; Schools
Online: 16 June 2022 (10:46:01 CEST)
Educating children to be informed, responsible, socially adept citizens who care about others is an overarching purpose for schools. A rising variety of preventive and child development initiatives are being implemented in schools. Insufficient coordination with other school activities and neglect of implementation and assessment variables essential for a significant program impact these programs' current implications. They are not doomed to failure in the long term. The other challenges for scholars in school-based action research are identifying practical models to prevent problem characteristics, promoting positive child development, and supporting widespread development and sustainability of evidence-based preschool through educational practice. To conceptualize good youth development programs through Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in schools, this research presents integrated social, emotional, and intellectual education (ISEIE). School interventions are necessary to implement the social and emotional skills on self-understanding, social knowledge, self-management, relationship management, responsibility, and decision-making. Schools are the best place to implement all these programs to create a better generation. To back up this viewpoint, this study looks at research from illustrative studies and research syntheses. In the end, this paper provides suggestions for implementing programs that combine social, emotional, and intellectual development.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress; household survey; adolescents; South Africa
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:19:43 CET)
Psychological distress (PD) may be common among adolescents. The study aimed to estimate population-based rates of PD among adolescents in South Africa. National cross-sectional data were analysed from 2,240 adolescents (17 years median age) that participated in a community-based population survey, the “2012 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1).” Results indicated that 16.0% of the adolescents had PD, 13.1% among boys and 18.5% among girls. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, increasing age, girls, belonging to the Black African population group, having experienced two or more traumatic life events, poor self-rated health status, having activity limitations, perceived body overweight, fast food and snack consumption were associated with PD. Almost one in six adolescents in South Africa reported PD and several associated factors were identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: adolescents; cannabis; cognition; working memory; executive functions
Online: 22 July 2020 (05:42:03 CEST)
The developmental phase of adolescence is characterized by a multitude of neurocognitive and psychosocial changes and is therefore considered one of the most critical developmental periods of life. Experimentation on the use of substances often begins in adolescence and so does the addiction process. Most research in human subjects shows that chronic cannabis abuse is the cause of the impairment of some cognitive functions, affecting the performance on divided attention, verbal memory and working memory. In this study, we wanted to investigate how the abuse of cannabis (chronic, occasional and absence use) can influence global cognitive functioning, also through executive functions. From the statistical analyzes of our study, it emerges that the group of subjects who use chronic cannabis (group 1) has a significant drop in working memory tasks compared to the group that does not use it (group 3). In addition, the goal of future studies by our group is to verify the permanent alteration of cognitive processes affected through revaluations with calendar follow-up (controlled).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0040.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; emotional sphere; ethnic-related peculiarities; North
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:33:20 CET)
The combined ecological, geophysical, climatic, and social factors of the Northeast of Russia influence the organism from the early childhood being too intense for the functional systems. The purpose of the research is to study the emotional characteristics of adolescents of different ethnic groups in the northeast of Russia. Presented in the paper are results of the study that covered 826 adolescents (445 females and 381 males) at the age of 15–17, different by ethnic origin. We used standard methods of psycho-diagnostics. Our study has showed that the formation of the adolescents’ emotional sphere in the North is undoubtedly influenced not only by the climatic and socio-economic environmental factors but also by ethnic features. There are intergroup differences in the aggressiveness profile of older adolescents living in the remote settlement vs. the regional center. It is shown that high school students in the remote settlement of Evensk, compared to their peers in Magadan, regardless of gender and ethnicity, are characterized by more pronounced hostile and auto-aggressive reactions. In adolescents of the Aboriginal population, as compared with their age mate Caucasians, the indicators of impairment in the field of Neuro Psychic Adaptation, Situational and Personal Anxiety, and Social Frustration are significantly more pronounced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0545.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: qualitative, mindfulness, meditation, chronic illness, adolescents, eHealth
Online: 27 July 2018 (15:34:58 CEST)
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to improve health and well-being in adolescents with chronic illnesses. Because they are most often delivered in person in a group setting, there are several barriers that limit access to MBIs for youth with limited mobility or who cannot access in-person MBIs in their communities. The objective of this study was to determine if eHealth is a viable platform to increase accessibility to MBIs for teens with chronic illnesses. This study reports the qualitative results of a mixed method randomized trial describing the experience of the Mindful Awareness and Resilience Skills for Adolescents (MARS-A) program, an 8-week MBI, delivered either in person or via eHealth. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 with a chronic illness recruited at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Toronto, Canada. Individual semi-structured post-participation audio-video interviews were conducted by a research assistant. A multiple-pass inductive process was used to review interview transcripts and interpret emergent themes from the participants’ lived experiences. Fifteen participants completed post-participation interviews. Four distinct themes emerged from participants in both the in-person and eHealth groups: creation of a safe space, fostering peer support and connection, integration of mindfulness skills into daily life and improved well-being through the application of mindfulness. Results from this study suggest that eHealth may be an acceptable and feasible mode of delivery for MBIs in adolescents with chronic illnesses. EHealth should be considered in future studies as a promising avenue to increase access to MBIs in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1133.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Eating competence; adolescents; reliability; validity; eating disorders; identity
Online: 18 September 2023 (08:42:18 CEST)
Eating competence can play a role in helping adolescents navigate their food choices and attitudes toward eating in a healthy and balanced way. In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Eating Competence Satter Inventory 2.0TM (ecSI 2.0TM), which was developed to assess eating attitudes and behaviors. A sample of 900 Flemish adolescents completed the ecSI 2.0TM DUTCH and two self-report measures on eating disorder symptoms and identity functioning (i.e., confusion and synthesis). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the four-factor structure of the ecSI 2.0TM DUTCH, and the resulting four subscales (Eating Attitudes, Food Acceptance, Internal Regulation, and Contextual Skills) showed acceptable to excellent reliability (α ranging from .69 to .91). The ecSI 2.0TM also showed to be scalar invariant across sex and age (<17 years, ≥ 17 years). Boys reported significantly higher ecSI 2.0TM DUTCH scores than girls on the four subscales and the total scale. The two age groups did not differ significantly on the ecSI 2.0TM DUTCH scales. Finally, scores on the ecSI 2.0TM subscales showed no or small negative correlations with adolescents’ BMI, large negative correlations with eating disorder symptoms and identity confusion, and large positive associations with identity synthesis. The Dutch translation of the ecSI 2.0TM is a valid and reliable instrument to assess eating competence skills in male and female adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0189.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: aggression questionnaire; machine learning; short-form questionnaire; adolescents
Online: 2 August 2023 (11:19:27 CEST)
For adolescents, high aggression is often associated with suicide, physical injury, worse academic performance, and crime. Therefore, there is a need for early identification and intervention for highly aggressive adolescents. The Buss-Warren Aggression Questionnaire (BWAQ) consists of 34 items, and the longer the scale, the more likely participants are to make an insufficient effort response (IER), which reduces the credibility of the results and increases the cost of implementation. The study aimed to develop a shorter BWAQ using machine learning (ML) techniques to reduce the frequency of IER and decrease implementation costs meantime. First, an initial version of the short-form questionnaire was determined using Stepwise Regression and ANOVA F-test. Then, a machine learning algorithm determined the optimal short-form questionnaire (BWAQ-ML). Finally, the reliability and validity of the optimal short-form questionnaire were tested using independent samples. The BWAQ-ML has 88% fewer items than the BWAQ. It has AUC, accuracy, recall, precision, and F1 scores of 0.85, 0.85, 0.89, 0.83, and 0.86, respectively, and good psychometric properties. The BWAQ-ML can effectively measure individual aggression and can be used as a simplified version of BWAQ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0805.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Public Health; Quality of Life; Adolescents; Physical Activity
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:29:56 CEST)
Health related quality of life’s (HRQoL) different domains of functioning can serve as a good prognosticator of later life’s outcomes for children and adolescents. Understanding associated factors is crucial for promoting better health and life satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the impact of socio-economic status (SES), physical activity (PA) and cardio-fitness on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in 224 Italian early adolescents attending secondary school in the Emilia-Romagna region located in northern Italy. The present cross-sectional study included measures of SES, demographic factors, cardio-fitness measures and self-reported PA levels. In a multivariate model, younger students and females reported higher HRQoL (β=-0.139, P<.05, 95% CI: -0.254 – -0.023 and β=0.142, P<.05, 95% CI: 0.011 – 0.273 respectively). Having both parents employed and having higher familiar educational status resulted in higher HRQoL. Greater engagement in routine PA was positively associated with HRQoL (β=0.429, P<.001, 95% CI: 0.304 – 0.554). Endurance (speed) was positively associated with HRQoL (β=0.221, P<.01, 95% CI: 0.087 – 0.355) and students with longer times on the shuttle run reported less HRQoL (β=-0.207, P<.01, 95% CI: -0.337 – -0.077). Findings reinforced the importance of promoting regular PA among students and addressing SES disparities to improve HRQoL. The study suggests a focus on expanding research measures and evaluating targeted PA interventions for a more comprehensive understanding of children’s well-being. These findings highlight the crucial roles of demographic, PA and cardio-fitness measures in child’s HRQoL, thus providing relevant information for stakeholders who work in the education, public health, and health policy sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Adolescents; eHealth; health promotion; healthy lifestyle; preventive health
Online: 16 March 2023 (11:34:57 CET)
Objective: This study aimed to determine impact of eHealth literacy on health promotion activities and preventive health practice among adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2022 with 706 adolescents in Çorum, Turkey. A face to face questionnaire form including socio demographic characteristics, preventive health practices, eHealth Literacy scale and Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were used. The data of the research were analyzed with the SPSS 22.0 program. Percentage, mean, Pearson Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used in the analyzes. The p<0.05 value was considered statistically significant in the evaluations. Results: In the study, 55.8% were female and the mean age of the whole group was 16.09±2.63 years. The mean score of eHealth Literacy scale was 29.40±6.29. The mean of the total scores obtained from the Adolescent Health Promotion Scale was 137.97±21.87. Among the adolescents 96.0% didn’t use alcohol and 81% didn’t smoke. The rate of annual weight measure was 68.8%. Measurements of annual blood pressure, annual blood iron, annual cholesterol, annual dental examination and regular exercise rate were below 50%. There was a significant positive correlation between eHealth literacy and the Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to predict eHealth literacy using the variables of Adolescent Health Promotion and preventive health practices. eHealth literacy was positively and significantly predicts health promotion behaviors (β= 0.27, t (695)= 7.54, p<0.001). eHealth literacy increased annual weight measurement by more than 0.13 (β=0.13), the annual blood iron measurement by more than 0.16 (β=0.16), annual dental examination by more than 0.11 (β=0.11). Conclusions: Adolescents ehealth literacy was high and effected via health promotion activities and preventive health practices. Developing eHealth litracy interventions will be important for environments with a high concentration of adolescents (schools, courses). Also, primary health care services should be entegrated with school environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mobile Application; Psychological well-being; Depressive symptoms; Adolescents
Online: 22 January 2023 (04:26:40 CET)
Background: Depressive symptoms often occurred during the adolescence period. This situation affected their psychological well-being, which is an important element for a positive youth development. Thus, there is an urgent need to prevent such mental health problems and promote psychological health outcomes among adolescents. Mobile health has been created as a platform to promote mental health to adolescents to ensure ongoing safety and effectiveness. Despite the positive evidence to support the mobile health, tailored mobile health to promote mental health and prevent psychological symptoms among adolescents in Thailand is lacking.This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of delivering digital technology intervention prototype called “MU-My-Mind Mobile Application (MU-My-mind App)” among Thai adolescents and evaluate the efficacy of this application in improving psychological health outcomes. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental research was conducted in secondary school students in Thailand. A convenience sample was recruited and participants were asked to download the MU-My-Mind App on their smart phone. Health outcomes were also evaluated by self-administered questions and focus group interview at baseline and post-intervention. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed. Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and pair t-test. Qualitative data were analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Thirty students completed the MU-My-Mind application. Quantitative data suggested significant improvements on mindfulness, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety and stress. Qualitative data derived into six themes: a) overall feedback of the program, b) learning to manage stress and challenges, c) elevating relaxation responses and calmness, d) heightened mindfulness and concentration, e) increased awareness and management of emotions, and f) altering perspectives and managing thoughts. Overall, data suggested the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Conclusion: The “MU My Mind Mobile Application” prototype was demonstrated feasible and well acceptable among Thai adolescents to promote their psychological health outcome. However, there are some limitation and suggestion emerged during this pilot testing. Future research should be explored in a larger sample size with comparison control group and over a longer duration with a range of diverse samples to ensure the efficacy of this application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gaming; IGD; adolescents; children; adult; internet; Saudi Arabia
