REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; anti-inflammatory agents; dry AMD; geographic atrophy; intravitreal injection; complement inhibitors; neuroprotective agents; non-exudative AMD
Online: 12 February 2019 (11:00:52 CET)
The present review focuses on recent clinical trials that analyze the efficacy of intravitreal therapeutic agents for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as neuroprotective drugs, and complement inhibitors, also called immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory. A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials published prior to January 2019. Patients affected by dry AMD treated with intravitreal therapeutic agents were included. The changes in the correct visual acuity and the reduction in geographic atrophy progression were evaluated. Several new drugs have shown some promising results, including those targeting the complement cascade and agents called neuroprotective. The action potential of the two groups of drugs is to block the complement cascade model for immunomodulating agents, and prevent the degeneration and apoptosis of ganglion cells for the neuroprotectors, respectively. To the best of knowledge, and after extensive studies on the matter, there are still many investigations to be carried out on dry AMD in collaboration between researchers. They will have to identify truly effective molecules, understand the practical potential of pluripotent stem cells, and refine gene therapies. Only in-depth clinical trials will be able to allow the most appropriate and personalized treatments for each dry AMD patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0201.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: virtual geographic environment; virtual geographic experiment; virtual reality; VRGIS; heterogeneous distributed clients
Online: 30 December 2017 (14:43:41 CET)
Due to their strong immersion and real-time interactivity, helmet-mounted VR devices are becoming increasingly popular. Based on these devices, an immersive virtual geographic environment (VGE) provides a promising method for research into crowd behavior in an emergency. However, the current cheaper helmet-mounted VR devices are not popular enough and will continue to coexist with PC-based systems for a long time. Therefore, a heterogeneous distributed virtual geographic environment (HDVGE) could be a feasible solution to solve the heterogeneous problems caused by various types of clients, and support implementation of virtual crowd evacuation experiments, with large numbers of concurrent participants. In this study, we developed an HDVGE framework and put forward a set of design principles to define the similarities between the real world and the VGE. We discussed the HDVGE architecture and proposed an abstract interaction layer, a protocol-based interaction algorithm and an adjusted dead reckoning algorithm to solve the heterogeneous distributed problems. We then implemented an HDVGE prototype system focusing on subway fire evacuation experiments. Two types of clients are considered in the system, PC and all-in-one VR. Finally, we evaluated the performances of the prototype system and the key algorithms. The results showed that in a low-latency LAN environment, the prototype system can smoothly support 90 concurrent users consisting of PC and all-in-one VR clients. HDVGE could serve as a new means of obtaining observational data about individual and group behavior in support of human geography research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0178.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Citizen science; Colour pattern; geographic diversity; phylogeography
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:55:52 CEST)
The geographic variability of the dorsal pattern (DP) of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis siculus, across its native range was studied with the aim to understand whether the distributions of this phenotypic trait were more shaped by allopatric differentiation rather than adaptive processes. A total of 1298 georeferenced observations scattered across the Italian peninsula and the main islands (Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia) were obtained from citizen science databases and five DPs were characterized by different shapes of the dark pattern (“reticulated”, “campestris”, “reticulated/campestris” and “striped”) or by absence of it (“concolor”). Frequencies of different DP phenotypes differ between the two main mtDNA lineages settled in central-northern and in southern Italy respectively. This pattern may be indicative of a role of long-term allopatric historical processes in determining the observed pattern. The analysis also identified a putative wide area of secondary contact, in central southern Italy, characterized by high diversity of the DP. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), used to estimate a possible association between bioclimatic variables and the observed phenotypic variation, showed that each of the five DPs is correlated to different environmental factors and show different distribution of areas with high probability of occurrence. However, for all but one of the DPs, the area with the greatest probability does not correspond exactly to the real distribution of the DP. Conversely, the “concolor” phenotype does not seem related to any particular mtDNA lineage and it shows a preference for areas with high temperature and low rainfall. This is in agreement with the expectation of low amount of melanin of the dorsal pattern that, in the study areas, is characterized by a light uniform coloration which could confer a better thermoregulation ability in high temperatures environments avoiding overheating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: accidents; geographic information system; highway; hotspots; identification
Online: 1 June 2022 (03:58:13 CEST)
