ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0555.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Fungal chitosan; animal chitosan; wine clarification; dissolving acid comparison.
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:38:23 CET)
Chitosan is a chitin-derived fiber, extracted from the shellfish shells, a by-product of fish industry, or from fungi grown in bioreactors. In oenology, it is used for the control of Brettanomyces spp., for the prevention of ferric, copper and protein casse and for clarification. The International Organisation of Vine and Wine established the exclusive utilization of fungal chitosan to avoid the eventuality of allergic reactions. This work focuses on the differences between two chitosan categories, fungal and animal chitosan, characterizing several samples in terms of chitin content and degree of deacety-lation. In addition, different acids were used to dissolve chitosans, and their effect on viscosity and on the efficacy in wine clarification were observed. Results demonstrated that, even if fungal and animal chitosans shared similar chemical properties (deacetylation degree and chitin content), they showed different viscosity depending on the acid used to dissolve them. A significant difference was discovered on their fining properties, as animal chitosans showed a faster and greater sedimentation compared to the fungal, independently from the acid used for their dissolution. This suggests that physic-chemical differences in the molecular structure occur between the two chitosan categories and that this affect significantly their technologic (oenological) properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: sustainable wine tourism; territorial marketing; wine marketing challenge; wine farm marketing; focus Group; multidimensional analysis
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:18:49 CEST)
This study measures the communication ability of wineries in two extreme territories of Southern Italy, Mount Etna and the island of Pantelleria. The evaluation of four dimensions of web communication was carried out by the AGIL Scheme (i.e. adaptation, goal-attainment, integration, latent pattern maintenance). The study provides a generalizable model to be applied in other similar studies. Also, focus groups of experts were carried out. The method proved to be suitable to measure the communication effectiveness of wineries through websites. Extreme territories may add value to the wine, regardless of the brand. The heroic wines may become the symbol of these territories helping environmental safeguard and contrasting territory abandonment by rural communities. The findings highlight that effective communication of heroic viticulture may be used to reposition these wines and increase their competitive advantage in foreign markets. The study generates new ideas for reflection on new types of web communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0333.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: rosé wine; probiotic yeast; fermentation; distillation; viability
Online: 22 September 2022 (05:44:56 CEST)
This paper reports for the first time on the production of probiotic alcoholic and non-alcoholic rosé wines with enhanced health benefits made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii probiotic yeast. The alcohol, sugar, volatile acidity lactic and malic acid contents were assessed for S. cerevisiae var. boulardii before and after fermentation and distillation and compared with a conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ex-bayanus) yeast. The free amino nitrogen and gluconic acid concentrations in the musts were determined. Yeast viability was evaluated after fermentation and distillation as a function of time (0, 15 days, 3 months and 6 months) both at room temperature (25±0.5ºC) and refrigerator temperature (4±0.5ºC). The results obtained showed that the probiotic rosé wine produced with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii possesses the typical values and sensory attributes of other commercial wines produced with S. cerevisiae (ex-bayanus). The probiotic S. cerevisiae var. boulardii yeast survives the high alcohol content produced during fermentation and vacuum distillation. The study also showed that this probiotic rosé wine stored either at room temperature or in a refrigerator keeps its probiotic viability for at least six months, which makes it a promising for large-scale production, in which long storage times are required by both producers and consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0179.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: rice wash; vinegar; rice wine; Soxhlet; fermentation
Online: 11 May 2018 (09:04:45 CEST)
This study was conducted to search for green technology that can extract metabolites from neem leaves for use in the development of botanical pesticide against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae). Rice wine, rice wash, vinegar and distilled water were used as solvents and hot infusion, maceration, hot continuous reflux (Soxhlet), and fermentation were the methods employed. The different leaf extracts prepared by green technology were evaluated for their potentials as pesticide against B. dorsalis. Vinegar extract via Soxhlet extraction (V-S) for eight (8) h registered to have the highest mortality but not significantly different from vinegar - fermentation (V-F), rice wash - Soxhlet (RWa-S), vinegar - maceration (V-M), distilled water - fermentation (DW-F), and rice wash - fermentation (RWa-F) extracts. Phythochemicals present in the extracts are affected by the solvent-extraction interaction. Among the sixteen solvent-extraction interactions, the use of rice wash and fermentation is the most economical method in extracting the extracting the active components of neem leaves against B. dorsalis. Rice wash is a waste that can be utilized in the development of a biopesticide from neem leaves for pest management of B. dorsalis. This is the first report that rice wash is used as extracting solvent in green synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Germany; wine production; water productivity; AgroHyd Farmmodel
Online: 18 January 2017 (15:21:53 CET)
The German wine sector has encountered new challenges in water management recently. To manage water resources responsibly, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the input of water and the output of wine, in terms of quantity and quality. The objectives of this study are to examine water use at the farm scale at three German wineries, and to develop and apply, for the first time, a quality-based indicator. Water use is analyzed in terms of wine production and wine-making over three years. After the spatial and temporal boundaries of the wineries and the water flows are defined, the farm water productivity indicator is calculated to assess water use at the winery scale. Farm water productivity is calculated using the AgroHyd Farmmodel modeling software. Average productivity on a quantity basis is 3.91 L wine per m3 of water. Productivity on a quality basis is 329.24 °Oechsle per m3 of water. Water input from transpiration for wine production accounts for 99.4–99.7% of total water input in the wineries, and, because irrigation is not used, precipitation is the sole source of transpired water. Future studies should use both quality-based and mass-based indicators of productivity.
