ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0113.v1
Online: 17 November 2017 (03:27:14 CET)
The International tax regime (ITR) has been transformed after the Great Recession of 2008–2009. The G20/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project (2013–2015) has fundamentally changed the ITR, giving new life to the single tax principle (income should be taxed once, i.e., no double taxation and no double non taxation). Reaction to BEPS has varied dramatically between the EU and the US, the two largest markets in the world. In the EU BEPS is taken very seriously, as shown for example by the new Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives that implement the single tax principle. In the US BEPS is almost invisible; while the US model tax treaty has been amended to incorporate it the US has refused to sign the Multilateral Instrument to implement BEPS in its treaties and the only other BEPS action that the US has taken is country by country reporting. It thus appears that the future of BEPS and the ITR depends on whether the EU or the US view prevails, i.e., whether multinationals can be forced to pay significant tax on the 160–240 billion that are currently not taxed annually because of BEPS. While US multinationals as well as EU multinationals are exposed to the EU ATAD and related measures while operating in Europe, they are less subject to EU anti BEPS measures elsewhere in the world. It therefore is crucial to assess the reaction to BEPS in the other large economy that was involved in its development, namely China. This article attempts to assess China’s reaction to BEPS based on Chinese sources. It shows that China takes BEPS seriously. Therefore, given the reactions of China (as well as India, which is even more aggressive than China for example in taxing the digital economy) it seems likely that eventually the EU view of BEPS will prevail and US based multinationals will eventually be forced to pay tax on the over 100 billion they shift offshore each year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0524.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Vietnam; China; Vietnam - China border; tourism; cross-border tourism
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:32:48 CEST)
This article aims to identify the current development of cross-border tourism between Vietnam and China. The paper analyzes the perception and strategy of cross-border tourism development in the two countries, especially in the context of China’s implementation of the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI). The article emphasizes that Vietnam and China have recently made efforts to promote cross-border tourism development. At the same time, Vietnam and China see cross-border tourism development as a significant part of comprehensive border cooperation between the two countries. However, the development plans for cross-border tourism between the two countries are still mainly on the desk, not yet implemented effectively. Thus, its achievements are relatively modest. Besides, the article emphasizes that the interests of the people living in the border area, especially the Vietnam side, are almost “forgotten” in the development of cross-border travel between the two countries. Besides, the article also analyzes the challenges that the two sides are facing, especially the Vietnam side, in promoting the development of cross-border tourism between the two countries.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0052.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: China Rural Pension Scheme, retirement sustainability, labor supply, grandchildren care, Western China, ceaseless toil
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:47:21 CEST)
This paper evaluates the effect of China’s New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) on the retirement sustainability in forms of both formal labor supply and informal labor supply, using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). We explore the regional differences of the NRPS effect on labor supply between the Western regions and the other regions of China. Our analysis shows that western rural China has a more severe problem of “ceaseless toil” compared to the rest of the country. We find that NRPS improves the “ceaseless toil” situation of the Chinese rural elderly, and the results show a very different pattern between western China and other parts of the country.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0358.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Infectious diseases; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Pneumonia; China
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:21:43 CET)
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) linked with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. Firstly, the SARS-CoV-2 was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. Initially, the major proportion of virus-infected cases (i.e. about 99%) was reported in China and now it is being reported in other counties as well. Humans begin to be infected within their communities and transmittance of the viral epidemic increased rapidly due to lack of understanding of its transmission routes and precautionary measures. The existence of SARS-CoV-2 in China threatened the population greatly due to the high incidence of fatal respiratory infections. Current investigations speculated that this virus transferred into a human from viral-infected bats. However, the process of interspecies viral transmission is an important scientific question to be addressed. Due to the continuous increase in the patients infected with COVID-19 associated pneumonia, the World Health Organization (WHO) has included this viral epidemic to the priority list of diseases. Therefore, accelerated research developments are required to control the spread of this outbreak, as it is declared as a public health emergency by WHO especially in the absence of efficacious drugs and vaccines. Our review encompasses the recent status of disease severity in China, a particular replication mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and potential risks and precautionary measures required to avoid contact with this fatal viral infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: novel coronavirus; SEIR model; outside China
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:34:55 CET)
Ongoing outbreak of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the number of new patients continues to increase. On the contrary to ongoing outbreak in China, however, there are limited secondary outbreaks caused by exported case outside the country. We here conducted simulations to estimate the impact of potential secondary outbreaks at a community outside China. Simulations using stochastic SEIR model was conducted, assuming one patient was imported to a community. Among 45 possible scenarios we prepared, the worst scenario resulted in total number of persons recovered or removed to be 997 (95% CrI 990-1,000) at day 100 and maximum number of symptomatic infectious patients per day of 335 (95% CrI 232-478). Calculated mean basic reproductive number (R0) was 6.5 (Interquartile range, IQR 5.6-7.2). However, with good case scenarios with different parameter led to no secondary case. Altering parameters, especially time to hospital visit could change the impact of secondary outbreak. With this multiple scenarios with different parameters, healthcare professionals might be able to prepare for this viral infection better.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0491.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable development; geography education; implementation; China
Online: 25 September 2018 (15:59:56 CEST)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) had become a priority in many school systems. Geography has a tradition of investigating human-environment interactions and geography education is vital in order to make sense of sustainable development (SD). In this paper, the authors aimed to contribute to the implementation of ESD and SD in middle school geography, in The People’s Republic of China. This research employed a series of methods to analyze the content in (SD) in middle school geography standards and textbooks. The research surveyed geography teachers (n=237) and assessed geography students (n=246). Results exemplified both positive and negative conclusions from the data. Primarily, the findings suggested that geography education was important to ESD implementation, although the requirements for SD are low in Chinese middle schools. The SD content was reflected clearly in the content standards and textbooks, but it was not evenly distributed in geography education. Many geography teachers in China have ample geography and interdisciplinary knowledge and they can use textbooks and other teaching methods to teach SD. The students’ performance, in a sample of four key schools, was considered “OK”, however there was still room for improvement. Most students were familiar with people, resources, environmental problems and climate change, however most were unable to grasp the factual knowledge about SD, such as international events and documents, latest predicted data and research on global warming, as well as the indicators used in the specific SD assessment. Suggestions include providing students with more practical activities and a chance to do hands-on experiments, as well as building student organizations and clubs; improve Teachers’ knowledge and understanding through teacher training program and build a platform for communicating ideas of SD through modern communication technology. Ideas of SD should be integrated into students’ daily life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0358.v1
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:25:29 CEST)
Using data from the China Family Panel Studies, this study examines the socioeconomic characteristics of Internet users, as well as the relationships between the dynamics of different forms of online activities and the subjective well-being of urbanites and rural migrants in urban China. The study finds that online behaviour may clearly reflect differences in individuals’ personal traits and socioeconomic positions. Patterns of the association between online activities and subjective well-being tend to differ among rural migrants and urbanites, especially in terms of depression. A difference-in-differences model is employed to estimate the impact of intensified engagement in online activities on depression and life satisfaction from 2010 to 2016. The results show that increased frequency of online entertainment exhibits a comparatively positive effect on depression and life satisfaction. Spending more time on online social networking has a similar impact on rural migrants, but not on urbanites. These findings suggest that the rapid development of urban China’s online community has important implications for residents’ subjective well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0248.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: stratocumulus; cloud physical characteristics; eastern China
Online: 29 March 2018 (09:03:22 CEST)
Stratocumulus (Sc) is the most common cloud type in China. Sc clouds may or may not be accompanied by various types of precipitation that are representative of different macro- and microphysical characteristics. The finely resolved CloudSat data products are used in this study to quantitatively investigate the macro- and microphysical characteristics of precipitating and non-precipitating Sc (PS and NPS, respectively) clouds over Eastern China (EC). Based on statistical information extracted from the CloudSat data, Sc clouds are highly likely to occur alone, in association with liquid precipitation, or in association with drizzle over 25.65% of EC. The cloud bases of NPS clouds are higher than those of PS clouds, although the latter display higher cloud top heights and thicker cloud thicknesses. The spatial distributions of microphysical characteristics differ between PS and NPS clouds. The magnitudes of microphysical characteristics in NPS clouds are relatively small and decrease with height, whereas the magnitudes of microphysical characteristics in PS clouds are relatively large and peak in response to certain circulation patterns and over certain terrain. The variations in microphysical characteristics in Sc clouds with height and contoured frequency by altitude diagrams (CFADs) of radar reflectivity may indicate that different microphysical processes operate in PS and NPS clouds. In NPS clouds, hydrometeor particles accumulate by coalescence as they rise; once the particles are too large to be supported by updrafts, the cloud droplets form raindrops. In PS clouds, raindrops increase continuously in size via collision-coalescence processes as they fall. The levels between 2.5 and 3.0 km represent the space where particles grow most rapidly. Particles are affected by updrafts and accumulate at levels between 2.5 and 1.0 km as height decreases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0156.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: cars; China; climate change; innovation; renewables
Online: 24 November 2017 (04:16:23 CET)
New energy vehicles (NEVs) have been proposed as a promising technology to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. China is one of the leading countries in the development of NEVs, and a wide range of companies, including large and smaller businesses, are involved in the Chinese NEV market. Given that the NEV market involves the creation of nascent technologies, there are significant barriers to the development of NEV companies in the business growth stage. This is particularly significant in the case of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study surveyed 100 NEV SMEs in China using a structured questionnaire to determine the most significant barriers to the growth of their businesses. Calculating the relative importance index (RII) from the collected questionnaire responses revealed that the most significant barrier at the growth stage is the lack of skilled scientists in China. The most important category of barriers is legal and institutional barriers, which suggests that government intervention in business activities, taxes, and unclear regulations are viewed by entrepreneurs as a serous hindrance to further development in the NEV industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: micronutrients; inadequacies; usual daily intake; China
Online: 10 April 2017 (06:10:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to examine usual daily micronutrient intake of Chinese children based on data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed data from 4 to 17-year-old participants, who provided dietary data on 3 consecutive days combined with the household weighing method in 2011. Usual daily intake of each nutrient was estimated using a mixed effects model based on the China Food Composition published in 2002 and 2004. The means, medians and percent below Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) were reported for selected micronutrients, including calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C. For sodium and potassium, means and the distribution of intakes were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) level. The average usual daily intakes of all micronutrients increase with age and the intakes of boys higher than girls in the same age group. The average of calcium intakes increased from 272mg/d in 4-6y to 391mg/d in 14-17y, but the percentage of inadequate calcium intake remained very high (>96%). The prevalence of inadequacy of calcium was the highest among the mineral nutrients reported in this study. As the requirement of micronutrient increased with age, the percentage of subjects with inadequate intake increased in 11-17 age groups. Among the 14-17y, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C below the EAR were 96.8%, 18.8%, 37.6%, 72.8%, 36.8%, 91.8%. 85.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Among the 11-13y, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A below the EAR were 23.5%, 41.5%, and 41.6%, respectively. Thus, the micronutrients deficiency is a problem in Chinese Children. Nutrition education and intervention programs are needed to address the nutritional gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: environmental knowledge; pollution; rural women; health; China
Online: 21 February 2023 (09:31:19 CET)
Rural women in developing nations are especially vulnerable to higher health risks due to environmental pollution exposure and are more likely to experience poorer health outcomes. Using data from the 2013 China General Social Survey CGSS2013, this study empirically examined the relationship among environmental knowledge (EK), pollution, health investment, and health status of women residing in rural regions in China. We employed a nationally representative sample of 1,930 female individuals for our analysis. Our results showed that the level of EK for women in rural China significantly impacted their self-reported physical and mental health. In order to account for potential endogeneity due to mutual causality, this study employed television usage and network usage as two instrument variables (IVs) of EK. We performed an IV-probit method to correct the estimated errors due to endogeneity. Additionally, to assess the reliability and robustness of our results, we re-estimated our model by replacing health status with the variable Body Mass Index (BMI). The results were consistent, providing evidence of robustness. Additionally, we examined the relationship between health investment (holding and purchasing a public health insurance policy, engaging in frequent physical activity, and acquiring commercial insurance) and health status. Our results indicate that the level of EK had no significant impact on participating in the new rural cooperative medical system. However, the preference of purchasing commercial insurance was positively impacted by EK, though it does not have a direct impact on the health condition. Conversely, an increase in EK and pollution is associated with a greater likelihood of engaging in physical exercise, which could, in turn, improve overall mental health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: digitalisation; digital learning; mental health; parenting; China
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:28 CET)
While a raft of existing Chinese literature examines the associations between the outbreak of the pandemic and students’ mental health, rarely do Chinese studies assess the nuanced relationships between digital learning, parenting, and students’ mental health since the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Such a rarely discussed topic has substantial scholarly value as mismanagement of digital learning and parenting, such as the exposure to cyberbullying and negative parenting during the public health crisis, could add substantial, unforeseeable psychological burdens for Chinese students. In this article, the author applied a systematic review to find all relevant Chinese literature that contains the words “digital learning”, “children/adolescents”, “mental health”, and “parenting” published since January 2020. As such a complex topic has rarely been addressed in Chinese contexts, the author was only able to find four related scholarly articles. The author summarises the arguments and empirical findings to explore the nuanced relationships between a) digitalisation, isolation, parenting, and children’s mental health, b) parenting, teacher-student relationships, and students’ mental health, and c) maternal and paternal parenting styles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0735.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: China; sustainable urbanization; densification; Suzhou; resettlement communities
Online: 28 April 2021 (09:58:20 CEST)
China is gradually and steadily shifting towards more sustainable development and the local governments are increasingly promoting sustainable spatial planning practices. The article debates the potential contradiction between the goal of a growing urban population and the reduced consumption of land planned by the sustainable development strategy of the city of Suzhou in the Yangtse River Delta region. The article explores the opportunities of densification of the residential urban environment as a possible solution for this contradiction. The article presents some Chinese examples of densification for land use efficiency and identifies in the resettlement communities of Suzhou some of the sites that can be efficiently redeveloped for their obsolescent conditions that do not correspond to the increasingly middle-class status of the residents in the region. The article investigates the different options of densification possible in the resettlement communities in the frame of the policies of urban renewal promoted in China in recent years for improving the urban quality of cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0327.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: COVID-19; Medical waste; Environmental impac; China
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:09:57 CEST)
