ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0498.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fault tolerant control; Adaptive fuzzy control; Time-varying actuator faults; Sliding mode control; Sliding mode observer
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:14:06 CEST)
In this paper, the problem of observer-based adaptive sliding mode control is discussed for nonlinear systems with sensor and actuator faults. The time-varying actuator degradation factor and external disturbance are considered in the system simultaneously. In this study, the original system is described as a new normal system by combining the state vector, sensor faults and external disturbance into a new state vector. For the augmented system, a new sliding mode observer is designed, where a discontinuous term is introduced such that the effects of sensor and actuator faults and external disturbance will be eliminated. In addition, based on a tricky design of the observer, the time-varying actuator degradation factor term is developed in the error system. On the basis of the state estimation, an integral-type adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is constructed to ensure the stability of the closed-loop system. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control methods can be illustrated with a numerical example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0414.v1
Subject: Keywords: Chattering reduction; discrete-time sliding mode control; magnetic levitation system; multirate output feedback; robust control; sliding mode control (SMC)
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:33:34 CEST)
This paper presents three types of sliding mode controllers for a magnetic levitation system. First, a proportional-integral sliding mode controller (PI-SMC) is designed using a new switching surface and a proportional plus power rate reaching law. The PI-SMC is more robust than a feedback linearization controller in the presence of mismatched uncertainties and outperforms the SMC schemes reported recently in the literature in terms of the convergence rate and settling time. Next, to reduce the chattering phenomenon in the PI-SMC, a state feedback-based discrete-time SMC algorithm is developed. However, the disturbance rejection ability is compromised to some extent. Furthermore, to improve the robustness without compromising the chattering reduction benefits of the discrete-time SMC, mismatched uncertainties like sensor noise and track input disturbance are incorporated in a robust discrete-time SMC design using multirate output feedback (MROF). With this technique, it is possible to realize the effect of a full-state feedback controller without incurring the complexity of a dynamic controller or an additional discrete-time observer. Also, the MROF-based discrete-time SMC strategy can stabilize the magnetic levitation system with excellent dynamic and steady-state performance with superior robustness in the presence of mismatched uncertainties. The stability of the closed-loop system under the proposed controllers is proved by using the Lyapunov stability theory. The simulation results and analytical comparisons demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Surface Vehicle; Guidance; Navigation and Control; Path Following; Adaptive Sliding Mode
Online: 23 November 2021 (12:37:17 CET)
This paper investigates the path following control problem for a unmanned surface vehicle (USV) in the presence of unknown disturbances and system uncertainties. The simulation study combines two different types of sliding mode surface based control approaches due to its precise tracking and robustness against disturbances and uncertainty. Firstly, an adaptive linear sliding mode surface algorithm is applied, to keep the yaw error within the desired boundaries and then an adaptive integral non-linear sliding mode surface is explored to keep an account of the sliding mode condition. Additionally, a method to reconfigure the input parameters in order to keep settling time, yaw rate restriction and desired precision within boundary conditions is presented. The main strengths of proposed approach is simplicity, robustness with respect to external disturbances and high adaptability to static and dynamics reference courses without the need of parameter reconfiguration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Field Oriented Control (FOC); electric scooter; Traction Motor Control System; Sliding Mode Control
Online: 19 October 2022 (08:27:17 CEST)
Nowadays brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) are becoming indispensable components as the electrification revolution in the mobility industry is happening. Electric kick scooters, so-called e-scooters, are among these micro-mobility vehicles which are powered by these motors. Due to the uncertain and nonlinear features, the controller performance developed for these motors degrades. For these reasons, a chattering-reduced cascaded Sliding Mode Control (SMC) scheme to effectively track reference motor speed in the outer loop by eliminating torque ripples in the inner loop current control was designed. Field-oriented Control (FOC) methodology was used to implement the SMC in the BLDCM. An exponential reaching law algorithm was proposed for sliding surfaces of the inner and outer loop controllers. The suitability and performance of electric scooter-hub motors were analyzed in terms of traction control. A cascaded speed and torque controller produced significantly favorable results representing minimized torque and current ripples, and operation over a wide speed range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0297.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: doubly fed induction generator; variable speed wind turbine; power control; sliding mode control (SMC); sliding mode control (SMC) with exponential reaching law (ERL)
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:50:34 CEST)
The main objective of this paper is to continue the development of activities of basic and applied research related to wind energy and to develop methods of optimal control to improve the performance and production of electrical energy from wind. A new control technique of Double fed induction generator for wind turbine is undertaken through a robust approach tagged nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC) with exponential reaching law control (ERL). The SMC with ERL proves to be capable of reducing the system chattering phenomenon as well as accelerating the approaching process. A nonlinear case numerical simulation test is employed to verify the superior performance of the ERL method over traditional power rate reaching strategy. Results obtained in Matlab/Simulink environment show that the SMC with ERL is more robust, prove excellent performance for the control unit by improving power quality and stability of wind turbine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-slope sliding-mode control (MSSMC); single-phase inverter; multi-slope function (MS)
