ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: apoptosis; cardiotrophin-1; colon; inflammation
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:38:00 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relatively frequent, chronic disease that impacts significantly the patient’s quality of life. Although many therapeutic options are available, additional approaches are needed because many patients either do not respond to current therapies or show significant side effects. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine with potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The purpose of this study was to assess if the administration of CT-1 could reduce colon damage in mice with experimental UC. UC was induced with 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water. Some mice received i.v. dose of CT-1 (200 µg/kg) 2 hours before and 2 and 4 days after DSS administration. Animals were followed during 7 days after DSS. The severity of UC was measured by standard scores. Colon damage was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Inflammatory mediators were measured by Western blot and PCR. CT-1 administration to DSS-treated mice ameliorated both the clinical course (disease activity index), histological damage, inflammation (colon expression of TNF-α, IL-17, IL-10, INF-γ, and iNOS), and apoptosis. Our results suggest that CT-1 administration before UC induction improves the clinical course, tissue damage and inflammation degree in DSS-induced UC in mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0190.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Feruloylacetone; demethoxy-feruloylacetone; colon cancer; curcumin; degradant
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:06:19 CEST)
Feruloylacetone (FER) is a natural degradant of curcumin after heating, which structurally reserves some functional groups of curcumin. It is not as widely discussed as its original counterpart in previous studies and, therefore, its anti-cancer efficacy is investigated herein. This study focuses on the suppressive effect of FER on colon cancer, as the efficacious effect of curcumin on this typical cancer type has been well evidenced. In addition, demethoxy-feruloylacetone (DFER) was applied to compare the effect that might be brought on by the structural differences of the methoxy group. It was revealed that both FER and DFER inhibited the proliferation of HCT116 cells, possibly via suppression of the phosphorylated mTOR/STAT3 pathway. Notably, FER could significantly repress both the STAT3 phosphorylation and protein levels. Furthermore, both samples showed the capability of arresting HCT116 cells at the G2/M phase via the activation of p53/p21 and upregulation of cyclin-B. In addition, ROS elevation and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were revealed, as indicated by p-atm elevation. The apoptotic rate rised to 36.9% and 32.2% after being treated by FER and DFER, respectively. In summary, both compounds exhibited an anti-cancer effect, and FER showed a greater pro-apoptotic effect, possibly due to the presence of the methoxy group on the aromatic ring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0062.v1
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:51:01 CET)
Colorectal cancer is a major threat to the society causing the death through metastasis to several patients with stage IV. Computational tools provide a relatively quick procedure in order to evaluate several molecules for their drug activity. Prenylated flavonoids are well known for their anticancer properties even in colon cancer. Here, we provided altered structures of chalcones, based on theoretical studies that are showing better binding affinities to several colon cancer related proteins. Using molecular docking and dynamics, alongside with density function theory and ADMET studies we are representing two new derivatives of Xanthohumol prenylated flavonoids having promising results against this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Hydrogel; pH-responsive; colon; targeted delivery; methotrexate
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:17:48 CEST)
The purpose of current research work was to formulate and typify gelatin and poly(vinyl) alcohol (Gel/PVA) hydrogel which would be highly pH-responsive and can able to accomplish targeted delivery of methotrexate in order to treat the colo-rectal pathologies. The primed gel/pva hydrogel discs were subjected to various physicochemical techniques i.e. swelling, diffusion co-efficient, sol-gel analysis and porosity using three altered sorts of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer solutions for assessment/evaluation, and their characterization was done through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Shape alteration and controlled methotrexate of release of Gel/PVA hydrogel have been done using three type of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer mediums. Methotrexate was loaded through in-situ drug loading method due to hydrophobicity. Different kinetic models (first order & zero order kinetic), Higuchi model and Krosmere peppas model/Power law were applied to manipulate the drug release data. Physicochemical evaluation tests and drug release profile results were found insignificant (p< 0.05) in various pH mediums and dependent upon polymers concentration pH of medium and cross-linker amount. Kinetic model disclosed that release of methotrexate from Gel/PVA hydrogel follow non-Fickian diffusion method. It became concluded from this research work that release of methotrexate Gel/PVA hydrogel in targeted colon area can be achieved for treating colo-rectal disorders.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0079.v1