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:45:28 CET)
Abstract: Objective: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has received attention over the past decade. Few studies have attempted to describe this disorder in the Saudi population. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of IGD and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted using translated Arabic and a validated questionnaire targeting both genders in Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire (IGD-20) and targeting Arabic-speaking children, youth, and transitional age including both genders. A snowball approach was used to sample our population using an electronic survey. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with IGD diagnosis. The study was guided by the STROBE statement. Results: Among 419 individuals who participated in the study, 171 were classified as non-IGD, 167 were at risk for IGD (RIGD), and 72 were IGD. There is no significant association between IGD diagnosis and gender, nationality, residence, and family income. Time playing per week was significantly associated with IGD diagnosis (X2=49.256, p<0.01). There is a significant association between IGD-20 groups and categorical age groups (X2=10.096, p<0.01). Among our sample, the percentages of males (54.2%) and females (45.8%) who met the criteria for IGD were comparable. Conclusion: IGD and RIGD prevalence was significantly high in both age groups. Both males and females were affected similarly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: IPA; Covid-19; Health Perceptions; Korean & Japanese Adolescents
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:26:53 CEST)
This study aims to comparatively analyse the importance and performance of the health of Korean and Japanese adolescents during the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were collected from 1,341 sampled Korean and Japanese adolescents in September 2021 through online and offline surveys. The collected data were analysed with frequency analysis, reliability testing, t-test, and importance-performance analysis (IPA). The following results were obtained. First, adolescents in the two countries perceive various factors about health as important during the COVID-19 pandemic, but their performance is weak compared to their perceived importance. Second, Korean adolescents had greater perceived importance for all factors of health perception compared to their Japanese counterparts. Third, the difference in performance between Korean and Japanese adolescents was especially evident for ‘hygiene management’, and there were significant differences in performance in ‘disease management’ and ‘physical activity’. Fourth, in quadrant 4 of the IPA matrix, there were similarities and differences in a particular factor of health perception between Korean and Japanese adolescents. Based on these results, we proposed measures to emphasise the importance of health and enhance performance among Korean and Japanese adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: adolescents; lifestyles; nutrition; overweight and obesity; food intake
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:20:18 CEST)
(1) Objective: This study analyzes the evolution of the body mass index (BMI) throughout the academic year associated with changes in the lifestyle associated with the place where they live during the course and design lifestyle and health strategies to the university community. (2) Methods: 93 first-year nursing students participated in this study. Data were collected throughout the course by administering self-reported questionnaires about eating habits and lifestyles, weight, and height to calculate their BMI and place of residence throughout the course. Data were analyzed using statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, student's t- test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and least significant difference tests). (3) Results: We found that the mean BMI increases significantly throughout the course among all students regardless of sex, age, eating habits or where they live during the course. At the beginning course the mean BMI was 22.1 ± 3,642. The mean difference between the beginning of the course and the middle has a value of p value <0. 015 and between the middle of the course and the end a p value <0.009. The group that increased the most is found among students who continue to live in the family nucleus rather than those who live alone or in residence. Students significantly change their eating and health habits, especially those who live alone or in residences.: (4) Conclusions: There is an increase in BMI among students. It is necessary to carry out seminars or talks that can help students understand the importance of good eating practices and healthy habits to maintain their weight and, therefore, their health, in the short, medium, and long term and acquire a good quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0732.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Grit; Perceived Parenting Style of Mother; rural adolescents
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:31:48 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between grit and parenting style of mother among Indian rural adolescents. Parental Authority Questionnaire  and Short Grit Scale  was used to meet objectives of the paper. A sample of 60 adolescents was chosen from private institution located at Bathinda (Punjab) by using convenience sampling technique. Results of correlation analysis revealed that significant (negative) relationship exists between mother’s authoritarian parenting style (only) and grit. This is true for both genders and for adolescents who comes from joint families. Educational implication of the study signifies that the suitable informative and counseling sessions should be organised for the parents to make them conscious of the appropriate parenting style for the development of gritty adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Chronic musculoskeletal pain; Adolescents; functional disability; multidisciplinary rehabilitation.
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:41:07 CET)
(1) Background: Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) in adolescents can negatively affect physical, psychological and social functioning, resulting in functional disability. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an outpatient rehabilitation program based on graded exposure in vivo (EP) compared with care as usual (CAU) in a RCT. The aim of the interventions (EP and CAU) is to improve functional ability in adolescents with CMP, CAU is interdisciplinary outpatient rehabilitation care, based on graded activity. (2) Methods: A pragmatic multicenter randomized clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up was used. Adolescents (12-21 years) with musculoskeletal pain were invited to participate. Primary outcome was functional disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Most important secondary measures: perceived harmfulness, pain catastrophizing and intensity. Data analysis was performed by intention-to-treat linear mixed model analysis. (3) Results: Sixty adolescents were randomized to EP or CAU and data of 53 adolescents (93% female) could be analyzed (25 EP, 28 CAU). Mean age was 16.0 years (SD=1.87). Adolescents in EP showed a clinically relevant and statistically significant decrease in functional disability (estimated mean difference at least -8.81,p-values≤0.01) compared with CAU at all time points. Significant differences in favor of EP were found for perceived harmfulness at all time points (p-values≤0.002), for pain catastrophizing (PCS) at 2 months follow-up (p-value=0.039) and for pain intensity at 4 and 10 months follow-up (p-values≤0.028). (4) Conclusion: The effectiveness of the trial is in favor of the EP and leads to a significant and clinically relevant decrease in functional disability compared to usual care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: children; adolescents; burns; dressing changes; virtual reality; pain.
Online: 2 October 2020 (15:29:05 CEST)
Children and adolescents with severe burns require dressing changes, associated with pain. As immersive virtual reality (VR) gained prominence as non-pharmacological adjuvant analgesia, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of full immersive VR on pain experienced during dressing changes in hospitalized children and adolescents with severe burns. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. The systematic reviewsearch resulted in eight studies and 142 patients. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. Due to missing data, four studies were excluded from the meta-analysis. Fixed effects meta-analysis of the four included studies (n = 104) revealed a large effect size (ES) (SMD=0.94; 95% CI=0.62, 1.27; Z=5.70; p<0.00001) for adjuvant full immersive VR compared to standard care. In conclusion, adjuvant full immersive VR significantly reduces pain experienced during dressing changes in children and adolescents with burns. We therefore recommend implementing full immersive VR as an adjuvant in this specific setting and population. However, this requires further research into the hygienic use of VR appliances in health institutions. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the hardware, a cost-benefit analysis is required. Finally, research should also verify the long term physical and psychological benefits of VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0179.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Physical Education; knowledge; proper exercise; back care; adolescents
Online: 8 September 2020 (07:55:23 CEST)
The aim of this study was to analyze the level of specific back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge. This is a cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 1500 students were recruited with a confidence level of 95% and an accepted standard error of ±2.53%. Individuals were aged between 13 and 18 years old (mean age= 15.18; SD = ±1.446). Self-reported questionnaires were used to record back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge concerning back care in adolescents. The level of specific knowledge of back health education related to physical activity and exercise in adolescents was low (X = 2.05, SD = ±2.264). Only 10.9% of the students passed the specific knowledge test, achieving a grade equal or superior to 5. The boys average score was higher (X = 2.17, SD = ±2.312) than the girls (X = 1.94, SD = ±2.212) with statistically significant differences (p = .048). The level of specific knowledge increased with age (F = 11.531; p < .001). High school students have a low level of specific knowledge. Physical Education teachers should apply the conceptual content properly. Knowledge is the first step towards changing behavioral habits. Back care education in the school curriculum is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorders; Adolescents; Prevention programs; Systematic Review
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:38:34 CEST)
An effective behavior changes program is the first-line of prevention for youth obesity. However, effectiveness in prevention of adolescent obesity requires several approaches, with special attention paid to disordered eating behaviors and psychological support among other environmental factors. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the impact of two types of obesity prevention programs, inclusive of behavior change components on weight outcomes. Energy-balance studies were aimed at reducing calories from high-energy sources and increasing PA levels, while “shared risk factors for obesity and eating disorders” focused on reducing disordered eating behaviors to promote a positive relationship with food and eating. A systematic search of ProQuest, PubMed, PsycInfo, SciELO, and Web of Science identified 8825 articles. Twenty were considered “energy-balance” and fifteen “shared-risk factors for obesity and eating disorders”. Overall, energy-balance studies were unable to support a maintenance weight status, diet, and PA over time. Shared risk factors programs also did not result in significant differences in weight status over time. However, the majority of shared risk factors studies demonstrated reduced body dissatisfaction, dieting, and weight-control behaviors. More research is needed to examine how a shared risk factor approach can address both obesity and eating disorder.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: substance use; emotional intelligence; resilience; family functioning; adolescents
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:48:50 CEST)
The use of alcohol and tobacco is related to several variables which act as risk or protective factors, depending on the circumstances. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence, resilience and family functioning in adolescent use of alcohol and tobacco and to find emotional profiles for their use considering self-concept. The sample was made up of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 who filled out the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, the APGAR Scale, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescents and the Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire. The results revealed that emotional intelligence and resilience, specifically, stress management and family cohesion were significant in the group of nonusers. Family functioning acts as a predictor factor for onset of use of tobacco and alcohol. Positive expectancies about drinking alcohol were found to be a risk factor and the intrapersonal factor to be protective. Both stress management and family cohesion were protective factors against smoking. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed emotional profiles for users of both substances based on self-concept. Finally, the importance of the direction of the relationship between the variables studied for intervention in this problem should be mentioned. Responsible use by improving adolescent decision-making is one of the results expected from this type of intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Problematic Internet use, sleep disturbance, sex difference, adolescents
Online: 24 October 2018 (14:15:09 CEST)
The Internet use has become an integral part of daily life, adolescents are especially at a higher risk to develop problematic Internet use (PIU). Although one of the most well-known comorbid conditions of PIU is sleep disturbance, little is known about the sex disparity in this association. This school-based survey in students of grades 7-9 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of PIU and sleep disturbance among Chinese adolescents, to test the association between PIU and sleep disturbance, and to investigate the role of the child’s sex in this association. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit participants, and a two-level logistic regression models were fitted. The mean Internet addiction test scores was 37.2 (SD: 13.2), and 15.5% (736) met the criteria for PIU. After adjusting for control variables, problematic Internet users were at a higher risk of sleep disturbance (adjusted odds ratio=2.41, 95% CI=2.07-3.19). Sex-stratified analyses also demonstrated that association was greater in girls than boys. In this respect, paying more attention to the sleep patterns of adolescents who report excessive Internet use is recommended, and this early identification may be of practical importance for schools, parents, and adolescents themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1489.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Adolescents; Assessment; Functional Somatic Disorders; Functional Somatic Syndromes; Psychoeducation