This study identified high-risk locations (hotspots), using geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis. Five years of accident data (2013-2017) for the Lokoja-Abuja-Kaduna highway in Nigeria were used. Accident concentration analysis was carried out using the mean center analysis and Kernel density estimation method. These locations were further verified using Moran’s I Statistics (Spatial Autocorrelation) to determine their clustering with statistical significance. Fishnet polygon and Network spatial weight matrix approaches of Getis-Ord Gi* statistic for hotspot analysis were used for the hotspot analysis. Hotspots exist for 2013, 2014, and 2017 with a significance level between 95% - 99%. However, no hotspots exist for 2014 and 2015 since the pattern is random. The spatial autocorrelation analysis of the overall accident locations with a z-score = 0.0575, p-value = 0.9542, and Moran's I statistic = -0.0089 showed that the distribution of accidents on the study route is random. Thus, preventive measures for hotspot locations should be based on a yearly hotspot analysis. The average daily traffic values of 31,270 and 16,303 were obtained for the Northbound and Southbound directions of the Abaji-Abuja section. The results show that hotspot locations with high confidence levels are at points where there are geometric features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0039.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: EST-PCR; Vaccinium angustifolium; geographic range; domestication
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:43:12 CEST)
Expressed sequenced tagged-polymerase chain reaction (EST-PCR) molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of lowbush blueberry across its geographic range and to compare genetic diversity among four paired managed/non-managed populations. Seventeen lowbush blueberry populations were sampled in a general north south transect throughout eastern United States with distances between 27 km to 1600 km separating populations. Results show that the majority of genetic variation is found within populations (75%) versus among populations (25%), and that each population was genetically unique (P ≤ 0.0001) with the exception of the Jonesboro, ME and Lubec, ME populations that were found not to be significantly different (P = 0.228). The effects of management for commercial fruit harvesting on genetic diversity were investigated in four locations in Maine with paired managed and non-managed populations. Significant differences were found between the populations indicating that commercial management influences the genetic diversity of lowbush blueberries in the landscape, despite the fact that planting does not occur; forests are harvested and the existing understory blueberry plants are what become established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0320.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: re-usability; patterns; interoperability; geographic information systems
Online: 18 August 2018 (05:38:06 CEST)
Reuse of patterns is a self-evident approach for managing interoperability concerns. Although patterns for resolving interoperability barriers exist in the literature, no study exists on adoption of interoperability patterns by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) practitioners in industry. Thus there is limited understanding of pattern re-usability, yet the advantages offered by interoperability patterns provide a reasonably sound justification for their usage. This paper examines the adoption of proven interoperability best practices in the GIS industry. An empirical study that involved the use of semi-structured interviews was employed to gather data from GIS developers on domain interoperability best practices. Results indicated that industry and communities of practice have been converging on the technical level to ensure interoperability of GIS concerns. Semantic interoperability and related patterns are least understood, yet semantic barriers still exist. This is partly due to the complexity associated with the top-down approach used to develop semantic interoperability solutions. Therefore, this study proposes research into resolving barriers in the adoption of interoperability patterns that reduce complexity while solving semantic interoperability barriers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: intellectual property, geographic indication, cashew nuts, Mozambique
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:18:52 CEST)
The protection of Geographic Indications (GIs) is part of the intellectual property (IP) rights described in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) after the Uruguay Round (1986-1994). The members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), including Mozambique, have adopted it. This country legislated GI under Decree 18/99 (04/05/1999, title II, chapter VI) of the national Industrial Property Code, harmonised with TRIPS. However, there is little information about its enforcement and impact in the industry. This review analyses the possibility of protecting the Mozambican cashew nuts industry under the GI act. The industry, with major participation of smallholders and employing mostly women, produces one of the most profitable export commodities, though it has suffered colossal losses over the last thirty-five years. The analysis has shown that it is suitable and probably advantageous to protect the cashew nuts under the Decree 18/99. On the other hand, other local trade policies from 1991 are negatively impacting the entire industry and these might create the illusion of inefficacy of the new IP rights including the protection of GIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0047.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Biogenic emissions; Greece; Geographic Information System (GIS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (15:44:08 CET)