Online: 5 May 2020 (12:14:41 CEST)
Herein, we reported a case of complete excision of the jejunum for the treatment of esophageal cancer. A 62-year-old male was admitted with complaints of “difficulty in eating for one month and chest pain for 10 days". For complete gastrectomy and colonic polyposis, we chose the jejunum. We completely excised the jejunum and its vessels, anastomosed to the esophageal tumor resection, with no significant complications. This case showed that complete excision of the jejunum with bowel and vessels is an alternative surgical method for the treatment of esophageal cancer with free bowel shortage and no torsion of blood vessels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0287.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: exercise; polyphenol; metabolite; Hippurate; intestinal tract; colon
Online: 15 October 2018 (07:39:26 CEST)
Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group design, this investigation determined if the combination of 2-weeks flavonoid supplementation (329 mg/day, quercetin, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols mixture) and a 45-minute walking bout (62.2±0.9% VO2max) enhanced the translocation of gut-derived phenolics into circulation in a group of walkers (N = 77). The walkers (flavonoid, placebo groups) were randomized to either sit or walk briskly on treadmills for 45 minutes (thus four groups: placebo-sit, placebo-walk, flavonoid-sit, flavonoid-walk). A comparator group of runners (N = 19) ingested a double flavonoid dose for 2 weeks (658 mg/day) and ran for 2.5 h (69.2±1.2% VO2max). Four blood samples were collected (pre- and post-supplementation, immediately-post- and 24-h post-exercise/rest). Of the 76 metabolites detected in this targeted analysis, 15 increased after the 2.5-h run, and when grouped were also elevated post-exercise (versus placebo-sit) for the placebo- and flavonoid-walking groups (P < 0.05). A secondary analysis showed that pre-study plasma concentrations of gut-derived phenolics in the runners were 40% higher compared to walkers (P = 0.031). These data indicate that acute exercise bouts (brisk walking, intensive running) are linked to an increased translocation of gut-derived phenolics into circulation, an effect that is amplified when combined with a 2-week period of increased flavonoid intake or chronic training as a runner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0168.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Fagonia indica, colon cancer, proliferation, angiogenesis, ABCC4, ABCG2
Online: 4 March 2021 (14:48:30 CET)
Fagonia indica is a perennial plant grown in arid climates and utilised in traditional medicine as a treatment for cancer. Previous research has highlighted potential antineoplastic effects of Fagonia indica against breast cancer cell lines. Despite this, there has been little research demonstrating the potential of an aqueous extract of Fagonia indica against colon cancer. Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with drug resistance remaining a barrier to treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxic mechanisms of Fagonia indica in colon cancer cells, including pathways related to proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation, and ABC membrane transporters. Treatment with Fagonia indica caused a reduction in cell viability in wild-type and chemotherapy resistant colon cancer. Results indicated a role for Akt/ MAPK signalling as a mechanism of Fagonia indica induced cell death, alongside a reduction in the expression of VEG-F, NK-κB and ICAM-1. RT-PCR demonstrated a reduction in expression of ABCG2/ABCC4 in resistant colon cancers, after treatment with Fagonia indica extract. Further research is required to isolate bioactive compounds of Fagonia indica for use against colon cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0135.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: evolution diet; metabolism; australopith; encephalization; hominin; colon; behavioral ecology
Online: 6 October 2020 (15:14:56 CEST)