Online: 3 September 2021 (17:16:15 CEST)
A convenient and fast multiresidue method for the efficient identification and quantification of 72 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes in red and white grape wines have been developed. The analysis was based on gas chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric determination (GC–MS/MS). An optimization strategy involved the selection of MWCNTs amount and cleanup procedure cycle times for m-PFC was performed to achieve ideal recoveries and reduce sample matrix compounds in the final extracts. The optimized procedure obtained consistent recoveries between 70.2 and 108.8% (70.2% and 108.8% for white wine, 72.3% and 106.0% for red wine) , with relative standard deviations (RSDs) generally lower than 8.3% at three spiking levels of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg. Linearity was studied in the range between 0.005 and 0.2 mg/kg using pesticide standards prepared both in pure solvent and in the presence of matrix, showing coefficients of determination (R2) higher than 0.985 for all the pesticides. To improve accuracy, matrix matched calibration curves were used for calculating the quantification results. Finally, the method was used successfully in detecting pesticide residues in commercial gape wines.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: innovative grape varieties; organic wine; biogenic amine; polyphenol
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:58:14 CET)
Society considers wine as a special product among food and beverages because of its high gastronomical value and its positively distinctive quality. In recent years, philosophies of the agricultural techniques and development of the oenological technology have been focused on the reduction of wasteful, "polluting" elements, and trends are moving towards an environmental friendly approach. Due to the stricter regulations and rules (with the limited amount and selection of the permitted chemicals) resistant, also known as interspecific or innovative grape varieties can be the ideal basic materials of alternative cultivation technologies. In terms of variety selection, innovative varieties can be equivalent to international varieties, although organically their quality could not compete with them. These grapes are more resistant to various fungal diseases and infections than international varieties. Well-founded analytical and organoleptic results have to provide the scientific background of resistant varieties, as these cultivars with the environmental friendly cultivation techniques, could be the raw material of the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0317.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: ICP-MS; trace elements; wine; Nizza; Barbera; authentication
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:49:48 CEST)
Barbera d'Asti - including Barbera d'Asti superiore - and Nizza are two DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) wines produced in Piemonte (Italy) from Barbera grape variety. Differences among them arise in the production specifications in terms of purity, ageing and zone of production, in particular with concern to Nizza, which has more stringent rules and can therefore be considered as the one with the highest market value, with even three-fold more average prices. To guarantee producers and consumers, authentication methods must be developed in order to distinguish among the different wines. As the production zones totally overlap, it is important to verify whether the distinction is possible or not according to metals content, or whether chemical markers more linked to winemaking are needed. In this work, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) elemental analysis and multivariate data analysis are used to study the authentication and traceability of samples from the three designations of 2015 vintage. The results show that, as far as elemental distribution in wine is concerned, work in the cellar, rather than geographic provenance, is crucial for the possibility of distinction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0258.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: alcohol; natural wine; blood alcohol content; breathalyzer; pesticides
Online: 4 April 2019 (11:23:33 CEST)
Different alcoholic beverages can have different effects on blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and neurotoxicity even if equalized for alcohol content by volume. Anecdotal evidence suggested that natural wine is metabolized differently from conventional wines. This triple-blind study compared the BAC of 55 healthy male subjects after consuming the equivalent of 2 units of alcohol of a natural or conventional wine over 3 mins in two separate sessions one week apart. BAC was measured using a professional breathalyzer every 20 mins after consumption for 2 hrs. The BAC curves in response to the two wines diverged significantly at twenty minutes, at forty minutes and also at their maximum concentrations (peaks), with the natural wine inducing a lower BAC than the conventional wine (T20 0.40 vs. 0.46 [p<0.0002], T40 0.49 vs. 0.53 [p<0.0015], peak 0.52 vs. 0.56 [p<0.0002]). These differences are likely related to the development of different amino acids and antioxidants in the two wines during their production. This in turn may affect the kinetics of alcohol absorption and metabolism. Other contributing factors may also include pesticide residues, differences in dry extract content and the use of indigenous or selected yeasts. Further studies are needed to fully understand why natural wines are metabolized differently from conventional wines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0119.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: effervescence; bubbles; protein; yeast invertase; foamability; wine quality