Online: 22 May 2023 (09:44:00 CEST)
Functional somatic disorders (FSD) characterized by persistent and disabling physical symptoms are common in adolescents. Diagnostic uncertainty and insufficient illness explanations are proposed perpetuating factors that may constitute barriers for treatment engagement. This study evaluates the impact of manualized assessment and psychoeducation on diagnostic certainty and various clinical outcomes in adolescents with multi-system FSD. Ninety-one adolescents (15-19 years) included in a randomized trial testing group-based therapy (AHEAD) received systematic assessment (4 hrs.) and a subsequent psychiatric consultation (1.5 hrs.). Clinical outcomes included self-reported physical health, symptom severity, illness perception, illness related behavior, and psychological flexibility assessed before and approximately two months after assessment, prior to specialized treatment. Data were analyzed using t-tests. Immediately following assessment 71 (80.7%) adolescents out of 88 reported a higher diagnostic certainty and 74 (84.1%) reported that attending assessment gave them positive expectations for future treatment. A clinically relevant improvement of physical health was not observed at two months but considerable reductions were seen on symptom severity, illness worry, negative illness perceptions, limiting illness behavior and psychological inflexibility. The results underpin the importance of systematic assessment and psychoeducation which may be effective in their own right in specialized treatment of adolescents with severe FSD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1023.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Atypical anorexia nervosa; anorexia nervosa; Asian adolescents; eating disorders
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:33:45 CEST)
Atypical Anorexia Nervosa (AAN) had been found to have significant physical and psychological complications at presentation but has not been described in a multi-ethnic Asian population. This retrospective cohort analysis aimed to characterize the baseline presentation of adolescents with Anorexia nervosa (AN) (N=317) and AAN (N=141) in an Asian cohort that presented to a specialist paediatric eating disorder program between January 2010 to October 2020 for assessment. In patients with AAN, there were increased proportions of males (16% vs 7%) and of Malay ethnicity (11% vs 4%) compared to AN. Adolescents with AAN had lower admission rates (61% vs 81%) as well as lower rates of bradycardia (45% vs 75%) and hypotension (7% vs 21%) but higher rate of syncope (13% vs 7%) compared to adolescents with AN. However, adolescents with AAN had higher frequency of psychological complications including self-harm and drug overdose (14% vs 1.5%) requiring admission as well as higher rates of purging (45.1% vs 14.8%) and for Eating Disorder Questionnaire score in the shape domain was more severe. Asian adolescents with AAN manifest with physical complications of malnutrition and had worse eating disorder psychopathology with higher frequency of other psychological co-morbidities underlining the severity of the illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0475.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: adolescents; menstruation; sexual and reproductive health; informatics; mobile health
Online: 30 March 2023 (03:33:26 CEST)
Mobile software applications (apps) have transformed how individuals oversee and maintain their own health. One way that girls can monitor their menstrual cycles is through the increasingly widespread use of mobile menstrual tracking apps. This study aims to examine menstrual symptom tracking for adolescents in English and Chinese apps, exploring menstrual literacy, cross-cultural differences, and framing, or presentation, of symptoms. The mixed methods content analysis involved 15 popular free menstrual tracking apps in English (n = 8) and Chinese (n = 7). Quantitative analysis of qualitative data was conducted through manual coding of content and automatically analyzing sentiment, or emotional tone, using a computational approach. We found that: (1) Menstrual literacy on symptom management or treatment was generally insufficient, (2) There were more available emotional than physical symptoms in English than Chinese apps, (3) Symptoms were framed more negatively than positively, somewhat more in Chinese than English apps. Findings emphasize the importance of improving information in digital menstrual trackers. Our findings further reflect cultural differences in emotional expression and negative attitudes toward menstruation. Since adolescence is a critical developmental stage that requires ample support, digital menstrual trackers can uniquely shape attitudes and experiences, ultimately, empowering teenagers to better manage their menstrual health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0016.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: rural; mental health; adolescents; access; service user experience; interventions
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:04:32 CET)
Background: Mental health difficulties during teenage years e are common and are a risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. Rural young people are at greater risk for mental health difficulties and have less access to services than their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore young people and their carers’ experiences of mental health support provided by a rural mobile service, and to identify access enablers from the service users’ perspective. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyse twelve interviews with current service users and eight interviews with family members of young people who had accessed the service.Results: Three main themes were identified: (a) Access and flexibility, (b) Clinicians’ qualities and strategies, and (c) Experiences of change. The mobile service was perceived to be effective in producing positive change in mental health, relationships and attainment of life goals. Key enablers to access included the flexibility of the mobile service, the variety of service delivery modes and therapeutic methods offered, the ease of access facilitated by location in schools, and young people’s autonomy in how they chose to utilise the service. Conclusion: This study provides information about what is important to rural young people and their families in mental health service provision. The findings have implications for changing the way services are organized and operated. Healthcare policy and services could support user-led model design that incorporates the access and use enablers and removes the barriers to rural mental health support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0013.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: parental presence; alcohol and drug consumption; deviant behaviours; adolescents
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:52:00 CEST)
The study is based on wide international research, the International Self-report Delinquency Study 3 (ISRD-3) and it analyses the relationship between parental presence, juvenile delinquency, and the consumption of psychotropic substances in adolescents. The data have been collected by a questionnaire ISRD-3 administered to 6021 students from 7th to 9th grade from 24 countries. The results confirmed the protective effect of dual-parent families on alcohol and drug use and committing illicit behaviours. Monoparental families and families without parents are associated with higher levels of alcohol, drug use, and deviant behaviors by young people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anorexia; adolescents; pediatric; liver injury; aminotransferase; renal injury; refeeding
Online: 2 June 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Background: Only few pediatric reports exist regarding the prevalence, cause and evolution of liver and renal injury in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of hepatic and renal failure at admission and during hospitalization, especially during refeeding in a cohort of hospitalized adolescents with AN.Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of adolescents with AN in a single hospital of Marseille from 2013 to 2019, we compared four groups on admission: elevated aminotransferases (AT)/normal AT and renal injury/no renal injury to analyze the differences between them (demographic factors, anthropometric factors, disease duration, initial prescribed calories, speed of refeeding, aminotransferase level, glomerular filtration rate). We observed the evolution of AT and renal injury for these four groups during refeeding (by the increase of kilocalories). Results: A total of 29 subjects with AN met eligibility criteria (age: 14.2 years, female (86.2%), BMI at admission (Z-score= -2.8 standard deviation (SD)) with elevated AT (20.7 %) and renal injury (13.8 %) on admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-4.05 vs -2 SD, p = 0.013), lower expected weight for height (69% vs 76%, p = 0.034) and longer disease duration (2.1 vs 0.9 years, p =0,032) were significantly associated with elevated liver enzymes at admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-3.35 vs -2.5 SD, p = 0.002), lower expected weight for height at admission (69% vs 74,5%, p = 0.002) and loss of weight before admission (0.66 vs à 0.20 kg per day, p = 0.002) were associated with renal injury at admission. Time nadir BMI (13.5 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.034) and duration of hospitalization (55 vs 41 days, p = 0.036) were longer in elevated enzymes on admission group. During refeeding, liver enzymes (95% confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) aspartate aminotransferase: -0.07 [-0.11; -0.03] and OR alanine aminotransferase: -0.16 [-0.27; -0.06]) and renal injury (95% CI, OR creatinine: -0.013 [-0.017; -0.008]) have normalized with the increase of calories, with significant association.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that degree of malnutrition is associated with liver and renal injury on admission. Theses failures disappeared with refeeding. In the future, prospective multicentric studies could examine evolution of renal and hepatic failure undergoing refeeding in large pediatric cohort of AN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0749.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress; loneliness; sense of mastery; adolescents; young adults
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:35:42 CEST)
Background and aims Loneliness and a low sense of mastery have been associated with excessive gambling, but the underlying processes of these relationships remain unstudied. Because psychological distress can increase vulnerability to excessive gambling, we investigated its mediating role in these relationships among young people. To meet the need for cross-country research, we also observed how these relationships occur in four countries with different cultures. Design, setting and participants Demographically balanced cross-sectional survey data were collected for 15–25-year-olds in Finland (n=1200; 50% male), the United States (n=1212; 49.8% male), South Korea (n=1192; 49.6% male) and Spain (n=1212; 51.2% male). Measurements Excessive gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen, psychological distress was assessed with the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire, loneliness was measured with the Three-Item Loneliness Scale and low sense of mastery was assessed with the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Associations were examined first using zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses with excessive gambling as the outcome. In addition, path analyses were performed to study how loneliness and low sense of mastery relate to excessive gambling, with psychological distress as the mediating variable. Findings Loneliness and low sense of mastery were associated indirectly with excessive gambling via psychological distress in all country samples. Low sense of mastery was also directly associated with excessive gambling. There was a direct association between loneliness and excessive gambling only in samples from South Korea and Spain. Conclusions Psychological distress is an important factor in understanding how loneliness and sense of mastery relate to gambling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Negative life events; Suicidal ideation; Suicidalogy; Adolescents; Gender difference
Online: 4 March 2021 (15:56:04 CET)
Background: We attempted to find if there were gender differences in different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents, then analyze the relationship between different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation among these young students. Methods: Based on the data from 6 middle-schools and 3 universities in 3 cities of Western China, the gender difference in different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation and their related factors were investigated and analyzed in the study. Results: Gender differences were found during different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation; Negative life events could predict the intensity of Suicidal ideation by gender, to some specific types. Conclusions: Negative life events were proved to be risk factors of adolescents’ Suicidal ideation regardless of different gender stereotypes, but the specific classification of negative life events which had significant impact on adolescents’ Suicidal ideation also indicated significant gender divisions. For males, negative life events of punishment and adaptation had a significant and boosting impact on their Suicidal ideation, the higher the scores of punishment and adaptation negative life events had, the greater intensity of male adolescents were to have Suicidal ideation. Thus, the above two types of negative life events may be the main stressors predicting male adolescents' Suicidal ideation; For females, in addition to punishment, other types of negative life events all had significant impacts on their Suicidal ideation, which can be treated as the main stressors to trigger female adolescents' Suicidal ideation; Additionally, parents’ marital status of remarriage and divorce were proved to be significant indicators to adolescents’ Suicidal ideation, the age variable was proved to be strongly correlated with Suicidal ideation among female adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0462.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; dating violence; school social climate; school social support
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:07:46 CEST)
(1) To analyse the potential association between school social support CECSCE and school social climate CASSS and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe; (2) Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants age 13-16 from secondary schools in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concerns student with dating experience (n=993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). The association of the exposure to physical and/ or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemografic variables; (3) The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when CECSCE increased [PR (CI95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when CASSS classmates increased [PR (CI95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)]; (4) There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence, building a supportive climate at schools and building / using the support of peers and teachers should be important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns, food-frequency questionnaire, dietary, lifestyle practices, adolescents
