REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Immunology; innate immunity; immunogenetics; noncoding genome; tRNA biology; evolutionary genetics (list 3-10 specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline)
Online: 30 September 2022 (11:13:06 CEST)
During the past few years unexpected developments have driven studies in the field of clinical immunology. One driver of immense impact was the outbreak of a pandemic caused by the novel virus SARS-CoV-2. Excellent recent reviews address diverse aspects of immunological re-search into cardiovascular diseases. Here, we specifically focus on selected studies taking ad-vantage of advanced state-of-the-art molecular genetic methods ranging from genome-wide epi/transcriptome mapping and variant scanning to optogenetics and chemogenetics. First, we discuss emerging clinical relevance of advanced diagnostics for cardiovascular diseases - includ-ing those associated with COVID-19 - with a focus on the role of inflammation in cardiomyopa-thies and arrhythmias. Second, we consider newly identified immunological interactions at or-gan and systems level which affect cardiovascular pathogenesis. Thus, studies into immune in-fluences arising from the intestinal system are moving towards therapeutic exploitation. Fur-ther, powerful new research tools have enabled novel insight into brain – immune system inter-actions at unprecedented resolution. This latter line of investigation emphasizes the strength of influence of emotional stress - acting through defined brain regions - upon viral and cardiovas-cular disorders. Several challenges need to be overcome before the full impact of these far-reaching new findings will hit the clinical arena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Recreational substance abuse; drug abuse; marijuana; amphetamine; acute ischemic stroke; risk factors; young adult; NIS; Stroke; Sudden Cardiac Death
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
Background: Substance use continues to be on the rise in the United States and has been linked to new onset cardiovascular (CVDs) and cerebrovascular disorders (CeVDs) leading to hospitalizations. We aimed to study the association of different subtypes of substance use disorders (SUDs) among hospitalized patients, with the different subtypes of CVDs and CeVDs, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database. Additionally, we aimed to assess the odds of hospitalizations with new onset CVDs and CeVDs among patients with different types of SUDs. Methods: A retrospective study of the NIS database (2016-2017) using the ICD-10-CM codes was performed. The hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of SUDs were identified. Weighted univariate analysis using the chi-square test and multivariate survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for the incidence, prevalence, and odds of association between vascular events and SUDs. Results: There were a total of 58,259,589 hospitalizations, out of which 21.42% had SUDs. Out of all the hospitalized patients between the age 18-50, more patients had SUDs than not (31.83%, p< 0.0001). This difference existed for all the different subtypes of SUDs including alcohol related disorder (42.61%), amphetamine dependence (76.17% vs 31.83%), cannabis related disorder (75.17%), cocaine related disorders (57.87%), hallucinogen related disorder (82.91%), inhalant related disorders (67.25%), opioid related disorders (52.86%), and nicotine dependence (35.72%). We found a significant association of acute ischemic stroke with amphetamine dependence (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), cocaine related disorders (1.17, 1.12-1.23) and nicotine dependence (1.42, 1.40-1.43). Similarly, the association of intracerebral hemorrhage was higher with amphetamine dependence (2.58, 2.26-2.93), and cocaine related disorders (1.62, 1.46-1.79). The association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted to be higher with amphetamine dependence (1.82, 1.48-2.24) and nicotine dependence (1.47, 1.39-1.55). In terms of association of cardiovascular disorders with SUDs,the patients with myocardial infarction had higher odds of nicotine dependence (1.85, 1.83-1.87) than not, Similarly, the patients with angina pectoris were noted to have a higher association with cocaine related disorders (2.21, 1.86-2.62), and those with atrial fibrillation had a higher association alcohol related disorders (1.14, 1.11-1.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the variability of CVD and CeVD in patients hospitalized for SUD. Findings from our study may help promote increased awareness and early management of these events. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific effects of frequency and dose on the incidence and prevalence of CVD and CeVD in patients with SUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0361.v1
Online: 23 September 2022 (08:09:57 CEST)
Objective: We aimed to clarify the differences in the association between re-admission for heart failure (HF) and left atrial (LA) overload indices by sex in heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods: We analysed 898 HFpEF patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. Blood tests and transthoracic echocardiography were performed before discharge. The primary endpoint was re-admission for HF during the first year. Results: The ratio of diastolic elastance to arterial elastance (p=0.014), a relative index of LA pressure overload, in men and LA volume index (LAVI, p=0.020) in women were significant for re-admission for HF during the first year in the multivariable Fine-Gray analysis. Stroke volume (SV)/LA volume (LAV), another index for LAV overload, was not a significant prognostic factor of re-admission for HF during this time. Conclusion: LA overload was an important prognostic factor for HF re-readmission during the first year after enrolment in patients with HFpEF, but the indices relating to LA overload differed by sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Myofibroblast; Atorvastatin; Olmesartan; Resveratrol; Valvular Interstitial Cell
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:55:06 CEST)
Introduction. Recent studies revealed that differentiation of valvular interstitial cell into myoﬁbroblasts played an important role in pathological valve remodeling in rheumatic valvular disease. Objective. To investigate effects of atorvastatin, olmesartan, and resveratrol on Transforming Growth Factor β1-induced fibrosis. Methods. Valvular interstitial cell was isolated from 12-weeks male New Zealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Culture cells was divided into 4 groups, control group, group I (0.5 mg/mL Atorvastatin), group II (100 nmol/L Olmesartan), group III (50 μM/L Resveratrol) and group IV (combinations). All group were exposed to 100 nM Transforming Growth Factor β1 for 24 hours. Results. Immunochemical staining demonstrated that cells were completely differentiated into myofibroblasts with mean expression of α-smooth muscle actin 24522.64±4566.994. Atorvastatin, olmesartan, resveratrol, and its combination significantly reduced α-smooth muscle actin expression (6823±1735.3, 6942.7±2455.9, 14176.2±3343.3, 5051.8±1612.2 respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion. Our data showed atorvastatin, olmesartan, resveratrol, and its combination significantly reduce Transforming Growth Factor β1-induced valvular fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Citrus flavonoids; naringin; naringenin; pectin; byproducts; anti-ischemic myocardial protection; hydrodynamic cavitation
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:33 CEST)
Citrus flavonoids are well-known for beneficial effects at the cardiovascular and cardio-metabolic level, but often the encouraging in vitro results are not confirmed by in vivo approaches; also clinical trials are inconsistent. The limited bioavailability of them can be, at least in part, the reason of these discrepancies. Therefore many efforts were performed towards the improvement of their bioavailability. Hydrodynamic cavitation methods were successfully applied to the extraction of byproducts of the Citrus fruits industry, showing high process yields and affording stable phytocomplexes, known as IntegroPectin, endowed with great amounts of bioactive compounds and high water solubility. Cardioprotective effects of grapefruit IntegroPectin were evaluated by an ex vivo ischemia/reperfusion protocol. A further pharmacological characterization was carried out to assess the involvement of mitochondrial potassium channels. Grapefruit IntegroPectin, where naringin represented 98% of flavonoids, showed anti-ischemic cardioprotective activity, better than pure naringenin (the bioactive aglycone of naringin). On cardiac isolated mitochondria, this extract confirmed that naringenin/naringin were involved in the activation of mitochondrial potassium channels. The hydrodynamic cavitation-based extraction confirmed a valuable opportunity for the exploitation of Citrus fruits waste, with the end product presenting high levels of Citrus flavonoids and an improved bioaccessibility that enhances its nutraceutical and economic value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: coronary; atherosclerosis; cardiac CT; geometry
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:24:46 CEST)
Coronary artery disease (CAD) represents a modern pandemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The multi-faceted pathogenesis of this entity has long been investigated, highlighting the contribution of systemic factors such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Nevertheless, recent research has drawn light to the importance of geometrical features of coronary vasculature on the complexity and vulnerability of coronary atherosclerosis. Various parameters have been investigated so far, including vessel-length, cross-sectional area, curvature, and tortuosity, using primarily invasive angiography and recently non-invasive cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). It is clear that there is correlation between geometrical parameters and both the haemodynamic alterations augmenting the atherosclerosis-prone environment and the extent of plaque burden. The purpose of this review is to discuss the currently available literature regarding this issue and propose a potential non-invasive imaging biomarker, the geometric risk score, which could be of importance to allow early detection of individuals at increased risk of developing CAD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Cholesterol efflux; flavonoids; HDL; quercetin; reverse cholesterol transport
Online: 11 August 2022 (03:33:47 CEST)
One of the mechanisms used in the management and cure of atherosclerosis is reverse cholesterol transfer (RCT), which plays a vital role in the export of cholesterol from peripheral cells. Cholesterol efflux from macrophages in the subintima of the vessel wall is a critical part of RCT. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) are involved in the transfer of cholesterol from arterial macrophages to extracellular high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). The HDL then transports esterified cholesterol to the liver for elimination. An important factor in the reverse cholesterol transport and excretion of extracellular cholesterol is HDL. Atherogenesis can be prevented by altering the processes of RCT and cholesterol efflux, and this might lead to novel treatment options for cardiovascular disease. Research of novel modifying variables for RCT and cholesterol efflux is necessary. A better understanding of RCT's molecular processes has been gained via research, allowing for the creation of new treatments that make use of RCT's potential for pharmacological improvement. The purpose of this review is to provoke discussion on the potential impact of selected flavonoids on cholesterol efflux on the progression of atherosclerosis (Fig. 1.).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells; cardiomyocyte-like cells; platelet rich fibrin; growth factor; stem cell therapy
Online: 3 August 2022 (03:31:51 CEST)
Background: There is several challenges to solve irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes due to myocardial infarction. Cell therapy is believed as an ideal treatment for cardiac regeneration in the infarct area. Obtaining adipose-derived stem cells increases seems to be promising, however it is limited by the capacity to differentiate. Stimulation by injectable platelet-rich fibrin appears to have the beneficial effects to accelerate cardiomyocyte-like cells differentiation. Objective: To analyse the benefit of injectable platelet-rich fibrin to accelerate differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Methods: This study is a true experimental randomized post-test design study. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissues and cultured until 4 passages. The characteristics of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were measured by the expression of CD 34-, CD 45-, and CD 105+ using flowcytometry. The samples were divided into 3 groups, i.e. negative control (α-MEM), positive control (differentiation medium) and treatment group (platelet-rich fibrin). The assessment of GATA-4 marker expression was conducted using flowcytometry on the fifth day and troponin was conducted using immunocytochemistry on the tenth day to determine the differentiation to cardiomyocyte. Data analysis was conducted using T-test and One-Way ANOVA on normally distributed data determined through Shapiro-Wilk test. Results: Flowcytometry on GATA-4 expression revealed significant difference on addition of platelet-rich fibrin compared with negative and positive controls (68.20 ± 6.82 vs 58.15 ± 1.23; p<0.05; 68.20 ± 6.82 vs 52.96 ± 2.02; p<0.05). This was supported by the results of immunocytochemistry on troponin expression which revealed significant difference between platelet-rich fibrin group compared with negative and positive controls (50.66 ± 7.2 vs 10.73 ± 2.39; p<0.05; 50.66 ± 7.2 vs 26.00 ± 0.4; p<0.05). Conclusion: Injectable platelet-rich fibrin has beneficial effect to accelerate differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: ascending aorta aneurysm; bicuspid aorta valve; tricuspid aorta valve; ERG transcriptional factor pathway; TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways modulation.