Online: 11 March 2019 (08:04:48 CET)
The appearance of bubbles and foam can influence the likeability of a wine even before its consumption. Since foams are essential to visual and taste attributes of sparkling wines, it is of great importance to understand which compounds affect bubbles and foam characteristics. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of interactions among proteins, amino acids, and phenols on the characteristics of foam in sparkling wines by using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. Results has shown that several compounds present in sparkling wines influence foam quality differently, and importantly, highlighted how the interaction of those compounds might result in different effects on foam parameters. Amongst the results, mannoproteins were found to be most likely to promote foam and collar stability, while phenols were likely to increase the ratio of small bubbles and collar height in the foam matrix. In summary, this work contributes to a better understanding of the effect of wine compounds on foam quality as well as the effect of the interactions between those compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: coffee; grape juice; immunosensing; mycotoxins; nanobiosensors; wine; microcantilever
Online: 13 October 2017 (03:42:50 CEST)
Mycotoxins food contamination represents a serious risk for consumers health. They are secondary metabolites of fungi that can be present in a wide range of foodstuffs. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most toxic compound and it is classified as a possible carcinogenic molecule. The harmful effects of OTA on human and animal health lead to a big boost to develop and optimize highly sensitive and accurate methods for OTA detection. An innovative and rapid detection method based on microcantilever resonators for ochratoxin A identification in food matrix has been developed. This work demonstrates the possibility to apply microcantilever technology in food safety field, showing for the first time in literature the successful detection of one of the most dangerous mycotoxin in different food matrixes both solids and liquids, such as green coffee, grape juice and wine. Sensing performances are discussed in terms of calibration plot and limit of detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0248.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: post-harvest; grape; wine; withering; stilbenes; aroma; Amarone; Corvina
Online: 9 June 2021 (09:03:25 CEST)
In the Valpolicella area (Verona - Italy) Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina is the main grape variety used to produce Amarone wine. Before starting the winemaking process, the Corvina grapes are stored in a withering (i.e., dehydrating) warehouse until about 30% of the berry weight is lost (WL). This practice is followed to have the chemical metabolites concentrate in the berry and enrich the Amarone wine in aroma and antioxidant compounds. In compliance with the guidelines and strict Amarone protocol set by the Consorzio of Amarone-Valpolicella, withering must be carried out by setting the grapes in a suitable environment, either under controlled relative air humidity (RH) conditions and wind speed (WS) – no temperature modification is to be applied – or, following the traditional methods, in open-air natural environmental conditions. In general, the two processes have different dehydration kinetics due to the different conditions in terms of temperature, RH, and WS, which affect the accumulation of sugars and organic acids and the biosynthesis of sec-ondary metabolites such as stilbenes and glycoside aroma precursors. For this study, the two grape-withering processes were carried out under controlled (C) and not-controlled (NC) condi-tions and the final compositions of the Corvina dried grapes were compared also to evaluate the effects on the organoleptic characteristics of Amarone wine. The findings highlighted differences between the two processes mainly in terms of the secondary metabolites of the dried grapes, which affect the organoleptic characteristics of Amarone wine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0098.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: substituted esters metabolism; wine fermentation; MGL2; YJU3; histone acetylation
Online: 2 March 2021 (15:05:19 CET)
Esters constitute a wide family of volatile compounds impacting the organoleptic properties of many beverages including wine and beer. They can be classified according to their chemical structure. Higher Alcohols Acetate differ from Fatty Acids Ethyl Esters whereas a third group, Substituted Ethyl Esters, contributes to the fruitiness of red wines. Derived from yeast metabolism, the biosynthesis of Higher Alcohols Acetates and Fatty Acids Ethyl Esters has been widely in-vestigated at the enzymatic and genetic level. In this work, we confirmed their effective contri-bution in the fruity perception in young red wines by evaluating the effect of their depletion by chemical and sensorial analyses. As previously reported, two pairs of esterases respectively en-coded by the paralogue genes (ATF1, ATF2) and (EEB1 and EHT1) are mostly involved in the bi-osynthesis