COVID-19 greatly challenges human beings in the health sector and leaves behind a large amount of medical waste that poses many potential threats to the environment. In this paper, we compiled relevant data released by official agencies and the media, and conducted data supplementation based on previous studies to calculate the net value of medical waste production in Hubei Province during COVID-19 with the help of a neural network model. Then, we reviewed the data related to the environmental impact of medical waste per unit and designed four scenarios to estimate the environmental impact of new medical waste generated during the epidemic. The results showed that at a medical waste generation rate of\ 0.\ 5\ kg/(\ bed\ \cdot\ d) COVID-19 resulted in a net increase in medical waste volume of about 3366.99 tons in Hubei Province. In the four scenario assumptions, if the medical waste brought by COVID-19 is completely incinerated, it will have a large impact on the air quality. If it is disposed by distillation sterilization, it will produce a large amount of wastewater and waste residue. Based on the results of the study, three policy recommendations are proposed in this paper: strict control of medical wastewater discharge, reduction and transformation of the emitted acidic gases, and attention to the emission of metallic nickel in exhaust gas and chloride in soil. These policy recommendations provide a scientific basis for controlling medical waste pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: manufacturing; world city; sustainable development; Guangzhou China
Online: 11 January 2018 (16:16:02 CET)
In the world city theory, most researchers focus on the service sector in the urban economy and less discuss the role of manufacturing. However, the path of only emphasizing financial and corporate service could not fit the sustainability concept. Compared to Anglo-American world city, Global South’s world cities have distinct pathway to be industrialization, tertiarization and globalization. This paper adopted dynamic historic perspective with first-hand materials including in-depth interviews with managers and government officers and second-hand data including yearbook statics and economic census to closely examine the emerging world city-- ‘World Factory’ in Global South, Guangzhou in China, from 1949 to 2015, to emphasize how manufacturing affects the urban globalization through three dimensions, economic, social and spatial dimensions. To make the confirmation of the role of manufacturing in Guangzhou as sustainable world city, we find manufacturing in Guangzhou builds up the basic foundation of export-oriented economy and makes positive effects on urban economic transformation. In addition, manufacturing remains important source of employment and foreign immigration. Along with urbanization and industrialization, urban spatial expansion and aggregation changes with different urban development concept. We provide new insights on multiple globalization on manufacturing for sustainable world city.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wastewater irrigation; soil characteristics; agriculture; pollution; China
Online: 9 October 2017 (10:09:42 CEST)
Fresh water is valuable nonrenewable resource and plays an important role of maintaining economic and social development. Condisering its large population and consumption potential, water resources deficit will certainly impede basic industries sustainable development of China in the near future. Application of sewage irrigation, to some extent, was regarded as an alternative way to solve the problem of agricultural irrigation water shortage in some areas (such as North China). However, accompanied with extensive implementation of sewage irrigation, some problems on sewage irrigation in agriculture are gradually obvious, especially serious pollution and destruction for farmland. In this paper, the effects of sewage irrigation on soil physical (soil bulk density, soil resistance to penetration and field capacity), chemical (pH, soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphrous, patassium, heavy metal and organic pollutants) and biological characteristics (soil microorganism and enzyme activities) of farmland in China were systematically reviewed on the base of the current utilization status of China’s farmland sewage irrigation and some feasible suggestions were put forward to the development prospect for the future. This review will be beneficial for promoting healthy development of sewage irrigation and providing theoretical support for reclamation and high efficiency of effluents in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0160.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: visibility; PM; MLH; multi-cities; northeast China
Online: 20 March 2017 (11:57:10 CET)
The variations of visibility, PM mass concentration and mixing layer height (MLH) at four major urban-industry regions (Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun) in multi-cities of central Liaoning over northeast China were evaluated from 2009-2012 to characterize the dynamics effect on air pollution. The annual mean visibilities were about 13.7±7.8km, 13.5±6.5km, 12.8±6.1km and 11.5±6.8km in Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun, respectively. The pollution load (PM×MLH) shown a weaker vertical diffusion in Anshan with a higher PM concentration in the near-surface. High concentrations of fine mode particles may be partially attributed to the biomass burning emissions from September in Liaoning Province and surrounding regions in Northeast China as well as the coal burning during the heating period with lower MLH in winter. The increasing wind speed has a similar change as the increasing of mixing layer height to make the effect on the aerosol vertical diffusion. The visibility on the non haze-fog days was about 2.5-3.0 times higher than that on hazy and fog days. The fine particle concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 on the haze and fog days were ~1.8-1.9 times and ~1.5 times higher than that on no hazy-fog days. The MLH during fog pollution showed more declining trend than haze pollution compared with non haze-fog days. The results of this study could provide the useful information to better recognize the effects of vertical pollutants diffusion on air quality in the multi-cities of central Liaoning over Northeast China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0114.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: marginal technology; power grid; consequential LCA; China
Online: 28 September 2016 (11:49:30 CEST)
Electricity consumption is often the hotspot of life cycle assessment (LCA) of products, industrial activities, or services. The objective of this paper is to provide a consistent, scientific, region-specific electricity-supply-based inventory of electricity generation technology for national and regional power grids. Marginal electricity generation technology is pivotal in assessing impacts related to additional consumption of electricity. China covers a large geographical area with regional supply grids; these are arguably equally or less integrated. Meanwhile, it is also a country with internal imbalances in regional energy supply and demand. Therefore, we suggest an approach to achieve a geographical subdivision of the Chinese electricity grid, corresponding to the interprovincial regional power grids, namely the North, the Northeast, the East, the Central, the Northwest, and the Southwest China Grids, and the China Southern Power Grid. The approach combines information from the Chinese national plans on for capacity changes in both production and distribution grids, and knowledge of resource availability. The results show that nationally, marginal technology is coal-fired electricity generation, which is the same scenario in the North and Northwest China Grid. In the Northeast, East, and Central China Grid, nuclear power gradually replaces coal-fired electricity and becomes the marginal technology. In the Southwest China Grid and the China Southern Power Grid, the marginal electricity is hydropower towards 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0322.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land consolidation; social consciousness; modernization; governance; rural China
Online: 9 October 2023 (03:11:34 CEST)
With the changing relationship between urban and rural areas in China, the rural areas are experiencing rapid social transformation. To ensure successful implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, land consolidation has become a major measure of rural economic reform. Existing research focuses on quantitative studies exploring the relationship between land consolidation and rural economic development, but there is a lack of studies on the relationship between land consolidation and social change. In this study, Jin’an Village is selected as the research area, using semi-structured interviews and semi-participatory observation to obtain original materials, aiming to make a detailed description of the specific practice of land consolidation, and to analyze the impact of land consolidation on the transformation of rural social consciousness. The study found that rural land consolidation involves villagers in the land consolidation process, which can effectively stimulate villagers’ participation in public affairs. Concurrently, the interaction between villagers and outside investors disrupts the conventional socialization model in rural areas and motivates villagers to act in accordance with contractual agreements. The conclusion is that land consolidation in rural areas can enhance the political democracy and legal consciousness of local villagers, which can lead to a change in local social consciousness. Our findings also emphasize the crucial necessity to grant rural villagers with improved accessibility to professional services and information, coupled with the continued promotion of land consolidation to advance modernization in these areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0561.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: nature-based solutions; indigenous and local knowledge; China
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:26:17 CEST)
China promotes nature-based solutions (NbS) as key approaches to addressing climate change, ecosystem damage, and biodiversity loss. However, indigenous and local knowledge (ILK), which is recognized by international scholars as an essential element of successful NbS, has not been thoroughly studied in the Chinese context. By conducting a comprehensive review of Chinese central governmental policies and semi-structured interviews with typical cases, this study finds out diversified sources of ILK and five pathways of ILK integration, including education, supervision, participation, knowledge preservation, and knowledge adoption. An increasing emphasis on community engagement has been driven by central policies such as the ecological civilization, carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals. From a practical perspective, consistent core ideas of ILK exist in selected typical Chinese cases and studies in other countries, namely co-existence and reciprocity with nature. While supportive central policies can set the scene, ILK integration could not be realized without local governmental endorsement, context-based implementation, and long-term multi-stakeholder participation. Furthermore, this study also figures out a potential deficiency in terms of realizing effective ILK integration in mainstream and conventional practices, which can be further investigated by future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0395.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; Women directors; Foreign background; China
Online: 6 May 2023 (08:46:00 CEST)
This article investigates the impact of the foreign background of women directors on a firm’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure and performance. Using a dataset on listed firms on Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchange from 2010 to 2019, we find that corporate boards with a higher proportion of women directors with foreign education experience tend to disclose more CSR information. CSR performance is also improved when there is a greater proportion of women directors with foreign education and work experience on a board. This study provides new insights into integrating stakeholder, social role, and neo-institutional theories to advance the understanding of CSR engagement in emerging economies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Cross-border E-Commerce; agricultural production; Yunnan; China
Online: 21 March 2023 (01:57:10 CET)
Economic globalisation has promoted the extensive circulation of commodities around the world, and international trade has increasingly been a strong booster for economic growth in China. As an foundation for national economy, the shift of agricultural products (AP) from production to distribution has become the focus of agricultural development, and in recent years, the international trade of agricultural products in China has been the highest in the world. While, cross-border e-commerce (CBE), as one of the important modes of agricultural products circulation, has brought new opportunities for China's fresh agricultural products to carry out online import and export trade under the favourable policies continuously introduced internationally. This research analyses status of APCBE in Yunnan Province, China, and propose strategies for developing CBE of Yunnan AP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: China; Electric vehicle; Development bottleneck; French Standardization; Enlightenment
Online: 8 November 2022 (09:18:21 CET)
The problems of operating range and costs are the two most critical bottlenecks restricting the extensive application of electric vehicles at home and abroad. There are also some prominent problems in China's electric vehicles, such as slow improvement of electric vehicle's operating range, difficulty in charging, slow charging, low utilization efficiency of charging resources, and high battery cost for electric vehicles, which lead to poor competitiveness of electric vehicles compared with traditional internal combustion engine (I.C.E.) vehicles. This paper analyzes the key factors restricting the development and popularization of electric vehicles in China from the aspects of strategic policy, sales situation and self problems. Through summarizing the experience and lessons of French standardization development strategy and electric vehicle development mode, this paper puts forward the hypothesis leading the development of electric vehicles through standardization to enhance their competitiveness, gives the specific suggestions, and briefly analyzes the feasibility from the aspects of product situation. The research content of this paper provides a certain basis and ideas for the future research work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: social risk; risk management; urban renewal; collectivism; China
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:41:22 CEST)
Social sustainability is the major concern of planners and local officials when urban renewal projects are being conducted. Extreme individualism can potentially cause conflicts of interest, making urban renewal in Western cities fraught with various types of social risks. As a country with deep-rooted socialist tradition, urban renewal projects in China are influenced by collectivist culture and show different features from those of the West. The objective of this research is to investigate how different stakeholders in urban redevelopment projects, including local residents, social organizations, the local state, and developers, interact with each other and how the associated social risks are hedged against. Using a recent well-known project in the city of Guangzhou, the authors attempt to present the latest progress in social risk management in China. With the support from a government-sponsored project, the authors have conducted a questionnaire-based survey and year-long follow-up fieldwork. Using ATLAS.ti software, we found that that “residents’ demand”, “status of collaboration”, and “degree of trust” are the keys to risk management. The results of an ordered probit model show that residents are worried about the overall planning, the relocation timetable, and whether their personal needs are taken into account. It is also indicated that the timely disclosure of project information, high-quality public participation, and a reasonable compensation plan can possibly boost the support rate. The authors suggest that utilizing China’s collectivist culture could be an effective way to mitigate social risks, and residents’ personal interests should also be respected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: nursing student; disaster preparedness; China; the modified Delphi
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:10:24 CEST)
Abstract: This study aims to set up a system to evaluate nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduates and influencing factors in China. The evaluation system was established by using the modified Delphi. There were 3 phases in this study: 1) an environmental scan; 2) setting framework; 3) adjusting indicators based on the modified Delphi. The questionnaire for these undergraduates lied in their basic information and assessment of nursing competencies in disaster preparedness. Based on the survey, the average score of nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduate nursing students surveyed was 3.10 (out of 5). In addition, gender, grade, inhabitation, and disaster drills of the students were four factors affecting nursing competencies of undergraduates. This study indicates that the present nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduates are weak, and it is essential to strengthen nursing education in disaster preparedness for undergraduates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0632.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: B. abortus; molecular epidemiology; MLVA; WGS-SNP; China
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:01:59 CET)
Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that causes chronic persistent infections in humans and livestock. In this study, conventional bio-typing, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and whole-genome sequencing-single-nucleotide polymorphism (WGS-SNP) were used to investigate the molecular epidemiology characteristics of Brucella abortus strains in China and their relationships to world lineages. A total of 100 strains were collected from 1953 to 2013, suggesting that B. abortus circulated in China in the past five decades. Moreover, most strains were mainly distributed in the northwest area. During this period, seven biovars were found, indicating that B. abortus displayed a high diversity of biovars and that the main epidemic areas are in the northern provinces. Strains have high genetic diversity, and bruce07 is the most helpful locus for genotyping of this population. Moreover, 17 MLVA-11 genotypes were found; 13 of them are of known genotypes and four are unassigned genotypes, indicating that B. abortus in this study had several geographic origins. Still, strains from unassigned genotypes may originate from China. Many shared MLVA-16 genotypes were observed in strains from the same provinces in Northern China, which confirmed a brucellosis outbreak within northern regions. WGS-SNP analysis showed that eight Chinese strains formed a ladder-like phylogram (C. Ⅶ) with strains from nine countries, including Uganda, Iraq, Russia, Georgia, Spain, Italy, Egypt, Mongolia, and China; strains were introduced to these countries from a single source. Notably, Chinese strains were closely related to strains from Russia and Mongolia; frequent animal (cattle) trade and exchanges may promote this process. We will provide new and insightful information for strength surveillance and control of B. abortus brucellosis in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0394.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: family caregivers; labour force; labour supply; employment; China
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:49:44 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers must consider the economic trade-off between caregiving and paid employment. Prior literature has suggested labour force participation (LFP) to decline with caregiving intensity, but no study has evaluated this relationship by accounting for the presence of both kinks and discontinuities. Here we used respondents of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study baseline survey who were non-farming, of working-age (aged 45-60) and had a young grandchild and/or a parent/parent-in-law. For women and men separately, a caregiving threshold-adjusted probit model was used to assess the association between LFP and weekly unpaid caregiving hours. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Of the 3,718 respondents in the analysis, for men, LFP was significantly and inversely associated with caregiving that involved neither discontinuities nor kinks. For women, a kink was identified at the caregiving threshold of 8 hours per week such that before 8 hours, each caregiving hour was associated with an increase of 0.0257 in the marginal probability of LFP, but each hour thereafter was associated with a reduction of 0.0014 in the marginal probability of LFP. These results have implications for interventions that simultaneously advance policies of health, social care and labour force.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Novel coronavirus diseases 2019; vaccination; target population; China
