Saha, B.; Longo, R.; Torley, P.; Saliba, A.; Schmidtke, L. SPME Method Optimized by Box-Behnken Design for Impact Odorants in Reduced Alcohol Wines. Foods2018, 7, 127.
Saha, B.; Longo, R.; Torley, P.; Saliba, A.; Schmidtke, L. SPME Method Optimized by Box-Behnken Design for Impact Odorants in Reduced Alcohol Wines. Foods 2018, 7, 127.
The important sampling parameters of a headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) procedure, extraction temperature, extraction time and sample volume were optimized to quantify 23 important impact odorants in reduced alcohol red and white wines. A three-factor design of Box-Behnken experiments was used to determine optimized sampling conditions for each analyte, and a global optimized condition at every ethanol concentration of interest determined using a desirability function that accounts for a low signal response for compounds. Shiraz and Chardonnay wines were dealcoholized from 13.7 and 12.2% v/v ethanol respectively, to 8 and 5% v/v, using a commercially available membrane-based technology. A sample set of the reduced alcohol wines were also reconstituted to their natural ethanol level to evaluate the effect of ethanol content reduction on volatile composition. The three-factor Box-Behnken experiment ensured an accurate determination of the headspace concentration of each compound at each ethanol concentration, allowing comparisons between wines at varying ethanol levels to be made. Overall, the results showed that the main effect of extraction temperature was considered the most critical factor when studying the equilibrium of reduced alcohol wine impact odorants. The impact of ethanol reduction upon the concentration of volatile compounds clearly resulted in losses of impact odorants from the wines. The concentration of most analytes decreased with dealcoholization compared to that of the natural samples. Significant differences were also found between the reconstituted volatile composition and 5% v/v reduced alcohol wines, revealing that the dealcoholization effect is the result of a combination between the type of dealcoholization treatment and reduction in wine ethanol content.
reduced-alcohol wine; solid-phase microextraction; gas chromatography; chemometrics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.