of Acetate of Higher alcohols and Fatty Acids Ethyl Esters. However, those esterases have a moderate effect on the biosynthesis of Substituted Ethyl Esters that depends to another pair of genes, MGL2 and YJU3 encoding for mono-acyl lipases. These new findings complete our un-derstanding of esters metabolism in the context of wine alcoholic fermentation. In order to evaluate the sensorial impact of esters we attempted to produce a red wine without esters by generating a multiple deletion strain. Surprisingly, we failed to abolish all the esterase activities revealing unsuspected physiological consequences of ester biosynthesis routes. A preliminary RNA-seq analysis depicted the overall impact of the multiple deletion of ATF1, ATF2, EEB1 and EHT1 that triggers the expression shift of 1124 genes involved in nitrogen and lipid metabolism but also chromatin organization and histone acetylation, suggesting an unsuspected regulatory role of ester metabolism
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0303.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: acacia; anthocyanins; cherry; color; model wine; oak; wood extracts
Online: 27 May 2019 (09:36:10 CEST)
There is a restricted knowledge about the potential impact of the use of different wood species on color and anthocyanin changes during the red wine aging process. This lack of knowledge is even greater when no oak wood species are used. Thus, the aim of this study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the impact of wood chip extracts from oak, acacia and cherry species on the chromatic characteristics and anthocyanins changes by the use of model wine solutions. In this context, several methodologies were used to quantified, color and anthocyanins changes during the aging time studied. The results indicated that the contact between wood chip extracts and grape skin isolated anthocyanin extracts induced a decrease of color intensity, particularly red color, and also the anthocyanin content in the different experimental model wine solutions studied. All chromatic modifications are potentially detected by human eyes because ΔE values were much higher than 3 CIELab units. These tendencies seems to be independent of the wood species used, but more pronounced for higher contact time between wood chip extracts and anthocyanins. The obtained results may contribute to a better understanding of the chromatic changes of red wines when aged in contact with different wood chips species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0322.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: malolactic fermentation; coinoculation; diacetyl; esters; aromatic compounds; grape wine
Online: 18 August 2018 (06:00:30 CEST)
We examined the effects of different malolactic bacteria fermentation techniques, including a spontaneous process – a variant with a high risk of undesirable metabolites – on the bioconversion of aromatic compounds in cool-climate grape wines. During three wine seasons, red and white grape wines were produced by three different methods of malolactic fermentation induction: coinoculation, sequential inoculation, and spontaneous malolactic fermentation. Volatiles (diacetyl and the products of its metabolism, as well as selected ethyl fatty acids esters) were extracted by solid phase microextraction. Compounds were identified with multidimensional gas chromatograph GCxGC-ToFMS with ZOEX cryogenic (N2) modulator. Sensory evaluation of the wines was also performed. We found, that the fermentation-derived metabolites examined in this study were affected by the malolactic bacteria inoculation regime. Quantitatively, ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate and ethyl acetate dominated as esters with the largest increase in the concentration. The total concentration of ethyl esters was highest for the coinoculation scenario. Whereas the highest concentration of diacetyl was noted for the spontaneous processes. A controlled malolactic fermentation, especially using the coinoculation technique, can be proposed as a safe and efficient enological practice for producing quality, cool-climate grape wines enriched with fruity, fresh and floral aromas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: alcohol drinking; health knowledge; physician attitudes; standard drink; wine
Online: 9 August 2018 (08:07:39 CEST)
Despite epidemiological findings of improvements in cardiovascular risk factors with a light-to-moderate intake of alcohol, many misconceptions remain regarding alcohol intake and the risks and benefits of consumption. We sought to examine physician attitudes and recommendations regarding alcohol intake in a cohort of Argentine physicians and to establish their sources of knowledge. An online national survey was distributed through the Argentine Federation of Cardiology (FAC) to cardiologists, internal medicine specialists, general and other subspecialty physicians in Argentina. The survey was completed by 745 physicians, of whom 671 (90%) were cardiologists. In total, 35% of physicians viewed moderate alcohol intake to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, 36% believed only wine offered such benefits, 24% viewed any intake to be harmful, and 5% had other opinions. More than half (57%) self-reported their knowledge to come from academic sources. Regarding knowledge of drinking guidelines, only 41% of physicians were aware of the concept of ‘standard drink’. Physicians were generally not comfortable converting ‘standard drinks’ into other metric units, however men tended to be more comfortable than women (p=0.052). Physicians were not satisfied with their knowledge of drinking guidelines (3.01 ± 2.73, on a 0-10 scale). Physicians were generally comfortable in counselling patients regarding safe-limits of consumption (6.22 ± 3.20, on a 0-10 scale). Argentine physicians were not satisfied with their knowledge of alcohol consumption guidelines or their understanding of the reported metrics. Only one-third of study participants viewed moderate alcohol intake as beneficial for cardiovascular health. This study shows the necessity to optimize the sources of knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0396.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Wine; DPPH; FRAP; Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves; sulphur dioxide