Online: 19 September 2020 (05:02:54 CEST)
All countries are facing decisions about which groups to prioritise for COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine product has been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Here we define the key target populations and their size in China for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination with evolving goals, accounting for the risk of illness and transmission. Essential workers (47.2 million) like healthcare workers could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services. Subsequently, older adults, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (616.0 million) could be targeted to reduce severe COVID-19 outcomes. Then it could be further extended to target adults without underlying health conditions and children (738.7 million) to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission. The proposed framework could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program, and could be generalized to inform other national and regional COVID-19 vaccination strategies.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Human papillomavirus (HPV); cervical cancer; prevalence; genotypes; China
Online: 1 August 2020 (16:25:46 CEST)
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a key role in the development of cervical cancer that ranks as the third most common gynecological cancer in China. We attempt to investigate the age and genotype-specific prevalence of HPV DNA in western Chinese females. Methods: A total of 301,880 woman were recruited from 4 different regions of western China. Routine cervical samples were collected and HPV screening was performed using 21 HPV Genotyping test (Hybribio). The overall prevalence, age-specific prevalence, and genotype distribution were analyzed. Results: The overall prevalence of HPV was 18.01%. The high-risk HPV infection rate was 79.14%, the low-risk HPV infection rate was 12.56%, and the mixed HPV infection rate was 8.30%. The most common 4 HR HPV subtypes were HPV-52, 16, 58 and 53, which accounted for 20.49 %, 19.93 %, 14.54 % and 10.01 %. In LR HPV genotype, HPV-6 ranked the highest (28.17 %), followed by HPV-81 (9.09 %), HPV-11 (3.78 %). HPV genotype subgroup analysis also showed that single-type infections had the highest prevalence rate (77.26%) among HPV positive individuals. Among muti-infection genotype, double infection was most common with frequencies of 76.04%. Conclusion: This large report shows that the overall prevalence of HPV was high in China, whose distribution exhibits different patterns across different particular age and regions. Viral genotypes HPV53, 6 were are frequently detected in this population, which is worth of significant clinical attention.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0364.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Covid-19; infection rate; air pollution; lockdown; China
Online: 24 March 2020 (14:54:49 CET)
Background: Covid-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China in Dec 2019. Since then, it has been transmitted rapidly in China and the rest of the world. While Covid-19 transmission rate has been declining in China, it is increasing exponentially in Europe and America. Although there are numerous studies examining Covid-19 infection, including an archived paper looking into the meteorological effect, the role of outdoor air pollution has yet to be explored rigorously. It has been shown that air pollution will weaken the immune system, and increase the rate of respiratory virus infection. We postulate that outdoor air pollution concentrations will have a negative effect on Covid-19 infections in China, whilst lockdowns, characterized by strong social distancing and home isolation measures, will help to moderate such negative effect. Methods: We will collect the number of daily confirmed Covid-19 cases in 31 provincial capital cities in China during the period of 1 Dec 2019 to 20 Mar 2020 (from a popular Chinese online platform which aggregates all cases reported by the Chinese national/provincial health authorities). We will also collect daily air pollution and meteorology data at the city-level (from the Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center and the US National Climatic Data Center), daily inter-city migration flows and intra-city movements (from Baidu). City-level demographics including age distribution and gender, education, and median household income can be obtained from the statistical yearbooks. City-level co-morbidity indicators including rates of chronic disease and co-infection can be obtained from related research articles. A regression model is developed to model the relationship between the infection rate of Covid-19 (number of confirmed cases/population at the city level) and outdoor air pollution at the city level, after taking into account confounding factors such as meteorology, inter- and intra-city movements, demographics, and co-morbidity and co-infection rates. In particular, we shall study how air pollution affects infection rates across different cities, including Wuhan. Our model will also study air pollution would affect infection rates in Wuhan before and after the lockdown. Expected findings: We expect there be a correlation between Covid-19 infection rate and outdoor air pollution. We also expect that reduced intra-city movement after the lockdowns in Wuhan and the rest of China will play an important role in reducing the infection rate. Interpretation: Infection rate is growing exponentially in major cities worldwide. We expect Covid-19 infection rate is related to the air pollution concentration, and is strongly dependent on inter- and intra-city movements. To reduce the infection rate, the international community may deploy effective air pollution reduction plans and social distancing policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; law and rule violations; moral community; China
Online: 8 May 2018 (04:33:21 CEST)
This paper examines the moral community thesis in the secular context of China. Using multilevel logistic regression, we test (1) whether both individual- (measured by affiliation with institutional religion) and aggregate-level religiosity (measured by the number of religious sites per 10,000 people in province) are inversely related to law and rule violations at the individual level and (2) whether the province-level religiosity enhances the inverse relationship between individual religiosity and the deviant behaviors. Results from analyzing data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the Spatial Explorer of Religions show that both individual- and aggregate-level religiosity are inversely related to the odds of violating the law and various rules of government, transportation, workplace, and other organizations. However, the cross-level interactions are not significant across models, indicating that the contextual religiosity does not increase the effect of individual-level religiosity on deviance. Implications of findings for the moral community thesis are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0038.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: migrant; public health; health education; health records; China
Online: 15 July 2017 (00:36:36 CEST)
Background: Internal migrants had obstacles in accessing local public health services in China. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Methods: Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Results: Internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The broader and shorter they migrated, the less they used public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces is negatively associated with health records (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on NCDs (OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through Internet channel (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). Conclusion: Public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsides. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Turnip mosaic virus; Potyvirus; Genetic structure; Population; China
Online: 15 May 2017 (11:38:11 CEST)
Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most widespread and economically important virus infecting both crop and ornamental species of the family Brassicaceae. TuMV isolates can be classified to five phylogenetic lineages, basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and Orchis. To understand the genetic structure of TuMV from radish in China, the 3′-terminal genome of 90 TuMV isolates were determined and analyzed with other Chinese isolates available. The results showed that the Chinese TuMV isolates from radish formed three groups: Asian-BR, basal-BR and world-B. More than half of these isolates (52.54%) were clustered to basal-BR group, and could be further divided into three sub-groups. The TuMV basal-BR isolates in the sub-groups I and II were genetically homologous with Japanese ones, while those in sub-group III formed a distinct lineage. Sub-populations of TuMV basal-BR II and III were new emergent and in a state of expansion. The Chinese TuMV radish populations were under negative selection. Gene flow between TuMV populations from Tai’an, Weifang and Changchun was frequent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Regulation Effectiveness; Land Use Plan; Construction Land; China
Online: 20 March 2017 (18:42:46 CET)
Nowadays the relationship between planning land use and actual land use is not so clear in general. A lot of efforts have been put in the failures of regulation for the expansion of construction land. However, it still lacks an integrated approach to study the effectiveness of land use regulation in terms of different land use types. Furthermore, the existing evaluation of land use plan mainly focuses on a general level, a detailed research on the regulation effectiveness of each construction land use type is absent. Therefore, this research tries to evaluate regulation effectiveness of land use plan, which takes Cangwu country, Guangxi Province as an example. The finding by analysis is that the total area of construction land expansion was about 3494.73 ha, nearly 1.1 times of the plan quota. Moreover, the effectiveness differs greatly in various construction land use types. Town, industrial/mining sites can be well regulated through the quota of land use plan. While, the quota regulation system is not as effective for other type of construction land. Thus, we suggest to improve the regulation effectiveness of construction land through different plan instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1426.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: China Northeast; SWOT Analysis; Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); Economics
Online: 21 September 2023 (09:47:43 CEST)
In order to accurately identify the external economic situation in China and analyze the situation of economic development in Northeast China, based on the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis framework, this article analyses the economy in Northeast China from the four factors of SWOT. To solve the lack of quantitative analysis in SWOT analysis, this article applies Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to the analysis, and finally forms a complete system framework with the combination of qualitative and quantitative factors, through the analysis of the important degree of various factors and the consistency test, the key factors influencing the economic development in Northeast China are analyzed, and constructive countermeasures are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1308.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Risk amplification effect; Risk preference; GM agricultural products; China
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:43:31 CEST)
Consumer preference for products made from transgenic technology has been widely studied, yet few studies exist exploring the factors influencing producers’ adoption of transgenic technology. Based on field surveys in Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Henan and Shandong, we employed a gambling experiment to capture producers’ risk preferences by estimating their risk aversion coefficients. We further estimated producers’ risk amplification and risk perception of GM technology. Using ordered logit model and Poisson model we identified the major factors influencing producers’ adoption of transgenic technology. We found the factors impacted the decision of producers from different regions in different ways. The results showed that over 60% of participants amplified the risk of transgenic crops. When there was potential risk, producers might not be rational even if they had high level of knowledge and cognition about the technology. Our results shed light on government policies aiming to increase the adoption of new technologies by producers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0422.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Zucchini; fruit rot; Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae; China
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:40:32 CEST)
Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) is an important crash crop for producing seeds in Inner Mongolia, China. In August 2021, the harvest season of seed-producing zucchini, fruit rot symptom (cv. Jindi No.1) was found in the Wuyuan region. The incidence of infected fruits of zucchini ranged from 10% to 30% and symptom consisted in 4 to 5 cm diameter lesions where the fruit was in contact with the soil. Ten isolations from six symptomatic fruits were preliminary classified as Fusarium species based on its morphological characters in potato dextrose agar. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by concatenating TEF-1α and RPB2 gene and exhibited the isolates clustered together with the Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae sequences. Pathogenicity tests revealed that two isolates caused over 3 cm diameter lesions on the fruits while negative-controls remained asymptomatic. The colonies reisolated from the leasions were morphologically identical to the original isolates, thus fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Results demonstrated that F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae was the causal agent of fruit rot observed in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fruit rot of seed-producing zucchini caused by F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae in Inner Mongolia, China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0319.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: annual cyckle; complex EOFs; statistical analysis; South China Sea
Online: 17 August 2022 (10:11:52 CEST)
We present a method to study the interannual variability of the annual cycle. The method consists of first determining the amplitude and phase of segments of 12 monthly means at all spatial points, resulting in one complex number per grid point and per year. The complex fields, once per year, are then subject to a complex EOF (CEOF) analysis. We consider as an example the barotropic stream function in the South China Sea as simulated with an ocean general circulation model across 6 decades of years, driven my realistic (NCEP) weather forcing. We find 3 to 4 to “significant” CEOFs, which account for about 53 to 62% of variance. These CEOFs go with large-scale patterns. Their time coefficients are mostly stationary, but point to some inhomogeneities related to instationarities in the forcing. In particular, the simulation since 1950-1958 deviates from the remainder of the simulation. The first CEOF describes variations in the center of the South China Sea. Its principal component describes a systematic, albeit noisy shift by almost 180o from 1960 to about the year 2000. When overlaid the long-term mean annual mean, the overall change consists of an amplification of the annual cycle in the 1960s and 1990s, whereas In the 1970s, the amplitude was reduced. Phase shifts in the anomaly (given by the CEOFs) have a small effect, because of the dominance of the mean annual cycle. These variations are not related to ENSO variability but may origin in variations of the Southeast monsoon. The second EOF represents strong changes, both in terms of intensity and phase, in the Luzon strait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0064.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: Abadiella; South China; Gondwana; stratigraphic correlation; Cambrian Stage 3
Online: 2 August 2022 (11:13:00 CEST)
The taxonomy of trilobites Abadiella Hupé, 1953 and Parabadiella Zhang, 1966 from the lower Cambrian of Gondwana has long been a controversy. Based on newly-collected and formerly-reported materials, 94 trilobite cranidia within 21 species are selected for morphometric analyses: principal components analysis (PCA) and canonical variates analysis (CVA). The integrated morphological characters are successfully accounted for by two principal components in PCA. The further validations for the presupposed qualitative groupings are indispensable to detect and calibrate the ultimate taxonomic results in CVA. By this way, all specimens distributed in a consistent morphospace in PCA and the short distances between them demonstrate their close morphological affinity, supporting their congeneric status within Abadiella. Additionally, three morphotypes were recognized from all selected specimens and they were eventually revised and incorporated into A. bourgini Hupé, 1953, A. huoi Zhang, 1966, and A. yunnanensis Luo, 1981, through stepwise test-calibration to get a high correct rate as far as possible in CVA. From this, it is certain that A. huoi is conspecific in South Australia and South China. Its occurrence allows to correlate the Australian A. huoi Range Zone to the identical zone in South China (in platform), having an approximately consistent stratigraphic range in the two regions. In comparison with A. huoi, A. bourgini was reported from fewer localities in South China. Nevertheless, its presence in the Daguinaspis Zone of Issendalenian Stage in Morocco permits a correlation with Chinese and Australian A. huoi Zone. As an auxiliary marker for A. huoi, the occurrence of A. bourgini in Morocco, South Australia and South China reinforce the correlation potential and resolution in species-level for the Cambrian Stage 3 in Gondwana region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0077.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: near-surface humidity; remote sensing; deep learning; China Seas
Online: 5 July 2022 (13:46:55 CEST)
Near-surface humidity (Qa) is a key parameter that modulates oceanic evaporation and influences the global water cycle. Remote sensing observations act as feasible sources for long-term and large-scale Qa monitoring. However, existing satellite Qa retrieval models are subject to apparent uncertainties due to model errors and insufficient training data. Based on in situ observations collected over the China Seas over the last two decades, a deep learning approach named Ensemble Mean of Target deep neural networks (EMTnet) was proposed to improve the satellite Qa retrieval over the China Seas for the first time. The EMTnet model outperforms five representative existing models by nearly eliminating the mean bias and significantly reducing the root-mean-square error in satellite Qa retrieval. According to its target deep neural networks selection process, the EMTnet model can obtain more objective learning results when the observational data are divergent. The EMTnet model was subsequently applied to produce a 30-year monthly gridded Qa data over the China Seas. It indicates that the climbing rate of Qa over the China Seas under the background of global warming are probably underestimated by current products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0289.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: internet access; nutritional intake; rural China; propensity score matching
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:54:42 CEST)
Over the past four decades, China has experienced a nutritional transition and has developed the largest population of internet users. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of internet access on the nutritional intake in Chinese rural residents. An IV-Probit-based propensity score matching method was used to determine the impact of internet access on nutritional intake. The data were collected from 10042 rural households in six Chinese provinces. The results reveal that rural residents with internet access have significantly higher energy, protein, and fat intake than those without. Chinese rural residents with internet access consumed 1.35% (28.62 kcal), 5.02% (2.61 g), and 4.33% (3.30 g) more energy, protein, and fat, respectively. There was heterogeneity as regards the intake of energy, protein, and fat among those in different income groups. Moreover, non-staple food consumption is the main channel through which internet access affects nutritional intake. The results demonstrate that the local population should use the internet to improve their nutritional status. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of internet use on food consumed away from home and micronutrients intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: coronavirus; horseshoe bats; reservoir hosts; Indochina; China; herd immunity.