Thesis Statement: The consumption of externally fermented foods acted as the initial metabolic trigger enabling hominid brain expansion. Because brain tissue is metabolically expensive, it is thought that the evolution of humans’ large brains was only possible through a concomitant reduction in the size of another expensive organ system, the gut. However, this gut reduction must have itself been made possible by dietary changes, the nature of which are still unclear. Here, we propose that the initial metabolic trigger of hominid brain expansion may have been the consumption of externally fermented foods. We define “external fermentation” as occurring outside the body, as opposed to the internal fermentation that occurs through the gut microbiome. This practice could have begun accidentally and with limited understanding, but over time, fermentation technologies may have become increasingly intentional, socially-transmitted, and culturally-reinforced. We detail the mechanisms by which external fermentation can mediate the evolution of increased brain size, as well as a reduction in gut size, by increasing the bioavailability of macro- and micronutrients while reducing digestive energy expenditure. Importantly, we calculate that the reduction in human gut size relative to modern apes is mainly due to a reduction in the colon, the site of internal fermentation. We also discuss the explanatory power of our hypothesis relative to others, including realistic plausibility in hominids with brains roughly the size of modern chimpanzees. Finally, we survey external fermentation practices across human cultures to demonstrate its viability across a huge range of environments, temperatures, and food sources. We close with suggestions for empirical tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0078.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: mixed cereal grains; pro-inflammatory cytokines; inflammation; colon carcinogenesis
Online: 4 July 2019 (11:41:51 CEST)
The chemopreventive effects of various mixed cereal grain (MCG) samples on azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 2% w/v)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in C57BL/6J mice were studied. The main MCG preparation consisted of fermented brown rice (FBR), glutinous brown rice, glutinous Sorghum bicolor, glutinous Panicum miliaceum, Coix lacryma-jobi and black soybean at an appropriate mixing ratio. Other MCG preparations contained rice coated with 5% Phellinus linteus and 5% Curcuma longa (MGR-PC), or 10% Phellinus linteus (MCG-P), or 10% Curcuma longa (MCG-C). Consumption of dietary MCG-PC by CRC mice significantly increased colon length, decreased the ratio of colon weight to length, and reduced the number of colon tumors. Similar effects, although to a lower extent, were observed in CRC mice fed with MCG-P, followed by those fed with MCG-C, MCG, FBR or white rice (WR). MCG-PC significantly suppressed colonic neoplasia, and decreased the levels of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor: Tnf, interleukin 1 beta: Il1b, interleukin 6: Il6, and interferon gamma: Ifng) in serum and colon tissue of the CRC mice. In addition, MCG-PC increased the mRNA expressions of tumor protein p53(Tp53) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A(Cdkn1a), activated pro-apoptotic caspase 3(Casp3), and reduced expression of both mRNA and protein of inducible inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2), and cyclin D1(Ccnd1) in colon tissue. These findings suggest that than compared with other cereal grain preparations, MCG-PC had a greater activity against AOM/DSS-induced CRC by reducing intestinal inflammation, and modulating the expression of certain carcinogenesis related factors (Nos2, Ptgs2, Tp53, Cdkn1a, Ccnd1 and Casp3) in colon tissue of CRC mice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0391.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Digestive tract; Colon; Biomechanics; Mechanical properties; Strain energy function; Hyperelasticity
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:25:46 CEST)
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a continuous channel through the body that consists of the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum. Its primary functions are to move the intake of food for digestion before storing and ultimately expulsion of feces from the rectum through the anal sphincter. The mechanical behavior of GI tissues thus plays a crucial role for GI function in health and disease. The mechanical properties are typically characterized by a constitutive biomechanical model, which is a mathematical representation of the relation between load and deformation in a tissue. Hence, validated biomechanical constitutive models are essential to characterize and simulate the mechanical behavior of the GI tract under physiological and pathological conditions. Numerous constitutive models have consequently been proposed over the past three decades, mainly inspired by work done in cardiovascular tissues. Here, a comprehensive review of these constitutive models is provided. This review is limited to studies where a model of the strain energy function is proposed to characterize the stress-strain relation of a GI tissue. Several needs are identified for more advanced modeling of GI biomechanics including: 1) Microstructural models that provide actual structure-function relations; 2) Validation of coupled electro-mechanical models accounting for active muscle contractions; 3) Human data under physiological and pathological conditions to develop and validate models. The findings from this review provide guidelines for using existing constitutive models as well as perspective and directions for future studies aimed at establishing new constitutive models for GI tissues.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Colon; high-sulfur foods; inflammation; metagenomics; microbiota; sulfur reducing bacteria.