Online: 21 July 2018 (14:41:04 CEST)
This study evaluated the influence of the addition of increasing quantities of Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves (HRL) on the radical scavenging activity, main oenological parameters and organoleptic characteristics of three white wines made from moschofilero and one white wine made from riesling grapes respectively. Radical Scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol content (TPC) and color intensity increased in a linear manner in relation to HRL treatments. Indicatively the addition of 0.8 g/L of HRL increased the radical scavenging activity as determined via the inhibition of the DPPH radical from 23.2 to 58.4% in comparison to the initial values. Equally the reducing power as determined by the FRAP assay increased from 34.5 to 82.3%, TPC increased from 12.3 to 26.8% and the color intensity increased from 39-50% . The main oenological attributes examined, remained unchanged after the HRL addition. The addition of up to 0.4 g/L of HRL did not have a major impact on the organoleptic characteristics of the wines tasted whereas concentrations higher than 0.8 g/L were not considered beneficial. Results denote that the addition of Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves to white wines contributes positively to the overall antioxidant capacity and could be used as an antioxidant agent in wines vinified in the absence of sulphur dioxide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0394.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: reduced-alcohol wine; solid-phase microextraction; gas chromatography; chemometrics
Online: 21 July 2018 (12:47:05 CEST)
The important sampling parameters of a headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) procedure, extraction temperature, extraction time and sample volume were optimized to quantify 23 important impact odorants in reduced alcohol red and white wines. A three-factor design of Box-Behnken experiments was used to determine optimized sampling conditions for each analyte, and a global optimized condition at every ethanol concentration of interest determined using a desirability function that accounts for a low signal response for compounds. Shiraz and Chardonnay wines were dealcoholized from 13.7 and 12.2% v/v ethanol respectively, to 8 and 5% v/v, using a commercially available membrane-based technology. A sample set of the reduced alcohol wines were also reconstituted to their natural ethanol level to evaluate the effect of ethanol content reduction on volatile composition. The three-factor Box-Behnken experiment ensured an accurate determination of the headspace concentration of each compound at each ethanol concentration, allowing comparisons between wines at varying ethanol levels to be made. Overall, the results showed that the main effect of extraction temperature was considered the most critical factor when studying the equilibrium of reduced alcohol wine impact odorants. The impact of ethanol reduction upon the concentration of volatile compounds clearly resulted in losses of impact odorants from the wines. The concentration of most analytes decreased with dealcoholization compared to that of the natural samples. Significant differences were also found between the reconstituted volatile composition and 5% v/v reduced alcohol wines, revealing that the dealcoholization effect is the result of a combination between the type of dealcoholization treatment and reduction in wine ethanol content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0061.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: alcohol; aroma; bioengineering; flavour; synthetic genomics; taste; wine; yeast
Online: 10 December 2016 (09:09:54 CET)
A perfectly balanced wine can be said to create a symphony in the mouth. To achieve the sublime, both in wine and music, requires imagination and skilled orchestration of artistic craftmanship. For wine, inventiveness starts in the vineyard. Similar to a composer of music, the grapegrower produces grapes through a multitude of specifications to achieve a quality result. Different Vitis vinifera grape varieties allow the creation of wine of different genres. Akin to a conductor of music, the winemaker decides what genre to create and considers resources required to realise the grape’s potential. A primary consideration is the yeast: inoculate the grape juice or leave it ‘wild’; which specific or combined Saccharomyces strain(s) should be used; or proceed with a non-Saccharomyces species? Whilst the various Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts perform their role during fermentation, the performance is not over until the ‘fat lady’ (S. cerevisiae) has sung (i.e. the