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:43:22 CEST)
Abstract: The pathobiology of ascending aorta aneurysms (AAA) onset and progression is not well understood and only partially characterized. AAA are also complicated in case of bicuspid aorta valve (BAV) anatomy. There is emerging evidence about the crucial role of endothelium-related pathways, which show in AAA an altered expression and function. Here, we examined the involvement of ERG-related pathways in the differential progression of disease in aortic tissues from patients having a BAV or tricuspid aorta valve (TAV) with or without AAA. Our findings identified ERG as a novel endothelial-specific regulator of TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways, by modulating a differential fibrotic or calcified AAA progression in BAV and TAV aortas. We provided evidence that calcification is correlated to different ERG expression (as gene and protein), which appears to be under control of Notch signaling. The latter, when increased, associated with an early calcification in aortas with BAV valve and aneurysmatic, was demonstrated to favor the progression versus severe complications, i.e., dissection or rupture. In TAV aneurysmatic aortas, ERG appeared to modulate fibrosis. Therefore, we proposed that ERG may represent a sensitive tissue biomarker to monitor AAA progression and a target to develop therapeutic strategies and influence surgical procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: acute pulmonary embolism; dilemmas; therapeutic treatment; recommendations; clinical application
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:12:56 CEST)
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a very common cardiovascular disease, with a still high mortality rate. Despite the clear guidelines, this disease still represents a great challenge both in diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneous clinical picture, often without pathognomonic signs and symptoms, represents a huge differential diagnostic problem even for experienced doctors. The decision on the therapeutic regimen also represents a major dilemma in the group of patients who are hemodynamically stable at initial presentation and have signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction proven by echocardiography and positive biomarker values (pulmonary embolism of intermediate-high risk). Studies have shown conflicting results about the benefit of using fibrinolytic therapy in this group of patients until hemodynamic decompensation, due to the risk of major bleeding. The latest recommendations give preference to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), except for certain categories of patients (patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, mechanical valves, pregnancy). When using oral anticoagulant therapy, special attention should be paid to drug-drug interactions, which can lead to many complications, even to the death of the patient. Special population groups such as pregnant women, obese patients, patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and cancer represent a great therapeutic challenge in the application of anticoagulant therapy. In these patients, not only the effectiveness of the drugs must be taken into account, but great attention must be paid to their safety and possible side effects, which is why a multidisciplinary approach is emphasized in order to provide the best therapeutic option.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0325.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: autonomic failure; lean test; active stand; long covid; Post-COVID-19 condition
Online: 28 July 2022 (03:42:35 CEST)
Autonomic dysfunction is an increasingly recognised complication in chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease , and other medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, chronic fatigue syndrome, postural tachycardia syndrome with and without Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, fibromyalgia and recently Long Covid. Despite laboratory-based tests to evaluate normal and abnormal autonomic function, there are no home-based tests to record neuro-cardiovascular autonomic responses to common stimuli in daily life that are dependent on the normal functioning of the autonomic nervous system. We have developed an adapted blood pressure/heart Autonomic Profile (aAP) that can be used by an individual independently and repeatedly in a domiciliary setting to determine the physiological and symptomatic response to standing, food, and physical and mental (cognitive, emotional) activities. The aAP aids separating autonomic failure (often irreversible) from autonomic dysfunction. This helps the individual and attending healthcare professional understand the relationship between symptoms and common triggers in daily life and informs on self-management in debilitating conditions such as the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) and Long Covid.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Caspofungin; Candidemia; Cardiotoxicity; Troponin
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:43:51 CEST)
Echinocandins selectively inhibit fungal cell wall synthesis and, therefore, have few side effects. However, there are reports of hemodynamic and cardiac complications. We conducted this study to investigate the effects of caspofungin both on the noninvasive echocardiographic indices of myocardial function and on myocardial injury based on serum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) levels. This study was conducted on patients treated for candidemia. The hs-cTnI level and echocardiographic parameters were measured before and 1 hour after the infusion of the induction dose of caspofungin. Data were compared between central and peripheral venous drug administration routes. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters between the baseline and post-treatment period. The mean hs-cTnI level exhibited a significant rise following drug administration (0.24 ± 0.2 vs 0.32 ± 0.3; P = 0.006). There was also a significant difference concerning the hs-cTnI level between central and peripheral venous drug administration routes (P = 0.034). Due to differences in the hs-cTnI level, it appears that the administration of caspofungin may be associated with myocardial injury. Our findings also showed a higher possibility of cardiotoxicity via the central venous administration route.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: ST-elevation myocardial infarction; Covid-19 pandemic; time delay; primary percutaneous cor-onary intervention; heart failure; mortality
Online: 12 July 2022 (03:33:22 CEST)
Covid-19 pandemic affected outcome in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in majority of countries. We aimed to assess retrospectively admissions, treatments, complications and mortality of STEMI patients in the northeast of Slovenia in the first (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) of Covid-19 pandemic and compare them with the data from 2019 (March-October). Comparing 2019 and both waves of Covid-19 pandemic we observed nonsignificant differences in the number of STEMI admissions, in baseline characteristics, in the use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), either within the first 3 (40.5%* vs 30.2% vs 25%*, *p = 0.074) and 6 hours, nonsignificant differences in TIMI III flow after primary PCI and in hospital complications, except for significant increase in hospital heart failure (23.3% vs 42%, p = 0.015) and mitral regurgitation in the second wave (10% vs 26.9%, p = 0.008) of the pandemic with nonsignificant increase in hospital mortality (8.9% vs 9.4% vs 13.6%) in both waves of the pandemic. We conclude, that with increased severity of Covid-19 pandemic in the second wave there was a longer delay to primary PCI in STEMI patients, resulting in significantly increased hospital heart failure and nonsignificantly increased hospital mortality
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Infective Endocarditis; Staphylococcus Aureus; Biofilm; Immune response; Fibronectin
Online: 7 July 2022 (10:00:18 CEST)
Infective endocarditis remains an illness that carries a significant burden to healthcare resources. In recent times, there has been a shift from Streptococcus sp to Staphylococcus sp as the primary organism of interest. This has significant consequences given the virulence of Staphylococcus and its propensity to form a biofilm, rendering non-surgical therapy ineffective. In addition, antibiotic resistance has affected treatment of this organism. The cohorts at most risk for Staphylococcal endocarditis are the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. The innovation of transcatheter technologies alongside other cardiac interventions such as implantable devices have contributed to the increased risk attributable to this cohort. We examine the role of the heart team for diagnosis and treatment of this condition. In addition, we examine the determinants of virulence of Staphylococcus aureus, the interaction with hosts immunity and the discovery and emergence of a potential vaccine. We also examine the potential role of prophylactic antibiotics during dental procedures. With increasing rates of transcatheter device implantations, there is a projected increment of endocarditis especially in this high-risk group. A high index of suspicion is needed alongside early initiation of therapy and referral to the heart time to improve outcomes.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: telehealth; remote assessment; cardiology; cardiovascular diseases; COVID-19
Online: 7 July 2022 (08:11:31 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vitalness of telehealth in our medical world, where considering a restructuring of healthcare services has become paramount. In fact, telemedicine has recently earned a valuable place in many specialties; and its implications in cardiology and cardiovascular medicine were among the leading interests. In this letter, we gathered previous evidence supporting the merit of telemedicine in the fields of cardiology and cardiovascular medicine—medical branches in which patients require meticulous care and continuous monitoring—as well as protrusions of concerns about the uncertainty regarding the efficacy of telemedicine’s future implications and technologies. In sum, in the context of this still on-going pandemic, medical institutions must strive to improve telehealth technologies and implement solid future research directions in this growing field—to be able to persevere in meeting the needs of the patients. As long as no conclusive evidence exists regarding the fields where telemedicine is most worthwhile, healthcare systems will always keep the dread of wasting resources on developing ineffective programs. We conclude that telemedicine has been attributed a considerable attention in managing cardiac and cardiovascular conditions; nevertheless, further studies with solid designs are still needed to confirm its validity and utility in those specialties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: restenosis; foam cells; NLRP3 inflammasome; MAPK signaling pathway
Online: 5 July 2022 (08:15:38 CEST)
The accumulation of foam cells in arterial intima and the accompanied chronic inflammation are considered major causes of neoatherosclerosis and restenosis. However, both the underlying mechanism and effective treatment for the disease are yet to be uncovered. In this study, we combined transcriptome profiling of restenosis artery tissue and bioinformatic analysis to reveal that NLRP3 inflammasome is markedly upregulated in restenosis and that several restenosis re-lated DEGs are also targets of mulberry extract, a natural dietary supplement used in traditional Chinese medicine to improve liver vitality. Further pathway enrichment analysis identified MAPK signaling pathway to be involved in the inflammatory response of foam cells. Consistently, immunofluorescence microscopy shows co-localization of NLRP3 with CD68+ macrophages. We then evaluated the efficacy of mulberry extract in inhibiting both the formation of foam cells and their inflammatory response. We demonstrated that mulberry extract suppresses the formation of ox-LDL induced foam cells, possibly by upregulating the cholesterol efflux genes ABCA1 and ABCG1 to inhibit intracellular lipid accumulation. In addition, mulberry extract dampens NLRP3 inflammasome activation by stressing the MAPK signaling pathway. Collectively, our mecha-nistic and functional studies unveil the therapeutic value of mulberry extract in neoatherosclerosis and restenosis treatment by regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory response of foam cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular risk; lipids; NMR spectroscopy; pulse wave velocity; retinal vessel diameters
Online: 22 June 2022 (03:37:53 CEST)
Lipoproteins are important cardiovascular (CV) risk biomarkers. This study aimed to investigate the associations of lipoprotein subclasses with micro- and macrovascular biomarkers to better understand how these subclasses relate to atherosclerotic CV diseases. One hundred fifty-eight serum samples from the EXAMIN AGE study, consisting of healthy individuals and CV risk patients, were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to quantify lipoprotein subclasses. Microvascular health was quantified by measuring retinal arteriolar and venular diameters. Macrovascular health was quantified by measuring carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Nineteen lipoprotein subclasses showed statistically significant associations with retinal vessel diameters and nine with PWV. These lipoprotein subclasses together explained up to 26% of variation (R2=0.26, F(29,121)=2.80, p<0.001) in micro- and 12% (R2=0.12, F(29,124)=1.70, p=0.025) of variation in macrovascular health. High-density (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as triglycerides together explained up to 13% (R2=0.13, F(3,143)=8.42, p<0.001) of micro and 8% (R2=0.08, F(3,145)=5.46, p=0.001) of macrovascular variation. Lipoprotein subclasses seem to reflect micro- and macrovascular end organ damage more precisely as compared to only measuring HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides. Further studies are needed to analyse how the additional quantification of lipoprotein subclasses can improve CV risk stratification and CV disease prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; Mexico COVID-19; Mexico metropolitan area
Online: 14 June 2022 (03:11:35 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD´s) continue as the primary cause of death worldwide. During the past couple of years, and with the surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, deaths linked to CVD´s were -slightly overshadowed by those deaths related to COVID-19, albeit during the highest peaks of the pandemic. The present study derived form understanding the correlation between both diseases, from the standpoint of patients already diagnosed with CVD´s (n = 41883) and what comorbidities had the highest influence on overall patient death (n = 3637). Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are all linked to worsening the outcome of COVID-19 positive patients, hence they were considered when looking at the overview of all CVD positive patients. Our finding showed that 1697 deaths were related to diabetes (p < 0.001), 987 deaths were related to obesity (p < 0.001), and lastly 2499 deaths were attributed to hypertension (p < 0.001) individually. Using logistic regression modeling, we found diabetes (OR: 1.744, p < 0.001) and hypertension (OR: 2.179, p < 0.001) had a high impact on patient deaths. Hence, having a CVD diagnosis, with hypertension and/or diabetes seems to increase the likely-hood of complication leading to death in COVID-19 positive patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: β-adrenoceptor; diabetes; empagliflozin; heart; pressure-volume loop analysis
Online: 25 May 2022 (09:59:26 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus leads to cardiovascular complications including impaired cardiac β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) function. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, such as empagliflozin (EMPA) improve outcomes in heart failure patients and animal models thereof. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of EMPA on in vivo cardiac function (pressure-volume loop analysis) and β-AR-mediated contractile responses (papillary strips) in streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced diabes in male Sprague Dawley rats (control, EMPA-treated control, diabetic, EMPA-treated diabetic) in a design reflecting late-onset treatment. 13-16 weeks after STZ injection treatment with a low dose of EMPA (10 mg/kg/day, daily oral gavage) or vehicle was administered for another 8 weeks. EMPA did not change cardiac function in control rats. Diabetic rats had a reduced heart rate, cardiac output, stroke work, rate of contration and rate of relaxation and increased isovolumic relaxation, whereas in vitro responses were not markedly attenuated. Treatment with EMPA showed a trend for improvement of some but not all parameters. Our results indicate that low dose EMPA treatment had limited effects on cardiac impairment despite reducing blood glucose when initiated after diabetes is manifest. Future studies with a higher dose and greater sample sizes could help to clarify the possible benefits of EMPA on the diabetic heart.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Apple Watch; wearable sensor; pulse rate; arrhythmia; atrial fibrillation; case report
Online: 24 May 2022 (09:49:08 CEST)
Consumer rhythm-monitoring devices, such as the Apple Watch, are becoming more readily available. Irregular pulses can be detected using an optical sensor built into the wearable device. The Apple Watch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) is a class II medical device with pulse rate and electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring capabilities. Here we report a case in which an arrhythmia that was conventionally perceived but undiagnosed was identified as atrial fibrillation by self-acquisition of ECG data using an Apple Watch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: abdominal aorta; arterial embolism; B-Flow sonography; contrast enhanced ultrasound; endovascular aortic repair; flashlight sign; peripheral arteries; wall adherent floating structures
Online: 11 May 2022 (03:44:41 CEST)
This study aimed on evaluating the potential diagnostic value of a novel, sonographic, B-Flow Imaging (BFI)-based sign (“flashlight sign”, FLS) for the detection of wall-adherent, floating arterial structures (WAFAS). The FLS, characterized by a fast moving, very bright, intraluminal signal was detected in 28 patients with WAFAS. We divided this cohort into three subgroups, depending on the affected vascular segments: (1) peripheral arteries (n = 10), (2) native abdominal aorta (n = 8), and (3) abdominal aorta after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR; n = 10). Clinical characteristics were analyzed and BFI-findings were compared with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and computed tomography angiography (CTA). Seven patients (25%) suffered from arterial embolism downstream to the FLS (EVAR, n = 4; native abdominal aorta, n = 1; peripheral arteries, n = 2). WAFAS of the abdominal aorta (native or after EVAR), as indicated by the FLS, were visible by CEUS and CTA in 60% and 93.3%, respectively. Based on the so far largest cohort of patients with WAFAS, we propose a clinically useful, BFI-based sonographic sign for detection of these so far underrated arterial pathologies in the abdominal aorta and the peripheral arteries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: CPVT; RyR2; Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
Online: 9 May 2022 (14:04:05 CEST)
Introduction: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare cardiac ion channelopathy. This study examined the clinical characteristics, genetic basis, and arrhythmic outcomes of CPVT patients from China. Methods: PubMed and EMBASE were systematically searched for case reports or series reporting on CPVT patients from China until February 19th, 2022 using the keyword “Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia” OR “CPVT”, with the location limited to “China” OR “Hong Kong” or “Macau” in EMBASE, with no language or publication type restriction. Clinical characteristics, genetic findings, and primary outcome of spontaneous ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) were analyzed. Results: A systematic search of the PubMed and Embase databases yielded 1049 and 47 articles, respectively. After the exclusion of overlapping cohorts, a total of 58 unique cases from 15 studies (median presentation age: 8 [5.0-11.8] years old) were included. All patients except for one presented at or before 19 years of age. 56 patients (96.6%) were initially symptomatic. Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were present in 44 of 51 patients (86.3%) and VT in 52 of 58 patients (89.7%). Genetic tests were performed on 54 patients (93.1%) with a yield of 87%. RyR2, CASQ2, TERCL, and SCN10A mutations were found in 35 (71.4%), 12 (24.5%), one (0.02%) patient, and one patient (0.02%) respectively. 54 patients were treated with beta-blockers, eight received flecainide, five received amiodarone, two received verapamil and one received propafenone. Sympathectomy (n=10) and implantable-cardioverter defibrillator implantation (n=8) were performed. On follow-up, 13 patients developed VT/VF. Conclusion: This is the first systematic review of CPVT patients from China. Most patients had symptoms on initial presentation, with syncope as the presenting complaint. RyR2 mutation accounts for more than half of the CPVT cases, followed by CASQ2, TERCL and SCN10A mutations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: first heartbeat; human embryonic heart; human embryos; onset of blood circulation
Online: 5 May 2022 (09:56:10 CEST)
The onset of embryonic heart beating may be regarded as the defining feature for the beginning of personal human life. Clarifying the timing of the 1st human heartbeat, therefore, has religious, philosophical, ethical, and medicolegal implications. This article reviews the historical and contemporary sources of knowledge on the beginning of human heart activity. Special attention is given to the problem of the determination of the true age of human embryos and to the problem of visualization of the human embryonic heart activity. It is shown that historical and current textbook statements about the onset of blood circulation in man do not derive from observations on living human embryos but derive from the extrapolation of observations on animal embryos to the human species. This fact does not preclude the existence of documented observations on human embryonic heart activity: Modern diagnostic (ultrasound) and therapeutic (IVF) procedures facilitate the visualization of early embryonic heart activity in precisely dated pregnancies. Such studies showed that the human heart started its pumping action during the 4th post-fertilization week. A small number of direct observations on the heart activity of aborted human embryos were reported since the 19th century but did not receive much recognition by embryologists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: animal models; cardiac aftereffects; COVID-19; hypoxia; echocardiogram; pulmonary hypertension; right ventricular dilatation; right ventricular hypertrophy
Online: 5 May 2022 (09:36:47 CEST)
COVID-19 affects many organs in our body, including the heart and lungs. COVID-19 cases that require hospitalization often exhibit pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to changes in the lung microvasculature in which the blood vessels become stiff, damaged, or narrow, causing increased pulmonary arterial pressure. This review examines the hypothesis that PH can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) as a long-lasting aftereffect of COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that significant percentages of hospitalized patients develop right ventricular hypertension and right ventricular dilatation (RVD), which may lead to right ventricular failure and death. Despite recommendations for echocardiogram reports to include right ventricular wall thickness to assess RVH, few published reports have reported this parameter. Relevant studies on animal models of PH in which the timing of PH can be precisely controlled suggest that one to three weeks of PH can cause RVH. Thus, according to the hypothesis proposed here COVID-19 patients who have long-lasting severe disease (e.g., needed to be on a ventilator for one or more weeks) accompanied by PH and RVD may develop RVH as a long-lasting sequela outlasting the infection itself. Echocardiogram studies of recovered COVID-19 patients may determine whether oft-reported cardiovascular sequelae include RVH.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation; Surgical aortic valve replacement; Structural valve degeneration; Transcatheter heart valves
Online: 29 April 2022 (13:10:19 CEST)