Online: 5 September 2016 (14:46:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Malaysia. Methods: A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns. Results: Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were emerged as positive determinants of healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p<0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) and fast food (All, p<0.05) were negative determinants. High weekly breakfast skipping (p<0.001) and EatOut (p<0.01) were positively associated with a western-based pattern, whereas age (p<0.001) and household income (p<0.05) were negative determinants. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p<0.05) was emerged as positive determinant of local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p<0.001), PA levels (p<0.001) and maternal education level (p<0.05) emerged as positive determinants for the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut and fast food intakes (All, p<0.01) were negative determinants. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p<0.01), fast food (p<0.05) and carbonated beverages (p<0.05), and daily snacking practice (p<0.01) were positively associated with higher western-based food pattern, whereas age (p<0.01) was inversely associated. Conclusion: These findings suggest that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices could increase the risk of adherence to unhealthy western-based food pattern that is high in fat, sugar and salt contents, and consequently increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1796.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: emotion regulation; identity; DBT-A, adolescents; Borderline Personality Personality disorders
Online: 25 August 2023 (09:22:06 CEST)
Background: Identity diffusion plays a central role in the onset of borderline personality and disorders. The Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) is a treatment program for adolescents with emotional instability and dysregulation. The interest of this study is to examine the influence of a standardized and certified DBT-A therapy program on identity development of adolescents with emotion dysregulation in an inpatient setting. Methods: 138 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years with symptoms of emotional instability were assessed before and after a curricular 12-weeks in-patient DBT-A program with standardized instruments for the assessment of identity (AIDA), emotion regulation (FEEL-KJ, SEE) and general psychopathology (SCL-90-R, DIKJ). Results: The results indicate a significant change in identity development, emotion regulation and general symptoms of psychopathology after treatment with DBT-A. A connection between identity scales and psychopathological symptoms of adolescents with diagnosed borderline disorders and impaired emotion regulation could be established. Conclusion: In this large sample of adolescents, DBT-A significantly improved identity and reduced identity diffusion. As identiy disturbance is a core symptom of borderline personality disorder, our results may become clinically relevant for the prevention of personality disorders in emotionally unstable adolescents
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1011.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Vitamin B12 deficiency; Folate deficiency; School-age children; Adolescents; CNNS
Online: 15 May 2023 (09:45:12 CEST)
Deficiencies of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) are of particular interest due to their pleiotropic role in 1-carbon metabolism. In addition to adverse birth outcomes, deficiencies of B12 and FA, or an imbalance in FA/B12 status, are linked to metabolic disorders. Indian diets that are predominantly plant food-based could be deficient in these vitamins, but there are no national estimates of the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency in Indian children and adolescents, nor of their associations with age, sex, and growth indicators. The recent Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS-2016-18) provided estimates of the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency at the national and state level among preschool (1-4y: 9,976 and 11,004 children respectively), school-age children (5-9y: 12,156 and 14,125) and adolescents (10-19y: 11,748 and 13,621). Serum B12 and erythrocyte FA were measured by the direct chemiluminescence method and their deficiency was defined using WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency was high among adolescents (31.0%, CI: 28.7-33.5 and 35.6%, CI: 33.1-8.2), compared to school-age (17.3%, CI: 15.4-19.3 and 27.6%, CI: 25.5-29.9) and preschool children (13.8%, CI: 11.7-16.2 and 22.8%, CI: 20.5-25.2, respectively). The prevalence of both B12 and FA deficiency was significantly higher by 8 and 5% points respectively, in adolescent boys compared to girls. The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in moderately stunted school children (by 18.9% points) than in normal children, but no such difference was observed for FA deficiency. There was wide regional variation in the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency, but no rural-urban differences were observed across all age groups. The national prevalence of B12 deficiency among preschool or school-age children was <20% (the cut-off that indicates a public health problem). However, FA deficiency in these age groups and both FA and B12 deficiencies in adolescents were >20%, which warrants further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1273.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Diabetes; parents; children; adolescents; quality of life; stress; family burden
Online: 30 April 2023 (10:11:40 CEST)
Chronic diseases such as childhood DM are a complex and continuous struggle as well as a great challenge both for the children who face the disease and for their parents. Type 1 DM is characterized by the complex management of the therapeutic treatment thus causing physical and psychological complications in family members. There are many families who, upon hearing the diagnosis of their child with DM, stand still in front of these new facts as their lives change. All these unprecedented conditions cause parents intense stress, discomfort and mental burden as the only thing that concerns them now is how the family will survive in the face of the current conditions they are experiencing as well as the future of the sick child. The purpose of this brief literature review is to present the research findings which are related to the quality of life among parents of children and adolescents with diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0474.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; children and adolescents; Rwanda; structural inequalities; post colonialism
Online: 28 March 2023 (05:33:08 CEST)
COVID-19, the fear it engendered, and the policy measures to manage its spread have disproportionately impacted the wellbeing of children and adolescents (CAs). We present an intensive critical realist case study of the impact of COVID-19 on the health and wellbeing of CAs in Rwanda, seeing it as much a social and political crisis as a medical and public health one. To do this, we carried out interviews with a purposive sample of 25 leaders with a working knowledge of children and young people; they were more likely than the CAs themselves to observe changes across the CA population within their remit and more likely to be looking for general explanations rather than individual experiences. The findings show that CAs' responses to the changes wrought on their lives by Covid-19 were conditioned by their age, gender, social class and if they lived in urban or rural areas. However, Covid19 has not just revealed the structural weakness of the Rwandan health system but of education, social protection, child protection, employment, family, and financial systems. The pathway to (adverse) impacts of COVID-19 on CAs is conditioned by these institutions and their interactions together with structural socioeconomic inequalities both within Rwanda and globally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Sexuality; Mental Health; Adolescents; Experiences; Low and middle-income countries
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:47:22 CET)
During puberty and emerging sexuality, adolescents experience important physical, mental, and social transformations. In the process of dealing with these changes, adolescents can become potentially vulnerable to mental health problems.The aim was to identify and synthesize published research evidence on sexuality-related mental health stressors among adolescent girls and boys, identify gaps (if any) in current knowledge, and contribute to knowledge about the experiences of emerging sexuality and health among adolescents, to further inform research, practice, and policy initiatives in sexual health.A scoping literature review of peer-reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2018. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global health, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched for research studies that reported experiences of sexuality related mental health issues and symptomatology of adolescents. We targeted studies conducted with adolescent populations between ages 11-24 years living in LMICs.Data from 12 published research papers, including 8 qualitative studies, 3 quantitative studies, and 1 mixed method study, were systematically analyzed. Four major themes and 4 sub themes were identified regarding sexual health and mental health of adolescents: 1) Relationship of sexuality and mental health; 2) Social and cultural influences; 3) Challenges in seeking sexuality information and services among adolescents; and 4) Educational needs among adolescents related to sexuality; and 4) Educational needs among adolescents related to sexuality. Lack of social support, Unmet needs for accessible adolescent friendly sexual health services, counseling, and age-appropriate information may be associated with several mental health stressors and symptoms, such as sadness, depressive and anxiety symptomatology, regret, fear, embarrassment, low self-esteem, guilt, shame, and anger. Therefore, tackling sexuality-related stressors could play an important role in addressing the overall wellbeing of young people. Future studies need to generate a deeper understanding of the concept of sexual health and its relation to mental health in diverse contexts. Health care professionals need to be aware of sexuality-related experiences of adolescent girls and boys by offering effective youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health education to support overall mental health and improve the experiences of emerging sexuality in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0337.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: participatory research; pre-intervention; community-based intervention; alcohol use; adolescents
Online: 14 July 2021 (14:04:01 CEST)
This study explores the impact of the ‘pre-intervention effects’ of a community-based interventions. This refers to participatory research processes and parallel publicity in the media on changes in alcohol use and relevant mechanisms (rules and norms about alcohol, accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting) among adolescents before any intervention is implemented. In a quasi-experimental study, adolescent data were collected twice by means of self-report among adolescents living in two municipalities (control and experimental condition). Regression analysis showed pre-intervention main effects on adolescents’ perceived accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting. Moreover, among adolescents aged 15 years and older, the normative decline in strictness of rules and norms was less steep in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. Also, adolescents aged 14 years and younger in the experimental condition reported more weekly drinking compared to their peers in the control condition. No differential effects across gender were found. To conclude, applying a co-creational approach in the development of an intervention, not only contributes to more effective interventions in the end, but involvement of and discussions in the community at the start of intervention planning are contributing to changes in targeted factors. This implies that public discussions about the development of intervention strategies should be considered as an essential feature of co-creation in community-based interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: development; adolescents; perceptual inhibition; joint visual search task; executive function
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:38:03 CET)
Recent studies suggest that the developmental curves in adolescence, related to the development of executive functions, could be fitted to a non-linear trajectory of development with progressions and retrogressions. Therefore, the present study proposes to analyze the pattern of development in Perceptual Inhibition (PI), considering all stages of adolescence (early, middle, and late) in intervals of one year. To this aim, we worked with a sample of 275 participants between 10 and 25 years, who performed a joint visual and search task (to measure PI). We have fitted exGaussian functions to the probability distributions of the mean response time across the sample and performed a covariance analysis (ANCOVA). The results showed that the 10- to 13-year-old groups performed similarly in the task and differ from the 14- to 19-year-old participants. We found significant differences between the older group and all the rest of the groups. We discuss the important changes that can be observed in relation to the nonlinear trajectory of development that would show the PI during adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0219.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Questionnaire; back health; assessment; cross-cultural adaptation; adolescents; secondary school
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:03:09 CET)
The prevalence of back pain (BP) among children and adolescents has increased over recent years. Some authors advocate promoting back-health education in the school setting. It is therefore important to adopt a uniform suite of assessment instruments to measure the various constructs. The present study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of a validated measurement instrument (BackPEI), beginning with a translation and cultural adaptation phase, followed by a second phase to test reliability using a test-retest design. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed based on the guidelines. Reliability was tested by applying the questionnaire to 224 secondary school students, at two different times with a 7-day interval between the tests. In general, the Spanish version presented adequate agreement for questions 1–20, with only question 9 achieving a low Kappa range of .312 [-.152- .189]. The question about pain intensity did not show differences between the averages for the test (4.72 ± 2.33) and re-test (4.58 ± 2.37) (p = .333), and the responses for these two tests were highly correlated (ICC= .951 [.928- .966]; p= .0001). Psychometric testing indicated that the Spanish version of the BackPEI is well-adapted and reliable, based on the test-retest design, providing similar results to the original Brazilian version.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: alcohol use; drug use; adolescents; adults; health variables; South Africa