grape sugar has been fermented to specified dryness and alcoholic fermentation is complete). Is the wine harmonious or discordant? Will the consumer demand an encore and make a repeat purchase? Understanding consumer needs lets winemakers orchestrate different symphonies (i.e. wine styles) using single- or multi-species ferments. Some consumers will choose the sounds of a philharmonic orchestra comprising a great range of diverse instrumentalists (as is the case with wine created from spontaneous fermentation); some will prefer to listen to a smaller ensemble (analogous to wine produced by a selected group of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeast); and others will favour the well-known and reliable superstar soprano (i.e. S. cerevisiae). But what if a digital music synthesiser ‒ such as a synthetic yeast ‒ becomes available that can produce any music genre with the purest of sounds by the touch of a few buttons? Will synthesisers spoil the character of the music and lead to the loss of the much-lauded romantic mystique? Or will music synthesisers support composers and conductors to create novel compositions and even higher quality performances that will thrill audiences? This article explores these and other relevant questions in the context of winemaking and the role that yeast and its genomics play in the betterment of wine quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0060.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: alcohol consumption; Alzheimer's disease; light to moderate wine consumption; neurodegeneration
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:54:00 CET)
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most threatening neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by the loss of memory and language function, an unbalanced perception of space and other cognitive and physical manifestations. Pathology of the AD is characterized by neuronal loss, and the extensive distribution of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The role of environment and the diet in the AD is being studied actively, and nutrition is certainly one of the main factors playing a prominent role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the relationship between dementia and wine use/abuse has received increased research interest in recent times, with varying and often conflicting results. Scope and approach: This review aims to critically summarize the most recent studies conducted to clarify the relationship between wine drinking and AD, as well as whether effects are influenced by quantity and/or frequency of drinking. Key findings and Conclusion: Overall, based on the interpretation of various studies, it can be concluded that there is no indication that light to moderate alcohol drinking is detrimental to cognition and dementia, and it is not possible to define whether alcohol could be used as a means to reduce risk of developing AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0110.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Food authenticity; Toro appellation of origin; Prediction Models; Wine; Aging.
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:50:58 CET)
A combination of physical-chemical analysis has been used to monitor the aging of red wines from D.O. Toro (Spain). The changes in the chemical composition of wines that occur along aging time can be permitted to discriminate wine samples collected after one, four, seven and ten months of aging. Different computational models were used to develop a good authenticity tool to certificate wines. In this research different models have developed: Artificial Neural Network models (ANNs), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) models. The results obtained for the ANN model developed with sigmoidal function in the output neuron and the RF model permit to determine the aging time, with an average absolute percentage deviation below 1% and it can conclude that these two models have demonstrated its capacity as a valid tool to predict the wine age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0500.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Schizosaccharomyces pombe; oenological uses; maloalcoholic fermentation; stable pigments; wine safety
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:17:59 CEST)
There are numerous yeast species related to wine making, particularly non-Saccharomyces, that deserve special attention due to the great potential they have when it comes to making certain changes in the composition of the wine. Among them, Schizosaccharomyces pombe stands out for its particular metabolism that gives it certain abilities such as regulating the acidity of wine through maloalcoholic fermentation. In addition, this species is characterized by favouring the formation of stable pigments in the wine and releasing large quantities of polysaccharides during ageing on lees. Moreover, its urease activity and its competition for malic acid with lactic acid bacteria make it a safety tool by limiting the formation of ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines in wine. However, it also has certain disadvantages such as its low fermentation speed or the development of undesirable flavours and aromas. In this chapter, the main oenological uses of Schizosaccharomyces pombe that have been proposed in the last years will be reviewed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Oxygen monitoring; LED; Photoluminescence; Wine production; Fermentation process; Process control.