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has grown exponentially within the cardiology and cardiac surgical spheres. It has now become a routine approach for treating aortic stenosis. Several uncertainties have been raised about TAVI in comparison to conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). The primary concerns are with regards to the longevity of the valves. Several factors have been identified that may predict poor outcomes following TAVI. These include the lesser-used finite element analysis (FEA) to quantify the properties of calcifications that affect TAVI valves. This can also be used in conjunction with other integrated software to ascertain the functionality of these valves. Other imaging modalities are now widely available such as Multi-detector row computed tomography(MDCT) which can accurately size the aortic valve annulus.. This may help reduce the incidence of paravalvular leaks and regurgitation which may necessitate further intervention. Structural valve degeneration (SVD) remains a key factor with varying results from current studies. The true incidence of SVD in TAVI compared to SAVR remains unclear with the lack of long term data. It is now widely accepted that both are part of the armamentarium and are not mutually exclusive. Decision-making for the appropriate intervention should be made via shared decision-making involving the heart team.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: purinergic signaling; endothelial cells; shear stress; vasodilatation; transcytosis; intimal hyperplasia; atherosclerosis; high-density lipoprotein
Online: 29 April 2022 (08:06:19 CEST)
The endothelium plays a key role in blood vessel health. At the interface of the blood, it releases several mediators that regulate local processes and that protect against the development of cardiovascular disease. In this interplay, there is increasing evidence for a role of extracellular nucleotides and endothelial purinergic P2Y receptors (P2Y-R) in vascular protection. Recent advances have revealed that endothelial P2Y1-R and P2Y2-R mediate nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation as well as endothelial cell proliferation and migration, which are processes involved in the regeneration of damaged endothelium. However, endothelial P2Y2-R, and possibly P2Y1-R, have also been reported to promote vascular inflammation and atheroma development in mouse models, with endothelial P2Y2-R also being described as promoting vascular remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. Interestingly, at the interface with lipid metabolism, P2Y12-R has been found to trigger HDL transcytosis through endothelial cells, a process known to be protective against lipid deposition in the vascular wall. Better characterization of the role of purinergic P2Y-R and downstream signaling pathways in determination of the endothelial cell phenotype in healthy and pathological environments has clinical potential for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: chronic kidney disease; gene polymorphism; angiotensin-converting enzyme; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular mortality risk; genotype
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphisms and plasma ACE levels may allow for the optimization of a preventive intervention to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. In this study, we aimed to analyze the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality risk among non-hemodialyzed chronic kidney disease patients. This cross-sectional study examined 70 patients of Javanese ethnic origin with stable CKD who did not receive hemodialysis. ACE I/D polymorphisms, plasma ACE levels, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk, and cardiovascular mortality risk were investigated. As per our findings, the I allele was found to be more frequent (78.6) than the D allele (21.4), and the DD genotype was less frequent than the II genotype (4.3 vs. 61.4). The ACE I/D polymorphism had a significant direct positive effect on plasma ACE levels (path coefficient = 0.302, p = 0.021). Similarly, plasma ACE levels had a direct and significant positive effect on the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (path coefficient = 0.410, p = 0.000). Moreover, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk had a significant positive effect on cardiovascular mortality risk (path coefficient = 0.918, p = 0.000). The ACE I/D polymorphism had no direct effect on ASCVD and cardiovascular mortality risk. However, our findings show that the indirect effects of high plasma ACE levels may be a factor in the increased risk of ASCVD and cardiovascular mortality in Javanese CKD patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: atherosclerosis; biomechanics; border detection; coronary artery disease; optical coherence to-mography; stents; vulnerable plaque
Online: 7 April 2022 (08:13:34 CEST)
Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intravascular, near-infrared light-based imaging modality capable of reaching axial resolutions of 10-20 µm. This resolution allows for accurate determination of high-risk plaque features, such as thin cap fibroatheroma; however, visualisation of morphological features alone still provides unreliable positive predictive capability for plaque progression or future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Biomechanical simulation could assist in this prediction, but this requires extracting morphological features from intravascular imaging to construct accurate three-dimensional simulations of patients’ arteries. Extracting these features is a laborious process, often carried out manually by trained experts. To address this challenge, numerous techniques have emerged to automate these processes while simultaneously overcoming difficulties associated with OCT imaging, such as its limited penetration depth. This systematic review summarises advances in automated segmentation techniques from the past five years (2016-2021) with a focus on their application to the three-dimensional reconstruction of vessels and their subsequent simulation. We discuss four categories based on the feature being processed, namely: coronary lumen; plaque characteristics and subtypes; artery layers; and stents. Areas for future innovation are also discussed as well as their potential for future translation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Restrictive Cardiomyopathy; Cardiomyopathy; Cardiovascular Genetics; Desmin; Troponin; Filamin-C
Online: 18 March 2022 (09:05:21 CET)
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is a rare cardiac disease causing severe diastolic dysfunction, ventricular stiffness and dilated atria. In consequence, it induces heart failure often with preserved ejection fraction and is associated with a high mortality. Since a poor clinical prognosis, patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy require frequently heart transplantation. Genetic as well as non-genetic factors contribute to restrictive cardiomyopathy and a significant portion of cases remains of unknown etiology. However, the genetic forms of restrictive cardiomyopathy and the involved molecular pathomechanisms are only partially understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about primary genetic restrictive cardiomyopathy and describe its genetic landscape, which might be of interest for geneticists as well as for cardiologists.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: hypertension; blood pressure; lifestyle; digital health; ehealth; prevention; behavioral change
Online: 7 March 2022 (10:55:20 CET)
Worldwide, it is estimated that at least 1 in 4 adults suffers from hypertension, and this number is expected to increase as populations grow and age. Blood pressure (BP) possesses substantial heritability, but is also heavily modulated by lifestyle factors. As such, digital, lifestyle-based in-terventions are a promising alternative to standard care for hypertension prevention and man-agement. In this study we assessed the prevalence of elevated and high BP in a Dutch general pop-ulation cohort undergoing a health screening, and observed the effects of a subsequent self-initiated, digitally-enabled lifestyle program on BP regulation. Baseline data were available for 348 participants, of which 56 had partaken in a BP-focused lifestyle program and got re-measured 10 months after the intervention. Participants with elevated SBP and DBP at baseline showed a mean decrease of 7.2 mmHg and 5.4 mmHg, respectively. Additionally, 70% and 72.5% of participants showed an improvement in systolic and diastolic BP at remeasurement. These improvements in BP are superior to those seen in other recent studies. The long-term sustainability and the efficacy of this and similar digital lifestyle interventions will need to be estab-lished in additional, larger studies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Infective endocarditis; Granulicatela adiacens; Nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS); Next-generation sequencing (NGS); Aortic valve
Online: 21 February 2022 (10:45:14 CET)
In this report, we describe the course and successful treatment of complicated infective endocarditis (IE). A patient presented with a high-grade irregular fever with chills lasting at least 2 months, dyspnoea, chest pain, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats during the previous 3 months. Above cardiac congenital disorders, he was found to have Granulicatella adiacens infective aortic valve endocarditis, presumably transmitted from the oral cavity niche. Validated metagenomic 16S rDNA next generation sequencing was used to perform taxonomic identification, allowing for specific adequate antibiotic therapy instead of empiric therapy. This paper highlights the critical role of rapid taxonomic identification of nutritionally variant streptococci crucial and the benefit of proper IE treatment to avoid relapses or fatal complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: left ventricular noncompaction; cardiomyopathy; sinus bradycardia; HCN4 mutation; late gado-linium enhancement; children
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:16:22 CET)
Background: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous cardiomyopathy characterized by a two-layered myocardium consisting of compacted and noncompacted segments, prominent ventricular trabeculations, and intertrabecular recesses. Patients with LVNC are at increased risk to develop heart failure, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and/or systemic thromboembolic events. Familial forms of primary sinus bradycardia have been attributed to mutations in HCN4. There are very few reports about the association between HCN4 mutations and LVNC. The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical phenotype of families with LVNC and sinus bradycardia caused by mutation of the HCN4 gene. Methods: From March 2008 to July 2021 we prospectively enrolled 6 patients from 4 families with diagnosed isolated LVNC based on the clinical presentation, family history and echocardiographic and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) evidence of LVNC. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis was undertaken for evaluation of the molecular basis of the disease in each family. Results: A total of 6 children (median age 11 years) were enrolled and followed prospectively for the median of 12 years. All 6 patients were diagnosed with LVNC by echocardiography and 5 participants additionally by CMR. The presence of LGE was found in 3 children. Sinus bradycardia and dilation of the ascending aorta occurred in 5 studied patients. In 4 patients from 3 families the molecular studies demonstrated the presence of rare heterozygous HCN4 mutations. Conclusion: (1) The HCN4 mutation influences the presence of a complex LVNC phenotype, sinus bradycardia and dilation of the ascending aorta. (2) HCN4 mutation may be associated with the early presentation of clinical symptoms and the severe course of the disease. (3) It is particularly important to assess myocardial fibrosis not only within the ventricles, but also in the atria in patients with LVNC and sinus bradycardia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: endothelial dysfunction; SARS-CoV-2 infection; thrombosis, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2; angiogenesis
Online: 15 February 2022 (11:05:22 CET)
One of the hallmarks of the SARS-CoV-2 infection has been the inflammatory process that played a role in its pathogenesis, resulting in mortality within susceptible individuals. This uncontrolled inflammatory process leads to severe systemic symptoms via multiple pathways, however, the role of endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis have not been truly explored. This review aims to highlight the pathogenic mechanisms of these inflammatory triggers leading to thrombogenic complications. There are direct and indirect pathogenic pathways of the infection that are examined in detail. We also describe the case of carotid artery thrombosis in a patient following the SARS-CoV-2 infection, while reviewing the literature on the role of ACE2, the endothelium, and the different mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 may manifest both acutely and chronically. We also highlight differences from the other coronaviruses that have made this infection pandemic with similarities to the influenza virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Acute myocardial infarction; Congestive heart failure; Cardiovascular hospitalizations
Online: 10 February 2022 (02:47:49 CET)
Background A decline in cardiovascular hospitalizations was observed during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine the continued effect of the pandemic on cardiovascular hospitalizations and the associated mortality rates during the first year of the pandemic in Israel. Methods We conduct a retrospective cohort study using the data of Clalit Health Services, the largest healthcare organization in Israel. We divide the Corona year into six periods (three lockdowns and three post-lockdowns) and compare the incidence rates of cardiovascular hospitalizations and their 30-day mortality during each period to the previous three years. Results The number of non-STEMI hospitalizations during the first year of the pandemic was 13.7% lower than the average of the previous three years (95% CI 11%-17%); STEMI hospitalizations were 15.7% lower (95% CI 13%-19%); and CHF hospitalizations were 23.9% lower (95%, CI 21%-27%). No significant differences in 30-day mortality rates were observed for AMI patients during most of the periods, whereas the annual 30-day all-cause mortality rate of CHF was 23% higher. Conclusions Hospitalizations for AMI and CHF were significantly lower during the first year of the pandemic relative to 2017–9. Mortality rates were higher in the case of CHF patients but not in the case of AMI patients, possibly due a change in the clinical acuity of patients arriving at the hospitals. We conclude that targeted public health messaging should be implemented, together with proactive monitoring in order to identify residual disability in patients that may have received non-optimal treatment during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Atrial Arrhythmia; ACHD; Congenital Heart Disease; AP-ACHD classification; Mortality; Morbidity
Online: 27 January 2022 (03:22:27 CET)
The implications of the adult congenital heart disease anatomic and physiological classification (AP-ACHD) for risk assessment have not been adequately studied. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from an ongoing national, multicentre registry of patients with ACHD and atrial arrhythmias (AA) receiving apixaban (PROTECT-AR study, NCT03854149). At enrollment, patients were stratified according to Anatomic class (AnatC, range I to III) and physiological stage (PhyS, range B to D). Follow-up was conducted between May 2019 and September 2021. The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause, any major thromboembolic event, major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding, or hospitalization. Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling was used to evaluate the risks for the outcome among AP-ACHD classes. Over a median 20-month follow-up period, 47 of 157 (29.9%) ACHD patients with AA experienced the composite outcome. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals [CI] for the outcome in PhyS C and PhyS D were 1.84 (95% CI 0.73 to 4.61) and 7.88 (95% CI 1.54 to 40.41) respectively, as compared with PhyS B. The corresponding aHRs in AnatC II and AnatC III were 1.10 (95% CI 0.39 to 3.06) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.24 to 4.10) respectively, as compared with AnatC I. In conclusion, the PhyS component of the AP-ACHD classification was an independent predictor of net adverse clinical events among ACHD patients with AA receiving apixaban.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time; acute type A aortic dissection; surgical outcome
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:12:22 CET)
(1) Background: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is an established cerebral protection technique for the conduction of complex surgical procedures involving the aortic arch. It is controversial if the duration of DHCA is associated with adverse outcome in patients with acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD). Our goal was to investigate whether DHCA time was associated with surgical outcome in patients undergoing a surgical treatment of AAAD. (2) Methods: 410 Patients were divided into two groups concerning the DHCA time less than 60 minutes and equal or longer than 60 minutes. (3) Results: Patients with longer DHCA time were significantly younger (p=0.001). Intraoperatively, complex procedures with aortic arch surgery were more common in patients with longer DHCA time (p<0.001). Accordingly, cardiopulmonary bypass (p<0.001), cross-clamping (p<0.001) and DHCA times (p<0.001) were significantly longer in this group. Postoperatively, only the duration of mechanical ventilation (p<0.001) and the rate of tracheotomy were significantly higher in these patients. 30-day mortality was satisfactory for both groups (p=0.746). (4) Conclusions: Our results showed that improvements in perioperative management including ACP allow a successful performance of surgical treatment of AAAD under DHCA with duration of even longer than 60 minutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Left ventricular hypertrophy; Echocardiography; Magnetic Resonance; Prognosis
Online: 5 January 2022 (13:10:00 CET)
Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) may be due to different causes, ranging from benign secondary forms to severe cardiomyopathies. Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) and ECG are the first level examination for LVH diagnosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) defines accurately LVH type, extent and severity. Objectives: to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of CMR in patients with TTE and/or ECG evidence of LVH. Methods: We performed CMR in 300 consecutive patients with echocardiographic and/or ECG signs of LVH. Results: Overall, 275 patients had TTE evidence of LVH with initial suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in 132 (44%), cardiac amyloidosis in 41 (14%), hypertensive LVH in 48 (16%), aortic stenosis in 4 (1%), undetermined LVH in 50(16%). The initial echocardiographic diagnostic suspicion of LVH was confirmed in 172 patients (57.3%) and changed in 128 patients (42.7%, p<0.0001): the diagnosis of HCM increased from 44% to 71% of patients; hypertensive and undetermined LVH decreased significantly (respectively to 4% and 5%). CMR allowed a diagnosis in 41 out of 50 (82%) with undetermined LVH at TTE. CMR also identified HCM in 17 out of 25 patients with apparently normal echo but with ECG criteria for LVH. Finally, the reclassification of the diagnosis by CMR was associated with a change of survival risk of patients: after CMR reclassification no events occurred in patients with undetermined or hypertensive LVH. Conclusions: CMR changed echocardiographic suspicion in almost half of patients with LVH. In the subgroup of patient with abnormal ECG, CMR identified LVH (particularly HCM) in 80% of patients. This study highlights the indication of CMR to better characterize the type, extent and severity of LVH detected at echocardiography and suspected with ECG.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0254.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular; schizophrenia; prospective cohort; hospital admissions
Online: 30 December 2021 (19:42:41 CET)
(1) Background: Patients with schizophrenia have higher mortality, with cardiovascular diseases being the first cause of mortality. This study aims to estimate the excess risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events in schizophrenic patients, adjusting for comorbidity and risk factors. (2) Methods: The APNA study is a dynamic prospective cohort of all residents in Navarra, Spain. 505889 people over 18 years were followed for five years. The endpoint was hospital admissions for a cardiovascular event. Direct Acyclic Graphs (DAG) and Cox regression were used. (3) Results: Schizophrenic patients had a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.414 (95% CI 1.031-1.938) of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, low income, obesity, antecedents of cardiovascular disease, and smoking. In non-adherent to antipsychotic treatment schizophrenia patients, the HR was 2.232 (95% CI 1.267-3.933). (4) Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events than persons with the same risk factors without schizophrenia. Primary care nursing interventions should monitor these patients and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0402.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; CPVT; RyR2; CASQ2; TERCL
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:10:26 CET)
Introduction: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare cardiac ion channelopathy. The aim of this study is to examine the genetic basis and identify predictive factors for arrhythmic outcomes of CPVT patients from China. Methods: PubMed and MedRxiv were systematically searched for case reports or case series reporting on CPVT patients from China. Clinical characteristics, genetic findings and primary outcome of spontaneous ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) were analyzed. Results: A total of 56 (median presentation age=9 [6-13] years old) patients were included. All patients except for one presented at or before 19 years of age. Fifty-three patients (94.6%) were initially symptomatic. PVCs were present in 40 out of 45 patients (88.9%) and VT in 51 out of 56 patients (91.1%). Genetic tests were performed in 50 patients (89.3%). RyR2, CASQ2 and TERCL mutations were found in 32 (57.1%), 11 (19.6%) and one (0.02%) patients, respectively. Fifty patients were treated with beta-blockers, eight patients received flecainide, four patients received amiodarone, two received verapamil and one received propafenone. Sympathectomy (n=10) and implantable-cardioverter defibrillator implantation (n=7) were performed. On follow-up, 17 patients developed incident VT/VF. Conclusion: This is the first systemic review and meta-analysis of CPVT patients from China. Most patients had symptoms on initial presentation, and around a third had VT as the presenting complaint. RyR2 mutation accounts for more than half of the CPVT cases, followed by CASQ2 and TERCL mutations. Some of these mutations have not been hitherto reported outside of China. Most patients received β-blocker therapy. Around 18% had sympathectomy and 13% had ICDs implanted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: metabolic syndrome; diabetes; hypertension; obesity; frailty; older people; Asian
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:09:59 CET)
Background: There has been evidence that metabolic syndrome (MetS) may increase the risk of frailty. However, there is limited evidence on this association in Asian populations. Aims: This study aims to identify the association between MetS and frailty in older people in Vietnam. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a dataset obtained from an observational study on frailty and sarcopenia in patients aged ≥60 at a geriatric hospital in Vietnam. Frailty was defined by the frailty phenotype. Participants were defined as having MetS if they had ≥3 out of 5 criteria from the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adults Treatment Panel (ATP) III. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to estimate the risk of having frailty in patients with MetS. Results: There were 669 participants (mean age 71, 60.2% female), 62.3% had MetS and 39.0% was frail. The prevalence of frailty was 42.2% in participants with MetS, 33.7% in participants without MetS (p=0.029). On logistic regression models, MetS was associated with increased likelihood of being frail (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.01-2.28), allowing for age, sex, education, nutritional status, history of hospitalisation and chronic diseases. Conclusion: There was a significant association between MetS and frailty in this population. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm this association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; single nucleus RNA-sequencing; dendritic cells; integrin-b1.