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:39:15 CET)
To date, viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in four bat species: Rhinolophus acuminatus, Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus malayanus, and Rhinolophus shameli. Here, we analysed 343 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) from georeferenced bats of the four Rhinolophus species identified as reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2-like viruses. Haplotype networks were constructed in order to investigate patterns of genetic diversity among bat populations of Southeast Asia. No strong geographic structure was found for the four Rhinolophus species, suggesting high dispersal capacity. The ecological niche of SARS-CoV-2 like viruses was predicted using the four localities of bat SARS-CoV-2-like viruses and the localities where bats showed identical or very similar CO1 haplotypes than virus-positive bats. The ecological niche of SARS-CoV-like viruses was deduced from the localities where bat SARS-CoV-like viruses were previously detected. The results show that the ecological niche of SARS-CoV2-like viruses includes several regions of mainland Southeast Asia whereas that of SARS-CoV-like viruses is mainly restricted to China. In agreement with these results, human populations in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand appear to be much less affected by the Covid-19 pandemic than other countries of Southeast Asia. In the climatic transitional zone between the two ecological niches (southern Yunnan, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and possibly Hainan and Taiwan), genomic recombination between highly divergent viruses is more likely to occur. Since recombinant viruses can threaten the benefit of vaccination campaigns, these regions should be under surveillance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; clinical studies; China; clinical trials; observational studies
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:47:49 CEST)
Objectives: This study aims to identify, report, and analyze registered and published clinical trials and observational studies for the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 conducted in China. Methods: A strategic search was conducted via the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry to identify and extract clinical trials and observational studies registered and conducted in China for the pharmacological treatment of COVID-2019 between January 1st, 2020 and March 21st, 2020. This was further supplemented by searches conducted via the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, the MEDLINE database, the World Health Organization (WHO) database, and MedRxiv and BioRxiv electronic platforms for preprint articles, published up until April 8th, 2020. Studies available in Chinese and English were included in the searches and extracted. A primary descriptive analysis was performed for registered clinical trials and observational studies identified in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry based on the extraction of the following clinical study information: trial ID, planned date of enrollment, recruitment status, study design, population, sample size, intervention/exposure group, control /reference group, dosage, and primary outcomes. A secondary descriptive analysis was performed for published clinical trials and observational studies identified from the supplementary databases based on the extraction of the following published clinical study information: study design, population, intervention/exposure group, control /reference group and main results as appropriate. Results: A total of 221 clinical trials and observational studies were included from all databases searched. From the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 195 registered clinical studies including 170 clinical trials and 25 observational studies were identified and included for primary analysis. From the supplementary databases, 26 published clinical studies including 8 clinical trials and 18 observational studies were included for secondary analysis. Of these 26 published clinical studies, 18 studies, including 3 clinical trials and 15 observational studies were identified from CNKI, 2 studies including 1 clinical trial and 1 observational study from MEDLINE, 2 including 1 clinical trials and 1 observational studies from the WHO database, and 4 including 3 clinical trials and 1 observational studies from MedRxiv and BioRxiv platforms. In the primary analysis, among the 170 clinical trials included from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 101 investigated western medicines (WMs), while 15 investigated Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs), and 54 investigated a combination of TCMs and WMs. Among the 25 included observational studies from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 2 investigated WMs, 2 investigated TCMs, and 21 investigated a combination of TCMs and WMs. The total number of exposed patients in all 195 clinical studies from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry amounted to 24,500. In the secondary analysis, treatment with Lopinavir-ritonavir and treatment with Hydroxychloroquine was not associated with a difference from standard of care in the rate of RT-PCR negativity; treatment with a combination of Lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon α, and Lian-Hua-Qing-Wen capsule was found to significantly improve the effective rate of treatment compared with Interferon α combined with Lian-Hua-Qing-Wen capsule. Conclusions: China is generating a massive source of evidence that is critical for defeating the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only the clinical experience, but also the scientific evidence should be shared with the global scientific community.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: warm cloud-precipitation; cloud radar; ceilometer; disdrometer; South China
Online: 23 October 2019 (03:35:10 CEST)
Warm cloud-precipitation plays a vital role in the hydrological cycle, weather, and climate. Comprehensive observation and study of warm cloud-precipitation can advance our understanding of the internal physical processes and provide valuable information for developing the numerical models. This paper mainly focused on a study of characteristics of warm cloud-precipitation in South China during the pre-flood season using datasets observed from a Ka-band cloud radar, laser ceilometer and disdrometer. Eighteen kinds of quantities from these three instruments were used to precisely elucidate the distribution, diurnal variation, vertical structure, and physical property of warm cloud-precipitation. The results showed that the occurrence of aloft cloud-precipitation decreased with the increase of height, and most of the hydrometeors were distributed below 2 km. During the observation period, the ground rainfall mainly came from light precipitation; however, short-time and sharp showers contributed to the majority of rain amounts. Most of the cloud layers were single-layer, with base heights below 2.2 km, thickness thinner than 2.1 km, and top heights within 0.6-4.2 km. Warm cloud-precipitation owned certain diurnal variations, with a rising trend of cloud base heights in the afternoon and midnight. During 0230-1100, 1200-1800, and 2100-2300, the convections were relatively active with higher cloud tops, thicker cloud thickness, and higher rainfall occurrences. Separation and statistical results of cloud and precipitation indicated that they owned different vertical structures and physical properties, exhibiting different value ranges and changes of radar reflectivity, vertical air motion, particle size, number concentration, liquid water, and rain rate at different height levels. The particle size distributions of cloud and precipitation both were exponential. Radar-derived raindrop size distribution was very coherent with the ground measurement when the reflectivity of precipitation was within 10-20 dBZ. However, for other reflectivity regimes, instrument sensitivity, sampling height, attenuation, and non-precipitating weak targets can affect the comparison.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: transportation; carbon emission; carbon intensity; panel data analysis; China
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:16:35 CEST)
China’s transportation industry has made rapid progress, which has led to a mass of carbon emissions. However, it is still unclear how the carbon emission from transport sector is punctuated by shifts in underlying drivers. This paper aims to examine the process of China’s carbon emissions from transport sector as well as its major driving forces during the period of 2000 to 2015 at the provincial level. We firstly estimate the carbon emissions from transport sector at the provincial level based on the fuel and electricity consumption using a top-down method. We find that the carbon emission per capita is steadily increasing across the nation, especially in the provinces of Chongqing and Inner Mongolia. However, the carbon emission intensity is decreasing in most provinces of China, except in Yunnan, Qinghai, Chongqing, Zhejiang, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Henan and Anhui. We then quantify the effect of socio-economic factors and their regional variations on the carbon emissions using panel data model. The results show that the development of secondary industry is the most significant variable in both the entire nation level and the regional level, while the effects of the other variables vary across regions. Among these factors, population density is the main motivator of the increasing carbon emissions per capita from transport sector for both the whole nation and the western region, whereas the consumption level per capita of residents and the development of tertiary industry are the primary drivers of per capita carbon emissions for the eastern and central region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0095.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: China；economic growth；export market；economic policy； potential drivers
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:18:07 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to apply China’s economy growth prospects and its potential drivers of future. China's fast rise and its growth model have accelerated important existing structural trends in the global economy and made them decisive characteristics of the world economy. China's role in the world economy over the coming decades, an exercise which would not be possible without an investigation of the prospects for China's continued economic rise. On the one hand, China is a large export market for the United States. A lot of U.S. firms use China as the final destination of assembly in their global supply chain networks. China’s huge holdings of U.S. Treasury securities support the federal government finance its budget failures. However, some analysts contend that China consolidates a number of distortive economic policies such as protectionist industrial policies and an undervalued currency that undermine U.S. economic interests. They warn that efforts by the Chinese government to promote indigenous innovation, often through the use of subsidies and other distortive measures, could negatively affect many leading U.S. industries
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0169.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: China; sustainability development; carbon emissions; carbon flow; sectoral analysis
Online: 21 March 2017 (04:28:01 CET)
Reducing carbon emissions is a major ways to achieving green development and sustainability for China’s future. This paper elaborates the detailed feature of China's carbon flow for 2013 with the carbon flow chart and gives changing characteristics of China's CO2 flow from the viewpoint of sector and energy during 2000 and 2013. The results show that (1) during 2000 to 2013, China's CO2 emissions with the approximately growth portion of 9% annually, while the CO2 intensity of China diminishes at different rates. (2) The CO2 emissions from secondary industry are prominent from the perspective of four main sectors accounting for 83.5%. The manufacturing play an important part in the secondary industry with 45%. In which the "smelting and pressing of metal" takes up a large percentage as about 50% in manufacturing. (3) The CO2 emissions produced by coal consumption is keep dominant in energy-related emissions with a contribution of 65%, while it will decrease in the future. (4) From the aspect of sector, the CO2 emissions mainly come from the "electricity and heating" sector and the "smelting and pressing of metals" sub-sector. While it is essential and urgent to propose concrete recommendations for CO2 emissions mitigation. Firstly, the progression of creative technology is inevitable and undeniable. Secondly, the government should make different CO2 emissions reduction policies among different sectors. For example, the process emission plays an important role in "non-metallic mineral" while in "smelting and manufacturing of metals" it is energy. Thirdly, the country can change the energy structure and promote renewable energy for powering by wind or other low-carbon energy. Besides it, the coke oven gas can be a feasible substitution. Finally, policy maker should be aware of the emissions from residents have been growing in a fast rate. It is effective to involve the public in the activity of energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction such as reducing the times of personal transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0051.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urbanization; land surface phenology; urban heat island; Northeast China
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:30:26 CET)
The urbanization effects on land surface phenology (LSP) have been investigated by many studies, but few studies focused on the temporal variations of urbanization effects on LSP. In this study, we used the MODIS EVI, MODIS LST data and China’s Land Use/Cover Datasets (CLUDs) to investigate the temporal variations of urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP in Northeast China during 2001–2015. Land surface temperature (LST) and phenology differences between urban and rural areas represented the urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP, respectively. Mann-kendall nonparametric test and Sen's slope were used to evaluating the trends of urbanization effects on LSP and urban heat island intensity. The results indicated that the average land surface phenology (LSP) during 2001–2015 was characterized by high spatial heterogeneity. The start of the growing season (SOS) in old urban area had become earlier and earlier than rural area and the differences of SOS between urbanized area and the rural area changed greatly during 2001–2015 (−0.79 days/year, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the length of the growing season (LOS) in urban and adjacent areas had become increasingly longer than rural area especially in urbanized area (0.92 days/year, p < 0.01), but the differences of the end of the growing season (EOS) between urban and adjacent areas did not change significantly. Next, the UHII increased in spring and autumn during the whole study period. Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that the increasing urban heat island intensity in spring contributed greatly to the increases of urbanization effects on SOS, but the increasing urban heat island intensity in autumn did not lead to the increases of urbanization effects on EOS in Northeast China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: hydropower; political ecology; social and environmental impacts; Cambodia; China
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:47:15 CEST)
Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia, the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of large dams to ensure that the dams’ benefits are shared more equally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0147.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: China Coastal Front; Zhejiang-Fujian Front; Zhe-Min Front; Himawari-8; Advanced Himawari Imager; East China Sea; Taiwan Strait; Sea surface temperature
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:53:06 CET)
High-resolution (2 km) high-frequency (hourly) SST data from 2015-2020 provided by the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard the Japanese Himawari-8 geostationary satellite positioned over 140.7°E were used to study spatial and temporal variability of the China Coastal Front (CCF) in the East China Sea. The hourly SST data were processed with the Belkin and O’Reilly (2009) algorithm to generate long-term mean monthly maps of SST gradient magnitude (GM) and frontal frequency (FM) using a GM threshold of 0.1°C/km. Horizontal structure of SST field in the vicinity of the CCF was investigated from cross-frontal distributions of SST along 8 parallels from 31°N to 24°N. The high resolution (2 km) monthly distributions of SST along these 8 parallels were used to determine inshore and offshore boundaries of the CCF and calculate the CCF strength defined as the total cross-frontal SST step dSST=Offshore SST – Inshore SST. The CCF emerges in November, fully develops in December and peaks in strength in January-February. The front’s fragmentation and shrinking/weakening begins in February and March, respectively. In winter (December-February), the front’s strength dSST exceeds 5°C offshore the Zhejiang-Fujian coast and could be as high as 7.5°C when nearshore waters cool down to 7°C. In winter, the front’s strength decreases downstream from 31°N to 24°N. The CCF changes its physical nature as the seasons progress. In winter, the CCF is a water mass front between cold and fresh water coming from the north and warm and salty water coming from the south. In summer, the CCF becomes a coastal upwelling front maintained largely by southerly winds. In winter, the CCF’s cross-frontal structure in the SST field is ramp-shaped, with SST increasing monotonously in the offshore direction. In summer, the CCF’s cross-frontal structure in the SST field is V-shaped or U-shaped, featuring a minimum SST formed by cold upwelled water at some distance from the shore. Thus, the summer SST structure effectively consists of two fronts, a nearshore and offshore, with a minimum SST in-between. Across the inshore/offshore front, the SST decreases/increases in the offshore direction. The local bathymetry, especially the relatively steep shelf slope between 20-m and 50-m isobath, steers the front, which does not meander in winter offshore the Zhejiang-Fujian coast. As the cold season progresses, the front’s axis gradually shifts into deeper waters, from ~20 m to ~50 m.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1918.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: China construction industry; frontline workers; Unsafe behavior; Structural equation modeling
Online: 30 November 2023 (05:27:07 CET)