Online: 19 July 2016 (04:54:06 CEST)
In this paper, a new approach to the sliding-mode control of single-phase inverters under linear and non-linear loads is introduced. The main idea behind this approach is to utilize a non-linear, flexible and multi-slope function in controller structure. This non-linear function makes the controller possible to control the inverter by a non-linear multi-slope sliding surface. In general, this sliding surface has two parts with different slopes in each part and the flexibility of the sliding surface makes the multi-slope sliding-mode controller (MSSMC) possible to reduce the total harmonic distortion, to improve the tracking accuracy, and to prevent overshoots leading to undesirable transient-states in output voltage which are occurred when the load current sharply rises. In order to improve the tracking accuracy and to reduce the steady-state error, an integral term of the multi-slope function is also added to the sliding surface. The improved performance of the proposed controller is confirmed by simulations and finally, the results of the proposed approach are compared with a conventional SMC and a SRFPI controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sliding mode control; position tracking; reference signal generator; telescope mount; motion control; electrical drive
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:54:14 CET)
Precise and fast position tracking is essential for the correct operation of many industrial robots and CNC machine tools. This subject is also important in the control of the mount of the astronomical telescope, especially for the tracking of artificial satellites. As system parameters can change, a control method that is robust to changes in parameters must be used. Such a method is the sliding control, which, however, ensures the robustness only after reaching the sliding surface. Therefore, a new method was proposed in the paper, which eliminates the phase of reaching the sliding surface. The method consists of using a reference trajectory generator and determining the generalized error in relation to this trajectory. The procedure for designing the control system is presented. Next, the proposed method was verified on the laboratory stand. The described control method provides a robust system operation and can be easily implemented in the control system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0058.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: brushless doubly fed induction generator; direct control; stand-alone; sliding-mode; resonant; reduced-order generalized integrator; variable-speed constant-frequency; wind energy conversion systems
Online: 7 February 2018 (08:39:56 CET)
In this paper, a novel voltage control strategy of stand-alone operation brushless doubly fed induction generator for variable speed constant frequency wind energy conversion systems was presented and discussed particularly. Based on the model of the generator power system, the proposed direct flux control strategy employs a nonlinear reduced-order generalized integrator based resonant sliding-mode control scheme to directly calculate and regulated the output value of converter which control winding stator required so as to eliminate the instantaneous errors of power winding stator flux, and no involving any synchronous rotating coordinate transformations. The stability, robustness and convergence capability of the proposed control strategy were described and analyzed. Owing to no extra current control loops involved, therefore simplifying the system configuration design and enhancing the transient performance. Constant converter switching frequency was achieved by using space vector pulse width modulation, which reduce the harmonic of generator terminal voltage. In addition, experimental results prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed scheme, and excellent steady and dynamic state performance is achieved.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: flexible robot arm; robust-adaptive control, sliding mode variable structure control; actuator dynamics; zero dynamics
Online: 15 September 2021 (10:22:41 CEST)
Modelling errors, robust stabilization/tracking problems under parameter and model uncertainties complicate the control of the flexible underactuated systems. Chattering-free sliding-mode based input-output control law realizes robustness against the structured and unstructured uncertainties in the system dynamics and avoids excitation of unmodeled dynamics. The main purpose is to propose a robust adaptive solution for stabilizing and tracking direct-drive (DD) flexible robot arms under parameter and model uncertainties, as well as external disturbances. A lightweight robot arm subject to external and internal dynamic effects was taken into consideration. The challenges are compensating actuator dynamics with the inverter switching effects and torque ripples, stabilizing the zero dynamics under parameter/model uncertainties and disturbances while precisely track the predefined reference position. The precise control of this kind of system demands an accurate system model and knowledge of all sources that excite unmodeled dynamics. For this purpose, equations of motion for a flexible robot arm were derived and formulated for the large motion via Lagrange’s method. The goals were determined to achieve high-speed, precise position control, and satisfied accuracy by compensating the unwanted torque ripple and friction that degrades performance through an adaptive robust control approach. The actuator dynamics and their effect on the torque output were investigated due to the transmitted torque to the load side. The high-performance goals, precision&robustness issues, and stability concerns were satisfied by using robust-adaptive input-output linearization-based control law combining chattering-free sliding mode control (SMC) while avoiding the excitation of unmodeled dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0458.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: grid-tied photovoltaic system; maximum power point tracking (MPPT); voltage oriented control (VOC); integral sliding mode control (ISMC)theory; dc-link control.