Online: 29 December 2021 (09:43:00 CET)
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Single nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) of both obstructive and nonobstructive HCM patient samples have revealed alterations in communication between various cell types but a direct and integrated comparison between the two HCM phenotypes has not been reported. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of HCM snRNA-seq datasets from obstructive and nonobstructive patient samples to identify differentially expressed genes and distinctive patterns of intercellular communication. Differential gene expression analysis revealed 37 differentially expressed genes, predominantly in cardiomyocytes but also in other cell types, relevant to aging, muscle contraction, cell motility and the extracellular matrix. Intercellular communication was generally reduced in HCM, affecting the extracellular matrix, growth factor binding, integrin binding, PDGF binding and SMAD binding, but with increases in adenylate cyclase binding, calcium channel inhibitor activity, and serine-threonine kinase activity in nonobstructive HCM. Increases in neuron to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, in fibroblast to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication and in endothelial cell communication to other cell types, largely through changes in expression of integrin-b1 and its cognate ligands, were also noted. These findings indicate both common and distinct physiological mechanisms affecting the pathogenesis of obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and provide opportunities for personalized management of different HCM phenotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: high-throughput; hiPSC-CMs; Wes ProteinSimple; Cells-to-CT; Cx43; ChR2; optogenetic
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:13:27 CET)
We describe a method for protein quantification and for mRNA quantification in small sample quantities of human induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Demonstrated here is how the capillary-based protein detection system WesTM by ProteinSimple and the Power SYBRTM Green Cells-to-CTTM Kit by Invitrogen can be applied to individual samples in a 96-well microplate format and thus made compatible with high-throughput (HT) cardiomyocyte assays. As an example of the usage, we illustrate that Cx43 protein and GJA1 mRNA levels in hiPSC-CMs are enhanced when the optogenetic actuator, channelrodopsin-2 (ChR2), is genetically expressed in them. Instructions are presented for cell culture and lysate preparations from hiPSC-CMs, along with optimized parameter settings and experimental protocol steps. Strategies to optimize primary antibody concentrations as well as ways for signal normalization are discussed, i.e. antibody multiplexing and total protein assay. The sensitivity of both the Wes and Cells-to-CT kit enables protein and mRNA quantification in a HT format, which is important when dealing with precious small samples. In addition to being able to handle small cardiomyocyte samples, these streamlined and semi-automated processes enable quick mechanistic analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: monocyte subset; heart failure; inflammation; cytokine; macrophage
Online: 10 December 2021 (11:54:31 CET)
Chronic heart failure (CHF) results when heart cannot constantly supply the body tissues with oxygen and required nutrients, and it can be categorized as heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). There are different causes and mechanisms of the HF pathogenesis; however, the inflammation can be regarded as one of the factors promoting both HFrEF and HFpEF. Monocytes, a subgroup of leucocytes, are known as cellular mediators in response to cardiovascular injury and are closely related to inflammatory reactions. These cells are a vital component of the immune system and are the source of macrophages, which participate in cardiac tissue repair after injury. However, the monocytes are not homogenous as thought, and thus can present different functions under different cardiovascular disease conditions. In addition, there is still an open question whether the functions of monocytes and macrophages should be regarded as a cause or a consequence in CHF development. Therefore, our aim was to summarize the current studies on the function of various monocyte subsets in CHF with a focus on the role of a certain monocyte subset in HFpEF and HFrEF patients, and the relation to inflammatory markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: acute heart failure (AHF); venous congestion; Point-of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS); VExUS (venous excess ultrasonography score).
Online: 7 December 2021 (23:46:59 CET)
Background and Objectives: Acute Heart Failure (AHF) is a common disease and a cause of high morbidity and mortality, constituting a major health problem. The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of multiorgan ultrasound in identifying the pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients admitted due to AHF, predict the evolution of the disease during hospitalization and identify areas of improvement in the care of patients with AHF. Materials and Methods: Patients were evaluated with a standard exam of lung ultrasound, echocardiography, inferior vena cava (IVC) and femoral, renal, hepatic, portal venous Doppler flow patterns at admission and on the day of discharge. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled during November 2021. The mean age was seventy-nine years (Standard Deviation – SD 13,4). Seven patients (23.3%) had a renal function worsening. Regarding ultrasound findings, venous excess ultrasonography score (VExUS) score was calculated at admission and at discharge, surprisingly remaining unchanged or even worsened in most of them (21 patients, 70.0%). The area under the curve for the Lung Score was 83.9% (p = 0.008), obtaining a cutoff value of 10 that showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 71.4% in the identification of intermediate and high PH. It was possible to monitor significant changes between both exams on the lung score (p <0.001), hepatic vein Doppler (p <0.001), portal vein Doppler (p = 0.030), intra-renal vein Doppler (p = 0.025) and VExUS score (p = 0.023), remaining similar the femoral vein Doppler (p = 0.177) and IVC (p = 0.132). Conclusions: Our study results suggest that performing serial multiorgan Point-of-Care ultrasound can help us to better identify high and intermediate probability of PH patients with AHF. Currently proposed multi-organ, venous Doppler scanning protocols, such as the VExUS score, should be further studied in different populations before expanding its use in AHF patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Ascending aorta aneurysm (AsAA); reactive oxygen species (ROS); oxidative stress; onset and progression of sporadic AsAA; management of AsAA; biomarkers and targets
Online: 19 November 2021 (11:19:37 CET)
Ascending aorta aneurysm (AsAA) is a complex disease, currently defined an inflammatory disease. In the sporadic form, AsAA has, indeed, a complex physiopathology with a strong inflammatory basis, significantly modulated by genetic variants in innate/inflammatory genes, acting as independent risk factors and as largely evidenced in our recent studies performed during the last 10 years. Based on these premises, here, we want to revise the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress on AsAA pathophysiology and consequently on the onset and progression of sporadic AsAA. This might consent to add other important pieces in the intricate puzzle of the pathophysiology of this disease with the translational aim to identify biomarkers and targets to apply in the complex management of AsAA, by facilitating the AsAA diagnosis currently based only on imaging evaluations, and the treatment exclusively founded on surgery approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: therapeutic hypothermia; newborn; QTc interval; QTc prolongation; pharmacovigilance.
Online: 18 November 2021 (17:26:05 CET)
Background: There are anecdotal reports on reversible QTc prolongation during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy after asphyxia. As the QTc interval is a relevant biomarker to assess safety during medication development, a structured search and review on published neonatal QTc values to generate reference values is warranted to facilate medication development in this specific population. Methods: A structured search and literature assessment (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar) with ‘Newborn/Infant, QT and hypothermia’ was conducted (October 2021). Retrieved individual values were converted to QTc (Bazett) over postnatal age (day 1-7). Results: We retrieved 94 QTc intervals [during TH (n=50, until day 3) or subsequent normothermia (n=44, day 4-7)] in 33 neonates from 6 publications. The median (range) of QTc intervals during TH was 508 (430-678), and 410 (317-540) ms afterwards (difference 98 ms, or +28 ms/°C decrease). Four additional cohorts (without individual QTc intervals) confirmed the pattern and magnitude of the effect of body temperature on the QTc interval. Conclusions: We added a relevant non-maturational covariate (TH, °C dependent) and generated reference values for the QTc interval in this specific neonatal subpopulation. This knowledge on QTc during TH should be considered and integrated in neonatal medication development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0253.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Cell therapy; chronic limb-threating ischemia; peripheral artery disease; diabetes; atherosclerosis obliterans; thromboangiitis obliterans; personalized medicine; artificial intelligence; machine learning; genome-wide association studies; transcriptome-wide association studies; clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential.