The unsafe behavior of frontline workers at construction sites is the most important cause of construction accidents. This study proposed a comprehensive model of frontline workers' unsafe behaviors based on a systems perspective and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the influence mechanisms between Objective Conditions (e.g., work environment, work climate, task complexity), Safety Management (e.g., safety education and training, safety reward and punishment regulations, safety inspection, safety technology disclosure, safety warning signs), Group Influence (propagation of unsafe behaviors among workers), Personal Perception (subjective judgment of operators on their safety knowledge and skills), and Unsafe Behaviors. Data from 460 frontline workers were collected through questionnaires and the correlation hypotheses were tested using SPSS 26.0 and Amos 26.0 software. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) Objective Conditions directly positively influence Safety Management, Group Influence, and Personal Perception, but indirectly negatively influence Unsafe Behavior; (2) Safety Management not only directly positively affects Personal Perception but also directly negatively affects Unsafe Behavior. However, the direct effect of Safety Management on Group Influence is not significant; (3) Group Influence has a direct positive effect on Unsafe Behavior, but the direct effect on Personal Perception is not significant; (4) The direct effect of Personal Perception on Unsafe Behavior is insignificant. These findings can be used as preliminary data to guide decision-makers or managers in construction companies to develop reasonable management plans to curb unsafe behaviors of frontline workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: E-Loyalty; E-Marketing; E-Trust; culture; hotel industry; China
Online: 8 September 2023 (10:31:45 CEST)
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to further explore how e-loyalty and E-marketing influences E-trust and satisfy the demand by offering fresh perspectives based on research as well as emphasis on the factors influencing the E-trust such as culture as a mediator. This study not only contributed theoretically but also presented practical implementations. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey was used to obtain data by focusing the Hospitality sector (Hotel Industry) and verifying the conceptual framework. Data was collected in multiple time lags. Findings: Findings showed that the E-trust influenced by E-loyalty and E-Marketing. E-trust comes from the previous experiences, e-loyalty and e-marketing. Further, some trends such as culture influenced the e-trust. Research limitation/implications: The present study is quite suitable for those Researchers interested in learning more about the effects of E-loyalty and E-marketing on user E-trust and how to mitigate cultural influences can benefit from the current study. This research also has implications for those who wish to improve market allure and survival in digital world. This study focused on the hospitality sector (Hotel Industry) in China; however, the sector and geography could be altered to suit the needs of the study's participants. Practical implications: The present study delivers the practical guidelines which are quiet suitable for understanding the formation of E-loyalty, E-marketing, and E-trust through which specific E-marketing strategy can be designed to deal with the consumer’s E-loyalty and their expectations as per their Cultural perspective. At some particular regions/countries, cultural trends are more important than practical market. This research study practically showed that how culture changed the consumer set of mind. Originality/value: The relationship between E-loyalty, E-marketing, E-trust, specifically with the cultural influence in digital market has been the subject of few research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cropland abandonment; hierarchical linear model; background effect; causal analysis; China
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:16:01 CEST)
Cropland abandonment is a widespread phenomenon with an increasing trend around the world, including China. Cropland abandonment is the result of a multi-scale and multi-factor nested structure, in order to comprehensively identify the individual and background effects, the study explores the causes of the differences in farmland abandonment levels at two levels: farm household and village, based on a hierarchical linear model. The results show that: (1) 83.63% of the differences in farm abandonment rates are differences in farm households while 16.37% are differences in their villages; (2) whether head of household is healthier, per capita cropland area, ratio of transferred farmland, possession of large-scale agricultural production machinery or livestock for agricultural production, ratio of agricultural income, and whether there are village cadres have a significant negative impact on abandonment rates at the farm household level; while at the village level, commuting distance, whether it is a suburb of a large or medium-sized city, topography of the village is plain or not, and ratio of the number of people in agricultural production in the village have a significant positive impact on abandonment rates, while whether it has experienced land expropriation has a significant positive effect on the abandonment rate; (3) commuting distance weakens the negative correlation between the ratio of transferred cropland and the ratio of agricultural income and the abandonment rate; whether it is a suburb of a large or medium-sized city strengthens the negative correlation between whether it owns large-scale agricultural production machinery or livestock and the abandonment rate; whether the topography of the village is plain weakens the negative correlation between the possession of large agricultural production machinery or livestock for agricultural production and the agricultural income ratio and the abandonment rate; ratio of the number of people in agricultural production in the village weakens the negative correlation between the ratio of transferred cropland and abandonment rate; and whether the village has experienced land expropriation strengthens the negative correlation between the ratio of agricultural income and abandonment rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1128.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: ocean fronts; front detection; satellite oceanography; remote sensing; China Seas
Online: 18 July 2023 (02:59:16 CEST)
This review will serve as an entry point for international researchers who would like to tap into the vast scientific potential of Chinese-language literature on oceanic fronts. We focused on observational studies in descriptive physical oceanography of marine fronts. A thorough bibliographic search netted 93 papers published in 1982-2023, with a sharp increase of the total number of papers after 2010. This trend continued unabated through the early 2020s. Regionally, the overwhelming majority of papers is focused on the China Seas, particularly the East China Seas (Bohai, Huanghai, and Donghai, especially the Yangtze River Plume) and northern South China Sea (Guangdong Shelf). Elsewhere, a number of papers were dedicated to the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic. Thematically, papers on remote sensing of ocean fronts dominate, with special attention to the development of new advanced front-detection algorithms applied to satellite data on sea surface temperature and chlorophyll. Numerous papers on marine fronts in the China Seas present important results that have to be considered by international researchers. Overall, this review emphasizes the significant contributions made by Chinese oceanographers, particularly to the frontal oceanography of the China Seas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: China; Covid-19; Health Silk Road; Case Study; Global Heath
Online: 3 May 2023 (13:08:37 CEST)
This study examines the Health Silk Road (HSR) as a critical component of China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and its implications for global health and international relations. The HSR aims to enhance public health and foster international cooperation in the healthcare sector, with objectives including strengthening healthcare infrastructure, expanding China's global health leadership, and enhancing international health cooperation. Through an in-depth analysis of the China-Pakistan collaboration on healthcare under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as a case study, this research explores the motives, implications, and potential concerns associated with the HSR. This research posits that the HSR has a mix of positive and negative implications, making it challenging to categorize the initiative as simply good or bad. While the HSR contributes to improved healthcare services, infrastructure, and capacity-building in participating countries, it also raises concerns about debt sustainability, transparency, and China's geopolitical influence. This research contributes to a nuanced understanding of the HSR's multifaceted impacts and underscores the importance of open dialogue, cooperation, and the sharing of best practices among stakeholders in order to maximize the initiative's benefits and minimize potential negative consequences. By assessing the motives, implications, and concerns of the HSR, this study offers valuable insights for policymakers, global health practitioners, and scholars, highlighting the significance of international collaboration in addressing shared health challenges and promoting sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0067.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; nutritional intake; rural China; food consumption; food security
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:22:25 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced risks and challenges to global food and nutrition security. In this paper, we examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nutritional intake of China's rural residents using panel data and a fixed effect model. The data were collected in 2019 and 2020 and covered nine provinces and 2,631 households in rural China. The results reveal that an increase of 100 confirmed cases in a county resulted in a 1.48% (p<0.01), 1.46% (p<0.01), 1.77% (p<0.01), and 1.23% (p<0.01) decrease in per capita intake of dietary energy, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic only had a significant and negative effect on dietary energy intake in the low-income group at the 5% level of significance. Our study indicates that the potential insufficient nutrition situation, nutritional imbalance, and dietary imbalance of low-income rural residents should be addressed appropriately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Soil Core Microbiota; Countryside and Metropolis; Huabei Plain; Central China
Online: 20 January 2021 (14:35:12 CET)
Soils harbor diverse bacteria, and these bacteria play important roles in soil nutrition cycling and carbon storage. Numerous investigations of soil microbiota had been performed, and the core microbiota in different soil or vegetation soil types had been described. However, the complexity of soil environments and relatively limited information of many geographic areas had attracted great attention on comprehensive exploration of soil microbes in enormous types of soil. To reveal the core soil microbiota in Huabei plain, soil samples from metropolis and countryside regions in the Huabei plain were investigated using high-throughput sequencing strategy. The results showed that the most dominant bacteria are Proteobacteria (38.34%), Actinobacteria (20.56%), and Acidobacteria (15.18%). At the genus-level, the most abundant known genera are Gaiella (3.66%), Sphingomonas (3.6%), Acidobacteria Gp6 (2.1%), and Arthrobacter (2%). Moreover, several dominant operational taxanomy units (OTU), such as OTU_3 and OTU_17, were identified to be associated with the soil environment. Microbial distributions of the metropolis samples were different from the countryside samples, which may reflect the environments in the countryside were more diverse than in the metropolis. Microbial diversity and evenness were higher in the metropolis than in the countryside, which might due to the fact that human activity increased the microbial diversity in the metropolis. The soil core microbiota of the Huabei plain were complex, and microbial distributions in the Huabei plain might be mainly affected by the human activity and environmental factors, not by the distance. Our data highlights the soil core microbiota in Huabei Plain, and provides insights for future soil microbiota distribution studies in central China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0621.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Export; export; international trade; the flexibility of production; China; EU
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:18:41 CET)
The sudden and abrupt rise of COVID-19 became a challenge for the world economy. In this paper, we investigate the changes of a trend of mutual trade between the EU-15 countries and China during the demanding times of the COVID-19 crisis. We use monthly data for Chinese export to the EU (2018:01 – 2020:05) and import from the EU (2018:01 – 2020:07) relying on the data from open source Trademap. We employ descriptive statistics to analyze the trade. Overall, there is the obvious decline of 13-32 per cent in worldwide trade as predicted by the WTO. This affected China as the main trading partner of electronic devices and medical supplies. The trade between the EU and China has decreased, but the major change in demand brought the alteration in commodities structure and re-orientation of Chinese export production. In the first five months of 2020, we have witnessed strong engagement of the Chinese economy in new highly demanded production - mainly to articles strongly linked with healthcare and medical equipment. Thus, we have observed that the Chinese were very flexible in changing the structure of export which was triggered by COVID-19 crisis. This flexibility is worth further exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0284.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: Religious beliefs; Public pro-environmental behavior; Environmental risk perception; China
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:35:21 CET)
Although the positive relationship between religion and environmental behavior is well-argued, empirical research about the relationship between religion and public pro-environmental behavior is relatively lacking. This paper aims to explore the group differences in the influence of religion on public pro-environmental behavior and the mediating role of environmental risk perception in religion and public pro-environmental behavior. Using the Chinese General Social Survey data in 2013 for empirical analysis, this study’s results show that there are group differences in the impact of religion on public pro-environmental behavior. Women with religious beliefs are more willing to engage in public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. Religious believers over the age of 45 are more willing to participate in public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. Political participants with religious beliefs are more willing to practice public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. In addition, we found that environmental risk perception can act as partial mediation in religious and public pro-environmental behavior. In other words, religious beliefs are deeply embedded in local political and social culture. In order to correctly understand the relationship between religion and public pro-environmental behavior, it is necessary to consider religion in a specific cultural background.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: US-China trade conflict; Port Cargo; WTO Appellate Body; NTBs
Online: 27 December 2019 (12:51:44 CET)
Various risks and uncertainties are strengthening the downside of the global economy. This paper aims to estimate the impact of US-China conflict and the WTO Appellate Body's shutdown on global logistics demand and to show the seriousness of the situation. Existing literature studies on protectionism or US-China trade conflict, with a focus on the effects of specific issues or impact on bilateral relations. No research has considered the adverse effects of the WTO Appellate Body's shutdown. This paper considers both US-China conflict and the installation of new NTBs in other countries due to weakened WTO function, and tries to suggest that the combination of tariffs and NTBs can severely reduce international trade and the demand for maritime logistics services, making this paper differs from previous studies. This paper suggests that a catastrophe could occur in global maritime logistics, based on quantitative estimates for the impact of global protectionism. Finally, underlining that the international trade order should not seriously be damaged, this paper proposes that countries around the world should seriously discuss this issue at the 12th WTO Trade Ministers' Meeting in Kazakhstan June 2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Population Distribution; Optimization; Hu Huanyong Line; Land Use Efficiency; China
Online: 8 August 2018 (08:46:57 CEST)
With the accelerating urbanization process, the population increasingly concentrates in urban areas. In view of the special situation in China and a series of problems in the process of rapid urbanization, there were no reasonable measures for optimizing the population pattern. This study explored the distribution pattern of the Chinese population and proposed an optimization plan for the population distribution using GIS analysis. The main findings were as follows. (1) From 2010 to 2015, the distribution of population density in China presented a pattern of high in the southeast and low in the northwest based on the county-level administrative regions. The population still showed a tendency to migrate to the southeast of the country based on the “Hu Huanyong Line”. (2) There was a great difference in the land use efficiency in terms of population and economic production in China. The economic concentration in China was higher than the population concentration. In the areas where population and economic production were aggregated, GDP per capita and land use efficiency were higher. (3) Based on the land use efficiency in terms of population and economic production, the optimized urbanization plan of “1+4+11” for China’s urbanization was put forward, namely, one national-level aggregated area of population and economic production, 4 regional-level aggregated areas of population and economic production, and 11 local regionally aggregated areas of population and economic production. This optimization plan for urbanization represents an attempt to explore the direction of China’s urbanization, and it can be used to optimize the spatial development pattern and provide scientific guidance for the new urbanization plan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0051.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: residential electricity consumption; income; piecewise linear model; China; robust tests
Online: 14 October 2016 (09:53:13 CEST)
There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption during the economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—are important to the sustainable development of electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995-2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions.” Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the conservatism of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. And government should emphasize electricity conservation in industrial sector rather than in residential sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1762.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: rural industrial park; urban renewal; decision-making mechanism; cluster analysis; China
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:16:55 CET)