Online: 16 November 2020 (15:36:53 CET)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use (HHDA) and drug use among persons 15 years and older in South Africa. In a national cross-sectional 2017 survey, 39,210 persons 15 years and older (Median=34 years) responded to a questionnaire on substance and health variables. Logistic regression was used to assess the determinants of HHDA and any drug use. Results indicate that (10.3%) engaged HHDA, 16.5% among males and 4.6% among females, and past 3-month drug use was 8.6%, 13.3% among males and 4.1% among females. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among men, middle age (25-34 year olds), higher education, urban residence, drug use, and psychological distress were positively and Indian or Asian and White population groups were negatively associated with HHDA. Among women, middle age (25-34 year olds), Coloureds, residing on rural farms and urban areas, drug use and psychological distress were positively and older age (55 years and older), and Indians or Asians were negatively associated with HHDA. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among men, having Grade 8-11 education, Coloureds, being unemployed, and HHDA were positively and middle and older age (25 years and older) and being a student or learner were negatively associated with past 3-month any drug use. Among women, Coloureds, Indians or Asians, and HHDA were positively and older age (45 years and older) was negatively associated with past 3-month and drug use. About one in ten participants engaged HHDA and any drug use, and several sociodemographic and health indicators were identified associated with HHDA and any drug use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0098.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Theater Keywords: theatre for adolescents; theatre for young audiences; art for youth
Online: 28 August 2017 (08:44:33 CEST)
In this paper I analyze the three plays produced during the inaugural season (2011) of the Theatre for Young Audiences Research Center of the National Theater Company of Korea and place it within the context of contemporary ideas and realities surrounding Korean youth. In the first part of this paper I explore how Korean youth are perceived by society and the reality in which they live. In the second part I analyze the aforementioned plays, especially through the directions of the production and portrayal of adult and young characters. The last part offers concluding thoughts. Through this study I ask the question of whether if it is possible for theatre to actually portray the realities of adolescents, when in fact the identities of youth are still fluid and the experiences of youth as diverse as those of adults. I suggest that theatre artists break free to depict reality or educate audiences and focus on providing a critical experience to adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0585.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Physical activity; Sedentary behavior; Stress; Socio-economic status; Adolescents; Covid-19
Online: 8 August 2023 (09:15:57 CEST)
The current study is to examine the disparities in physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and stress levels in Korean adolescents concerning changes in their perception of family socio-economic status (SES) during COVID-19. Among a total of 6144 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18, the participants were categorized into two groups based on their responses regarding changes in their family SES during COVID-19: Lower SES (n = 3072) and Non-changed SES (n = 3072), with matching in terms of age, gender, and BMI. All variables were assessed using the 16th year (2020) of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 26.0 version, employing independent t-tests to examine anthropometrics’ differences and multinominal logistic regression to predict the impact of perception of family SES on PA, SB, and stress while comparing the two groups. The significance level was set at α = 0.05. Adolescents in the Lower SES group were less likely to engage in vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) and muscular strength activities compared to those in the Non-changed SES group (p < 0.001) and were 2.3 times more likely to experience a very-severe stress level than the Non-changed SES group (p < 0.001). These results shed light on the importance of promoting VPA and muscular strength activities in adolescents for their physical and mental well-being, particularly during potential future pandemics. Understanding the impact of perceived SES changes on health behaviors can inform targeted interventions and support strategies to improve the health outcomes of adolescents during challenging times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1627.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Health providers; female adolescents; slums; sexual and gender-based violence; barriers
Online: 25 July 2023 (08:56:28 CEST)
Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often hindered in their quest to access quality healthcare. This could complicate the achievement of the laudable SDG Target 3.7. The study used an ethnographic approach to solicit information from health providers, adolescents, and young women (AYW) in 10 communities from Lagos and Ibadan; two major cities in Nigeria. Findings indicated that the structural system of services provided in the health services at the primary healthcare level was limited, which posed a great challenge in AYW’s utilization of services for sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Some of the challenges identified by health providers included non-existing counseling services, rehabilitation centers, referral problems, and a lack of training for health providers in handling victims of SGBV. The study provided the context of the health providers’ inadequacy and structural problem of health services in providing comprehensive support services to victims of SGBV like adolescents and young women in the slum setting. This poses a barrier to the utilization of services by the survivors. Necessary inclusive services that will meet the need of the victims of SGBV should be in place at primary healthcare centers close to the people in the community for accessibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0329.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); children; adolescents; lipid profile; cholesterol; generalized additive model
Online: 22 October 2021 (12:07:37 CEST)
Background: Residents of a large area of North-Eastern Italy were exposed for decades to high concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) via drinking water. Despite the large amount of evidence in adults of a positive association between serum PFAS and metabolic outcomes, studies focusing on children and adolescents are limited. We evaluated the associations between serum PFAS concentrations and lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in highly exposed adolescents and children. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 6669 adolescents (14-19 years) and 2693 children (8-11 years) enrolled in the health surveillance program of the Veneto Region. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), total cholesterol (TC) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were measured and BMI z-score accounting for age and sex was estimated. The associations between ln-transformed PFAS (and categorized into quartiles) and continuous outcomes were assessed using generalized additive models. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Among adolescents, significant associations were detected between all investigated PFAS and TC, LDL-C, and to a fewer extent HDL-C. Among children, PFOS and PFNA had significant associations with TC, LDL-C and HDL-C, while PFOA and PFHxS had significant associations with HDL-C only. Increased serum concentrations of PFAS, particularly PFOS, were associated with decreased BMI z-score. No statistically significant associations were observed between PFAS concentrations and BP. Conclusions: Our study supports a consistent association between PFAS concentration and serum lipids, stronger for PFOS and PFNA and with a greater magnitude among children compared to adolescents, and a negative association of PFAS with BMI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0595.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: pathological gambling; social ecological model; adolescents; emerging adults; internet; online communities
Online: 28 January 2021 (16:16:00 CET)
Problem gambling among young people is an emerging trend globally. The online environment in particular offers various possibilities for gambling engagement. This is the first cross-national survey study using the social ecological model to analyze problem gambling, especially in the online context. The aim was to analyze how different social ecological spheres explain problem gambling. Participants were young people aged 15–25 in the United States (n = 1,212), South Korea (n = 1,192), Spain (n = 1,212), and Finland (n = 1,200). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) instrument was used as a measure for problem gambling. Regression models predicted problem gambling with measures of intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and societal spheres. Spanish participants had the highest SOGS score for problem gambling. Out of the spheres, organizational-sphere measures best explained the variation in problem gambling in all countries (26%) when compared to the societal (3%), interpersonal (5%) and intrapersonal (11%) spheres. In the full model, organizational-sphere measures had strong associations with problem gambling. These included consumer debt, online gambling community participation, online casino participation, and exposure to online pop-up advertisements. Other robust predictors of problem gambling included conformity to group norms in the interpersonal sphere and male gender and impulsivity in the intrapersonal sphere. Cross-national results were similar in different countries. The online context plays a major role in problem gambling behavior. The social ecological model is a useful tool by which to tackle problem gambling and develop preventative measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: adolescents; cardiometabolic risk factors; insulin resistance; abdominal obesity; lifestyle; nutritional habits
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:16:17 CET)
The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors has increased in Slovakian adolescents as a result of serious lifestyle changes. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and the associations with cardiometabolic and selected lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Slovak adolescents. In total, 2,629 adolescents (45.8% males) aged between 14 and 18 years were examined in the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and resting heart rate were measured, fasting venous blood samples were analysed, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The mean HOMA-IR was 2.45±1.91 without a significant intersexual difference. IR (cut-off point for HOMA-IR=3.16) was detected in 18.6% of adolescents (19.8% males, 17.6% females). IR was strongly associated with overweight/obesity (especially central) and with almost all monitored cardiometabolic factors, except for TC and systolic BP in females. The multivariate model selected variables such as low level of physical fitness, insufficient physical activity, breakfast skipping, a small number of daily meals, frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and low educational level of fathers as the significant risk factors of IR in adolescents. Recognizing the main lifestyle risk factors and early IR identification is important in terms of the performance of preventive strategies. Weight reduction, regular physical activity, and healthy eating habits can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and CVD in adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0512.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: micronutrient deficiencies; rational food design; adolescents; biscuits; texture; chickpea flour; targeted nutrition
Online: 28 January 2023 (03:06:52 CET)
"Hidden hunger", the deficiency of important mineral micronutrients, affects more than 2 billion people globally. Adolescence is unquestionably a period of nutritional risk, given the high nutritional requirements for growth and development, erratic or capricious diets and the increased consumption of snacks. This study applied the rational food design approach to obtain micronutrient-dense biscuits by combining chickpea and rice flours to achieve an optimal nutritional profile, crunchy texture and appealing flavour. The perception of 33 adolescents of the suitability of such biscuits as a mid-morning snack was examined. Four biscuits were formulated, with different ratios of chickpea and rice flours (CF:RF): G100:0, G75:25, G50:50 and G25:75. Nutritional content, baking loss, acoustic-texture and sensory analyses were carried out. On average, the mineral content of biscuits with the CF:RF ratio of 100:0 doubled compared with the 25:75 formula. The dietary reference values for iron, potassium and zinc reached 100% in the biscuits with CF:RF ratios of 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0, respectively. The analysis of mechanical properties revealed that samples G100:0 and G75:25 were harder than the others. Sample G100:0 showed the highest sound pressure level (Smax). Sensory analysis showed that increasing the proportion of CF in the formulation augments the grittiness, hardness, chewiness and crunchiness. Most of the adolescents (72.7%) were habitual snack consumers; 52% awarded scores ≥ 6 to biscuit G50:50 for its overall quality, 24% described its flavour as "biscuit" and 12% as "nutty". However, 55% of the participants could not pinpoint any dominant flavour. In conclusion, it is possible to design nutrient-dense snacks that meet the micronutrient requirements and sensory expectations of adolescents by combining flours naturally rich in micronutrients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Type 1 diabetes; mental-health; COVID-19; adolescents; qualitative research; narratives; NVivo
Online: 30 December 2022 (09:16:21 CET)
Background: The global prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents has increased considerably during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health problems may compromise glycemic control in young people with type 1 diabetes; however, evidence of improved glycemic control in adolescents with T1D appeared early during the pandemic. This qualitative study aimed to provide a more in-depth understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic affected adolescents with type 1 diabetes routines, experiences, T1D management, behaviors, and mental health. Methods: 24 adolescents, aged 15-18 years, with DM1, joined the discussion of focus groups in the context of the summer camp for diabetes. Word frequency and thematic analysis were conducted on adolescents’ narratives. Results: The word Frequency Analysis identified 'friends', 'family', and 'home' as the most frequent terms. Seven themes were identified: (1) COVID-19 and T1D; (2) emotional reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic; (3) changes in daily life; (4) feelings of loss; (5) coping with the COVID-19 pandemic; (6) the COVID-19 pandemic as an opportunity; (7) return to (new) normality. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic may have represented a more stressful condition for adolescents with DM1, facing additional challenges compared to their healthy peers. The results offer directions to the diabetes care team for a customized intervention while the consequences of the pandemic on adolescents’ health continue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; problematic Internet use; game addiction; social media addiction; Russia
Online: 20 May 2022 (08:26:04 CEST)