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:18:43 CET)
Stem/progenitor cell transplantation is a potential novel therapeutic strategy to induce angiogenesis in ischemic tissue, which can prevent major amputation in patients with advanced peripheral artery disease (PAD). Thus, clinicians can use cell therapies worldwide to treat PAD. However, some cell therapy studies did not report beneficial outcomes. Clinical researchers suggested that classical risk factors and comorbidities may adversely affect the efficacy of cell therapy. Some studies have indicated that the response to stem cell therapy varies among patients even in those harboring limited risk factors. This suggested the role of undetermined risk factors, including genetic alterations, somatic mutations, and clonal hematopoiesis. Personalized stem cell-based therapy can be developed by analyzing individual risk factors. These approaches must consider several clinical biomarkers and perform studies (such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS)) on disease-related genetic traits and integrate the findings with those of transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) and whole-genome sequencing in PAD. Additional unbiased analyses with state-of-the-art computational methods, such as machine learning-based patient stratification, are suited for predictions in clinical investigations. The integration of these complex approaches into a unified analysis procedure for the identification of responders and non-responders before stem cell therapy, which can decrease treatment expenditure, is a major challenge to increase the efficacy of therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0384.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: miRNAs; valvular heart diseases; aortic stenosis; calcification; mitral valve prolapse, aortic valve defect; vectors; delivery systems; nanoparticles
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:25:40 CET)
miRNAs have recently attracted investigators' interest as regulators of valvular diseases pathogenesis, diagnostic biomarkers, and therapeutical targets. Evidence from in-vivo and in-vitro studies demonstrated stimulatory or inhibitory roles in mitral valve prolapse development, aortic leaflet fusion, and calcification pathways, specifically osteoblastic differentiation and transcription factors modulation. Tissue expression assessment and comparison between physiological and pathological phenotypes of different disease entities, including mitral valve prolapse and mitral chordae tendineae rupture, emerged as the best strategies to address miRNAs over or under-representation and thus, their impact on pathogeneses. In this review, we discuss the fundamental intra- and intercellular signals regulated by miRNAs leading to defects in mitral and aortic valves, congenital heart diseases, and the possible therapeutic strategies targeting them. These miRNAs inhibitors comprise of antisense oligonucleotides and sponge vectors. The miRNA mimics, miRNA expression vectors, and small molecules are instead possible practical strategies to increase specific miRNA activity. Advantages and technical limitations of these new drugs, including instability and complex pharmacokinetics, are also presented. Novel delivery strategies, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, are described to improve knowledge on future personalized treatment directions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: stroke; thrombolysis; Culturally linguistically diverse communities (CALD)
Online: 27 October 2021 (10:56:23 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Acute stroke is a time-critical emergency where diagnosis and acute management are highly dependent upon accuracy of patient’s history. We hypothesised that language barrier is associated with delayed onset time to thrombolysis and poor clinical outcomes. AIM: To evaluate the effect of language barriers on time to thrombolysis and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of all patients admitted to a metropolitan stroke unit (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) with an acute ischemic stroke treated with tissue plasminogen activator between 1/2013 and 9/2017. Baseline characteristics, thrombolysis time intervals, length of stay, discharge destination, and in-hospital mortality were compared between patients with and without a language barrier using multivariate analysis after adjustment for age, sex, stroke severity, premorbid modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Language barriers were defined as a primary language other than English. RESULTS: A total of 374 patients were included. Of this, 76 patients (20.3%) had a language barrier. Mean age was 5 years older for patients with language barriers (76.7 vs 71.8 years, P=0.004). Less non-English speaking patients had pre-morbid mRS score of zero (P=0.002) and more had pre-morbid mRS score of one or two (P=0.04). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of stroke severity on presentation (P=0.06). The onset to needle time was significantly longer in patients with a language barrier (188 min vs 173 min, P=0.04). Onset to arrival and door to imaging times were surprisingly similar between the two groups. However, imaging to needle time was 9 minutes delayed in non-English speaking patients with a marginal P value (65 vs 56 min, P=0.06). patients with language barriers stayed longer in stroke unit stay (6 vs 4 days, P=0.02) and had higher rates of discharge to residential aged care facilities in those admitted from home (9.2% vs 2.3%, P=0.02). In-hospital mortality was not different between two groups (P=0.8) CONCLUSION: In this study language barriers were associated with almost 14 min delay in thrombolysis. The delay was mostly attributable to imaging to needle time. Language barriers were also associated with poorer clinical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Loss of consciousness; Mental health; Working life; Effort Reward Imbalance; Sleep Dis-orders; Health promotion; Workplace
Online: 25 October 2021 (11:54:17 CEST)
Syncope and presyncope occurring during work can affect safety and impair occupational performance. Few data are available regarding the prevalence of these events among workers. The possible role of sleep quality, mental stress and metabolic disorders in promoting syncope, presyncope and falls in workers is unknown. In the present study, 741 workers (male 35.4%; mean age 47±11 years), employed in different companies, underwent clinical evaluation and blood tests and completed questionnaires to assess sleep quality, occupational distress and mental disorders. The occurrence of syncope, presyncope and unexplained falls during their working life was assessed by an ad hoc interview. The prevalence of syncope, presyncope and falls of unknown origin was 13.9%, 27.0%, and 10.3%, respectively. The occurrence of syncope was associated with an increased risk of occupational distress (adjusted Odds Ratio aOR: 1.62, Confidence Intervals at 95%: 1.05-2.52), low sleep quality (aOR: 1.79 CI 95%: 1.16-2.77) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.43 CI 95%: 1.52-3.87). Presyncope was strongly associated with occupational distress (aOR: 1.77 CI 95%: 1.25-2.49), low sleep quality (aOR: 2.95 CI 95%: 2.08-4.18) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.61 CI 95%: 1.78-3.84), while no significant relationship was found between syncope or presyncope and metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that occupational health promotion interventions aimed at improving sleep quality, reducing stressors and increasing worker resilience might reduce syncope and presyncope events in the working population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: high coronary thrombus burden; tissue plasminogen activator; catheter-directed thrombolysis
Online: 20 October 2021 (12:53:10 CEST)
Background: High coronary thrombus burden has been associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the optimal management of which has not yet to be established. Methods: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of adjunctive catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with STEMI and high thrombus burden. Results: Among the 1,849 consecutive patients with STEMI, 263 had high thrombus burden. Moreover, 41 patients received intracoronary infusion of tissue plasminogen activator during primary PCI (CDT group), whereas 222 did not receive (non-CDT group). No significant differences in bleeding complications and in-hospital and long-term mortalities were observed (9.8% vs. 7.2%, p=0.53; 7.3% vs. 2.3%, p=0.11; and 12.6% vs. 17.5%, p=0.84, CDT vs. non-CDT). In patients who underwent antecedent aspiration thrombectomy during PCI (75.6%; CDT group and 87.4%; non-CDT group), thrombolysis in myocardial infarction grade 2 or 3 flow rate after thrombectomy was significantly lower in the CDT group than in the non-CDT group (32.2% vs. 61.0%, p<0.01). However, the final rates improved considerably without significant difference (90.3% vs. 97.4%, p=0.14). Conclusions: For STEMI patients with high thrombus burden, adjunctive CDT is safe and effective for improving coronary flow. CDT resulted in favorable coronary flow even after unsatisfactory aspiration thrombectomy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: AGING; Age-related comorbidities; Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme; Amyloid-degrading enzyme; Alzheimer’s disease; Dementia; Hypertension; Life extension; Stress resistance
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:04:43 CEST)
A recent report from the American Heart Association in 2018 shows that over 103 million American adults have hypertension. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC 188.8.131.52) is a dipeptidyl carboxylase that, when inhibited, can reduce blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system. ACE inhibitors are used as a first-line medication to be prescribed to treat hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure among others. It has been suggested that ACE inhibitors can reduce the symptoms in mouse models. Despite the benefits of ACE inhibitors, previous studies also have suggested that alterations in the ACE gene are risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological diseases. In mice, overexpression of ACE in the brain reduces symptoms of the AD-model systems. Thus, we find opposing effects of ACE on health. To clarify the effects, we dissect the functions of ACE as follows: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme that hydrolyzes angiotensin I to make angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin system; (2) amyloid-degrading enzyme that can hydrolyze beta-amyloid and reduce amyloid toxicity. The efficacy of the ACE inhibitors is well established in humans, while the knowledge specific to AD remains to be open for further research. We provide an overview of ACE and inhibitors that link a wide variety of age-related comorbidities from hypertension to Alzheimer’s disease to aging. ACE also serves as an example of the middle-life crisis theory that assumes deleterious events during the midlife, leading to age-related later events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: coronary artery disease; gut microbiome; dysbiosis; obesity; Bacteroidetes; LPS; indoxyl sulfate
Online: 5 October 2021 (10:33:24 CEST)
Gut dysbiosis, alongside with high-fat diet and cigarette smoking, is considered one of the factors promoting coronary arterial disease (CAD) development. The present study aimed to research whether gut dysbiosis can increase bacterial metabolites concentration in the blood of CAD patients and what impact these metabolites can exert on endothelial cells. The gut microbiome of 15 CAD patients and age-matched 15 healthy controls was analyzed by metagenome sequencing. The in vitro impact of LPS and indoxyl sulfate at concentrations present in patients sera on endothelial cells was investigated. A metagenome sequencing analysis revealed gut dysbiosis in CAD patients, further confirmed by elevated levels of LPS and indoxyl sulfate in patients sera. CAD was associated with depletion of Bacteroidetes and Alistipes. LPS and indoxyl sulfate in meager concentrations demonstrated co-toxicity to endothelial cells inducing reactive oxygen species, E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production and promoting thrombogenicity of endothelial cells confirmed by monocyte adherence. The co-toxicity of LPS and indoxyl sulfate was associated with harmful effects on endothelial cells, strongly suggesting that gut dysbiosis-associated increased intestinal permeability can initiate or promote endothelial inflammation and atherosclerosis progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: mechanical circulatory support; heart transplantation; survival curve; ventricular assist device; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Online: 6 September 2021 (14:39:13 CEST)
BACKGROUND: The number of waitlisted patients requiring mechanical circulatory support (MCS) as a bridge to heart transplantation is increasing. The data concerning the results of double-bridge strategy are limited. We sought to investigate the post-transplant outcomes across the different bridge strategies. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a heart transplantation database from Jan 2009 to Jan 2019. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and ventricular assist devices (VAD) were the MCS that we investigated. The pre- and post-transplant characteristics and variables of patients bridged with the different types of MCS were collected. The post-transplant survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: A total of 251 heart transplants were reviewed; 115 without MCS and 136 with MCS. The patients were divided to five groups: Group 1 (no MCS): n=115; Group 2 (IABP): n=15; Group 3 (ECMO): n=33; Group 4 (ECMO-VAD): double-bridge (n=59); Group 5 (VAD): n=29. Survival analysis demonstrated that the 3-year post-transplant survival rates were significantly different among the groups (Log-rank p < 0.001). There was no difference in survival between group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 1(no MCS)1 (p = 0.136), or between group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 5(VAD) (p = 0.994). Group 3(ECMO) had significantly inferior 3-year survival than group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 5(VAD). CONCLUSION: Double bridge may not lead to worse mid-term results in patients who could receive a transplantation. Initial stabilization with ECMO for critical patients before implantation of VAD might be considered as a strategy for obtaining an optimal post-transplant outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: hyrogel; cardiotoxicity; regenerative medicine; antineoplastic drugs; polydioxanone; pulmonary autograft
Online: 6 September 2021 (14:01:12 CEST)
Hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric compounds, have been recently put under investigation as regenerative medicine applications and delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs, particularly chemotherapeutics (anthracyclines, alkylating agents), target drugs (trastuzumab) and immunotherapies. Porosity, conductivity, biodegradability and physical states are some of the peculiarities that render hydrogels suitable for therapies implementation. Chemically-modifying agents and enzymes can be also coupled to hydrogels for pharmacokinetical parameters improvement and side effects avoidance. Cardiotoxicity is in fact one of the major issues for oncological patients after treatment efficacy. Heart failure, myocarditis and hypertension are causes of morbidity and mortality that can possibly be avoided. Specific reaching of the target tumor site has been achieved by several authors in preclinical in vivo studies but clinical studies are currently under design processes. Polydioxanone, a hydrogel-mimicking agent, is capable to interact with the elastic properties of pulmonary artery. An advantageous characteristic is that can be also reabsorbed within biological systems and can cause a remodeling process of the vessel wall. Hydrogels currently represent a strong topic of interest for researchers and probably will guide future clinical investigations and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0565.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: primary prevention of sudden cardiac death; non-ischemic cardiomyopathy; ischemic cardiomyopathy; appropriate ICD therapy; mortality rate comparison
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:26:43 CEST)
(1) Background: In patients suffering from heart failure, the main causes of death are either he-modynamic failure, or ventricular arrhythmias. The only tool to significantly reduce arrhythmic sudden death is the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), but not all patients benefit to the same extend of these devices. (2) Methods: The primary outcome of this single center study was defined as cardiovascular death in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure who have benefited from ICD therapy. The secondary outcomes were death from any cause, sudden cardiac death, ICD-related therapies (appropriate antitachycardia pacing or shock therapy for ventricular tachycardia or fi-brillation) and recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. (3) Results: A total of 403 consecutive ICD recipients – symptomatic heart failure patients with ICD for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death – were included retrospectively: 59% is-chemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP) and 41% non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICMP). Within a median follow-up period of 36 months, the incidence of cardiovascular mortality was not signif-icantly different in patients with NICMP and ICMP: the primary outcome had occurred in 9 pa-tients (5.4%) in the NICMP group and in 14 patients (5.9%) in the ICMP group (hazard ratio 1; 95%confidence interval [CI] 0.45 to 2.28; p =0.97). All-cause mortality occurred in 14 of 166 pa-tients (8.4%) in NICMP group and 18 of 237 patients (7.6%) in ICMP group. Sudden cardiac death occurred in 2 patients (1.2%) in the NICMP group and in 4 patients (1.7%) in the ICMP group (hazard ratio 0.71; 95% CI, 0.13 to 3.88; P=0.69). The rate of appropriate device therapies was comparable in both groups. (4) Conclusion: In this study, ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure was associated with similar rates of cardiovas-cular and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease, and in patients with heart failure from other causes. NICMP and ICMP showed comparable rates of recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: testosterone; androgens; QT; Torsade de pointes; ventricular repolarization
Online: 16 August 2021 (12:53:44 CEST)
The prevalence and incidence of cardiac pro-arrhythmic disorders are often influenced by sex due to specific effects on the QT interval. Androgens shorten QT, which may be protective against acquired long QT syndromes and their related arrhythmias in men such as torsade de pointes (TdP). On the other hand, androgens can potentiate Brugada and early repolarization syndromes, which are most prevalent in men. In this case series, we highlight four male patients with aborted SCD in the setting of abnormal testosterone status; two patients with TdP in a setting of testosterone deprivation (of which one drug-induced) and 2 patients with ventricular fibrillation associated with exogenous androgenic booster (Tribulus terrestris) intake. From this case series, we review the current available literature of the effects of androgen as a double-edged sword on the QTc interval and emphasize the importance of QTc monitoring in this subset of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Athlete´s heart; Cardiac biomarkers; Echocardiography; Exercise; Functional cardiac capacity.
Online: 13 August 2021 (09:23:48 CEST)
This single-blind and cross-sectional study evaluated the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) as a biomarker of the cardiovascular remodelling process assessed by echocardiography in competitive long-distance runners (LDR) during the training period before a marathon race. Thirty-six healthy male LDR (37.0±5.3 years; 174.0±7.0 height; BMI: 23.8±2.8; VO2-peak: 56.5±7.3 mL·kg-1·min-1) were separated into two groups according to previous training level: high-training (HT, n=16) ≥100 km·week-1 and low-training (LT, n=20) ≥70 and <100 km·week-1. Also, twenty-one healthy nonactive subjects were included as a control group (CTR). A transthoracic echocardiography was performed and ROCK activity levels in circulating leukocytes were measured at rest (48-hr without exercising) the week before the race. HT group showed higher left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and left atrial volume index (LAVi) than other groups (p<0.05, for both), also higher levels of ROCK activity were found in LDR (HT=6.17±1.41 vs CTR=1.64±0.66 (p<0.01); vs LT=2.74±0.84; (p<0.05)). In LDR a direct correlation between ROCK activity levels and LVMi (r=0.83; p<0.001), and LAVi (r=0.70; p<0.001) were found. In conclusion, in male competitive long-distance runners, the load of exercise implicated in marathon training is associated with ROCK activity levels and the left cardiac remodelling process assessed by echocardiography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: troponin; high-sensitivity; chronic kidney disease; renal insufficiency; myocardial infarction; acute coronary syndrome
Online: 10 August 2021 (08:45:07 CEST)
Background: Patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD G4-G5) often have chronically elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) values above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit. In these patients, optimal cutoff levels for diagnosing non-ST-elevation acute cor-onary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) requiring revascularization remain undefined. Methods: Of 11,912 patients undergoing coronary angiography from 2012 to 2017 for suspected NSTE-ACS, 325 (3%) had severe CKD. Of these, 290 with available serial hs-cTnT measurements were included and 300 matched patients with normal renal function were selected as a control cohort. Results: Diagnostic performance for patients with severe CKD was high at presentation and similar to that of the control population (AUC, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.75-0.87 versus 0.85, 0.80-0.89, p=0.68) and the ROC-derived cutoff value at presentation was 4 times higher compared to the conventional 99th percentile. Combining the ROC-derived cutoff levels for hs-cTnT at presentation and absolute 3-hour changes, sensitivity increased to 98%, PPV and NPV improved up to 93% and 86%, re-spectively. (4) Conclusions: In patients with severe CKD and suspected ACS the diagnostic accu-racy of hs-cTnT for the diagnosis of NSTE-ACS requiring revascularization is improved by using higher assay specific cutoff levels combined with early absolute changes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0702.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: telemonitoring; telemedicine; telecardiology; cardiology; wearable; sensors; consumer health devices; cardiovascular disease; heart failure; atrial fibrillation
Online: 30 July 2021 (13:22:06 CEST)
(1) Background: New sensor technologies in wearables and other consumer health devices open up promising opportunities to collect real-world data. As cardiovascular diseases remain reason number one for disease and mortality worldwide, cardiology offers potent monitoring use-cases with patients in their out-of-hospital daily routine. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to investigate the status quo of studies monitoring patients with cardiovascular risks and patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases in a telemedical setting using not only a smartphone-based app, but also consumer health devices such as wearables and other sensor-based devices. (2) Methods: A literature search was conducted across five databases and the results were examined according to the study protocols, technical approaches and qualitative and quantitative parameters measured. (3) Results: Out of 166 articles, 8 studies were included in this systematic review. These cover interventional and observational monitoring approaches in the area of cardiovascular diseases, heart failure and atrial fibrillation using various app, wearable and health device combination. (4) Conclusions: Depending on the researcher’s motivation a fusion of apps, patient reported outcome measures and non-invasive sensors can be orchestrated in a meaningful way adding major contributions to monitoring concepts for both, individual patients and larger cohorts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: heart failure; mid-range ejection fraction; atrial fibrillation; cardiac inflammation; cardiac fibrosis; risk factors.