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:33:45 CEST)
This contribution considers an improved control scheme for three-phase two-stage grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system based on integral sliding mode control (ISMC) theory. The proposed control scheme consists of maximum power point tracking (MPPT), DC-Link voltage regulation and grid currents synchronization. A modified voltage-oriented maximum power point tracking (VO-MPPT) method based on ISMC theory is proposed for design of an enhanced MPPT under irradiation changes. Moreover, a novel DC-Link voltage control based on ISMC theory is proposed in order to achieve good regulation of DC-Link voltage over its reference. To inject the generated PV power into the grid with high quality, a voltage oriented control based on space vector modulation (SVM) and ISMC (VOC-ISMC-SVM) has been developed to control the grid currents synchronization. Numerical simulations are performed in Matlab/SimulinkTM environment in order to evaluate the proposed control strategy. In comparison with conventional control scheme, the developed control strategy provides an accurate MPP tracking with less power oscillation as well as a fast and an accurate DC-Link regulation under climatic conditions variations. Moreover, the transfer of the extracted power into the grid is achieved with high quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0172.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Fixed-time stabilization; Sliding mode control; Adaptive control; Neural network
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:47:55 CEST)
In this paper, the fixed-time stabilization problem for a class of uncertain chained system is addressed by using a novel nonsingular recursive terminal sliding mode control approach. A fixed-time controller and an adaptive law are designed to guarantee the uncertain chained form system both Lyapunov stable and fixed-time convergent within the settling time. The advantage of the controller based on the sliding mode is that the settling time does not depend on the system initial state. Furthermore, we use RBF neural network to estimate the uncertainty of the system. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the control laws.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Closed Loop Control; Cuk Converter; Sliding Mode Control; Robustness; Active Hysterisis Control
Online: 19 June 2017 (16:52:57 CEST)
This paper introduces a sliding mode control (SMC) based equivalent control method to a novel high output gain Cuk converter. An additional inductor and capacitor improves the efficiency and output gain of the classical Cuk converter. Classical PI controllers are widely used in DC-DC converters. However, it is a very challenging task to design a single PI controller operating in different load and disturbances. SMC based equivalent control method which achieves a robust operation in a wide operation range is also proposed. Switching frequency is kept constant in appropriate interval in different loading and disturbance conditions by implementing a dynamic hysteresis control method. Numerical simulations conducted on Matlab/Simulink confirm the accuracy of analytical analysis of high output gain modified Cuk converter. In addition, proposed equivalent control method is validated in different perturbations to demonstrate the robust operation in wide operation range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: manipulator; sliding mode controller; proportional integral derivative (PID) controller
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:04:18 CEST)
In this paper, a two-link manipulator system stability performance is designed and analyzed using Optimal control technique. The manipulator system is highly nonlinear and unstable. The system is modelled using Lagrangian equation and linearized in upward unstable position. The closed loop system is designed using optimal sliding mode controller. The system is compared with a known PID controller with an impulse applied and disturbance torques and a promising results has been obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sliding mode control; constant power load; negative incremental impedance; robustness analysis; chattering reduction; microgrid stability; noise rejection
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:45:56 CEST)
To implement renewable energy resources, microgrid systems have been adopted and developed into the technology of choice to assure mass electrification in the next decade. Microgrid systems have a number of advantages over the conventional utility grid systems, however, it faces severe instability issues due to continually increasing constant power loads. To improve the stability of the entire system, load side compensation technique is chosen because of its robustness and cost effectiveness. In this particular occasion, a sliding mode controller is developed for microgrid system in the presence of CPL to assure certain control objective of keeping the output voltage constant at 480V. After that, the robustness analysis of the sliding mode controller against parametric uncertainties is presented. The sliding mode controller robustness against parametric uncertainties, frequency variations, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are illustrated in this paper. Later, the performance of the PID and sliding Mode controller is compared in case of nonlinearity, parameter uncertainties, and noise rejection to justify the selection of Sliding Mode controller over PID controller. All the necessary calculations are reckoned mathematically and results are verified in the virtual platform such as MATLAB/Simulink with the appreciable outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0037.v1