Online: 1 March 2018 (16:16:37 CET)
The importance of oxygen in the winemaking process is widely known, as it affects the chemical aspects and therefore the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. Hence, it is evident the usefulness of a continuous and real-time measurements of the levels of oxygen in the various stages of the winemaking process, both for monitoring and for control. The WOW project has focused on the design and the development an innovative device for monitoring the oxygen levels in wine. This system is based on the use of an optical fiber to measure the luminescent lifetime variation of a reference metal/porphyrin complex, which decays in presence of oxygen. The developed technology results in a high sensitivity and low cost sensor head that can be employed for measuring the dissolved oxygen levels at several points inside a wine fermentation or aging tank. This system can be complemented with dynamic modeling techniques to provide predictive behavior of the nutrient evolution in space and time given few sampled measuring points for both process monitoring and control purposes. The experimental validation of the technology has been first performed in a controlled laboratory setup to attain calibration and study sensitivity with respect to different photo-luminescent compounds and alcoholic or non-alcoholic solutions, and then in an actual case study during a measurement campaign at a renown Italian winery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: white wine; volatile compounds; sensorial characteristics; oak; alternative woods; barrels; chips
Online: 2 November 2018 (12:40:47 CET)
Ageing wine is a commonly practice used in winemaking since the quality and sensory profile increase due to the extractable compounds coming from wood by means of barrels or chips. The quantitative and qualitative compounds from wood depend on the species, its origins and the treatments applied in cooperages. Traditionally, oak wood species are most often used in cooperage, specifically Quercus alba, Known as American oak and Q. robur and Q. petraea both known as French oak. However, although this stage is very common for red wines, its use is still restricted in the case of white wines. However, this topic is particularly interesting, since due to the sensorial benefits of wood contact, the option for ageing white wines in barrels or chips is increasingly and widely chosen by winemakers. This review compiles the novel strategies applied to white wines by means of wood contact in the last years with the aim to increase wine quality and sensorial features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Wine yeast; malic acid; pH; breeding; Malo Lactic Fermentation; Marker Assisted Selection
Online: 3 March 2021 (12:43:08 CET)
Background Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains exhibit very large genotypic and phe-notypic diversity. Breeding programs taking advantage of this characteristic, are widely used for yeast selection in the wine industry, especially in the recent years when winemakers need to adapt their production to climate change. The aim of this work was to evaluate a Marker Assisted Se-lection (MAS) program to improve malic acid consumption capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice. Methods Optimal individuals of two unrelated F1-hybrids were crossed to get a new genetic background carrying many “malic consumer” loci. Then, eleven QTLs already identified were used for implementing the MAS breeding program. Results By this way, extreme individuals able to consume more than 70% of malic acid in grape juice were selected. These individuals were tested in different enological matrixes and compared to their original parental strains. They greatly reduced the malic acid content at the end of alcoholic fermentations, they appeared to be robust to the environment and accelerate the ongoing of malo-lactic fermentations by Oenococcus oeni. Conclusions This study illustrates how MAS can be efficiently used for selecting industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with outlier properties for winemaking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0707.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Grape processing waste; Polyphenols; Green extraction; Microwave-hydrodiffusion and gravity, Enocyanin; Resveratrol; Flavonoids; Anthocyanins; Wine pomace
Online: 29 March 2021 (16:06:18 CEST)
The extraction of grape processing waste (wine pomace) via microwave-hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) from three different cultivars grown in Sicily (Syrah, Perricone and Nero d’Avola) rapidly affords aqueous extracts highly concentrated in valued biophenols including flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The method does not employ organic solvent, acid or base and does not require grinding or freeze drying of the wine pomace nor separation of the grape skins from seeds and stem. All the extracts have a pronounced stability as shown by their red-violet color fully retained after storage for more than a year (15 months) in freezer under air. Concentrations of phenolics up to 2000 ppm were detected in the aged extracts of Sicily’s local cultivar Perricone, which also has the highest content of flavonoids. These findings provide a simple and economically viable extraction route to biophenol-rich red extracts that can be used as food colorants as well as to formulate nutraceutical, cosmetic and personal care products starting from an agricultural by-product available in >10 million tonne yearly amount.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0142.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: melatonin, protocatechuic acid, hydroxytyrosol, α-synuclein, toxicity, amyloid aggregation, neurodegeneration, Parkinson´s disease, olive oil, wine