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:45:11 CET)
The biogeography of inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) suggests a proximal to distal concentration gradient of a toxin. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered one such toxin candidate, and dietary sulfur along with the abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were considered the primary determinants of H2S production and clinical course of UC. The metabolic milieu in the lumen of the colon, however, is the result of a multitude of factors beyond dietary sulfur intake and SRB abundance. Here we present an updated formulation of the H2S toxin hypothesis for UC pathogenesis, which strives to incorporate the interdependency of diet composition and the metabolic activity of the entire colon microbial community. Specifically, we suggest that the increasing severity of inflammation along the proximal-to-distal axis in UC is due to dilution of beneficial factors, concentration of toxic factors, and changing detoxification capacity of the host, all of which are intimately linked to the nutrient flow from the diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0192.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: β4-galactosyltransferase 4; transcriptional mechanism; sensor cells; colon cancer; drug screening
Online: 12 June 2018 (12:51:07 CEST)
The increased expression of β4-galactosyltransferase (β4GalT) 4 was closely associated with poor prognosis of colon cancer. Recently, we showed that the expression of the β4GalT4 gene is regulated by the 0.17 kb core promoter region containing one binding site for Specificity protein 1 (Sp1). To develop a novel screening method for anti-colon cancer drugs, two sensor cell lines having the luciferase gene under the control of two β4GalT4 gene promoters that differed in length were established from SW480 human colon cancer cells. The hGT4-0.17-sensor cells possessed the luciferase reporter driven by the 0.17 kb promoter, while the hGT4-0.3-sensor cells possessed the luciferase reporter driven by the 0.3 kb promoter containing one binding site each for colon cancer-related transcription factors including activator protein 2, E2F, caudal-related homeobox transcription factors, and Runt-related transcription factors besides Sp1. Upon treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor U0126, the promoter activities of the hGT4-0.3-sensor cells decreased significantly, while those of the hGT4-0.17-sensor cells unchanged. These results suggest that the responsiveness to U0126 differs between two sensor cell lines due to the different regulation of the luciferase reporters. This study provides the novel screening method for anti-colon cancer drugs by the combination of two sensor cell lines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: circulating tumor DNA; colon cancer; colorectal cancer; minimal residual disease; adjuvant chemotherapy
Online: 27 May 2022 (03:52:10 CEST)
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), the tumor-derived cell-free DNA fragments in the bloodstream carrying tumor-specific genetic and epigenetic alterations, represents an emerging novel tool for minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in patients with resected colorectal cancer (CRC). For many decades, precise risk-stratification following curative-intent colorectal surgery has remained an enduring challenge. The current risk stratification strategy relies on clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumors that lacks precision and results in over-and undertreatment in a significant proportion of patients. Consequently, a biomarker that can reliably identify patients harboring MRD would be of critical importance in refining patient selection for adjuvant therapy. Several prospective cohort studies have provided compelling data suggesting that ctDNA could be a robust biomarker for MRD that outperforms all existing clinicopathologic criteria. Numerous clinical trials are currently underway to validate the ctDNA-guided MRD assessment and adjuvant treatment strategies. Once validated, the ctDNA technology will likely transform the adjuvant therapy paradigm of colorectal cancer, supporting ctDNA-guided treatment escalation and de-escalation. The current article presents a comprehensive overview of the published studies supporting the utility of ctDNA for MRD assessment in patients with CRC. We also discuss ongoing ctDNA-guided adjuvant clinical trials that will likely shape future adjuvant therapy strategies for patients with CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Aggressiveness; biomarker; cancer stem cells; diagnosis; colon cancer; glycan; immunohistochemistry; lectin; prognosis
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:23:14 CET)