Biogenic emissions affect the urban air quality as they are ozone and SOA precursors and should be taken into account when applying photochemical pollution models. The present study presents an estimation of the magnitude of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds emissions (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation over Greece. The methodology is based on computation performed with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and theoretical equations in order to develop an emission inventory on a 6x6 spatial resolution, in a temporal resolution of 1hr covering one year (2016). For this purpose, a variety of input data was used: improved satellite land-use data, land-use specific emission potentials, foliar biomass densities, temperature and solar radiation data. Hourly, daily and annual isoprene, monoterpenes and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were estimated. In the area under study, the annual biogenic emissions were estimated up to 472 kt, consisting of 46.6% isoprene, 28% monoterpenes and 25.4% OVOCs. Results delineate an annual cycle with increasing values from March to April, while maximum emissions were observed from May to September, followed by a decrease from October to January.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0079.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Speciation; Geographic isolation; Acari; Antarctic conservation; DNA barcoding
Online: 6 February 2023 (04:37:09 CET)
Free-living terrestrial mites (Acari) have persisted through numerous glacial cycles in Antarctica. Very little is known, however, of their genetic diversity and distribution, particularly within the Ross Sea region. To redress this gap, we sampled for mites throughout the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica, including Victoria Land and the Queen Maud Mountains (QMM), covering a latitudinal range of 72-85oS, as well as from Lauft Island near Mt Siple (73oS) in West Antarctica and Macquarie Island (54oS) in the sub-Antarctic. We assessed genetic diversity using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences (COI-5P DNA barcode region), and also morphologically identified voucher specimens. We obtained 130 sequences representing four genera: Nanorchestes (n = 30 sequences), Stereotydeus (n = 46), Coccorhagidia (n = 18) and Eupodes (n = 36). Tree-based analyses (maximum likelihood) revealed 13 genetic clusters, representing as many as 23 putative species indicated by Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) from the Barcode of Life Datasystems (BOLD) database. We found evidence for geographically-isolated cryptic species, e.g. within Stereotydeus belli and S. punctatus, as well as unique genetic groups occurring in sympatry (e.g. Nanorchestes spp. in QMM). Collectively, these data confirm high genetic divergence as a consequence of geographic isolation over evolutionary timescales. From a conservation perspective, additional targeted sampling of understudied areas in the Ross Sea region should be prioritised, as further diversity is likely to be found for these short-range endemic mites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dental treatment outcomes; Geographic Information Systems; Neighborhood contexts
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:33:02 CET)
ABSTRACT: Aims: This study aimed to explore the impacts of neighborhood-level socioeconomic contexts (e.g., income, education) on the therapeutic and preventative dental quality outcome of children aged 3 to 15 years. Materials and Methods Anonymized billing data of 842 patients reporting to a university Children’s Dental over three years met the inclusion criteria. Their access to care (OEV-CH-A), topical fluoride application (TFL-CH-A) and dental treatment burden (TRT-CH-A) were determined by dental quality alliance (DQA) criteria. The three oral health variables were aggregated at a neighborhood-level and analyzed with census data provided by Statistics Canada within a GIS framework. The forward sortation area (FSA) was chosen as a neighborhood spatial unit and regression models were run both the individual and neighborhood level. Results: The individual-level regression models showed significant negative associations between OEV-CH-A (p=0.027) and TFL-CH-A (p=0.001) and the cost of dental care. There was a significant negative association between TRT-CH-A and median household income. Neighborhood-level Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) linear regression models show negative associations of all three dental health variables (OEV-CH-A, TFL-CH-A, TRT-CH-A) with median household income and the number of households without a college degree. Conclusion: GIS and spatial quantitative approaches may be an effective tool to explore the impacts of socioeconomic variables on oral health outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0018.v1
Online: 3 July 2020 (08:27:23 CEST)
Abstract Background: The highest incidence rate of covid-19 in Iran was reported from Shahroud County. This study was conducted by geographic information systems (GIS) to determine the geographical distribution of Covid-19 in 60 days. Study design: A cross-sectional study Methods: This study was conducted in counties covered by Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, namely Shahroud and Mayami, from February 20, 2020 to April 18, 2020. The GIS can better show the spread of epidemics. This software indicates geographical distribution of disease spread and is very helpful in controlling the epidemics. Therefore, maps of spatial distribution and risk of infection to COVID-19 were prepared in different regions of Shahroud county using Arc-GIS software to better implement health policies. Results: During this sixty-day period, 529 confirmed cases were detected, of which 51% were men and the average age was 55 years. The maps showed high-risk to risk-free regions. Shahroud and Bastam cities were known as the coronavirus hot spots. The eastern region of Shahroud has the highest number of cases but some high risk areas are spread throughout the Shahroud city due to high infectivity of virus. Risk-based time maps indicated a reduction in the risk of infection at the end of the research period due to some mitigation and suppression strategies. Conclusions: Shahroud and Bastam are the most dangerous cities that, the number of patients and dissemination has decreased over time because of tracking definite patients and people in contact with them and implementation of preventive care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: water security; geographic accessibility; maternal health; climate change; Sahel