Since China’s economic reform launched in the late 1970s, rural industrial parks (RIPs) have played a crucial role in the rise of the manufacturing industry in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), transforming the former agricultural land into a location of world-famous factories. However, as China has put forward higher requirements for economic development and stricter control measures for environmental pollution, RIPs with low-end industries and low efficiency present an urgent need for renovation and upgrade. By analyzing the spatial and socioeconomic cross-sectional dataset of rural industrial parks in Nanhai District of Foshan City, this paper attempts to classify the existing industrial parks into groups and propose corresponding redevelopment strategies. The results of the spatial analysis show that the spatial distribution of rural industrial parks is closely related to their location and transportation conditions. Failure of the market has resulted in large tracts of advantageous land being taken up by inefficient industrial parks. Cluster analysis and overlay analysis are used evaluate the difficulty of redevelopment and divide the industrial parks into three clusters: retained RIPs, medium-term-removed RIPs, and near-term-removed RIPs. It is shown that some of the industrial parks are still in good form while the majority need substantial reconstruction. Taking economic and institutional factors into consideration, the authors put forward that different strategies should be adopted for the future renovation of medium-term-removed and near-term-removed RIPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: alkaline diagenesis; shale series; Fengcheng Formation; Mahu Depression; Junggar Basin; China
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:33:44 CEST)
The Fengcheng Formation in the Mahu Sag of the Junggar Basin was generally composed of detritus, pyroclastic material, carbonates, and evaporites. During the process of sedimentation, the climate was arid or semi-arid. Due to the effect of high concentration and sodium-rich source, an alkaline lake was formed, and alkaline minerals were also preserved in the stratum. After the sediments were buried, three mineral assemblages were formed in the Fengcheng Formation, which are carbonate mineral assemblages (i.e., calcite + ferreous dolomite), reedmergnerite and carbonate mineral assemblages (i.e., reedmergnerite + calcite + ferreous dolomite), and reedmergnerite and alkaline mineral assemblages (i.e., reedmergnerite + shortite + trona), respectively. According to the homogenization temperature of reedmergnerite primary fluid inclusions, alkaline diagenesis of Fengcheng Formation is divided into early stage（≤100℃） and middle stage（＞100℃）, respectively. The former is characterized by the generation of ferreous saddle dolomite, quartz dissolution, and agglutination of the laumontite, which occurred under normal burial conditions. The latter is marked by the reedmergnerite’s appearance, which is correlated to deep hydrothermal activity controlled by faults. Finally, based on sedimentary and diagenetic factors, including climate, provenance, diagenetic surroundings, and the action of subsurface fluid, the alkaline deposition-diagenesis model for shale series in four stages of the Fengcheng Formation was established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0981.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Agama; Aridification; Colonization; Mitochondrial DNA; Northwest China; Phylogeography; Species Distribution Modeling
Online: 17 October 2023 (05:24:04 CEST)
The agamid lizard Phrynocephalus melanurus, is restricted to the Northwest China (Dzungar Basin) and adjacent Eastern Kazakhstan (Zaisan and Alakol basins). To elucidate the phylogeography of P. melanurus, we obtained the mitochondrial DNA COI segments of 175 sampled lizards from 44 localities across the whole distribution range. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two main clades comprising six geographically structured lineages (I, IIa, IIb, IIc1, IIc2, and IIc3) that fits an isola-tion by distance (IBD) model. The divergence from the most recent ancestor was dated to ~1.86 million years ago (Ma). Demographic analyses demonstrated lineage-specific response to past climate change: stable population for Clade I, IIb and IIc2; while past population expansion for IIc1 and IIc3 since 0.02 Ma and 0.18 Ma, respectively. Bayesian phylogeographic diffusion anal-yses detected initial spreading at the Saur Mount vicinity approximately 1.8 Ma. Historical species distribution modeling (SDM) projected expansion of the suitable habitat in the last interglacial period and stepwise contraction in the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene epochs. The SDM predicts a shrinkage and shift of suitable area eastward as a response to future climate change. Our findings suggest that the evolution of P. melanurus followed a parapatric divergence with subsequent dispersal and adaptation to cold and dry environments during the Quaternary. Moreover, future conservation strategies need to be taken to maintain the population of lineage IIc1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1674.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: China; Sycanus; taxonomy; DNA barcoding; species delimitation; phylogeny; new species; biology
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:40:40 CEST)
Due to the variation of the body coloration and the similarity of the related species, there are still some unresolved problems and debates in the taxonomic study of the genus Sycanus in China. We conducted the inter-specific phylogenetic analyses and the species delimitation for Sycanus in China based on DNA barcoding dataset of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of 81 samples and partial 28S rDNA sequences of 34 samples. The result showed that all the samples were divided into twelve species by integrating the results of DNA barcoding and morphological comparison. In the present paper, the genus Sycanus in China was reviewed systematically, all species were described or re-described, keyed, illustrated and photographed, among them, Sycanus taiwanensis Zhao & Cai sp. nov., Sycanus flavicorius Li & Cai sp. nov. and Sycanus hainanensis Wang & Cai sp. nov. were described as new to science. The biological informations of Sycanus falleni Stål, 1863 and Sycanus croceus Hsiao, 1979 were briefly recorded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0539.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture; Green Finance; Agricultural Industrial Structure; Fixed Effect Model; China
Online: 8 May 2023 (12:08:12 CEST)
This study utilized panel data from 31 Chinese provinces over a period of nine years to investigate the impact of green finance on the upgrading of the agricultural industrial structure. A fixed-effect model was employed, and the findings indicate that green financing has a positive effect on the growth of China's agricultural industry. However, regional disparities exist, particularly in the uneven distribution of green financing across the eastern, central, and western regions. Moreover, it emphasizes the need to consider regional differences and tailor development strategies accordingly. To promote further development and transformation of China's agricultural industrial structure, the study recommends innovative green financial products, improved regulations and policies, and the integration of digital technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: disaster risk management; mitigation; preparedness; response; recovery; Germany; USA; Russia; China
Online: 16 February 2023 (04:00:58 CET)
The uniqueness of each system stems from the fact that the risks of disasters are specific and that their presence and manifestation are not universal and the same for every country. Just as no country is the same in all other segments, their disaster risk management systems are unequal. The paper describes the systems in four different countries, through observation and comparison of four areas of activity that are implemented in dealing with disasters. First of all, in the paper, the legal basis and institutional frameworks on which these systems rest in each of the countries were considered – starting from the international level and guidelines given at international conferences, to all by-laws and local disaster activity plans. It was considered how each of the states implements risk mitigation activities and how it increases preparedness for them. When the system recognizes risks, their probability and the frequency of their occurrence, activities are planned to prepare the country and every individual in it for a potentially unwanted event. Differences in the ways of mitigating risks and preparing all elements of the system and protected values for disasters are presented. The third element of action in the event of disasters concerns the response. In this segment, questions are raised regarding institutional solutions in the system, division of responsibilities, the priority of response and mobilization of resources at all levels. The last phase, the one that occurs after the disaster, and that is the recovery from it, depends on the reaction. In the paper, it was discussed how in the end, when a disaster occurs and when damage to the population, environment, material and other goods occurred, how each of the states implements reconstruction, i.e. how it recovers - whether that recovery was previously well planned or whether ad hoc solutions are applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; entrepreneurial intention; higher vocational students; China
Online: 16 February 2023 (03:55:20 CET)
To reveal the influence of variables such as entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial inspiration, and incubation resources on students' entrepreneurial intentions in vocational colleges, this study took vocational colleges in Zhejiang Province, a province with a strong entrepreneurial climate in China, as an example. The study used a questionnaire to obtain data, and 614 valid questionnaires were collected from seven vocational colleges. The study divided entrepreneurship education into three dimensions: entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial inspiration, and incubation resources, and used structural equation modeling to investigate the influence of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions while introducing entrepreneurial efficacy as a mediating variable to examine the influence mechanism of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of higher education students. The results showed that entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial inspiration, incubation resources, and entrepreneurial efficacy were all significantly and positively correlated with entrepreneurial intentions and that entrepreneurial efficacy mediated between the two dimensions of entrepreneurship education (entrepreneurial learning and entrepreneurial inspiration) and entrepreneurial intentions. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in vocational institutions, we should stimulate students' sense of entrepreneurial efficacy, strengthen their entrepreneurial learning and inspire them to start their businesses. In turn, university incubation resources can be developed and utilized to enhance students' entrepreneurial confidence and intentions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0183.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: China; Corporate Life Cycle; Corporate Performance; Corporate Social Responsibility; Pharmaceutical Industry
Online: 9 November 2021 (14:40:54 CET)
The study examines the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the corporate life cycle (CLC) of the Chinese pharmaceutical listed companies for the duration of 2010 to 2018. The firm cash flow pattern is used as a proxy for the CLC. The study results indicate that the relationship between CSR and CLC is positive and linear in all the phases of the CLC including, the introduction, growth and maturity stage. Although the relationship is smaller and more significant at the maturity phase. The research further shows that investors incorporating social responsibilities values play a key role in the firm cash flow performance (CFP) across all the firm stages. Whilst, employees espousing social responsibility tenets can only improve CFP in the decline or shakeout stages. Likewise, embedding CSR into the customers group only improves CFP at the maturity stage. Applying the lag effects lead to the same study results. The finding for the bi-directional causality indicates that although CSR can positively influence CFP, CFP is ultimately more associated with the firm unobservable characteristics rather than performance attributed to CSR. On the whole, our study results point to positive causality between CSR and CFP across all the firm life stages and the CSR has a mediating effect on each life cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0429.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: cultivated land; rainfall regime; soil conservation measure; reduction efficiency; northern China
Online: 21 January 2021 (15:04:34 CET)
Cultivated land plays an important role in water and soil loss in the earth-rocky mountainous region, northern China, however, its responses to soil control measures and rainfall characteristics are still not fully understood. In this study, 85 erosive rainfall events in 2011-2019 were grouped into three types, and the responses of runoff and soil loss on five cultivated plots with different slopes in the upstream catchment of the Miyun Reservoir to soil conservation measures and rainfall regimes were evaluated. Results found that event-averaged runoff depths and soil loss rates on the five plots ranged from 7.05 mm to 0.03 mm and from 300.51 t km-2 to 0.37 t km-2 respectively, depending on rainfall regimes, soil conservation measures, and slope gradients. The high occurring frequency (i.e., 72.94%) rainfall regime A with short rainfall duration (RD), low rainfall amount (P), and high mean rainfall intensity (Im) yielded lower runoff depth and higher soil loss rate. Rainfall regime B with longer RD, and higher P and Im, however, produced higher rainfall depth and lower soil loss rate. Terraced plot had the highest runoff and soil loss reduction efficiencies of over 96.03%. Contour tillage had comparable sediment reduction efficiency to that of the terraced plot on gentle slopes (gradient less than 11.0%), while its runoff reduction efficiency was less than 13.11%. This study implies that in the Miyun Reservoir catchment and similar regions in the world, contour tillage should be promoted on gentle slopes, and terrace construction should be given enough attention since it can greatly reduce water quantity and cause water shortage in downstream catchments.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: nighttime light data; human activities; karst rocky desertification; environmental impact; China
Online: 8 September 2019 (16:49:12 CEST)
Due to remarkable socioeconomic development, an increasing number of karst rocky desertification areas have been severely affected by human activities in southern China. Effectively analyzing human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is a critical prerequisite for managing and restoring areas with tremendous negative impacts from desertification. At present, a timely and accurate way of quantifying the spatiotemporal variations of human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is still lacking. In this communication, we attempted to quantify human activities from the corrected NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data from 2012 to 2018 based on statistical analysis. The results show that a significant increase of night lights could be clearly identified during the study period. The total nighttime lights (TL) related to severe karst rocky desertification (S) were particularly concentrated in Guizhou and Yunnan. The nighttime light intensity (LI) related to the S areas in Chongqing were the strongest due to its rapid socioeconomic development. The annual growth rate of nighttime lights (GL) has been slow or even negative in Guangdong because of its various karst rocky desertification restoration programs. This communication could provide an effective approach for quantifying human activities and provide useful information about where prompt attention is required for policy-making on the restoration of the karst rocky desertification areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: incentives measures; farmer’s perceptions; green manure; subsidy; rotation fallow; probit; China
Online: 2 April 2019 (05:44:55 CEST)
The influence of instrumental variables on farmers ‘perceptions using rotation fallow as sustainable agriculture practices had been the aim of our research. By using simultaneous equations models, this study tried to understand the relationship between green manure farmer’s perceptions on using rotation-fallow and planting green manure in Guangxi Province, south of China. The results showed that subsidizing green manure farmers based on standard subsidy by the unit of green manure sown area; the training on the green manure planting technology or the demonstration preaching; the green manure farmers preference for the kinds of subsidy (funds, seeds, and mechanical services) were the mostly great drivers of the program of restoring planting green manure in the study area. These incentives measures must be enhanced as priority to restore definitely green manure planting. However, the findings of the study showed that the total income of the 2017 year, the area of an agricultural field of household and the household members (16–65 years old), providing labor in the agricultural field, have some influences on planting green manure and on farmer’s perceptions on using rotation-fallow as sustainable agriculture practices. Brief, the unobserved factors which influenced the endogenous factors play an important role to enhance widely the impact of farmers’ perceptions on planting green manure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0098.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: rule-based classification model; wetland remote sensing; SVM; TC-Wetness; China
Online: 11 May 2017 (08:03:34 CEST)
Wetlands are among the most bio-diverse and highest productivity ecosystems on earth, making their monitoring a high priority to conservation, protection and management interests. Although visual interpretation of satellite images is generally precise for monitoring wetlands, recent works have emphasized computerized classification methods because of the reduction in analyst time. However, it is difficult to automatically identify wetland solely based on spectral characteristics due to the complexity of wetland ecosystems. The ability to extract wetland information rapidly and accurately is the basis and the key to wetland mapping at a large scale. Here we propose an operational method to map China wetlands based on Landsat TM data and ancillary data. On the basis of theoretical analysis of wetland automatic classification, we developed a revised multi-layer wetland classification scheme and a rule-based classification model. In the latter, supervised classification (SVM and decision tree) and unsupervised classification (ISODATA) methods were tested. Four Landsat TM images, representing various wetland eco-regions in China (i.e. the Sanjiang Plain in the northeast China, the North China Plain, the Zoige Plateau in the southwest China and the Pearl River Estuary in southeast China), were automatically classified. The overall classification accuracies were 86.57%, 96.00%, 84.51% and 88.30%, respectively, which we considered to be satisfactory accuracy. Our results indicate that issues such as the resolution of geographic data and the understanding of wetland samples should be carefully addressed in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0050.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: road trip; destination image; perceived value; tourist satisfaction; destination loyalty; China
Online: 12 December 2016 (09:47:49 CET)
This study aims to test a model linking destination image, perceived value, tourist satisfaction, and tourist loyalty. Based on a sample of 300 tourists travelling by car from the World Natural Heritage Site of Tianchi, China, a new model of destination image was explored and data were analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The results show that perceived value and satisfaction are direct antecedents of destination loyalty. Above all, perceived value and tourist satisfaction mediate the relationship between destination image and loyalty. Finally, this study discusses the theoretical and management implications of the findings in order to boost the tourism industry in the context of car trips.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: clinical trial; transparency; legislation; regulation; policy analysis; China; United States; publication bias