Subject: Keywords: discreteness; frequency response; automatic control system; PID controller; variable structure system with sliding processes
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:40:24 CET)
The article presents a new approach to the analysis of the stability of automatic systems with discrete links.In almost all modern automatic control systems, there are links that break signals in time. These are power controlled switches - transistors or thyristors operating in a pulsed mode and digital links in regulators.Time discretization significantly affects the stability of processes in the automatic control system. The theoretical analysis of such systems is rather complicated and requires a significant change in engineering approaches to analysis. In connection with the improvement of digital controllers and a significant increase in their performance, in recent years this problem has practically not been remembered. However, its mathematical "content" has not changed since the 80s of the 20th century, when discreteness began to play a major role among the problems hindering progress in automatic control systems, in terms of the transition to digital systems.In this paper, a new approach is proposed, which consists in interpreting the sampling operation by a link with the proposed frequency characteristic, which determines the suppression of input high-frequency signals. This link greatly simplifies engineering calculations and demonstrates the new capabilities of sampling systems. These possibilities include the rational distribution of digitalization resources - the number of bits and the sampling interval between the regulator channels, depending on the frequency range of the efficiency of these channels. Theoretical statements have been verified and confirmed by simulation. It is shown how this approach makes it possible to formulate new principles of construction of seemingly well-known controllers - PID controllers and variable structure systems (VSS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Sliding Mode Control; Three phase Voltage Source Inverter; Reaching Law; Chattering; Sliding Surface.
Online: 11 October 2022 (05:39:53 CEST)
Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) are the integral part of Electrical Vehicles (EV) to enhance the reliability of supply power to critical loads in vehicle to load (V2L) applications. Inherent properties of sliding mode control (SMC) makes it one of the best vailable options to achieve desired voltage quality under variable load conditions. Intrinsic characteristic of robustness associated with SMC is achieved generally at the cost of unwanted chattering along the sliding surface. To manage this compromise better, optimal selection of sliding surface coefficient is applied with proposed composite exponential reaching law (C-ERL). The novelty of proposed C-ERL is associated with the intelligent mix of exponential, power and difference functions blended with rotating sliding surface selection (RSS) technique for three phase two level VSI. Moreover, proposed reaching law along with power rate exponential reaching law(PRERL), enhanced exponential reaching law(EERL) and repeatitive reaching law(RRL) are implemented on two level three phase VSI under variable load condtions. Comparative analysis of which strongly advocates the authenticity and effectiveness of proposed reaching law in achieving well regulated output voltage, with high level of robustness, reduced chattering and low %THD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0649.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: video super-resolution; bidirectional; recurrent method; sliding window method
Online: 25 November 2020 (15:12:38 CET)
Video super-resolution, which utilizes the relevant information of several low-resolution frames to generate high-resolution images, is a challenging task. One possible solution called sliding window method tries to divide the generation of high-resolution video sequences into independent sub-tasks, and only adjacent low-resolution images are used to estimate the high-resolution version of the central low-resolution image. Another popular method named recurrent algorithm proposes to utilize not only the low-resolution images but also the generated high-resolution images of previous frames to generate the high-resolution image. However, both methods have some unavoidable disadvantages. The former one usually leads to bad temporal consistency and requires higher computational cost while the latter method always can not make full use of information contained by optical flow or any other calculated features. Thus more investigations need to be done to explore the balance between these two methods. In this work, a bidirectional frame recurrent video super-resolution method is proposed. To be specific, a reverse training is proposed that the generated high-resolution frame is also utilized to help estimate the high-resolution version of the former frame. With the contribution of reverse training and the forward training, the idea of bidirectional recurrent method not only guarantees the temporal consistency but also make full use of the adjacent information due to the bidirectional training operation while the computational cost is acceptable. Experimental results demonstrate that the bidirectional super-resolution framework gives remarkable performance that it solves the time-related problems when the generated high-resolution image is impressive compared with recurrent-based video super-resolution method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0125.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Impact-sliding wear; Titanium alloy; Laser shock peening; Wear rate