We aimed to assess the prevalence, content structure and psychological comorbidity of PIU in Russian adolescents. In addition, the design of our research provided an opportunity to compare demographic and psychological patterns of different forms of PIU: generalised (PIUgen) and specific – problematic video game use (PUgame) as well as problematic social media use (PUsocial). Methods: This is a one-stage cross-sectional observational study of school sampling in three major Siberian cities. A total of 4514 schoolchildren aged 12-18 (mean age 14.52±1.52 years) were surveyed. Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents”, and The Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify PIU and its types. Results: The prevalence of PIUgen among adolescents in Central Siberia was 7.2%; the prevalence of PUgame was 10.4%; the prevalence of PUsocial was 8.0%. The results of structural equation modelling, as well as the correlation analysis data, suggest two possible patterns of psychosocial problems with PIU – the first one characteristic of both PIUgen and PUsocial, the second one, significantly different, – of PUgame. Conclusions: Urban adolescents in Central Siberia do not differ significantly from their Asian and European peers. Our findings support the concept of rejecting the term “generalised PIU” as a single psychological construct.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0472.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; game addiction; social media addiction; sleep problems; daytime sleepiness
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:07:14 CEST)
This study aims to establish a link between disturbances in the night sleep habitus, quality of sleep, and daytime sleepiness in adolescents with Internet addiction and different types of content consumed. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of a school sample in three large cities in Central Siberia. 4,615 schoolchildren of 12–18 years old were examined. The Russian-language versions of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents, and the Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify Internet addiction. Questions from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire were used to assess nighttime sleep. Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Results: Adolescents with Internet addiction go to bed and wake up late; they are characterized by a decrease in the duration of nighttime sleep, an increase in sleep onset latency, and frequent nighttime awakenings, as well as more pronounced daytime sleepiness. Among the sleep parameters studied, the indicators of daytime sleepiness and night awakening scales have the highest effect size in Internet-addicted adolescents, regardless of the media consumed. Conclusion: Internet-addicted adolescents are characterized by significant disturbances in the quality of nighttime sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness, which requires appropriate psychological correction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0169.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; diabetes type I; quality of life; family conflicts; fear of injecting
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:54:28 CEST)
A good management of diabetes requires at the same time self-regulation behaviour and a balanced involvement of family components. This study’s aims were: understanding fear of injections and perceptions of family conflicts in preadolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers, comparing their perceptions, and identifying the risk factors impacting patients’ quality of life. Participants were one hundred and two patients (Mean age = 14.63, SD = 2.43; age range = 10-19 years; Females = 52) and their mothers (Mean age = 46.94, SD = 6.2, age range = 27-63 years), who filled in self and proxy-report questionnaires. Twenty % of patients and 14.7% of their mothers reported clinical score for fear of self-injection and blood testing. Mothers reported higher fear of injecting and family conflicts compared with the patients. Age, fear of injecting and family conflicts impacted significantly on patients’ quality of life perceptions. Clinical consideration and recommendations are given basing on the empirical results.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0620.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health risk, transpersonal gratitude, emotional intelligence, life contentment, adolescents, young adults
Online: 25 July 2020 (18:14:54 CEST)
World statistics demonstrate that around 970 million people around the globe suffer from mental health problems (Ritchie & Roser, 2019), a major proportion of which comprised of adolescents and young adults (UNODC, 2018). Also, because of increased mental health issues the problems like substance use, suicide, depression, anxiety, and stress are also increasing (Armstrong, 2019; Bandelow & Michaelis, 2015; Ritchie & Roser, 2018; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC], 2019). It is thus a dire need to address the issue. The present coneptual paper proposed the role of transpersonal gratitude, emotional intelligence, and life contentment for reducing mental health risk among the adolescents and young adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1975.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; mixed method; family well-being; emotions; coping strategies; mother; children; adolescents
Online: 29 August 2023 (14:15:12 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused many enduring changes in everyday life of families with negative effects on parents’ and children well-being. However, literature lacks of studies exploring emotional reactions and coping strategies of both mothers and children of different ages. Furthermore, most studies used only self-reports. This study aimed to identify the emotions and coping strategies of children, adolescents and their mothers and to verify the association between maternal and children well-being. A mixed-method design using interviews and questionnaires was applied to collect information on well-being (emotional reactions, behavioral/emotional problems) and coping strategies of both mothers (n=65), and their children (n=35, 8-10 year; n=30, 11-13 year) during the second wave of the pandemic (December 2020). No differences between the groups emerged concerning the emotional reactions reported. In contrast, mothers and children of different ages reported different self-regulation and other-regulation strategies. Moreover, maternal strategies had different effects on children well-being. The integration of qualitative and quantitative results was informative to understand how families adapted to the radical changes of everyday life caused by the pandemic. Implications for developing interventions in such similar stressful situations to promote family well-being are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0542.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Passive drinking; perceived health status; mental health; family wellbeing; adolescents; Hong Kong Chinese
Online: 30 January 2023 (06:51:39 CET)
Background: Passive drinking is prevalent in adolescents worldwide, but its prevalence and harm are understudied. Methods: Secondary students (n=5840, grades 7-12) from 23 selected schools in Hong Kong participated in the survey from 2015-16. Students reported the harm of passive drinking, perceived health status, Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Perceived Stress Scale-4, perceived happiness, family health, happiness, and harmony in the questionnaire. The associations were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio, OR) and linear regression (unstandardized coefficient, b), adjusted for confounders. Results: 29.1% (95% CI 27.8 to 30.5%) of students experienced passive drinking in the past 30-day. Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.10), stress (adjusted b 0.76, 0.42 to 1.10), and lower level of perceived happiness (adjusted b -0.52, -0.72 to -0.33). Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a lower level of family health (adjusted b -1.39, 95% CI -1.66 to -1.11), family happiness (adjusted b -1.36, -1.64 to -1.08), and family harmony (adjusted b -1.40, -1.70 to -1.10). Conclusion: Passive drinking was associated with poorer mental health, family wellbeing, and lower level of happiness among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Social networking; adolescents; communication; motives of use; social desirability; gender differences; age differences
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:24:06 CET)
The evolution of digital media in adolescents has changed the patterns and motives of use and the impact on their communication choices in their social and family networks. The objectives of this study are to understand how peers communicate adopting a social network (SN) or by voice and their social desirability. After the informant consent signature, the adolescents completed a series of self-report questionnaires on the use of SN, on communication preferences, and on social desirability through online. Most of the adolescents belonged to the 17-19 age group (83.6%) and were female (68.9%). Adolescents spent more than 3 hours/day on Whatsapp and more than 2 hours/day on Instagram, while the use of Facebook was on average only 35 minutes/day. Females used digital media for longer than males. Adolescents aged 17-19 years choose more Facebook and voice modes compared to adolescents aged 14 and 16 years. The alternative modes of Whatsapp and voice were chosen more than the social networks in their communication strategies, especially for negative topics. Motives for use were, in addition to boredom, related to maintaining one's social sphere with peers. Some educative considerations were made based on these results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; children and adolescents; machine learning; post-hoc explainability; model calibration
Online: 22 December 2021 (16:21:19 CET)
The global spread of COVID-19 led the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on 11 March 2020. To decelerate this spread, countries have taken strict measures that affected the lifestyle and economy. Various studies have been focused on the identification of COVID-19 impact to mental health of children and adolescents via traditional statistical approaches. However, a machine learning methodology must be developed to explain the main factors that contribute to the change of mood state of children and adolescents during the first lockdown. Therefore, to this study an explainable machine learning pipeline is presented focusing on children and adolescents in Greece, where a strict lockdown was imposed. The target group consists of children and adolescents, recruited from children and adolescent mental health services, who present mental health problems diagnosed before the pandemic. The proposed methodology imposes: (i) data collection via questionnaires; (ii) a clustering process to identify the groups of subjects with amelioration, deterioration and stability to their mood state; (iii) a feature selection process to identify the most informative features that contribute to mood state prediction; (iv) a decision-making process based on an experimental evaluation among classifiers; (v) calibration of the best performing model and (v) a post-hoc interpretation of the features’ impact on the best performing model. The results showed that a blend of heterogeneous features from almost all feature categories is necessary to increase our understanding regarding the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the mood state of children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0721.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Meaning in life; Perceived burdensomeness; Thwarted belongingness; Spanish adolescents; non-suicidal self-injuries
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:36:30 CEST)
Background: Adolescence is a developmental stage when there is a high risk of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). There is recent interest in the study of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensome as variables associated with the frequency of NSSI in adolescents. Meaning in life (MIL) could be negatively associated with thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensome. To date, no studies have analyzed whether thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness could be associated with the frequency of NSSI in adolescents. On the other hand, no studies have analyzed the buffering role of MIL in the association between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness and the frequency of NSSI. Aims: a) to test whether thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are associated with NSSI frequency; b) to test whether MIL moderates the association between thwarted belongingness and NSSI frequency; and c) to test whether MIL moderates the association between perceived burdensomeness and NSSI frequency. Method: The sample consisted of N = 1531 participants between 12 and 18 years old from Spain. The participants filled out the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury, Purpose-In-Life Test-Adolescents Version, and Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire. Moderation analysis were performed. Results: Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness were positively associated with the frequency of NSSI in Spanish adolescents. MIL was a moderating variable between thwarted belongingness and the frequency of NSSI, and between perceived burdensomeness and the frequency of NSSI. Conclusion: Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness could be a risk factor for NSSI and MIL could be a protective factor against NSSI, and adding these variables to current descriptive theories of NSSI in adolescents would allow us to improve the assessment and treatment protocols for adolescents with NSSI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: oxytocin; CD38; OXTR; rs3796863; rs53576; polymorphism; adolescents; psychosocial characteristics; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:30:29 CEST)
Oxytocin (OT) is regarded as an extremely important prosocial neuropeptide that dramatically affects the establishment of social connections from infancy to adulthood. OT effects on the psychoemotional state are pretty individual and may be dependent on age, gender, ethnocultural factors, social environment, the presence of stress factors, and features of personality. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief psychopathological screening tool and is recommended for the detection and classification of psychosocial problems in adolescents. The current field school-based study, conducted among urban Siberian adolescents (n = 298 aged 12–18) explored the relation of SDQ scales in relation to genotypes of CD38 gene that controls oxytocin release, rs3796863, and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576. The results of our study show that during the adolescence period, OT pathway high activity can cause some negative effects, such as emotional instability in young (aged 12–14) adolescent girls in the case of carriage of the rs3796863 A allele and emotional disturbances in older (aged 15–18) adolescent boys who are carriers of a GG variant of rs53576. Our results support the hypothesis of OT-mediated excessive social sensitivity which can lead to some age-sex depending psychosocial problems during adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0026.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children; adolescents; leukemia; in treatment; healthy peers; life perceptions; psychological wellbeing; reported problems
Online: 4 February 2019 (13:52:19 CET)
There is still little research on psychological wellbeing and reported problems in preadolescents and adolescents under therapy for leukemia, also comparing them with their healthy peers. The present study aims to analyze the life perceptions, psychological well-being and problems’ intensity in these patients during the first year of therapy and to compare these reports with those of matched healthy peers adopting a battery of self-report questionnaires. Mann-Whitney tests identified the younger patients more at risk than older ones in their problems’ intensity and psychological symptoms. Older patients resulted instead more vulnerable regarding past life perceptions. Wilcoxon test with 2 dependent samples analyses showed that: healthy peers have a better perception of current life and lower percentage of somatization symptoms than patients after 6-months post-diagnosis. On the other hand, healthy peers reported more problems dealing with impulsivity, mood, disorganization, concentration and memory than patients both at 6-months and 1-year from diagnosis. Healthy peers reported also more anxiety and depression symptoms than patients and worse past and future life perceptions than patients at 1-year from diagnosis. The clinical aim is to perform a psychological screening of preadolescents and adolescents in order to prepare ad hoc psychological interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0558.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: road safety education; RSE; children; adolescents; risky road behaviors; road safety; traffic crashes