Online: 18 October 2023 (18:25:50 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Clinical trials are a critical step in the development of new medicines and medical devices, testing the efficacy and safety of new treatment regimens. However, if the results of clinical trials are not made public, the evidence base on interventions is incomplete and possibly distorted, which lead to suboptimal treatment choices and negatively affect public health. This study analyses and contrasts the laws and regulations governing clinical trial registration and reporting in China and the United States. Methods: We used desk research to compile, assess and compare current laws, regulations, compliance patterns, and enforcement mechanisms and actions in China and the United States (U.S.). Policy documents were downloaded from Chinese and U.S. government websites. A spreadsheet analysis was utilized for direct comparison. Results: Both China and the U.S. have laws and regulations governing clinical trial registration and reporting. Chinese legislation covers a broader range of trials. In the U.S. trial results must be disclosed to both the national regulator and the public, while Chinese law mandates disclosure to the regulator alone. Cross-country comparisons of regulatory compliance by trial sponsors are impossible due to the opacity of the Chinese data platform. Neither country effectively ensures that all clinical trial results are made public as required by the Declaration of Helsinki and recommended by the WHO. Interpretation: While neither country is perfect, both may be able to learn from each other. There is a major gap in the literature regarding the extent of non-publication of clinical trial results by sponsors operating in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0169.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agricultural carbon emissions; Low-level trap; DEA-SBM model; Tobit model; China
Online: 2 June 2023 (09:38:11 CEST)
This study evaluates the agricultural carbon emission efficiency of Shandong Province from 2011 to 2020 using the DEA-SBM model. The nexus between endogenous and exogenous variables is estimated using the Tobit model. The findings reveal an overall increasing trend in agricultural carbon emissions, with significant variations in efficiency values among different cities, leading to a severe polarization. Spatial evaluation shows a high distribution trend in the central region and low in the eastern and western regions of Shandong Province. The empirical tests conducted for Shandong Province and its three regions indicate that urbanization plays a major role in sup-porting the growth of agricultural carbon emission efficiency, while the education level of the la-bor force has a suppressive impact. Economic development and crop cultivation structure, how-ever, have no significant influence. The impact of these variables varies across the eastern, central, and western regions. The proposed countermeasures include improving planting structure and reducing brain drain in the eastern region, strengthening agricultural and rural inputs and in-creasing the added value of agricultural products in the central region, and intensifying the link-age between urbanization and industrial layout in the western region to reduce agricultural car-bon emissions efficiency in Shandong Province.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0400.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human capital; educational signal; education; labour market; social mobility; social reproduction; China
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:37:08 CEST)
Exisitng studies argue life chances are, in part, vertically reproduced. Such a statement is applicable to the Chinese contexts as, but not limited to, parental hukou status, to some extent, determines the life chances their children receive. In this essay, the author would like to introduce human capital theory (HCT) and educational signalling theory (EST), and assess how the applications of each of these two models can enrich the understanding of vertical reproduction of individuals’ social mobility opportunities. The author would also present the limitations of each of these two models when addressing relevant Chinese contexts.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Straw Hat University; Farmer's Professor; Rural Transformation; Targeted poverty alleviation in China
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:40:08 CEST)
China is out of extreme poverty in 2020 on schedule and one decade in advance to fulfill the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and became the first developing country to alleviate poverty in half century. Therefore, a large numbers of effective approaches are emerging, and the intellectual’s technology-led poverty reduction, which locally known as the “Straw Hat University”initiated by “Farmer's professor”mode, is the most tried and tested approach motivated by the intellectual’s “Serve the people” tradition and supported by the all nation. This research conduct case analysis with three most remarkable organic intellectuals as Agronomist Yuan longping, Mycologist Lin Zhanxi and Plant pathologist Zhu Youyong with their bridging gaps in food security, regional imbalance and ethnic disparity respectively to sort out the sustainable modules and universal experiences. The conclusion indicates that“Farmer's Professor” Initiated “Straw Hat University” is an effective approach to solve human beings’ development problems and benefit the livelihoods, especially in the under development regions; and the authentic down to earth experiments into productivity as well as the Intellectual property transformation is the perfect path to deploy offline and online resources building the effective production and supply chain to integrate industries by intellectual’s critical innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0053.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Scientific Productivity; Universities; Private Companies; USA; European Union; China; Innivation; Reseach; Societal
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:24:47 CET)
The purpose is to verify trends of scientific production from 2010 to 2020, considering the best universities of the United States, China, the European Union (EU) and private companies. The top 30 universities in 2020 in China, the EU, and the US and private companies were selected from the SCImago institutions ranking (SIR). The positions in 2020, 2015, 2010 in SIR and three sub-indicators were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, taking into consideration the effect of time and group on rankings. American and European Union universities have lost positions to Chinese universities and even more to private companies, which have improved. In 2020, private companies have surpassed all other groups considering Innovation as sub-indicator. The loss of leadership of European and partly American universities mainly concerns research linked to the production of patents. This can lead to future risks of monopoly that may elude public control and cause a possible loss of importance of research not linked to innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: suboptimal health status; associated factors; high school students; Shanxi; Guangzhou; Tibet; China
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:50:30 CEST)
Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a state between health and disease, has several associated factors, although, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the status of SHS and its associated factors of high school students in three areas of China (Shanxi, Guangzhou, and Tibet). A multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescent (MSQA) is used to evaluate SHS. Among 1461 respondents, females proportion 56.47% was higher than males 43.53% where SHS was higher in Shanxi followed by Tibet and then Guangzhou. The rural area, grade, lack of sleep, home visit in a week, lack of exercise, a heavy burden of study, smoking, drinking, and fewer friends were the risk factors of SHS, while, families living status, seeking help and extroversion were the protective factors. SHS is significantly associated with different influencing factors. For comprehensive prevention and control measures, reduce the risk factors and enhance the protective factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0277.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Collaborative forecast; Support vector regression; China-Japan-South Korea; Primary energy consumption
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:13:35 CEST)
This study aims at improving the forecast accuracy of primary energy consumptions in China, Japan and South Korea and verifying the correlation in primary energy consumptions among the neighboring countries. Considering the diversity of primary energy composition, this study selects 6 components of primary energy, including oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, hydropower and renewable energy as characteristic variables. A collaborative prediction model based on SVR for primary energy consumption prediction is proposed to explore the correlation of primary energy consumption among three countries in China, Japan and South Korea. The results show that there is a strong correlation between primary energy consumption when multiple countries make collaborative prediction, among which the primary energy consumption of South Korea has the largest impact on the primary energy consumption of China and Japan. In the primary energy cooperation of China-Japan-South Korea, a primary energy cooperation system with the South Korea as the link should be established through regional coordination to alleviate the shortage of traditional fossil energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0437.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: medical education; pedagogy; international student; problem-based learning; integrated organ/system; China
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:35:20 CEST)
The advance of the medical field in the 21st century has influenced the development of many innovations, including in medical education. PBL (problem-based learning) is one of the pedagogical approaches that has been studying and implementing worldwide to attract medical students’ attention with their learning style and learning environment. China is the most significant “receiver” country of foreign students in Asia, and clinical medicine is one of the most chosen majors for undergraduate. In China, PBL has been implementing in some schools, but mostly with the local students and only a few implementations to the international students. International medical students in China faced a variety of challenges during their studies. In this review paper, we give the solution to adapt to the challenges by focusing on the implementation the integrated organ/system curriculum/syllabus with the PBL method to the school system with the support of the school stakeholders and students’ role.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body shape index; body roundness index; metabolic risk factors; Southern China adults
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:44:12 CEST)
This purpose was to compare the ability of body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) with waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body adiposity index (BAI) to predict metabolic risk. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 17,360 Chinese subjects (were aged 18-95 years old) who escaped cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were measured by trained staff. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and optimal cutoff values of obesity indices were recruited to compare the predictive ability for metabolic risk factors. The mean age of subjects was 53.7(13.1) years, 41.6 % were males. Within young group (<60 years), the areas under the curve (AUC) demonstrated that WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BRI were able to similarly predict high metabolic risk in males (0.74 vs. 0.74 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) and in females (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.71 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73), while the approximate predictive ability were only acquired in males (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.70 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) within elder group (≥60 years). The optimal cut-off values of BRI for high metabolic risk were calculated in males (<60 y: 3.49 vs. ≥60 y: 3.46) and females (<60 y: 3.47 vs. ≥60 y: 3.60). Meanwhile, BRI displayed a strong prediction to elevated BP and elevated TG in males (AUC = 0.64; AUC = 0.70) and to elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA in females (AUC = 0.67; AUC = 0.69; AUC =0.70). BRI was able to similarly predict high metabolic risk compared to WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI, while ABSI was not. Moreover, BRI revealed specific predictive ability for elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: environmental inequality; environmental justice; industrial pollution; prefectures; demographic and socioeconomic factors; China
Online: 10 October 2017 (11:47:20 CEST)
In China, environmental pollution generated via industrialization as well as the profound changes in the social structure and gradual maturation of the social hierarchy have jointly contributed to the Chinese people's increased environmental consciousness and appeals for environmental justice (EJ). Because of the absence of an EJ theory and a lack of empirical research focused on China, this paper proposes a ‘Pyramid Model’ for China’s EJ research that involves the following three factors: basic demographic and socioeconomic factors, U.S.-based EJ principles, and Chinese characteristics. A nationwide pilot analysis of environmental inequity at the prefecture level is conducted by empirically studying the association of demographics and socioeconomic status with sources of industrial pollution in China. The prefecture-based results are shown to be robust and indicate that areas inhabited by ethnic minorities and western regions in China carry disproportionate environmental burdens. However, a different picture for migrants is presented, revealing that Chinese migrants are not currently exposed to greater levels of industrial pollution, and relevant interpretations of these findings are provided. The results also show that environmental inequality associated with income level, which is observed in the U.S., does not occur in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0698.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Health Shock, Credit, Rural Household Welfare, Sustainable Rural Devlopment, China Household Finance Survey
Online: 9 August 2023 (08:50:14 CEST)
Due to the incomplete of China's current social security system, health shocks are one of the main risks faced by rural families. Using data from the 2019 China Household Finance Survey, we examined the impact of borrowing on household welfare when rural households face health shocks. We found that household income and food expenditure both declined significantly when rural households faced health shocks; rural household borrowing was mainly used for the treatment of the diseases, and it had a crowding out effect on tourism and general health care expenditures, but not on education expenditures. We also found that the impact of borrowing on the western region was higher than that on the central and eastern regions from Looking at the impact of borrowing in different regions. Finally, we put forward some suggestions for promoting sustainable rural development from the perspective of medical security, such as accelerating the promotion of new rural medical insurance, helping rural low-income families improve health benefits, establishing diversified financing channels, improving rural financial platforms, and solving the financing difficulties of households to improve the ability of rural households to resist health shocks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1458.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: extreme climate events; multi extreme event composite grade index (MXCI); climate change; China
Online: 20 June 2023 (15:19:27 CEST)
Based on the daily observation data of 2254 meteorological stations in China from 1961 to 2021 after homogenization and correction, the extreme value analysis method that combines relative threshold and absolute threshold was used to identify extreme climate events in the mainland of China, namely extreme high temperature, extreme low temperature, extreme drought, extreme precipitation and extreme typhoon events. The frequency and linear variation trends of individual extreme events in the past 60 years were investigated. On this basis, the multi extreme events composite risk grade index (MXCI) was constructed, which can objectively reflect the comprehensive characteristics of multi extreme climate events in different regions. The results show that the high value areas of MXCI were mainly located in Southeast China and Southwest China. The MXCI presented a decreasing trend in most of the western and southeastern regions of China, while an increasing trend from Southwest China to the south of Northeast China, due to the frequent occurrence of extreme high temperature, extreme drought and other extreme events in these regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0870.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Southern Margin of North China Craton; Xiaoqinling; Huayangchuan; Uranium; Pegmatite; Paleoproterozoic; Mineralization age
Online: 13 June 2023 (03:31:13 CEST)
The Huayangchuan uranium deposit, located in the west of the Xiaoqinling belt on the southern margin of the North China Craton, is a polymetallic deposit dominated by U, Nb, Pb, and rare earth elements. The Huayangchuan uranium deposit, discovered in the 1950s, has long been known as a carbonatite-type uranium deposit. Recently, new geological work has found uranium mineralisation in many granitic pegmatite veins in the Huayangchuan deposit and adjacent areas. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages, and in situ Lu-Hf isotopic characteristics of newly discovered U-rich granitic pegmatite veins in the west of Huayangchuan deposit. The petrological results showed that the lithology of the samples is equivalent to that of granite. The U-Pb ages of zircon were 1826.3 ± 7.9 and 1829 ± 11 Ma. Microscopically, the symbiotic characteristics of zircon, betafite, and uraninite exist in the intergranular fissures of K-feldspar and quartz, reflecting metallogenic phenomena in the rock formation process. Almost all whole-rock samples were rich in SiO2 (64.37–70.69 wt.%), total alkalis (K2O+Na2O = 8.50–10.30 wt.%), and Al2O3 (12.20–14.41 wt.%), but poor in Ti2O (0.23–0.73 wt.%), MgO (0.38–0.90 wt.%), P2O5 (0.14–0.83 wt.%), MnO (0.04–0.57 wt.%). Additionally, they showed enrichment of LILEs (such as Rb, Ba, Th, U, and K), depletion of HFSEs (such as Ta, Nb, P, Ti, and Hf), no alkaline dark minerals, and the characteristics are typical of intraplate A1-type granite. The A1-type granite displayed low zircon εHf(t) values (-19.42– -15.02) with zircon two-stage Hf model aged 3.10–2.76 Ga, indicating that the U-rich granitic pegmatite was derived predominantly from partial melting of the ancient continental crust (such as the early Taihua group formed in Archean-Neoarchean). Combined with the above results and regional geological data, the U-rich granitic pegmatite discovered in the Huayangchuan deposit was related to granite magma activity that formed in a post-collisional regime after the Luliang movement in the late Palaeoproterozoic. This study suggests that future uranium prospecting work in this area should focus on late Palaeoproterozoic U-rich granitic pegmatites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: tourism development; eco-environment resilience; spatiotemporal heterogeneity; Yangtze River Economic Belt of China