Online: 7 June 2018 (15:13:24 CEST)
Outer particles collision with certain dynamic object is not a pure impact wear behavior; it is typically accompanied by sliding wear phenomena. This study aimed investigating the impact-sliding wear performance of three different TC17 titanium alloys. One was untreated, and the other two were subjected to laser shock peening (LSP) by 5 and 7 J pulse energy, respectively. Wear test was performed on a novel impact-sliding wear testing rig, which can realize multiple impact-sliding motions by changing motion parameters in x and z directions. Present results showed that wear resistance of both treated samples improved compared with the untreated alloy. Given the increase in wear cycles, increment in wear rate of the untreated sample was constantly higher than those of treated samples. All results can be attributed to the increase in surface hardness of the material and residual compressive stress, which was also introduced after LSP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: state estimation; model reference; sliding mode; real-time; parameter detuning
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:01:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to present an adaptive sliding mode luenberger state observer with improved disturbance rejection capability and better tracking performance under dynamic conditions. The sliding hyperplane is altered by incorporating the estimated disturbance torque with the stator currents. Also, the effects of parameter detuning on the speed convergence is observed and compared with the conventional disturbance rejection mechanism. The entire drive system is first built in simulink environment. Then, the simulink model is integrated with RT-Lab blocksets and implemented in a relatively new real-time environment using OP4500 real-time simulator. Real-time simulation and testing platforms have succeeded offline simulation and testing tools due to their reduced development time. The real-time results validate the improvement in the proposed state observer and also correspond to the performance of the actual physical model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0009.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: grain boundary sliding; incompatibility stresses; anisotropic elasticity; heterogeneous elasticity; lattice rotations
Online: 1 May 2017 (09:06:32 CEST)
Non-uniform grain boundary sliding can induce strain and rotation incompatibilities at perfectly planar interfaces. Explicit analytic expressions of stress and lattice rotation jumps are thus derived at a planar interface in the general framework of heterogeneous anisotropic thermo-elasticity with plasticity and grain boundary sliding. Both elastic fields are directly dependent on in-plane gradients of grain boundary sliding. It is also shown that grain boundary sliding is a mechanism that may relax incompatibility stresses of elastic, plastic and thermal origin although the latter are not resolved on the grain boundary plane. This relaxation may be a driving force for grain boundary sliding in addition to the traditionally considered local shears on the grain boundary plane. Moreover, the obtained analytic expressions are checked by different kinds of bicrystal shearing finite element simulations allowing grain boundary sliding and where a pinned line in the interface plane aims at representing the effect of a triple junction. A very good agreement is found between the analytic solutions and the finite element results. The performed simulations particularly emphasize the role of grain boundary sliding as a possible strong stress generator around the grain boundary close to the triple line because of the presence of pronounced gradients of sliding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0168.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Al-Zn-Cr Alloys; powder metallurgy; strengthening; extrusion; dry sliding wear
Online: 21 March 2017 (04:26:13 CET)
Aluminum base alloys containing chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) were produced using extrusion and heat treated powder metallurgy. Cr addition ranged between 5 to 10 wt. % while Zn was added in an amount between 0 to 20 wt. %. Heat treatment processes were performed during powder metallurgy process at different temperatures followed by water quenching. Similar alloys were extruded, with an extrusion ratio of 4.6 to get proper densification. Optical microscopy was used for microstructure investigations of the produced alloys. The element distribution microstructure study was carried out using the Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis method. Hardness and tensile properties of the investigated alloys have been examined. Wear resistance tests were carried out and the results were compared with these of the Al-based bulk alloys. Results showed that the aluminum base alloys containing 10wt. % Chromium and heat treated at 500°C for one hour followed by water quenching exhibited the highest wear resistance and better mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0660.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: dynamic time warping; pattern matching trading system; time series data; sliding window