Online: 23 November 2018 (09:43:19 CET)
Road Safety Education (RSE) is widely known as a reliable determinant of future results for what concerns health and welfare, and as an undisputable factor which contributes to the social behavior of individuals and to their mid and long-term road safety outcomes. However, its development has been relatively scarce in most countries, fact which has contributed to letting matters as delicate as traffic crashes produced by road misbehaviors continue to be a prevalent problem, thus affecting the health of the community. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between demographic and RSE-related variables and the self-reported road risky behavior of Spanish students. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 4,062 (51.5 males and 48.5% females) participants attending primary (47.5%), secondary (40.7%) and high school (11.7%) was gathered through a national survey on RSE and road behaviors. Results: A set of significant associations between demographic factors, RSE variables and self-reported road behaviors was found. Furthermore, the SEM modelling allowed us to establish that age, observed misbehaviors, attitudes towards road safety and risk perception keep a direct link with the road risky behavior of children and young people. The knowledge of traffic rules was not a significant predictor of road behavior. Conclusions: The results of this study show that, together with demographic factors such as age, RSE-related variables have an effect on the road behavior of children and young people. They also suggest the need of strengthening actions to be implemented in road safety (Road Safety Education), into scholar and community levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0102.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Asperger; Atypically development; Covid19; Children; Adolescents; typically development; Parents; Adaptation; Well-being; Multi-informant
Online: 5 January 2023 (09:19:13 CET)
Mental health could worsen in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder during the Covid19 pandemic. In addition, their parents could be more at risk for an increase in anxiety and depression symptomatology. This study aims to understand the adaptation and the psychosocial well-being in a sample of 16 males aged 10-21 years old with Asperger syndrome after the quarantine for Covid19 when they return to school and partially to their activities in September 2020, The approach adopted is multi-informant with a battery of questionnaires on psychological health and adaptation given by a secure online web data Qualtrics both to adolescents and also to their parents. Paralleling matched peers with typically development were assessed adopting the same methodology. The results evidenced several difficulties in Asperger’s psychological health, especially in anxiety and socialization. Also adaptation is put in crisis, even if they reported a good comprehension and adoption of the behaviors anti-Covid19. Parents of children with Asperger reported similar psychological difficulties and general health than those of the group of children typically developing. Some clinical indications could be discussed for psychologists who follow children and adolescents with Asperger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescents; alienation in PE class; school happiness; future healthy life expectancy; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:55:44 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the changes in the structural relationship between alienation in physical education (PE) class, school happiness, and future healthy life expectancy in Korean adolescents after the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from adolescents in the Republic of Korea using scales for these factors. The collected data were analyzed with frequency analysis, reliability analysis, validity analysis, independent t-test, and path analysis. The key results were as follows. First, there were partial changes in each of the parameters since the outbreak of COVID-19. Second, before the pandemic, alienation in PE class negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected future healthy life expectancy; however, alienation in PE class did not affect future healthy life expectancy showing a complete mediating effect. Third, during the pandemic, alienation in PE class negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected future healthy life expectancy; alienation in PE class negatively affected future healthy life expectancy, showing a partial mediating effect. These findings emphasize the importance and potential of school education, especially PE, in promoting happiness and healthy life in adolescents. We expect these findings to have practical implications for future research by presenting theoretical and empirical data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive disorder; omega-3 fatty acids; lipid profile; fluidity of membrane; children and adolescents
Online: 20 August 2020 (05:48:48 CEST)
Depressive disorder (DD) is a psychiatric disorder whose molecular basis is not fully understood. It is assumed that reduced consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) is associated with DD. Other lipids like total cholesterol (TCH), LDL- and HDL-cholesterols (LDL-CH, HDL-CH) also play a role in depression. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between depressive disorder symptoms and lipid profile, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol subfractions, Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in 58 depressive children and adolescents, as well as the effect of omega-3 FA on the monitored parameters. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), lipid profile by standard biochemical procedures, LDL- and HDL-subfractions by the Lipoprint system. Basic biochemical parameters including lipid profile were compared with levels in 20 healthy children and were in the physiological range. We are the first to report that omega-3 FAs increase after 12 weeks of supplementation large HDL subfractions (anti-atherogenic) and decrease small HDL subfractions (pro-atherogenic) in depressed children. We found a negative correlation between CDI score and HDL-CH and large HDL subfraction, but not LDL-CH subfractions. CDI score was not associated with erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Our results suggest that HDL-CH and its subfractions, but not LDL-CH may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0331.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children; adolescents; leukaemia; in treatment; healthy peers; life perceptions; hope; psychological wellbeing; cognitive problems
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:21:27 CET)
There is still little research on psychological wellbeing, life satisfaction and reported problems in preadolescents and adolescents under therapy for leukaemia, and also little research comparing them with their healthy peers. The present study aims to analyse the life satisfaction, hope, psychological wellbeing and reported problems’ intensity in patients aged 8-18 during the first year of therapy, to identify those more at risk and to compare their reports with matched healthy peers. After the parental written consent signature, a battery of self-reported questionnaires was administered during hospitalisation or day hospital admissions post 6 months and post 12 months from the diagnosis. Younger patients (aged 8–13 years) were more at risk than older ones in their problems’ intensity and psychological symptoms; females and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia patients reported lower current life satisfaction perceptions; hope was associated with lower depression symptoms and mood problems. Healthy peers have a better perception of current life, but reported a lower hope score, more anxiety symptoms and more cognitive problems than patients. The first 6 months were more critical for patients’ psychological health. The clinical aim was to identify the patients more at risk in order to prepare ad hoc psychological interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Type 1 diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; Child; Children; Young patients; Pediatrics; Adolescents; Meta-analysis
Online: 4 August 2023 (08:21:09 CEST)
This study aimed to present a systematic meta-analysis examining the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, hemoglobin A1c levels, and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The initial search identified 451 articles related to the association between H. pylori infection and T1DM. Among them, 14 articles had 2,971 participants meeting the inclusion criteria for advanced meta-analysis. A significant association was observed between H. pylori infection and T1DM, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–2.78, p = 0.002). A subgroup analysis on H. pylori status showed that a longer duration of diabetes diagnosis and higher hemoglobin A1c levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (p < 0.001 for both). However, there was no significant association between H. pylori infection and the diagnostic age of diabetes (p = 0.306). These findings contribute to the understanding of the association between H. pylori infection and T1DM, thereby highlighting the potential role of H. pylori in influencing the duration and glycemic control of diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0429.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Adolescents; passive drinking; forced drinking; alcohol misuse; interactive video-based education; pre-post intervention study
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:50:37 CEST)
Passive and forced drinking harm was prevalent but less recognized in Chinese adolescents. We educated adolescents on such harm to reduce their intention to drink. Students (n=1244) from 7 secondary schools in Hong Kong participated in a video-based health talk on passive and forced drinking harm. Paired t-test was used to assess their change in knowledge of passive and forced drinking, health and social harm of drinking after the health talk. McNemar's chi-squared test and adjusted multivariable logistic regression (AOR) were used to assess their change in intention to drink and intention to quit. Students were less likely to drink (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.19-0.42) and more likely to quit drinking (OR 3.50, 1.10-14.6) after the health talk. Increased knowledge of passive drinking was associated with less intention to drink (AOR 0.93, 0.90-0.97), increased knowledge of health harm (adjusted b 0.06, 0.05-0.08), and social harm of drinking (adjusted b 0.12, 0.10-0.16). Similar associations were observed in forced drinking (intention to drink: AOR 0.87, 0.79-0.96; health harm: adjusted b 0.16, 0.12-0.19; social harm: adjusted b 0.36, 0.28-0.43). We showed preliminary evidence that the health talk on passive and forced drinking reduced the intention to drink in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0553.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: disability statistics; kappa; intraclass correlation coefficient; young adolescents; functional difficulties; special education; survey; health behaviour
Online: 25 August 2020 (11:48:46 CEST)
Determining disability prevalence is an important area for population statistics, especially among young adolescents. The Washington Group on Disability Statistics is one source of reporting disabilities through functional difficulties. However, young adolescents self-reporting this measure is in its infancy. The purpose of this study was to carry out an intra-rater test-retest reliability study on a modified set of items for self-reporting functional difficulties. Young adolescents (n=74; boys=64%; age m=13.7, SD=1.8) completed a self-reported version of the child functioning module in a supervised classroom. The second administration took place two weeks later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa (k) statistics were used to test reliability of the items, and interpretation through Landis & Koch, and Cohen, respectively. The majority of items had substantial or moderate agreement, although there was only fair agreement for self-care (ICC=0.59), concentration (ICC=0.50), and routine (ICC=0.54). Kappa statistics of behaviour were interpreted to be large (k=0.65), and seeing (k=0.49), walking (k=0.49), and speaking (k=0.49) difficulties were moderate. The majority of the items in the self-reported version of the child functioning module can be used in a scale format, although some caution may be required on items of self-care and concentration when used as a dichotomous variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0236.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Blood Pressure; Rope Exercise; physical activity; Lifestyle Modification; Adolescents; BMI; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factors; Academic Performance
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
There are evidences of shared biological mechanisms between obesity and hypertension during childhood in the adulthood, and loads of research literatures have proven that, it will cost the economies and health of nations profoundly if neglected. The Prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and hypertension is an essential strategy for control, effective treatment and prevention of its’ complications. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of school based Exercise and Life style Motivation Intervention (SEAL-MI) on adolescent's cardiovascular risk factors and academic performance. An experimental study was conducted among 1005 adolescents - 520 and 485 adolescents were randomly selected for control and study group, respectively. Demographic details and the data related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep quality were collected by a structured interview questionnaire. The study group adolescents were given the SEAL-MI for six months which includes a school based rope exercise for 45 minutes per day for 5 days a week and a motivation intervention related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep. Post-test 1 and 2 were done after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was 28.73% and prehypertension was 9.26%. Among overweight adolescents, the prevalence of prehypertension was found to be very high (32.25%). In post intervention, there was a significant reduction in weight, BP (p=0.000) and improvement in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep (p=0.000) and academic performance. A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and SBP (p=0.000) and BMI and academic performance (p=0.003). The linear regression analyses revealed that the gender (ß: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81), age (ß: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.46), family income (ß: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.5), residence (ß: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and type of family (ß: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.02) had the strongest correlate with the BMI of the adolescents. Also, Mother’s education Mother’s education (ß: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.59) had the strongest correlate with the SBP of the adolescents. In contrast, the DBP was negatively persuaded by age (ß: -0.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 0.29) and gender (ß: -0.26, 95% CI: 1.34, 0.12) of the adolescents. Regular practice of rope exercise and lifestyle modification such as diet, physical activity and sleep quality among adolescents prevent and control childhood CVD risk factors like overweight, hypertension. The SEAL-MI may lead to age appropriate development of adolescents and improves their academic performance and quality of life. Giving importance to the adolescents from urban habitat, from affluent nuclear family and catching them young will bring significant change in the disease burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; virus’ transmission; fear of contagion; breathing difficulty; healthy adolescents; emotion awareness; anxiety-state