Nowadays, colon cancer prognosis still difficult to predict, especially in the early stages. Recurrences remain elevated, even in the early stages after curative surgery. Carcidiag Biotechnologies has developed an immunohistochemistry (IHC) kit called ColoSTEM Dx, based on a MIX of biotinylated plant lectins that specifically detects colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) through glycan patterns that they specifically (over)express. A retrospective clinical study was carried out on tumor tissues from 208 non-treated and 21 treated patients with colon cancer, that were stained by IHC with the MIX. Clinical performances of the kit were determined, and prognostic and predictive values were evaluated. With 78.3% and 70.6% of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity respectively, our kit shows great clinical performances. Moreover, patient prognosis is significantly poorer when the MIX staining is “High” compared to “Low”, especially at 5-years of overall survival and for early stages. The ColoSTEM Dx kit allows an earlier and a more precise determination of patients’ outcome. Thus, it affords an innovating clinical tool for predicting tumor aggressiveness earlier and determining prognosis value regarding therapeutic response in colon cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0223.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: 4-AAQB; SOD2; hsa-miR-324; colon cancer stem cells; chemoresistance; chemosensitivity
Online: 13 July 2018 (04:24:11 CEST)
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in both sexes globally. This is not unconnected with the heterogeneity and plasticity of CRC stem cells (CRC-SCs) which stealthily exploit niche-related and (epi)genetic factors to facilitate metastasis, chemoresistance, tumor recurrence, and disease progression. Despite accumulating evidence of the role of dysregulated microRNAs in malignancies, the therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological-targeting of CRC-SC-associated microRNAs is relatively under-explored. Experimental approach: In this present study, we employed relatively new bioinformatics approaches, analyses of microarray data, western blot, RT-PCR, and functional assays to show that hsa-miR-324-5p expression is significantly suppressed in CRC cells, and inversely correlates with the aberrant expression of SOD2. Results: This converse hsa-miR-324-5p/SOD2 relationship is associated with enhanced oncogenicity, which is effectively inhibited by 4-AAQB as evidenced by inhibited cell viability and proliferation, as well as, attenuated migration, invasion and clonogenicity in 4-AAQB-treated DLD1 and HCT116 cells. We also showed that 4-AAQB-induced re-expression of hsa-miR-324-5p, akin to short-interfering RNA reduced SOD2 expression, correlates with the concurrent down-regulation of SOD2, N-cadherin, vimentin, c-Myc, and BcL-xL2, with concomitant up-regulation of E-cadherin and BAX2 proteins. Enhanced expression of hsa-miR-324-5p in the CRC cells suppressed their tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, 4-AAQB synergistically potentiates FOLFOX anticancer effect by eliciting the re-expression of SOD2-suppressed hsa-miR-324 and inhibiting SOD2-mediated tumorigenicity. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the pre-clinical anti-CSC efficacy of 4-AAQB, with or without FOLFOX in CRC, and suggest a potential novel therapeutic strategy for CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0121.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: tissue microarray; immunohistochemistry; cancer imaging; tyrosine kinase receptor; normal tissue; colon cancer
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:07:23 CET)
Targeted image-guided oncologic surgery (IGOS) relies on the recognition of cell surface-associated proteins, which should be abundantly present on the tumor cells but preferably absent on cells in surrounding healthy tissue. The transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, a member of the A class of the Eph receptor family, has been reported to be highly overexpressed in several tumor types including breast, lung, brain, prostate, and colon cancer, and is considered amongst the most promising cell membrane-associated tumor antigens by the NIH. Another member of the Eph receptor family belonging to the B class, EphB4, has also been found to be up-regulated in multiple cancer types. In this study, EphaA2 and EphB4 are evaluated as target for IGOS of colorectal cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 168 pairs of tumor and normal tissue. The IHC sections were scored for staining intensity and percentage of cells stained. The results show a significantly enhanced staining intensity and more widespread distribution in tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue for EphA2 as well as EphB4. Based on its more consistently higher score in colorectal tumor tissue compared to normal tissue, EphB4 appears to be an especially promising candidate for IGOS of colorectal cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0231.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Tryptophan metabolism; Kynurenine; Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; Aryl hydrocarbon receptor; Microbiome; Indole; Colon cancer.