Online: 29 October 2018 (07:03:51 CET)
The futures market plays a significant role in hedging and speculating by investors. Although various models and instruments are developed for real-time trading, it is difficult to realize profit by processing and trading a vast amount of real-time data. This study proposes a real-time index futures trading strategy that uses the pattern of KOSPI 200 index futures time series data. We construct a pattern matching trading system (PMTS) based on a dynamic time warping algorithm that recognizes patterns of market data movement in the morning and determines the afternoon's clearing strategy. We adopt 13 and 27 representative patterns and conduct simulations with various ranges of parameters to find optimal ones. Our experimental results show that the PMTS provides stable and effective trading strategies with relatively low trading frequencies. Investor communities that have sustained financial markets are able to make more efficient investments by using the PMTS. In this sense, the system developed in this paper is a sustainable investment technique and helps financial markets achieve efficient sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: cavitation erosion; sliding wear; thin film; AlTiN; TiAlN; mechanical properties; stainless steel; adhesion
Online: 19 April 2019 (12:42:27 CEST)
Stainless steel grade AISI 304 is one of the most widespread modern structural material, alas its sliding wear and cavitation wear resistance are limited. Thus, AlTiN and TiAlN coatings can be deposited for increasing the resistance to wear of stainless steel components. The aim of the work was to investigate the cavitation erosion and sliding wear mechanisms of magnetron sputtered AlTiN and TiAlN coatings deposited on SS304 stainless steel. Films surface morphology and structure were examined using a profilometer, light optical microscope (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus) were tested by nanoindentation tester. The adhesion of deposited coatings was determined by means of the scratch test and Rockwell test. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 (vibratory apparatus) with stationary specimen procedure. Sliding wear tests were conducted using a nano-tribo testes i.e. ball-on-disc apparatus. Wear mechanisms are strongly contingent upon the structure and morphology of the tested materials. In relation to stainless steel substrate, the PVD films present a superior resistance to sliding wear and cavitation erosion. Higher resistance was noticed for AlTiN than for TiAlN film, mainly due to its superior hardness and elastic modulus. Cavitation erosion mechanism of both, AlTiN and AlTiN coatings is prone to embrittlement, imputable to fatigue processes that result in coating rupture and spallation that consist in coating fragmentation, formation of pits and finally detachment from the substrate. Additionally, films nanoindentation results measured before and after cavitation testing indicate changes in coatings structure, that acknowledged wear mechanism that starts with coating internal delamination in flake spallation mode. In contrary to PVD coatings, steel substrate is characterized by developed cavitation erosion wear with roughened surface and plastically deformed, semi-brittle, eroded surface. Sliding wear of thin films is based on micro-ploughing mechanism. For stainless steel adhesive sliding wear mode and plastic deformation with smearing, material transfer and grooving were observed. It was confirmed that various fluid machinery components made from austenitic stainless steel that undergo cavitation erosion, can be prevented by deposition of AlTiN and TiAlN films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: sliding disc; continuum robot; robot backbone; wire-driven; kinematics and kinetics; wire-tension; design analysis
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:00:49 CET)
Wire-driven hyper-redundant continuum manipulators are gaining more popularity and finding more applications in industry and in minimally invasive surgery. Unlike traditional rigid link manipulators, continuum robots with a flexible backbone structure are able to work in a highly constrained workspace and in an unstructured environment. However, in spite of a possible wide range of reachability, continuum manipulators have some issues related to payload capacity, accuracy and control. Therefore, in this research, we propose a novel hyper-redundant continuum robot with a passive sliding disc mechanism to improve payload capacity and accuracy. To prove the sliding mechanism concept, we demonstrate a comparison analysis with a conventional non-sliding continuum robot arm in a payload test, a bending test and a reachability test. Moreover, with this novel design, we are proposing robot kinematics and kinetic formulation and simulation results to validate the effectiveness of the sliding disc mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler; Rational finite element; Absolute nodal coordinate formulation; Variable-length finite element; Sliding joint
Online: 27 January 2022 (11:05:54 CET)