Online: 15 August 2020 (08:25:22 CEST)
The COVID-19 appears as a catastrophic health risk with psychological, emotional, social and relational implications. From the early stages of the virus spread, the elderly population was identified as the most vulnerable and the health authorities have rightly focused on such frailest population. Conversely, less attention was paid to emotional and psychological dimension of children and adolescents. Actually, they were less at risk quoad vitam or quoad valetudinem, nevertheless they had to face a reality of anxiety, fears and uncertainties. The current study investigated state anxiety and emotion awareness in a healthy sample of older adolescents, 84 females and 64 males, aged 17 to 19, during the pandemic lockdown, using Self-rating Anxiety Scale and the Italian Emotion Awareness Questionnaire. An unexpected anxious phenomenology, impacting the anxiety ideo-affective domain, was found, while the somatic symptomatology appeared to be less severe. The highest anxiety symptom were the breathing difficulties. These findings supported the hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic may be a risk condition for an increased state anxiety in older adolescents and suggest the need to provide 1. an effective, empathic communication system with the direct participation of older adolescents, 2. a psychological counseling service for stress management of adolescents.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Children; adolescents; post-road traffic accidents; EQ-5D-5L; disability burden; health-related quality of life
Online: 26 July 2020 (03:11:18 CEST)
The objective of the study was to report the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following road traffic accidents (RTAs) among children. A community-based survey using EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) in Hindi was used to collected data from community. The survey included 2620 households from urban and rural areas of Ujjain, India. From these households 229 children aged 5–18 years with a history of RTA in the last 1 year were identified, with 27%, 63%, and 10% children reporting mild, moderate, and severe injury based on length of hospitalization. Motorcycles, bicycles, and pedestrians constituted most RTAs. Helmet use was low (12%). EQ-5D-5L revealed that the most severe and extreme problem was pain and discomfort, whereas the least severe problem was usual activity and self-care. The most common (65%) injuries were either abrasion or fracture and dislocation. EQ-5D-5L severity index was maximum (mean 72) for lower extremity injuries. The results of the present study highlight the ability and requirement for quality of life measurement using EQ-5D-5L among children post-RTA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: dispositional mindfulness; cognitive defusion; anxiety; mindfulness based on interventions; mental health; experiential avoidance; children and adolescents
Online: 30 October 2019 (10:11:48 CET)
Nowadays, mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have experimented a remarkable development of studies among childhood and adolescent interventions. For this reason, dispositional mindfulness (DM) measures for children and adolescents have been developed to determine the effectiveness of MBI at this age stage. However, little is known about how key elements of DM (f. e., cognitive de/fusion or experiential avoidance that both conform psychological inflexibility) are involved in the mechanisms of the children and adolescents’ mental health outcomes. This research examined the mediating effect of cognitive fusion between DM and anxiety and other negative emotional states in a sample of 318 Spanish primary-school students (aged between 8 and 16 years, M=11.24, SD=2.19, 50.8% males). Participants completed the AFQ-Y, which is a measure of psychological inflexibility that encompasses cognitive defusion and experiential avoidance; CAMM (DM for children and adolescents), PANAS-N (positive and negative affect measure for children, the Spanish version of PANASC), and STAIC (an anxiety measure for children). The study accomplished ethical standards. As MBI relevant literature has suggested, cognitive defusion was a significant mediator between DM and symptoms of both negative emotions and anxiety in children and adolescents. However, experiential avoidance did not show any significant mediating relationship. Probably, it is needed improvement of the assessment of experiential avoidance. MBI programs for children and adolescents may include more activities for reducing the effects of the cognitive defusion on their emotional distress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: adolescents; high sensitivity C-reactive protein; Interleukin 6; Leucine-rich α-2 glycoprotein 1; obesity; TNF-α
Online: 6 July 2022 (03:25:10 CEST)
Leucine-rich α-2 glycoprotein1 (LRG1) is a member of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family that was implicated in multiple diseases including cancer, aging and heart failure as well as diabetes and obesity. LRG1 plays a key role in diet-induced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance by mediating the crosstalk between adipocytes and hepatocytes. LRG1 also promotes hepatosteatosis by upregulating de novo lipogenesis in the liver and suppressing fatty acid β oxidation. In this study, we investigated the association of LRG1 with obesity markers including leptin and other adipokines in adolescents (11-14 years; n=425). BMI-for-age classification based on WHO growth charts was used to define obesity. Plasma LRG1 was measured by ELISA while other markers were measured by multiplexing assay. Median (IQR) of LRG1 levels was higher in obese [30 (25, 38) µg/mL] and overweight [30 (24, 39) µg/mL] adolescents, compared to normal-weight participants [27 (22, 35) µg/mL]. The highest tertile of LRG1 had an OR [95%CI] of 2.55 [1.44, 4.53] for obesity. LRG1 was positively correlated to plasma levels of HsCRP (R=0.2), Leptin (R=0.2) and Chemerin (R=0.24) with p<0.001. Additionally, it was positively associated with plasma level of IL6 (R=0.17) and IL10 (R=0.14) but not TNF-α. In conclusion, LRG1 levels are increased in obese kids and associate with increased levels of adipogenic markers. These results suggest the usefulness of LRG1 as an early biomarker for obesity and its related pathologies in adolescents.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; eating context; nutrient-poor foods; nutritional surveillance; adolescents; survey data analysis; data-mining; correspondence analysis; biplots
Online: 9 June 2020 (13:52:45 CEST)
Obesity is a global public health problem and the environment as its major determinant. To identify interventions an evidence base is warranted. To this aim we investigate the relationship between the consumption of foods and eating locations (like home, school/work and others) in British adolescents, using data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (2008–2012 and 2013-2016). Cross-sectional analysis of 62,523 food diary entries from this nationally representative sample then focused on foods contributing up to 80% total energy to the daily adolescent´s diet. Correspondence Analysis (CA) was first used to generate food-location relationship hypotheses and Logistic Regression (LR) to quantify the evidence in terms of odds ratios and formally test those hypotheses. The less-healthy foods that emerged from CA were chips, soft drinks, chocolate and meat pies. Adjusted Odds Ratios (99% CI) for consuming specific foods at a location “Other” than home (H) or school/work (S) in the 2008-12 survey sample were: for soft drinks 2.8 (2.1 to 3.8) vs. H and 2.0 (1.4 to 2.8) vs. S; for chips 2.8 (2.2 to 3.7) vs. H and 3.4 (2.1 to 5.5) vs. S; for chocolates 2.6 (1.9 to 3.5) vs. H and 1.9 (1.2 to 2.9) vs. S; and for meat pies 2.7 (1.5 to 5.1) vs. H and 1.3 (0.5 to 3.1) vs. S. These trends were confirmed in the 2013-16 survey sample. Interactions between location and BMI were not significant in either sample. In conclusion, our study showed that adolescents are more likely to consume specific less-healthy foods at locations away from home and school/work, irrespective of BMI. Such locations include leisure places, food outlets and “on the go”, hence public health policies to discourage less-healthy food choices in these locations is warranted for all adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0708.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Adolescents; high sensitivity C-reactive protein; Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins; Obesity; Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein; Predictive diagnostics
Online: 29 March 2021 (16:33:20 CEST)
Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are critical modulators of the metabolism. In adults, IGFBPs are associated with obesity and insulin resistance but the association of IGFBPs with metabolic homeostasis in children and adolescents is not fully characterized. In this study we investigated the association of plasma IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, 3 and 7) with weight status, central adiposity and cardiovascular disease markers Hs-CRP and Ox-LDL. A total of 420 adolescents (age 11-14 years) were randomly recruited from public middle schools in Kuwait. IGFBPs were measured using bead-based multiplexing while Hs-CRP and Ox-LDL were measured using ELISA. IGFBP-1 levels were significantly lower in obese and overweight participants compared to normal weight children. Only IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist circumference to height (WC/Ht) ratio. IGFBP-1 was negatively correlated with Hs-CRP while IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-7 were negatively correlated with Ox-LDL. These data demonstrate a robust negative association of IGFBP-1, but not IGFBP-3 or -7, with overweight and obesity, and the inflammation marker Hs-CRP. Central adiposity (WC/Ht ratio) was a stronger predictor of IGFBP-1 than BMI-for-age z-score. IGFBP-1 could thus be used as a sensitive predictive diagnostic tool for obesity and its subsequent effects in screening and monitoring of obesity-related metabolic complications in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: early adolescents; mobile food record; food waste; plate waste; eating behavior; portion size; dietary assessment; uncontrolled eating; cognitive restraint; emotional eating
Online: 4 August 2018 (11:37:39 CEST)
Understanding behavioral factors associated with obesity is of importance in addressing this issue. This study examined the association between cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and body mass index (BMI) and amount of food plated, consumed, leftovers, and leftover food thrown into the trash (food wasted) in early adolescent girls nine to 13 years in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted were estimated using a three-day mobile food record (mFR). Weight and height were measured to compute BMI (kg/m2). The three-factor eating questionnaire provided a score from 0 to 100 for cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Higher scores are indicative of greater cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Pearson’s correlation and general linear models were computed to examine the relationship between three factor eating scores, BMI, and food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted. There was no clinically significant association between cognitive restraint and amount of food wasted. Cognitive restraint was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.36, p<0.001) and with BMI z score (r=0.40, p<0.001). Uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were positively correlated with amount of leftover food at dinner (r=0.30, p=0.006; r=0.33, p=0.003, respectively). Emotional eating was positively associated with percentage of leftover food at dinner (r=0.24, p=0.30). Additional research should examine the specific roles of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and food waste in the development of obesity in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: motivation for learning Chinese; Japanese learners of Chinese; teaching Chinese to Japanese learners, teaching Chinese to kids and adolescents; teaching Chinese to adults
Online: 9 August 2021 (08:58:48 CEST)
Sustaining learners’ motivation to keep learning has been concerned for over 60 years in education and SLA. Most research focusing on Japanese university students has contributed lots of theoretical and practical developments, but research focusing on motivations of non-traditional adult learners and those under 18-year-old to learn Chinese is still little even though previous research findings have proved age is one of the key variables influencing learning besides nationalities and Chinese language levels. In order to find an effective treatment for sustainable Chinese language learning in Japan, this study utilized a survey method to analyze the types of Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese via analysis of a moment structures (AMOS), and to compare the differences of the motivation via one-way ANOVA. This study revealed that Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese consists of eight common types, which are “instrumental motivation”, “personal orientation”, “identified regulation”, “Chinese cultural productions”, “integrating into Chinese community”, “external regulation”, “social responsibility”, and “Chinese for academic purposes”. Also, there are similarities and differences existing in the eight motivation types among the Japanese children, adolescents, (non-) traditional adult learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). The findings contribute the understanding of motivation types and differences among the four aged Japanese learners to teachers of teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages (TCSOL), and to future research further exploring how differently aged Japanese learners can have and use a higher motivation as a main drive to learn Chinese language as a lifelong business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1229.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: early adolescents; socialization contexts; parental support; teacher support; peer support; cognitive and affective well-being; global and domain-based satisfaction with life; school satisfaction
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:00:41 CEST)
(1) Background: Adolescent well-being is a multifaceted construct embedded in family, school, and peer socialization contexts. By adopting a social-psychological perspective we test the association between three sources of support (parents, teachers, peers) and specific components of subjective well-being (cognitive, affective, global-and-domain-specific) to determine whether there is a functional specialization of the role that these crucial socialization agents play for adolescents to attain well-being in specific life domains. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional Albanian data from Wave 3 of the Children’s Worlds International Survey (www.isciweb.org) were used, including 2,339 adolescents (age range 9-13; girls = 49.3%). A structural equation model (SEM) was employed to explore associations between supportive relationships with parents, teachers, and peers and adolescent well-being. (3) Results: Findings support a functional specialization hypothesis as parental support was significantly related to global cognitive and affective well-being; teacher support was significantly related with school satisfaction; and significant relations were found between peer support and almost all well-being variables (context-free, domain-based life satisfaction and affective subjective well-being). (4) Conclusions: Findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the role of supportive relationships with adults and peers in adolescents’ proximal socialization contexts (family, school, peer groups) and specific components of subjective well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.