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:18:01 CEST)
Aims: Heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF), a combination that worsens the outcomes of both diseases. Despite advances in the treatment of AF, it remains a serious and unsolved problem for clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for incidents of paroxysmal and persistent AF in patients having heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Methods. Overall, 71 patients with HFmrEF and non-valvular AF, including paroxysmal and persistent types, were enrolled in this study. As a control group, 42 HFmrEF patients without AF were also enrolled. All patients underwent detailed physical examination, including resting electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitoring. Levels of the inflammation markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and the fibrotic marker transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured by ELISA and expressed as odds ratios. Results: We show that paroxysmal AF was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure, whereas both paroxysmal and persistent forms of AF were associated with more frequent occurrence of hypertensive crisis episodes and greater body mass index. Progression from paroxysmal to persistent AF was associated with significant ventricular remodeling. Persistent and paroxysmal AF were associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers when compared to HFmrEF patients having no AF. In addition, TGF-1 was significantly increased in HFmrEF patients having persistent but not paroxysmal AF. Conclusions: Occurrence of AF, first paroxysmal and then persistent, in HFmrEF patients is associated with left ventricular remodeling and the appearance of systemic inflammatory and fibrotic markers. Changes in those parameters may be indicators by which to identify patients at increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to determine the prognostic validity of these markers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; pathological cardiac hypertrophy; sarcomere; cardiac myocyte; cardiac fibroblast; cardiac fibrosis; myocyte-fibroblast interaction; extracellular matrix
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:13:53 CEST)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder affecting 1 in 500 people in the general population. Although characterized by asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte disarray and cardiac fibrosis, HCM is in fact a highly complex disease with heterogenous clinical presentation, onset and complications. While HCM is generally accepted as a disease of the sarcomere, variable penetrance in families with identical genetic mutations challenges the monogenic origin of HCM and instead implies a multifactorial cause. Furthermore, large scale genome sequencing studies revealed that many genes previously reported as causative of HCM in fact have little or no evidence of disease association. These findings thus call for a re-evaluation of the sarcomere-centered view of HCM pathogenesis. Here, we summarize our current understanding of sarcomere-independent mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, highlight the role of extracellular signals in cardiac fibrosis, and propose an alternative but integrated model of HCM pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: IRAK1; IRAK4; endothelial cells; inflammation; cardiovascular disease
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:09:08 CEST)
Inflammation associated endothelial dysfunction represents a pivotal contributor to atherosclerosis. Increasingly evidence has demonstrated that interleukin 1 receptor (IL1-R) / toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling participated in the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies indicated the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory therapy in anti-atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of IL-1R-associated kinase 1 and 4 inhibitors (IRAK1/4i) in regulating endothelial dysfunction. IRAK1/4i showed little endothelial toxicity at concentrations from 1 to 10 μM. Inhibition of IRAK1/4 alleviated endothelial activation induced by LPS in vitro evidenced by attenuated monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Mechanistically, blockade of IRAK1/4 ameliorated the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that dual inhibition of IRAK1 and IRAK4 attenuates endothelial dysfunction, suggesting pharmaceutical inhibition of IRAK1/4 might be a potential strategy to combat endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0337.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome, inflammation, case report
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:14:55 CEST)
Background: Although persistent systemic inflammation is considered to be predictive for future cardiovascular events, it remains unclear whether or not C-reactive protein (CrP) plays an active role in coronary-plaque instability. Here, we report a case of a patient with failed and super-infected renal allograft as a source for systemic inflammation presenting with repeat acute coronary syndromes. Case presentation: A 52-years-old male type-2 diabetic with a failed kidney transplant who was hospitalized for acute urinary-tract infection. In the presence of other, classic cardiovascular risk factors, peak values of CrP coincided with episodes of unstable angina treated by percutaneous coronary interventions. Besides pyelonephritis, the histological examination of the kidney transplant revealed signs of chronic rejection and the presence of a renal cell carcinoma in situ. Once the renal allograft has been removed, systemic inflammation was attenuated, the patient was not re-hospitalized for acute-coronary syndrome within the next 12 months. Conclusion: In this case, systemic inflammation was paralleled by instability of coronary plaques as documented by repeat percutaneous coronary interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0733.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: thoracic aorta; atherosclerosis; vascular calcification; risk factors
Online: 30 March 2021 (11:42:32 CEST)
Thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) appears to be a subclinical marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to predict CV mortality. However, studies on TAC use tomographic scans obtained for coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, which does not include the aortic arch. This study evaluates TAC prevalence in aortic arch (AAC), ascending (ATAC) and descending thoracic aorta (DTAC) and verify whether they are associated with the same CV risk factors. Cross-sectional analysis, including 2,427 participants (mean age 55.6 ± 8.7; 54,1% women) of the ELSA-Brasil cohort. Nonenhanced ECG-gated tomographies were performed in 2015-2016. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the CV risk factors associated with calcium in each segment. Overall prevalence of ATAC, AAC and DTAC was, 23,1%, 62.1%, and 31.2%, respectively. About 90.4% of the individuals with TAC had AAC and only 19.5% had calcium in all segments. In the multivariable analysis, increasing age, lower levels of schooling, current smoking, higher body mass index, and hypertension remained associated with calcium in all segments. No sex or race/ethnicity differences were found in any aortic segment. Diabetes and Dyslipidemia were associated with ATAC and DTAC, but not with AAC, suggesting that AAC may reflect an overlap of mechanisms that impact vascular health, including atherosclerosis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: single coronary artery; aortic valve surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery; case report
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:42:53 CET)
A single coronary artery is a very rare condition, commonly associated with other congenital anomalies. It could be generally classified as neither benign nor malignant form of congenital coronary artery anomalies since its pathophysiological and clinical implications grossly depend on different anatomical patterns defined by the site of origin and distribution of the branches. By presenting the patient with an isolated single coronary artery, who underwent successful combined aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, we intend to distinguish casual from causal in this extremely rare clinical and surgical scenario. This is the first-ever case published, combining such underlying pathology, clinical presentation, and surgical treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Surgical mask; exercise; treadmill test; stress test; Oxygen saturation; Covid19; ECG
Online: 5 February 2021 (10:03:09 CET)
In the context of the COVID-19 Pandemic, the use of surgical masks has become the new normal. The use of these devices in exercise and medical situations has been advocated with the purpose of reducing contagions, but some concerns exist regarding its safety. We performed maximal treadmill stress tests in 12 healthy young subjects, with and without surgical mask use, and measured exercise capacity, oxygen saturation (rest, peak exercise and post-exercise) and electrocardiographic changes. Exercise capacity and Oxygen saturation levels decreased in peak exercise vs rest in a statistically significant manner when mask was used. ECG changes, although not significant, were present in 3 subjects when mask was used and disappeared when the test was made unmasked. We conclude that masked exercise has the potential to cause decreased exercise load and oxygen saturation and potentially cause diagnostic errors in medical exams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0693.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; case fatality; registry
Online: 27 November 2020 (14:12:24 CET)
Background: This study aimed to present the development process and characteristics of the Korean Registry of Acute Myocardial Infarction for Regional Cardiocerebrovascular Centers (KRAMI-RCC). Methods: We developed KRAMI-RCC, a web-based registry for patients with AMI. Patients from 14 RCCs were registered for more than 3 years from July 2016. It includes an automatic error-checking system, and user training and on-site monitoring are performed to manage data quality. Results: A total of 11,700 AMI patients were registered in KRAMI-RCC over 3 years (73.9% men). The proportions of patients with ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction at discharge were 43.4% and 56.6%, respectively. Of the total 3-year patients, 5.6% died in the hospital and 4.4% died 12 months after discharge. The case fatality within 12 months was 9.7%. Prehospital care data showed delayed arrival time after onset of symptoms (median 153 min) and low transportation rate by public ambulance (25.2%). Post-hospital care data showed lower participation rate in the second rehabilitation program (16.8%). Conclusions: The recently developed KRAMI-RCC registry has been more focused on pre-hospital and post-hospital data, which will be helpful in understanding the current state of AMI disease management and in making policy decisions to reduce case fatality in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0584.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: burn injury; cardiac dysfunction; gene profiling; mitochondrial metabolism; oxygen consumption
Online: 23 November 2020 (13:59:47 CET)
Burn-induced cardiac dysfunction is thought to involve mitochondrial dysfunction although the mechanisms responsible are unclear. In this study, we used our established model of in vivo burn injury to understand the genetic evidence of burn-induced mitochondrial metabolism confusion by describing cardiac mitochondrial metabolism-related gene expression after burn. Cardiac tissue was collected at 24 hours after burn injury. An O2K respirometer system was utilized to measure cardiac mitochondrial function. Oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were determined using enzyme activity assays. RT Profiler PCR array was used to identify differential regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. Quantitative qPCR and Western Blotting were applied to validate differentially expressed genes. Burn-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction was supported by the finding of decreased state 3 respiration and decreased mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in complex I, III, IV, and V following burn injury. Eighty-four mitochondrial metabolism-related gene profiles were measured. The mitochondrial gene profile showed that one third of genes related to mitochondrial energy and metabolism was differentially expressed. Of these 28 genes, 15 were more than 2-fold upregulated and 13 were more than 2-fold downregulated. All genes were validated using qPCR; 4 genes had a protein level which correlated with the observed change in gene expression. This study provides preliminary evidence that a large percentage of mitochondrial metabolism-related genes in cardiomyocytes were significantly affected by burn injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: hyperglycemia; inflammation; infarct size; MINOCA; obstructive acute myocardial infarction
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:35:44 CEST)
Hyperglycemia has been associated with increased inflammatory indexes and larger infarct sizes in patients with obstructive acute myocardial infarction (obs-AMI). In contrast, no studies have explored these correlations in non-obstructive acute myocardial infarction (MINOCA). We investigated the relationship between hyperglycemia, inflammation and infarct size in a cohort of AMI patients that included MINOCA. Patients with AMI undergoing coronary angiography between 2016 and 2020 were enrolled. The following inflammatory markers were evaluated: C-reactive protein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-platelet ratio (NPR). Myocardial infarct size was measured by peak high sensitivity troponin I (Hs-TnI) levels, left-ventricular-end-diastolic-volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The final study population consisted of 2450 patients with obs-AMI and 239 with MINOCA. Hyperglycemia was more prevalent among obs-AMI cases. In all hyperglycemic patients - obs-AMI and MINOCA - NLR, NPR, and LPR were markedly altered. Hyperglycemic obs-AMI subjects exhibited a higher Hs-TnI, a larger LVEDV and a lower LVEF compared to normoglycemic ones. Conversely, MINOCA patients showed similar myocardial damage, irrespective of glycemia. Our data confirm the association of hyperglycemic obs-AMI with elevated inflammatory markers and larger infarct sizes. MINOCA patients exhibited modest myocardial damage, regardless of admission glucose levels.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: HOCM; SAS; Subaortic Membrane; LVOTO; ASH; SAM
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:27:11 CEST)
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). It can present with chest pain, syncope, breathlessness, or in some cases sudden cardiac death. Primarily, it is diagnosed based on echocardiographic findings but cardiac computed tomography (CT) or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be helpful in selected cases. In this case report, we discuss a case of a young-aged female patient previously diagnosed as HOCM and presented with chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Her echocardiography revealed severe asymmetrically hypertrophied left ventricle (LV) with normal function and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve was present and a subvalvular aortic membrane was also seen. The computed tomography (CT) was also performed showing severe asymmetrical hypertrophied and thickened trileaflet tricommissural aortic valve with no calcification or significant valvular aortic stenosis but there was a subaortic membrane (concentric only sparing anteriorly). The presence of subaortic membrane with HOCM is a rare finding and it can be a diagnostic challenge and untreated cases are susceptible to progressive heart failure and worsening of the symptoms by further increasing left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). A thorough investigation and planning before surgical intervention is required to achieve optimal results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0575.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Amyloidosis; Right Heart; Cardiac involvement; heart ultrasound
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:26:32 CEST)
Amyloidosis is due to deposition of an excessive amount of protein in many parenchymal tissues, including myocardium. The onset of cardiac Amyloidosis (CA) is an inauspicious prognostic factor, that can lead to sudden death. We retrospectively analyzed 135 patients with systemic amyloidosis, admitted to our ward between 1981 and 2019. Among them, 54 patients (46.30% F / 53.70% M, age 63.95±12.82 years) presented CA at baseline. In 53 patients, there was associated with multiorgan involvement, while in one there was primary myocardial deposition. As control group, we enrolled 81 patients (49.30% F / 50.70% M, aged 58.33±15.65) who did not meet the criteria for CA. In 44/54 of patients CA was associated with AL, 5/54 with AA, 3/54 of patients with ATTR, in 1/54 AL was related to hemodialysis and 1/54 to Gel-Amyloidosis. The most common AL type was IgG (28/44); less frequent forms were either IgA (7/40) or IgD (2/40), while seven patients had a λ free light chain form. The 32 AL with complete Ig were 31 λ-chain and just one k-chain. CA patients presented normal BP (SBP 118.0±8.4 mmHg; DBP 73.8±4.9 mmHg), while those with nCA had increased proteinuria (p=0.02). TnI and NT-proBNP were significantly increased compared to nCA (p= 0.031 and p=0.047, respectively). In CA patients we found an increased LDH compared to nCA (p=0.0011). CA patients were also found to have an increased interventricular septum thickness compared to nCA (p=0.002), a decreased Ejection Fraction % (p=0.0018) and Doppler velocity E/e’ ratio (p=0.0095). Moreover, CA patients were seen to have an enhanced right atrium area (p=0.0179), right ventricle basal diameter (p= 0.0112) and wall thickness (p=0.0471) as compared to nCA, as well as an increased inferior cava vein diameter (p=0.0495). TAPSE was the method chosen to evaluate systolic function of the right heart. In CA subjects very poor TAPSE levels were found compared to nCA patients (p=0.0495). Additionally, we found a significant positive correlation between TAPSE and lymphocyte count (r=0.47; p=0.031) as well as Gamma globulins (r=0.43, p=0.033), Monoclonal component (r=0.72; p=0.047) and IgG values (r=0.62, p=0.018). On the contrary, a significant negative correlation with LDH (r=-0.57, p=0.005), IVS (r=-0.51, p=0.008) and diastolic function evaluated as E/e’ (r=-0.60, p=0.003) were verified. CA patients had very poor survival compared to controls (30 vs. 66 months in CA vs nCA, respectively, P=0.15). Mean survival of CA individuals was worse also when stratified according to NT-proBNP levels, using 2500 pg/mL as class boundary (174 vs. 5.5 months, for patients with lower vs higher values than the median, respectively p=0.013). In much the same way, decreased right heart systolic function was correlated with a worse prognosis (18.0 months median survival, not reached in subjects with lower values than 18mm, p=0.0186). Finally, our data highlight the potential prognostic and predictive value of right heart alterations characterizing amyloidosis, as a novel clinical parameter correlated to increased LDH and immunoglobulins levels. Overall, we confirm the clinical relevance of cardiac involvement and propose that right heart evaluation may be considered as a new marker for clinical risk stratification in patients with amyloidosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0497.v1
Online: 21 September 2020 (07:20:59 CEST)