Online: 8 March 2021 (15:55:29 CET)
Tryptophan metabolism, via the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway, and microbial transformation of tryptophan to indolic compounds, are fundamental for host health; both of which are altered in colon carcinogenesis. Alterations in tryptophan metabolism begin early in colon carcinogenesis as an adaptive mechanism for the tumor to escape immune surveillance and metastasize. The microbial community is a key part of the tumor microenvironment and influences cancer initiation, promotion and treatment response. A growing awareness of the impact of the microbiome on tryptophan (Trp) metabolism in the context of carcinogenesis has prompted this review. We first compare the different metabolic pathways of Trp under normal cellular physiology to colon carcinogenesis, in both the host cells and the microbiome. Second, we review how the microbiome, specifically indoles, influence host tryptophan pathways under normal and oncogenic metabolism. We conclude by proposing several dietary, microbial and drug therapeutic modalities that can be utilized in combination to abrogate tumorigenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0643.v1
Subject: Keywords: ulcerative colitis; inflammatory bowel disease; immunotherapy; Bin1 monoclonal antibody; enteric neurons; microbiome; colon
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:45:28 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic disease of the large intestine. Current anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed to treat this disease have limited utility due to significant side-effects. Thus, immunotherapies for UC treatment are still sought. In the DSS mouse model of UC, we recently demonstrated that systemic administration of the Bin1 monoclonal antibody 99D (Bin1 mAb) developed in our laboratory was sufficient to reinforce intestinal barrier function and preserve an intact colonic mucosa, compared to control subjects which displayed severe mucosal lesions, high-level neutrophil and lymphocyte infiltration of mucosal and submucosal areas, and loss of crypts. Here we report effects of Bin1 mAb on colonic neurons and the gut microbiome that correlate with the benefits of treatment. In the DSS model, we found that induction of UC was associated with disintegration of enteric neurons and elevated levels of glial cells, which translocated to the muscularis at distinct sites. Further, we characterized an altered gut microbiome in DSS treated mice associated with pathogenic proinflammatory characters. Both of these features of UC induction were normalized by Bin1 mAb treatment. With regard to microbiome changes, we observed in particular that Firmicutes were eliminated by UC induction and that Bin1 mAb treatment restored this phylum including the genus Lactobacillus and Akkermansia as beneficial microorganisms. Overall, our findings suggest that the intestinal barrier function restored by Bin1 immunotherapy in the DSS model of UC is associated with a preservation of enteric neurons and an improvement in the gut microbiome, contributing overall to a healthy intestinal tract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0424.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 4-Phenylbutyric acid; Colon-targeted drug delivery; Colitis; Prodrug; ER stress; Chemical chaperone
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:15:20 CEST)
An elevated level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered an aggravating factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an ER stress attenuator that is effective against colitis, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, was conjugated with acidic amino acids to yield a 4-PBA-glutamic acid conjugate (PBA-GA) and a 4-PBA-aspartic acid conjugate (PBA-AA). The PBA derivatives were converted to 4-PBA in the cecal contents, where the conversion was greater with PBA-GA. After oral administration of PBA-GA (oral PBA-GA), millimolar levels of PBA were accumulated in the cecum, whereas 4-PBA was not detected in the blood, indicating the targeting of PBA-GA to the large intestine. At concentrations in the cecum achievable by oral PBA-GA, 4-PBA effectively attenuated ER stress in human colon epithelial cells. In 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats, oral PBA-GA alleviated the damage and inflammation in the colon. Moreover, oral PBA-GA substantially reduced the elevated levels of ER stress marker proteins in the inflamed colon. Moreover, PBA-GA was as effective as the currently used anti-IBD drug, sulfasalazine. In conclusion, PBA-GA is a colon-targeted prodrug of 4-PBA and is effective against rat colitis probably through the attenuation of ER stress in the inflamed colon.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0534.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: long non coding RNA, whole exome sequencing, protein interaction, congenital pouch colon, microscale thermophoresis
Online: 30 August 2018 (15:30:35 CEST)
Congenital Pouch Colon (CPC) is a rare anorectal anomaly common to North Western India specifically Rajasthan. Despite efforts to understand the clinical genetic makeup of CPC, no attempt on identifying non-coding RNAs was done. We have earlier reported CPC's rare variants from whole exome sequencing across 18 affected samples in a total of 64 subjects. A Smith-Waterman algorithm was used to infer a couple of lncRNAs from WES samples of CPC with predictions from the Noncode database. Further screening and quantification using PCR, we ascertained interactions using Micro Scale Thermophoresis (MST). We report the role of lnc-EPB41-1-1 shown to be promiscuously interacting with KIF13A substantiating their role in regulation.