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:20:47 CEST)
Tourism sustainability is a significant approach to forming a synergistic model of industry and ecology in ecologically vulnerable areas. Scientifically detecting the effect mechanism of tourism development (TDI) on eco-environment resilience (ERI) is important in achieving regional social-ecological system sustainability. Empirical exploration is conducted on the levels of TDI and ERI in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) to study the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of TDI's effect on ERI. The results indicate a significant growth in TDI in the YREB, with the formation of tourist clusters around Shanghai and Chongqing as the core. Although ERI typically exhibits a declining trend, the rate of decline has notably slowed, forming a "high at the sides and low in the middle" spatial pattern. TDI and ERI are spatially dependent in the YREB, with predominantly high-high (HH) and low-high (LH) clusters in Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu. Conversely, upstream regions with strong eco-environmental foundations exhibit low-low (LL) and high-low (HL) clusters. In general, TDI promotes ERI, but there is significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the YREB. Positive impact regions are expanding, while negative impact regions are shrinking. These results could provide scientific evidence for differentiated classification and control policies in the YREB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0443.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: natural dyes; synthetic dyes; silk; recipes; Ming dynasty; Qing dynasty; Republic of China
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:12:07 CEST)
The article presents a literature review of three Chinese manuscripts containing natural dyes recipes and three containing synthetic dyes from the Ming Dynasty to the Republican Period. The manuscripts mentioned were exclusively used as references and sources. Four databases were used to access the original documents, then, a translation from old mandarin to Spanish was made. For natural dyes, the results show four dyestuffs were commonly used to produce colors, sappanwood (Caesalpinia sappan L.), followed by safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L.), and sophora (S. japonicum L.). While the synthetic dyes exported to or produced in China were mainly bluish, greenish, and violet probably because they were difficult to obtain from natural ones. The literature review of the dyes and their recipes can be a key factor in any art history or conservation study, improving the understanding of how the colors were achieved and as complementary information for analytical analyses. It provides useful details that contribute to the preservation of Chinese dye history on silk heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0233.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: primary and middle school teachers; justice; organizational justice; salary satisfaction; turnover intention; China
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:45:37 CEST)
Primary and middle school teachers are a critical part of China’s foundational education; teacher turnover heavily affects the stable development of foundational education. In this study, interviews with 20 teachers found that relatively low income, high work pressure, unfair distribution, and difficulty in achieving promotion to higher professional titles are the main reasons for teacher turnover intention. This study investigates 485 primary and middle school teachers from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces. We found that primary and middle school teachers reported intense feelings of unfairness about their distribution of income. Their salary satisfaction was low, and the ratio of turnover intention was high. The main reasons for teachers’ high turnover intentions were low income, high pressure from work, unfair distribution, and the difficulty of achieving professional title promotion. To lower teachers’ turnover intentions, China should raise teachers’ income appropriately and increase the number of teachers with high professional titles. Schools should improve procedural, distributive, and interactive justice. Teachers should adjust their income references and perceptions of fairness. This situation can be effectively resolved only if all parties work hard to make positive changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Real-world fuel consumption rate; machine learning; big data; light-duty vehicle; China
Online: 2 November 2021 (09:40:05 CET)
Private vehicle travel is the most basic mode of transportation, and the effective control of the real-world fuel consumption rate of light-duty vehicles plays a vital role in promoting sustainable economic development as well as achieving a green low-carbon society. Therefore, the impact factors of individual carbon emission must be elucidated. This study builds five different models to estimate real-world fuel consumption rate of light-duty vehicles in China. The results reveal that the Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) model performs better than the linear regression, Naïve Bayes regression, Neural Network regression, and Decision Tree regression models, with mean absolute error of 0.911 L/100 km, mean absolute percentage error of 10.4%, mean square error of 1.536, and R squared (R2) of 0.642. This study also assesses a large number of factors, from which three most important factors are extracted, namely, reference fuel consumption rate value, engine power and light-duty vehicle brand. Furthermore, a comparative analysis reveals that the vehicle factors with greater impact on real-world fuel consumption rate are vehicle brand, engine power, and engine displacement. Average air pressure, average temperature, and sunshine time are the three most important climate factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0424.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: digital inclusive finance; rural income; Henan Province, China; empirical analysis; countermeasures and suggestions
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:16:10 CEST)
This paper empirically analyzes the relationship between digital inclusive finance and rural income, and demonstrates that digital inclusive finance plays a significant role in promoting rural income, based on the 2012-2018 panel data of 17 cities in Henan Province of China. Further dimensional research unveils that all of its breadth of coverage, depth of use and degree of digitization present significant positive correlation with rural income, and a robustness test was conducted through the sub-sample method. In addition, according to regression analysis on the influencing factors of digital inclusive finance through the Tobit model, the level of economic development, the Internet popularity rate and the urbanization rate have a positive effect on the development of digital inclusive finance in Henan, while the income gap between urban and rural areas and the degree of opening up have a negative effect. Finally, predicated on the analysis of the restrictive factors of Henan’s digital inclusive finance in increasing rural income, the paper puts forward specific policy proposals based on the native state quo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cymothoida; marine fish parasite; South China Sea; east coast Malaysia; crustacean fish parasite
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:32:00 CEST)
A checklist of parasitic cymothoids from Malaysian waters is presented based on available literature and material collected from 2010 to 2020. Most of the collected specimens were recorded from waters of Terengganu, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (facing South China Sea), whereas literature records were represented from Sarawak, along the Miri coast of northwest Borneo. The checklist comprises 18 species under 10 genera, seven of which are new records from Malaysia, which includes Anilocra nemipteri Bruce, 1987; Ceratothoa barracuda Martin, Bruce and Nowak, 2015; Ceratothoa carinata (Bianconi, 1869); Cymothoa epimerica Avdeev, 1979; Elthusa sigani Bruce, 1990; Joryma engraulidis (Barnard, 1936) and Renocila richardsonae Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1992. Eight new host records are based on collected specimens: Anilocra nemipteri was dorsally attached on Nemipterus nemurus (Bleeker 1857), Nemipterus nematophorus (Bleeker 1854), Nemipterus tambuloides (Bleeker 1853), and Nemipterus thosaporni Russell 1991 (family Nemipteridae); Ceratothoa carinata was found in the buccal cavity of Decapterus macrosoma Bleeker 1851 (family Carangidae); Cymothoa eremita (Brunnich, 1783) was attached in the buccal cavity of Nemipterus tambuloides and Nemipterus furcosus (Valenciennes 1830); Elthusa sigani was found attached on Pterois russelli Bennett 1831 (family Scorpaenidae); and Renocila richardsonae was attached on the caudal fin of Upeneus japonicus (Houttuyn 1782) (family Mullidae). All cymothoid species listed here are known to have a Central Indo Pacific distribution, with some ranging as far as the western Indian Ocean. The cymothoid-host association is here listed from 28 fish families, with the most common reported from Carangidae (pompanos, jack mackerels, runners, scads), Engraulidae (anchovies) and Leiognathidae (ponyfishes, slipmouths). This paper is the first comprehensive treatment to update both verified literature data and deposited specimens, with a key for the family Cymothoidae in Malaysian waters.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: neighborhood committee; collective responsibility; Baojia system; COVID-19 pandemic; Wu Lien-teh; China
Online: 27 April 2020 (03:07:12 CEST)
Managing epidemics need to unite each individual of the nations. Lockdown is an essential strategy to fatal and threatening epidemic. All of the citizens should realize that each of people has a responsibility to support the public health crisis. How to organize individual to fight against the epidemic plaque depends each of them. This essay discussed the COVID-19 pandemic relevant self-governance of community from a historical perspective in China. Self-governance of neighborhood committee and community residential office in urban and rural helped to control the COVID-19 pandemic in the communities in China. Co-operation and collective responsibility of citizens and community support is a critical condition to prevent epidemic. The community self-governance can track back Qin Dynasty in China history. It established baojia system to maintain social control for thousand years. Now, the community-based system, baojia system is becoming more autonomous for local citizenship and socialized governance in China. We reviewed a historical pneumonia plaque in North China in 1911. Chinese doctor, Wu Lien-teh (伍連德) confronted the epidemic crisis with many measures such as lockdown, quarantine, the wearing of mask, setup mobile hospitals, travel restriction, the cremation of victims, and border control. Dr. Wu made effort to establish the modern public health service in China. We think that the combination of culture background of China community with modern public healthcare system determinedly played important role to control the COVID-19 pandemic.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: illegal hunting; waterfowl; a case survey; poisoned; price chain; the west of China
Online: 16 March 2020 (09:43:35 CET)
China is one of the world’s most important countries for waterfowl because of the large amount of potential habitat and its position along major migratory routes. Waterfowl poaching in China is a serious threat, and for over twenty years colleagues and I have tracked waterfowl poaching in China including hunting methods, trade routes and prices involved. According to the latest survey of a NGO, 11.8% of Chinese people have participated in wildlife consumption, and about 32.0% of people have seen wildlife consumption (Not necessarily involved in killing and eating the wildlife). The survey results come from 100 000 internet questionnaires. The current report provides an update focusing on waterfowl poaching in Xinjiang Province of the northwest China, where is highly pathogenic area on the avian influenza, SARS and the Wuhan coronavirus pneumonia (such as COVID-19). The cases in 2011, 2012, and 2014 involved about 1816 to 2760 birds of more than 20 species, with an estimated total of 200 000 wild birds being hunted by a group per year in Xinjiang. Strangely, the poacher was not punished by any law. We know a few waterfowl species are protected as a list of Key Protected Species in China, and hopefully this report will draw attention to the scope of waterfowl poaching in China. China has made great progress with protecting other wildlife, and hopefully more can be done to protect migrating waterfowl.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: 2019-nCoV; nCoV; China; Wuhan; coronavirus; virology; epidemiology; clinical guidance; literature survey; review
Online: 31 January 2020 (05:36:32 CET)
There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increase pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites, and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: headwater catchment; water quality assessment; driving factors; spatial and temporal analysis; Southeast China
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:30:07 CET)
Safety of source water streams is an urgent environmental issue, while protections in monsoon controlled subtropical regions face difficulties because of the lack of small scaled observation and analysis in small source water catchments. Basing on continuous weekly water quality data (2014-2017) in Pingqiao River Catchment, the annual average values of TN, NO3, NH4 and TP are 3.36, 1.64, 0.28 and 0.02 (mg/L) respectively. During dry, normal and wet seasons, the variability of parameters is over 35%, which indicates an obvious seasonality. Multiple methods are combined in order to assess the water quality and find the driving factors during dry, normal and wet seasons. This study suggests precipitation and fertilization are the mainly seasonal factors, which can make water quality better in wet season than dry season due to the dilution effect. The mechanism between seasonality and compound of nutrients can also be traced by log(TN:TP), and log(NO3:NH4). Among six main land use types (forest, tea plantation, cropland (paddy), urban, bare soil and water), the former three ones are influential mostly during dry and wet season. Tea plantation has the largest nutrients discharge amount per area, which is similar to cropland in dry season. By contrary, forest has the double power in reducing nitrogen release in wet and normal seasons. When transformed into paddies, croplands can lower the phosphorus concentration. Conclusions of this study can be used in southeastern China and similar regions on source water protection and agricultural plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0336.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: typhoon Durian; tropical cyclone; wind-pressure relationships; South China Sea; sensitivity analysis; WRF
Online: 26 April 2018 (08:59:09 CEST)
Typhoon Durian forming over the Western North Pacific Ocean and entering into the South China Sea (SCS), caused extreme and widespread damages in 2006. In this research, sensitivity analyses on different physical parameterization schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting Atmospheric Model (WRF-ATM) have been utilized to study typhoon Durian. Model accuracy and performance testing were investigated with different initial conditions during the tropical cyclone simulation in the SCS. The initial and boundary conditions (IBCs) for all experiments were derived from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Re-Analysis Interim (ERAI), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) with Final (FNL) analysis data compiled through the WRF-ATM model. The sensitivity analysis results indicated a major improvement for the cumulus scheme by using the Grell-Devenyi scheme along with the PBL scheme of Yonsei University, mixed-phase microphysics scheme of the WRF Single Moment 5-class and IBCs for ECMWF-ERAI of TC simulation under the context of Wind-Pressure Relationships. This predicted better track and intensity comparing with these of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The results revealed that the TC track and intensity were well simulated by the WSM5-GD combination for the WRF-ATM model with an intensity error of 1.69 hPa for minimum surface level pressure, maximum wind speed of 1.83 knots and average track error of 25 km in 72 hours. The simulations showed that the potential track and intensity error decreased with the delayed IBCs, suggesting that the model simulation is more dependable when the coast is approached by the TC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0424.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land use; greening; land-surface thermal properties; residential environments; central coast region of China
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:47:16 CEST)
The central coast is one of the importantly livable regions in China, and green land plays a meaningful role in improving human settlements through regulating ecosystem services. However, the research on spatiotemporal heterogeneity of green land in different urbanized areas are still lacking in this region, which limits the timeliness of reporting on the land-surface thermal properties of residential environment from green land perspective. To address this issue, the synergistic methodology of “artificial numerical technology -- urban interior mixed pixel classification -- surface radiation energy balance model” was applied to investigate the green land change and its impact on human settlements in Rizhao region, which is known for its coastal ecology and greenery in China and obtained the United Nations habitat award. Main conclusions of this study are below: (1) Although total green land decreased by 474.05 km2, resulting in a decrease of 9.17% in its share of the entire study area from 2000-2022 during the urbanization process, but the greening levels improved within the built-up area, with the greening proportion of 25.34% in 2000 and 42.98 km2 in 2022. (2) Differences in green land at different urbanized regions were first observed, namely, urban greening rate was 37.78% in the old urban areas of 2022, while it was up to 46.43% in new urban areas. More attention was paid to the construction of urban green space during urban expansion, which will inevitably bring better visual and comfort experience to residents. (3) Thermal comfort indicators for urban residents were evaluated in latent heat flux (0-457.83 W/m2), sensible heat flux (0-645.09 W/m2), total available energy (254.07-659.42 W/m2) and others. (4) The lowered cooling temperature effect in the middle, high green land density region was 1.05 ℃ and 2.12 ℃ compared to the low-density region, and the average air temperature was 25.86 ℃. Also, spatial patterns of hot and cold uncomfortable areas were displayed in this study. Overall, this study provides the meaningfully practical reference for exploring the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of green land and its impact on residents' environments from the perspective of land-surface thermal properties in coastal areas of China and around the world.