To evaluate the efficacy of fish oil for protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of fish oil for protection against CHD. We retrieved relevant articles published from January 1966 to January 2020 by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases. RCTs of fish oil in preventing CHD were selected. The study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool with RevMan 5.3 software. The first selection involved 350 citations. After screening and evaluation of suitability, 19 RCTs adjusted for clustering were included in the meta-analysis. All selected manuscripts considered that fish oil was effective in preventing CHD, secondary outcome measures included angina, sepsis and death. Compared with the control group, fish oil may confer significant protection against CHD (odds ratio = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.72–0.98). There was no significant difference in the incidence of secondary outcomes between the observation group and the control group (P > 0.05). The above results show that fish oil plays an important role in reducing CHD and cardiovascular events. However, because of the suboptimal quality of the studies included into the meta-analysis, these results do not justify adding fish oils systematically to the heavy pharmaceutical assortment already recommended in CHD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Great East Japan Earthquake; disaster; cardiovascular disease; psychological factors; evacuation; prospective study
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:01:44 CEST)
Evidence regarding the effect of psychological factors and evacuation on cardiovascular disease occurrence after large-scale disasters is limited. This prospective study followed up a total of 37,810 Japanese men and women aged 30–89 years from the Fukushima Prefecture with no history of stroke or heart disease at baseline (2012), until 2017. This period included 3000 cardiovascular events recorded through questionnaires and death certificates. The participants’ psychological distress, trauma reaction, and evacuation status were defined, and divided into four groups based on combinations of psychological factors and evacuation status. We calculated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for only psychological, only evacuation, or both of them compared with neither using Cox proportional hazard models. Psychological factors along with evacuation resulted in approximately 5% to 25% higher magnitude of stroke and heart disease risk than psychological factors only among men. Compared to neither, the multivariable hazard ratios of those with both psychological distress and evacuation were 1.75 for stroke and 1.49 for heart disease, and those of both trauma reaction and evacuation were 2.01 and 1.57, respectively, among men. Evacuation combined with psychological factors increased the risk of stroke and heart disease risks especially in men after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0227.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: global myocardial injury; BMSCs; active cardiac support device (ASD); stem cell treatment; epicardial delivery
Online: 7 September 2020 (07:30:47 CEST)
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been considered a promising therapeutic approach to cardiovascular disease. This study intends to compare the effect of BMSCs through a standard active cardiac support device (ASD) and intravenous injection on global myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol. BMSCs were cultured in vitro, and the transplanted cells were labeled with a fluorescent dye CM-Dil. Isoproterenol (ISO) was injected into the rats; two weeks later, the labeled cells were transplanted into ISO-induced heart-injury rats through the tail vein or ASD device for five days. The rats were sacrificed on the first day, the third day, and the fifth day after transplantation to observe the distribution of cells in the myocardium by fluorescence microscopy. The hemodynamic indexes of the left ventricle were measured before sacrificing. H&E staining and Masson’s trichrome staining were used to evaluate the cardiac histopathology. In the ASD groups, after three days of transplantation, there were many BMSCs on the epicardial surface, and after five days of transplantation, BMSCs were widely distributed in the ventricular muscle. But in the intravenous injection group, there were no labeled-BMSCs distributed. In the ASD+BMSCs-three days treated group and ASD+BMSCs -five days-treated group, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt), the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure decline (-dP/dt) increased compared with model group and intravenous injection group (P<0.05). By giving BMSCs through ASD device, cells can rapidly and widely distribute in the myocardium and significantly improve heart function.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0688.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: lung disease; pulmonary embolis; circulating anticoagulant
Online: 31 August 2020 (03:26:55 CEST)
The quarantine imposed as the response to the COVID 19 pandemic has been related to an increase in cases of thromboembolism in Non-COVID19 patients .We report the case of a patient with pulmonary thromboembolism without usual triggering causes during the quarantine period, related to a previously undiagnosed hypercoagulable condition.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0531.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: endocarditis; surgery; cardiac surgery; drug abuse; ethics
Online: 24 August 2020 (11:36:38 CEST)
Background: This study discerns surgeons’ attitudes and practices in the determination of heart valve replacement for patients with endocarditis due to intravenous drug use (IVDU-IE). We aimed to identify factors contributing to surgeons’ decision-making process for initial and recurrent surgical heart valves, and the availability of institutional guidance. Methods: An IRB approved, anonymous mixed-methods survey instrument was designed and validated with 24 questions. Cardiothoracic surgeons in the U.S. and globally were recruited with a total of 220 enrolling in the study with 176 completing every question on the survey. Results: A cluster analysis revealed that although surgeons can be divided into sub-groups based on their previous experience with valve replacements, these groups are not perfectly homogenous, and the number of identified clusters is dependent on technique used. ANOVA analysis revealed that the variables that most clearly divided the surgeons into subgroups were, in order of importance, years of practice, number of valve replacements, and geography. Conclusions: Our analysis showed heterogeneity among cardiothoracic surgeons regarding how they make clinical decisions regarding re-operative valve replacement related to IVDU-IE Therefore, an opportunity exists for an interprofessional team to develop guidelines to decrease variability in surgical decision-making regarding valve replacement associated with IVDU-IE
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; Acute Cardiac Injury; Arrhythmia; Heart Failure; Cardiogenic Shock
Online: 11 August 2020 (07:47:51 CEST)
A newly identified novel coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus2 (SARS‐CoV 2) has given rise to the global pandemic. SARS-CoV2 which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a positive-stranded RNA virus with nucleocapsid. It binds to host angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) receptor through surface glycoprotein (S protein). These ACE 2 receptors are attached to the cell membranes of many organs. Thus, COVID-19 does not only result in acute respiratory distress syndrome but also affects multiple organ systems, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to manage this disease. COVID-19 can damage the myocardial cells and result in fulminant myocarditis, acute cardiac injury, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or arrhythmia. COVID-19 seeds harmful immune response through cytokine storm leading to indirect organ damage. In this literature review, the available data is comprehended regarding cardiovascular complications in COVID-19, and the correlation of biomarkers with the disease activity is discussed. This literature review also highlights the important treatment options and outcomes of the individual study.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0203.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy; ClotTriever; Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis; Central venous catheter
Online: 8 August 2020 (04:10:47 CEST)
UEDVT still remains an underdiagnosed entity due to a significant percentage of patients who remain asymptomatic. The etiology of UEDVT is overwhelmingly attributed to secondary causes including but not limited to central venous access devices and malignancy. Treatment modalities include anticoagulation, catheter directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy or a multimodality approach along with the management of underlying etiology. We describe a case of a female with breast cancer, who came with left UEDVT and CVC malfunction and was successfully treated using the ClotTriever system to maintain continuous intravenous access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: scavenger receptor CD36; inflammation; vascular calcification; diabetes; atherosclerosis
Online: 4 August 2020 (10:37:01 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus entails increased atherosclerotic burden and medial arterial calcification but the precise mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the implication of CD36 in inflammation and calcification processes orchestrated by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic and atherogenic conditions. We examined the expression of CD36, pro-inflammatory cytokines, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers and mineralization-regulating enzymes by RT-PCR in human VSMCs, cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or high glucose (22 mM) for 72 h with or without oxLDL (24 h). The uptake of DiI-labelled oxLDL was quantified by flow citometry and fluorimetry and calcification assays were performed in VSMC cultured in osteogenic medium and stained by alizarin red. We observed an induction in the expression of CD36, cytokines, calcification markers and ER stress markers under high glucose that was exacerbated by oxLDL. These results were confirmed in carotid plaques from subjects with diabetes versus non-diabetic subjects. Accordingly, the uptake of DiI-labelled oxLDL was increased after exposure to high glucose. Silencing of CD36 abolished the induction of CD36 and reduced the expression of calcification enzymes and mineralization of VSMC. Our results indicate that CD36 signaling is involved in hyperglycemia and oxLDL-induced vascular calcification in diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: arrhythmia; computational modeling; COVID-19; chloroquine; azithromycin; beta-adrenergic; electrophysiology
Online: 19 July 2020 (18:35:20 CEST)
Background: The antimalarial drug chloroquine and antimicrobial drug azithromycin have received significant attention during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Both drugs can alter cardiac electrophysiology and have been associated with drug-induced arrhythmias. Meanwhile, sympathetic activation is commonly observed during systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (e.g., in SARS-CoV-2 infection), and may influence the electrophysiological effects of chloroquine and azithromycin. Here, we investigated the effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation on proarrhythmic properties of chloroquine and azithromycin using a detailed in silico model of ventricular electrophysiology. Methods: Concentration-dependent chloroquine and azithromycin-induced alterations in ion-channel function were incorporated into the Heijman canine ventricular cardiomyocyte model. Single and combined drug effects on action-potential (AP) properties were analyzed using a population of 592 models accommodating inter-individual variability. Sympathetic stimulation was simulated by an increase in pacing rate and experimentally validated isoproterenol-induced changes in ion-channel function. Results: At 1 Hz pacing, therapeutic doses of chloroquine and azithromycin (5 and 20 µM, respectively) individually prolonged AP duration (APD) by 33% and 13%. Their combination produced synergistic APD prolongation (+161%) with incidence of proarrhythmic early afterdepolarizations in 53.5% of models. Increasing the pacing frequency to 2 Hz shortened APD and together with 1 µM isoproterenol corrected the drug-induced APD prolongation. No afterdepolarizations occurred following increased rate and simulated application of 0.1-1 µM isoproterenol. Conclusion: Sympathetic stimulation limits chloroquine- and azithromycin-induced proarrhythmia by reducing their APD-prolonging effect, suggesting the importance of heart rate and autonomic status monitoring in particular conditions (e.g., COVID-19).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: unstable angina; atherogenicity; inflammation; antioxidants; oxidative stress; biomarkers
Online: 12 July 2020 (15:11:16 CEST)
Background: Aberrations in endothelial cells, immune and oxidative pathways are associated with atherosclerosis (ATS) and unstable angina (UA). The role of trace elements, minerals, and the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in UA are less well established. Methods: We measured lipid, insulin resistance (IR), and immune, trace element (copper and zinc), mineral (magnesium, calcium), EOS (β-endorphin and mu-opioid receptor (MOR)) and antioxidant (vitamin D3) biomarkers in patients with ATS (n=60) and UA (n=60) and healthy controls (n=58). Results: ATS patients showed increased atherogenic and IR indices, IL-6, IL-10, β-endorphin, copper and magnesium, and lower zinc than healthy controls. Logistic regression showed that UA was significantly discriminated from ATS without UA with an accuracy of 85.5% using calcium, IL-10, β-endorphin, MOR, triglycerides, IR (all positively), and copper and vitamin D3 (inversely). Neural networks showed that UA was discriminated from ATS without UA with an area under the ROC curve of 0.942 using MOR, β-endorphin, calcium, insulin resistance, vitamin D3 and copper as input variables. We found that 50.0% of the variance in IR was explained by the regression on copper, IL-10, IL-6 (all positively), and zinc (inversely), while 32.9% of the variance in the atherogenic index of plasma was explained by copper, IL-10 (both positively), and magnesium (inversely). Conclusion: UA is not only mediated by insulin resistance, atherogenicity, and immune disorders, but also by aberrations in the endogenous opioid system and trace elements as well as lowered antioxidant levels. Copper appears to play a key role in IR and atherogenicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: electrocardiography; P-wave; interatrial conduction block; atrial fibrillation
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:43:01 CEST)
Prediction and early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) remain a permanent challenge in everyday practice. Timely identification of an increased risk for AF episodes (which are frequently asymptomatic) is essential in the primary and secondary prevention of cardioembolic events. One of the noninvasive modalities of AF prediction is represented by the electrocardiographic P-wave analysis. This includes the study and diagnosis of interatrial conduction block (Bachmann`s bundle block). Bayés’ Syndrome (named after its first descriptor) denotes the association between interatrial conduction defect and supraventricular arrhythmias (mainly AF) predisposing to cardioembolic events. Our short review presents an update of the most important data concerning this syndrome: brief history, main ECG features, pathophysiological background and clinical implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: vascular endothelial function; inflammation; oxidative stress; cardiovascular disease prevention; disease management
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:08:34 CEST)
In atherosclerosis patients, vascular endothelial dysfunction is commonly observed with damage of vascular endothelial glycocalyx, an extracellular matrix-bound to and encapsulating the endothelial cell lining the blood vessel wall. Unfavorable lifestyle; smoking and physical inactivity, also induces glycocalyx degradation. Moreover, the vascular endothelial glycocalyx is damaged by various unfavorable disease conditions like as dehydration, acute infectious disease, trauma, sepsis, ARDS, Kawasaki disease, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, dementia, microvascular angina, acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx has been shown to be important not only as a physical cytoprotective barrier for vascular endothelial cells but also as a mechanism that regulates intracellular cell signaling. Therefore, vascular endothelial glycocalyx has great potential to explore new strategies for assessing the benefit conditions of our healthy vasculature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: C-reactive protein; platelet to lymphocyte ratio; neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio; hematocrit; red blood cell distribution width; contrast induced nephropathy; coronary intervention
Online: 16 June 2020 (07:51:20 CEST)
Background: Strong indicators of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), hypersensitive CRP (hs-CRP), and a series of hematological indices, including platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), hematocrit (HCT) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), are regarded related with the incidence of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) closely. Whereas, it remains unclear whether they can function as predictors of CIN onset. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between above indicators and CIN incidence among patients receiving coronary intervention. Methods: Clinical studies were retrieved from the electronic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Clinical Trials, and science direct from their inception to June 3rd, 2020. Meta-analysis was performed on pool eligible studies. Two reviewers screened all titles and abstracts and independently assessed all articles. Results: A total of 26 studies involving 29,454 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis results revealed that patients with higher CRP (odds ratio [OR]=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.12, P=0.02), hs-CRP (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01–1.06, P=0.004), NLR (OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.01–1.20, P=0.02), RDW (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.19–1.53, P<0.00001), and lower HCT (OR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97, P=0.0003) all exhibited significantly higher CIN rates, but there was no significant association between PLR and CIN risk (OR=1.12, 95% CI: 0.99–1.26, P=0.07). Conclusion: The meta-analysis reported here demonstrates that pre-angiography CRP/hs-CRP and some hematological indices are associated with CIN.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular disease; heavy metals; cooper; zinc; manganese; cobalt; iron; health risk assessment