The variable-length arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE)-ANCF finite element, which employ nonrational interpolating polynomials, cannot exactly describe the rational cubic Bezier curves such as conic and circular curves. The rational absolute nodal coordinate formulation (RANCF) finite element, whose reference length (undeformed length) is constant, can exactly represent the rational cubic Bezier curves. A new variable-length finite element called the ALE-RANCF finite element, which is capable of accurately describe the rational cubic Bezier curves, is proposed by combining the desirable features of the ALE-ANCF and RANCF finite element. In order to control the reference length of ALE-RANCF element within a suitable range, element segmentation and merging schemes are proposed. It is demonstrated that exact geometry and mechanic is maintained after the ALE-RANCF element is divided into two shorter ones, and compared with the ALE-ANCF elements, there are smaller deviations and oscillations after two ALE-RANCF elements are merged into a longer one. Numerical examples are presented and the feasibility and advantages of the ALE-RANCF finite element are demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0503.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: cold/hot-work steel; sliding; friction; wear testing; XRD analysis; wear mechanism; hardness; heat treatment; thin film; abrasion
Online: 21 September 2020 (12:02:17 CEST)
The tribological performance of metalwork steel tools is of vital importance in both cold and hot working processes. One solution for improving metal tool life is the application of coatings. This paper investigates the effect of CrAlSiN thin-film PVD-deposition on the tribological behaviour of tool steel K340. The sliding wear performance of the coated K340 steel is analysed in relation to both the uncoated K340 steel and a range of tool steels dedicated to hot- and cold-working, such as X155CrVMo12-1, X37CrMoV5-1, X40CrMoV5-1, 40CrMnMo7 and 90MnCrV8. The investigated tool steels were heat-treated, while K340 was subjected to thermochemical treatment and then coated with a CrAlSiN hard film (K340/CrAlSiN). The hardness, chemical composition, phase structure and microstructure of steels K340 and K340/CrAlSiN are examined. Tribological tests were conducted using the ball-on-disc tester in compliance with the ASTM G99 standard. The tests were performed under dry unidirectional sliding conditions, using an Al2O3 ball as a counterbody. The wear factor and coefficient of friction are estimated and analysed with respect to hardness and alloying composition of the materials under study. SEM observations are made to identify the sliding wear mechanisms of the analysed tool steels and PVD-coated K340 steel. In contrast to the harsh abrasive-adhesive wear mechanism observed for uncoated tool steels, the abrasive wear dominates in case of the AlCrSiN. The deposited thin film effectively prevents the K304 substrate from harsh wear severe degradation. Moreover, thanks to the deposited coating, the K304/CrAlSiN sample has a COF of 0.529 and a wear factor of K=5.68×10−7 m3 N−1 m−1, while the COF of the reference tool steels ranges from 0.702 to 0.885 and their wear factor ranges from 1.68×10−5 m3 N−1 m−1 to 3.67×10−5 m3 N−1 m−1. The CrAlSiN deposition reduces the wear of the K340 steel and improves its sliding properties, which makes it a promising method for prolonging the service life of metalwork tools.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0196.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; Vertical Take Off and Landing; Robust Control; Hybrid Propulsion of Aerial Vehicles; Sliding Mode Control; Robust Control
Online: 11 January 2023 (09:55:40 CET)
Object of this work is the design and the simulation of a hybrid UAV with VTOL capabilities that has been designed for landing on naval moving platforms. The work is focused on the innovative propulsion layout adopted on the UAV. Authors discuss how adopted low level control strategies can exploit the innovative features of the proposed system assuring a good rejection of transversal wind disturbances. Particular attention is dedicated to low level modelling and control of the system emphasizing how choices regarding low level actuation and control should improve performances and robustness of the system.
Subject: Keywords: time series; forecasting; neural networks; data preprocessing; training and control samples; coronavirus pandemics; Deductor Studio; data cleaning; partial processing; spectral processing; autocorrelation; sliding windows.
Online: 30 March 2021 (14:16:28 CEST)
For analysis tasks, time counts are of interest — values recorded at some, usually equidistant, points in time. The calculation can be performed at various intervals: after a minute, an hour, a day, a week, a month, or a year, depending on how much detail the process should be analyzed. In time series analysis problems, we deal with discrete-time, when each observation of a parameter forms a time frame. The same can be said about the behavior of Covid-19 over time.In this paper, we solve the problem of predicting Covid-19 diseases in the world using neural networks. This approach is useful when it is necessary to overcome difficulties related to non-stationarity, incompleteness, unknown distribution of data, or when statistical methods are not completely satisfactory. The problem of forecasting is solved with the help of the analytical platform Deductor Studio, developed by specialists of the company Intersoft Lab of the Russian Federation. When solving this problem, appropriate methods were used to clean the data from noise and anomalies, which ensured the quality of building a predictive model and obtaining forecast values for tens of days ahead. The principle of time series forecasting was also demonstrated: import, seasonal detection, cleaning, smoothing, building a predictive model, and predicting Covid-19 diseases in the world using neural technologies for 30 days ahead.