Online: 6 November 2018 (13:09:18 CET)
The abnormal assembly of α-synuclein (α-Syn) is an initial step in the formation of Lewy bodies in the brain, which finally causes the neuronal death, being considered as a pathological hallmark in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Certain food bioactives or their metabolites at very low concentrations can trespass the blood brain barrier (BBB) that might, thereafter, act simultaneously. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory and destabilising capacities on α-Syn kinetics and the neuroprotective effects of three well-known bioactive compounds able to cross the BBB and present in foods; melatonin (MEL), protocatechuic acid (PCA) and hydroxytyrosol (HT), and their combinations. For this purpose, different in vitro techniques (Thioflavin T (ThT), Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM), electrophoresis and MTT assay) were used. All tested compounds and their combinations were able to abolish the toxicity induced by α-Syn. In addition, the combination of PCA (100 µM) +HT (100 µM) showed the highest inhibitory effect against α-Syn fibril formation and destabilises α-Syn fibrils (88 and 62%, respectively). This is the first time that MEL, PCA and HT prove a joint effect against α-Syn aggregation and toxicity when they are tested together.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: wine; mediterranean diet; okinawa diet; health; nrf2; alcohol; polyphenols; hormesis; cardiovascular protection; cancer; Alzheimer; metabolic disease
Online: 2 November 2018 (05:08:46 CET)
Hippocrate, the father of medicine, already said:"Wine is a thing wonderfully appropriate to man if, in health as in disease, it is administered with appropriate and just measure according to the individual constitution." wine has always accompanied humanity, for religion or for health. Christians and Jews need wine for the liturgy. For Platon the wine was an indispensable element in society and took all its importance in the symposium. In this second part of the banquet, mixed with water, the wine gave the word. If the french paradox made a lot of ink flow; it was the wine that was originally responsible for it. Many researchers have tried to share the alcohol and polyphenols in order to solve the mystery. Beyond its cardiovascular effects, there are also effects on longevity, metabolism, cancer prevention and neuroprotection, and the list goes on. The purpose of this work is to make an analysis of current knowledge on the subject. Indeed, if the paradigm of the antioxidants is seductive, it is perhaps by their prooxidant effect that the polyphenols could act, by an epigenetic process mediated by nrf2. Wine is a preserve of antioxidants for the winter and it is by this property that the wine acts, in alcoholic solution. A wine without alcohol is pure heresy. By the way, we were not talking about elixir to design all this millennial pharmacopee that made the man was able to heal and prosper on the planet. From Alvise Cornaro to Serge Renaud, nutrition was the key to health and longevity, whether Cretan or Okinawa diet, it is the small dose of alcohol (wine or sake) that allows the bioavailability of polyphenols. Moderate drinking give a protection for diseases and a longevity potential. In conclusion, let’s drink fewer, but drink better to live older.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0246.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: agriculture 4.0; chlorophyll; early diagnosis; fungal tree pathogens; mycology; plant disease; plant pathology; smart viticulture; vegetation indices; wine grapes
Online: 11 May 2021 (14:21:25 CEST)
The Armillaria genus represents one of the most common causes of chronic root rot disease in woody plants. The disease damage prompt assessment is crucial for pest management. However, the disease detection current methods are limited at the field scale. Therefore, an alternative approach that can enhance or supplement traditional techniques is needed. In this study, we investigated the potential of hyperspectral methods to identify the changes between fungi-infected and uninfected plants of Vitis vinifera in early detecting the Armillaria disease. The hyperspectral imaging sensor Specim-IQ was used to acquire images of leaves of the Teroldego Rotaliano grapevine cultivar. We analysed three groups of plants: healthy, asymptomatic, and diseased. Highly significant differences were found in the Near infrared (NIR) spectral region with a decreasing pattern from healthy to diseased plants attributable to internal leaf structure changes. Asymptomatic plants emerged from the other groups due to a smaller reflectance in the red-edge spectrum (around 705nm). Hypothetically associated with the presence of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence strategy. Furthermore, significant differences were observed in the wavelengths close to 550 nm in diseased plants versus asymptomatic. We used linear discriminant analysis from a machine learning context to classify the leaves based on the most significant variables (vegetation indices and single bands), with resulting overall accuracies of 85% and 84% respectively in healthy vs. diseased and healthy vs. asymptomatic. To our knowledge, this study represents the first report on the possibility of using hyperspectral data for root rot disease diagnosis on woody plants. Although further validation studies are required, it appears that the spectral reflectance technique, possibly implemented on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), could be a promising tool for a cost-effective, non-destructive method of Armillaria disease early diagnosis and mapping in the field, contributing to a significant step forward in precision viticulture.