Online: 9 June 2020 (03:25:06 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute the first cause of death among the population of developing and developed countries. Atherosclerosis, which is a disorder with multifactorial etiopathogenesis, underlies most CVDs. The available literature includes ample research studies on the influence of classic cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. However, environmental exposure to heavy metals, among other substances, is still an unappreciated risk factor of CVDs. This study aimed to assess the concentration of some heavy metals (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and iron (Fe)) in the blood serum of postmyocardial infarction (post-MI) patients and patients free from myocardial infarction (MI) as well as estimate the relationship between the occurrence of MI and increased concentration of heavy metals. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe) was assessed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique in a group of 146 respondents divided into two groups: post-MI group (study group (SG), n = 74) and group without cardiovascular event (CVE) having a low CV risk (control group (CG), n = 72). The concentration of the analyzed heavy metals was higher in SG. All the heavy metals showed a significant diagnostic value (p < 0.001). The highest value of area under the curve (AUC) was observed for manganese (Mn) (0.955; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.922–0.988), while the lowest value was found for zinc (Zn) (0.691; 95% CI = 0.599–0.782). In one-dimensional models, high concentrations of each of the analyzed heavy metals significantly increased the chances of having MI from 7-fold (Cu) to 128-fold (Mn). All the models containing a particular metal showed a significant and high discrimination value for MI occurrence (AUC 0.72–0.92). Higher concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe were found to considerably increase the chances of having MI. Considering the increasingly higher environmental exposure to heavy metals in recent times, their concentrations can be distinguished as a potential risk factor of CVDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Lung CT; imaging; COVID-19; Pneumonia; Heart Failure
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:49:04 CEST)
Background: Lung CT provides an effective modality to evaluate patients with suspected COVID-19. However, overlapping imaging findings with cardiogenic pulmonary oedema have been reported. Reports comparing lung CT features of these diseases have not been elaborated. Thus, we aimed to investigate these gaps in the knowledge regarding low-dose lung CT features of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with those with acute heart failure (HF). Methods: This retrospective analysis enrolled hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n=10) and acute heart failure (n=9) that exclusively underwent low-dose lung CT scans within 24-hours of admission. Clinical and lung CT characteristics were collected and analysed. Results: Ground-glass-opacities (GGO) appearance has been recorded in all subjects in HF and COVID-19 group. There was no significant statistical difference between the two groups for rounded morphology, consolidation, crazy paving pattern, lesion distribution, parenchymal band (P> 0.05). However, diffuse lesions were more frequent in HF cases (55.6% vs. 0%) than in COVID-19 pneumonia, which had predominantly multifocal pattern. Notably, CT images in HF patients were more likely to have signs of interstitial tissue thickening such as the interlobular septums, fissures and peribronchovascular interstitium (55.6% vs 0%, 88.9% vs 20% and 44.4% vs 0%,respectively), as well as cardiomegaly (77.8% vs 0%), increased artery to bronchus ratio (55.6% vs 0%), and pleural effusions (77.8% vs 0%). Conclusions: Major overlaps of lung CT imaging features existed between COVID-19 pneumonia and acute HF cases. However, signs of fluid redistribution are clues that favour HF over COVID-19 pneumonia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: covid19; sars cov2; fondaparinux; enoxaparin; venous thrpmbpembolism; inflammatory diseases
Online: 19 May 2020 (04:07:50 CEST)
Background: After the outbreak of a novel coronavirus (i.e. SARS COV2) in China and its diffusion around the world, great attentions was reserved to the increased incidence of venous thromboembolism in these patients. A specific antiviral action of heparins toward SARS COV2 has been reported in vitro such as a well know action of heparins to prevent VTE in inpatients with infective disease has already been reported since several years. Yet, because fondaparinux represent the pharmacological antithrombotic active sequence of all heparins and because its clinical indication o prevent VTE in inpatients is similar to heprains, we realized a retrospective analysis in inpatients with SARS COV2 on the incidence of VTE during pharmacological prophylaxis with enoxaparin or fondaparinux. This retrospective analysis was named FONDENOXAVID. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that used patients with SARS COV2 during the Italian outbreak from February 18, 2020 to April 30, 2020. Our aim was to compare the clinical characteristics, prophylactic treatment and outcomes in inpatients positive to SARS COV2 at risk to develop venous thromboembolism, in particular venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, during in-hospital primary thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin (40 mg or 60 mg once daily) or fondaparinux (2.5 mg once daily). Statistical analysis was conducted with using MatLab R2016B and eventually ad hoc functions. Results: There were not significative differences in clinical characteristics between patients that used enoxaparin or fondaparinux as thromboprpophylaxis for SARS COV2. The cumulative incidence of thrombotic events was not different in patients that used enoxaparin or fondaparinux as thromboprpophylaxis. No differences were found also in d-dimer and fibrinogen levels test at the admission and after 3 weeks as markers of prolonged inflammation due to SARS COV2. Discussion: The increased incidence of VTE in vivo has been reported in several studies although prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin was conducted in some of them. The clinical indication to prevent VTE was similar for heparins and fondaparinux. In our results a non-inferiority to prevent VTE was recorded when inpatients with SARS COV2 were treated with prophylactic doses of enoxaparin or fondaparinux according to international guidelines. The incidence of VTE in this retrospective analysis showed that Fondaparinux at fixed doses of 2.5 mg daily was not inferior to enoxaparin (4000 UI daily). Our results testify that fondaparinux and enoxaparin showed the same efficacy to reduce the incidence of VTE in inpatients with SARS COV2.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0209.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: COVID-19 virus disease; Autonomic nervous system; Electrocardiography; Heart rate
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:22:06 CEST)
This case study investigates the heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We report the case of a 58-year old male who contracted COVID-19. During his disease, 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) was performed continuously. For comparison, his 24-hour Holter ECGs from the previous 10 years were available. In this patient, COVID-19 was associated with a decrease in HR and a paradoxical decline in HRV. An abrupt decline in HRV and a decrease in HR may signal the onset of COVID-19 before common symptoms such as dry cough or fever appear. In addition, HRV and HR measurements may help to evaluate the course of the disease.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0190.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: COVID-19; azythromycin; hydroxychloroquine; atrioventricular block
Online: 11 May 2020 (10:10:42 CEST)
Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that is becoming a pandemic. Hydroxychloroquine in combination with azythromycin are among drugs currently in use to eradicate COVID-19. Despite concerns due to its potential cardiac toxicity, hydroxychloroquine is widely accepted in mild and moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. In this case report, we report a case of a young Indonesian adult male with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia who received hydroxychloroquine and azythromycin therapies and during 24 hour experienced deterioration of atrioventricular block.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: acute coronary syndromes; myocardial infarction; STEMI; Covid-19, infectious disease; respiratory infections; pathophysiology; percutaneous coronary intervention; thrombolysis; drug treatment
Online: 7 May 2020 (12:49:39 CEST)
Since association between myocardial infarction (MI) and respiratory infections has been described for influenza-viruses and other respiratory viral agents, understanding possible physiopathological links between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is of the greatest importance. First data suggest an underestimation of ACS cases all over the world, but acute MI still represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and should not be overshadowed during the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic. No common consensus regarding the most adequate healthcare management policy for ACS is currently available. Indeed, important differences have been reported between the measures employed to treat ACS in China during the first disease outbreak and what currently represents clinical practice across Europe and the USA. This review aims to discuss: pathophysiological links between MI, respiratory infections, and Covid-19; epidemiological data related to ACS at the time of the Covid-19 pandemic; what emerged so far from several catheterization labs and coronary care units all over the world, in order to shed some light on the current strategies for optimal management of ACS patients with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0085.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: COVID-19; HAPE; high-altitude; tolerance to hypoxia; oxygen transport triad; Cov-2; SARS; pneumonia; ventilators; EPO
Online: 5 May 2020 (15:26:05 CEST)
The critical hypoxia in COVID-19 patients during this pandemic, has taken away many lives all around the globe. The mechanism has been poorly understood and initially, word got around that it was a SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) pneumonia. The atypical images in lung computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans were alarming. This immediately alerted everyone including poor countries to purchase lacking sophisticated ventilator equipment. However, in some countries, even 88% of the patients on ventilators lost their lives. New observations and pathological findings are gradually clarifying the disease. What seems evident is that it is not only one disease but several, with different responses in different countries and different altitudes. The critical hypoxia and «gasping» present in some patients are not totally understood. It was mentioned that it could be like a High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE). Hereby, as high-altitude medicine and hypoxia physiology specialists, we compare the pathophysiology with that of high-altitude exposure in order to understand the mechanisms involved. Some differences in lung radiological images along with transmission and viral attack mechanisms are discussed. The oxygen transport triad used at high-altitude can be applied on this pathology in order to propose even the use of erythropoietin (EPO) early in the treatment. The immune system is the most important long-term survival tool, so we suggest a short-term strategy: the use of special Earth open-circuit astronaut-resembling suits with effective outside air filtering re-breathing mechanisms in order to return to work and daily activities, without contamination risk. Thereby, the curve can be flattened without quarantine and the economy could recover.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0346.v1
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:15:27 CEST)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging infectious disease with currently a pandemic state. Cardiac function can be involved, affecting prognosis, in addition with lung feature severity, particularly in patients with comorbidities. Since the renin angiotensin aldosterone (RAA) system may interact with SARS-Cov-2, researches are still ongoing to assess the prognostic value of RAA blockers in cardiology.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0339.v1
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:22:24 CEST)
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 is a challenge in the actual medical scenario. Besides the classical lung and respiratory disease, patients infected with the virus can present with cardiac injury, and pathogenic mechanisms point to a direct infection of the heart.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Covid-19; coronavirus; cardiovascular disease; thrombosis; hypertension; endothelial dysfunction
Online: 13 April 2020 (02:23:33 CEST)
The symptoms most commonly reported by patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) include cough, fever, and shortness of breath. However, other major events usually observed in COVID-19 patients (e.g. high blood pressure, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism) seem to suggest that the virus is targeting the endothelium, one of the largest organs in the human body. Herein, we report both clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the hypothesis that the endothelium is a key target organ of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0128.v1
Online: 8 April 2020 (11:49:56 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2). Although primarily a respiratory disease, cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 have been increasingly recognized. In addition, higher fatality has been reported in COVID-19 patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases. Cancer survivors have a considerably increased risk for premature cardiovascular diseases, mainly due to cardiotoxic cancer treatments. Therefore, it is foreseeable that cancer survivors will be more vulnerable to cardiovascular complications caused by COVID-19. In this review, three scenarios for increased cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 in cancer patients are proposed. In the first scenario, cardiotoxic cancer treatment and COVID-19 synergize to exacerbate direct myocardial damage. In the second scenario, cardiotoxic cancer treatment leads to a reduced cardiac reserve in cancer survivors, making them more vulnerable to COVID-19 in a “two-hit” model. The third scenario suggests that several shared risk factors may aggravate cardiovascular complications caused by both cancer treatment and COVID-19. Taken together, cancer survivors may be more vulnerable to cardiovascular complications when challenged by the COVID-19, and special cardiovascular care should be given to these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; inflammation; neutrophil; outcome
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:18:03 CEST)
Aims: Clinical evidence indicates that innate immune cells may contribute to the onset and outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our prospective study aimed at analysing neutrophil phenotypes in ACS and their role in predicting 1-year major cardiovascular events. Methods: Blood neutrophil phenotypes were analysed by flow cytometry. Differential blood cell count and plasma levels of soluble markers were recorded at admission and at 6-month follow-up. Results: 108 patients categorized in chronic stable coronary artery disease (n=37), unstable angina (UA) (n=19), Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) (n=25), and ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) (n=27) were included. STEMI and NSTEMI patients displayed higher neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than stable and UA patients (P<0.0001), which normalized at 6-month after MI. STEMI patients were characterized by elevated percentages of band cells in low-density neutrophils (P=0.007) and in high-density neutrophils (P=0.019) compared to the other patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that plasma levels of total MPO was associated with STEMI when compared to stable (OR: 1.434; 95% CI: 1.119-1.837; P<0.0001), UA (1.47; 1.146-1.886; P=0.002), and NSTEMI (1.213; 1.1-1.134; P=0.0001) patients, while increased neutrophil SSC signal intensity was associated with NSTEMI compared to stable patients (3.828; 1.033-14.184; P=0.045). Based on multivariable Cox regression analysis, elevated plasma levels of PCSK9 and low-density neutrophil percentage predicted 1-year outcome independently of cardiovascular risk factors (c-index: 0.915; IQR: 0.908-0.929). Conclusions: Changes in neutrophil phenotype are concomitant to ACS. These changes may differ between STEMI and NSTEMI. They may also contribute to ACS risk and patient outcome.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV; SARS-CoV-2; Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Online: 25 March 2020 (03:56:27 CET)
The role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has become a controversial topic of discussion. RAAS inhibitors, such as Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), which are used to treat cardiovascular diseases, have been implicated in potentially increasing cell surface levels of ACE2. ACE2 is the host receptor for COVID-19 that was discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Since December, COVID-19 has transmitted rapidly across the world and has become a global pandemic. COVID-19 is similar to the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with the first case reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. COVID-19, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is also similar to SARS-CoV, which first infected humans in the Guangdong province of southern China in 2002, and caused an epidemic between November 2002 and July 2003. Both SARS-CoV and COVID-19 use ACE2 to enter host cells. ACE2 is primarily expressed in the mouth, lung, heart, esophagus, kidney, bladder, and intestines, and is a component of RAAS, which serves to maintain vascular tone and blood volume. Inhibition or activation of other components of RAAS has been shown to directly increase or decrease the expression and/or activity of ACE2. Furthermore, RAAS-targeting therapeutics, such as ACE inhibitors and ARBs, have also been shown to regulate the expression and/or activity of ACE2, albeit in animal models. Although these changes in ACE2 have been demonstrated only in animal models, there is no evidence that administration of RAAS-targeting therapeutics to humans for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and other cardiovascular diseases (e.g., myocardial infarction and heart failure) causes changes in ACE2 expression. Nor is there clinical evidence that RAAS-targeting therapeutics augment COVID-19 infection, morbidity, or mortality. However, clinical evidence does suggest that ACE2 expression may protect against respiratory distress caused by a variety of noxious agents. This review attempts to provide a balanced overview of the potential role of RAAS in regulating ACE2, and the role of ACE2 during COVID-19 infection. Evidence is provided to show that the expression of ACE2 may mediate both positive and negative outcomes, depending on the timing of ACE2 expression.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Diabetic Cardiomyopathy; Hyperglycemia; Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Remote Conditioning; Exercise
Online: 17 March 2020 (08:52:25 CET)
Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and ischemic heart disease are among the leading causes of death and disability in Western countries. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is responsible for the most severe signs and symptoms. An important strategy for reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease is regular exercise. Remote ischemic conditioning has some similarity with exercise, and can be induced by short periods of ischemia and reperfusion of a limb, and it can be performed in people who cannot exercise. There is abundant evidence that exercise is beneficial in diabetes and ischemic heart disease, but there is a need to elucidate the specific cardiovascular effects of emerging and unconventional forms of exercise in people with diabetes. Also, remote ischemic conditioning may be considered among the options to induce beneficial effects in these patients. The characteristics and interactions of diabetes and ischemic heart disease, and the known effects of exercise and remote ischemic conditioning in the presence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, are analyzed in this brief review.