Subject: Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 1 March 2020 (02:54:29 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer. Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME). Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed. Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:10:11 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer.Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME).Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed.Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Tspo; prostate cancer; stomach cancer; colon cancer; liver cancer; lung cancer; kidney cancer; breast cancer; brain cancer
Online: 31 May 2018 (10:59:31 CEST)
Tspo is a receptor involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial functions. Previous studies showed the expression of TSPO protein correlated positively with tumour malignancy and negatively with patient survival. The aim of this study was to determine the transcription of Tspo mRNA in various types of normal and cancer tissues. In situ hybridization was performed to localise the Tspo mRNA in various human normal and cancer tissues. The relative level of Tspo mRNA was quantified using fluorescent intensity and visual estimation of colorimetric staining. RT-PCR was used to confirm these mRNA levels in normal lung, lung cancer, liver cancer and cervical cancer cell lines. There was a significant increase in the level of transcription in liver, prostate, kidney and brain cancers while a significant decrease was observed in cancers of the colon and lung. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that the mRNA levels of Tspo are higher in a normal lung cell line than in a lung cancer cell line. An increase in the expression levels of TSPO makes it a good diagnostic biomarker and TSPO could serve as a target for anticancer drug development.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Oleuropein; colon cancer; activated macrophages; chronic inflammation; inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); nitric oxide (NO)
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:04:58 CEST)
Abstract: Oleuropein, the major compound of olive leaves, has been reported to exert numerous pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of oleuropein-rich leaf extracts (ORLE) in already-developed colon tumours colon tumours arising in an Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) mutated PIRC rats (F344/NTac-Apcam1137). Here, we were able to investigate in parallel the anti-cancer effect of ORLE, both in vivo and in vitro, and its anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages, which represents a critical and abundant population in most solid tumours microenvironment. We found that in vivo ORLE treatment promoted apoptosis and attenuated iNOS activity both in colon tumours as in peritoneal macrophages of PIRC rats. We confirmed in vitro using primary RAW264.7 cells: ORLE reduced iNOS activity in parallel with COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6 and TGF-. These findings suggest that ORLE possess a strong anti-inflammatory activity, which could be crucial for dampening the pro-tumourigenic activity elicited by a chronic inflammatory state generated by either tumour cells or tumour-associated macrophages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0198.v1
Subject: Keywords: mathematical modelling; peristalsis; smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH); fluid dynamics; large intestine; colonl proximal colon; fluid-structure interactions; drug delivery
Online: 12 April 2020 (15:57:17 CEST)
The proximal part of the colon offers opportunities to prolong the absorption window following oral administration of a drug. In this work, we used computer simulations to understand how the hydrodynamics in the proximal colon might affect the release from dosage forms designed to target the colon. For this purpose, we developed and compared three different models: a completely-filled colon, a partially-filled colon and a partially-filled colon with a gaseous phase present (gas-liquid model).The highest velocities of the liquid were found in the completely-filled model, which also shows the best mixing profile, defined by the distribution of tracking particles over time. No significant differences with regard to the mixing and velocity profiles were found between the partially-filled model and the gas-liquid model. The fastest transit time of an undissolved tablet was found in the completely-filled model. The velocities of the liquid in the gas-liquid model are slightly higher along the colon than in the partially-filled model. The filling level has an impact on the exsisting shear forces and shear rates, which are decisive factors in the development of new drugs and formulations.