Online: 31 October 2022 (02:04:37 CET)
Adequate access to drinking water for hydration and hygiene depends on many factors, such as water quality, accessibility, continuity of supply, and available quantity. We developed the Drinking Water Security Index (DWSI) to assess relative multifactorial drinking water security at different spatial and temporal scales. We apply this new index in Sudan to assess historical and future drinking water security at state, local, and maternity levels. State-level analyses found that the Red Sea and River Nile states are most vulnerable, with the lowest DWSI for both historical and future periods. The 1 km2 pixel level analysis shows large differences in water security within the major states. Analyses at maternity level showed that nearly 18.97 million people are affected by the 10% of maternities with lowest DWSI, a number projected to increase by 60% by 2030. Current and future water security indexes of maternities providing Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care, were assessed to identify those where urgent action is needed to ensure quality health care in water secure conditions. This work provides useful information for stakeholders in the health and drinking water sectors in Sudan, to improve public health, reduce preventable mortality, and make the population more resilient to projected environmental changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: nutrition; pediatrics; geographic information systems; acute respiratory infections; diarrhea; growth
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:00:12 CEST)
Infectious disease is the leading cause of mortality in children under five. This study has investigated environmental factors related to the morbidity of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), diarrhea, and growth using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. Anthropometric, address and disease prevalence data were collected through the SEEM study in Matiari, Pakistan. Publicly available map data was used to compile coordinates of healthcare facilities. A Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to calculate the correlation between distance from healthcare facilities and participant growth and morbidity. Other continuous variables influencing these outcomes were analyzed using a random forest regression model. In this study of 416 children, we found participants living closer to secondary hospitals had lower prevalence of ARI (r=0.154, p<0.010) and diarrhea (r=0.228, p<0.001) as well as participants living closer to Maternal Health Centers (MHCs): ARI (r=0.185, p<0.002) and diarrhea (r=0.223, p<0.001) compared to those living near primary facilities. Our random forest model showed distance to have high variable importance in the context of disease prevalence. Our results indicated that participants closer to more basic healthcare facilities reported a higher prevalence of both diarrhea and ARI than those near more urban facilities, highlighting potential public policy gaps in ameliorating rural health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ethiopia; Geographic Information Systems; Land Use Land Cover; Remote Sensing
Online: 11 May 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)
Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes analysis is one of the most useful methodologies to understand how the land was used in the past years, what types of detections are to be expected in the future, as well as the driving forces and processes behind these changes. In Ethiopia, the rapidly changing of LULC is mainly due to population pressure, resettlement programs, climate change, and other human and nature-induced driving forces. Anthropogenic activities are the most significant factors adversely changing the natural status of the landscape and resources, which exerts unfavourable and adverse impacts on the environment and livelihood. The main goal of the present work is to review previous studies, discussing the spatio-temporal LULC changes in Ethiopian basins, to find out common points and gaps that exist in the current literature, to be eventually addressed in the future. Seventeen articles, published from 2011 to 2020, were selected and reviewed, focusing on LULC classification using ArcGIS and ERDAS imagine software by unsupervised and maximum likelihood supervised classification methods. Key informant interview (KII), focal group discussions (FGDs) and collection of ground truth data using ground positioning systems (GPS) for data validation were the major approaches discussed in most of the studies. All the analysed research showed that, during the last decades, Ethiopian lands changed to agricultural land use, waterbody, commercial farmland and built-up/settlement. Some parts of forest land, grazing land, swamp/wetland, shrubland, rangeland and bare/ rock out cropland cover class were changed to other LULC class types, mainly as a consequence of increasing anthropogenic pressure. In summary, these articles confirmed that LULC changes are a direct result of both natural and human influences. However, most of the study provided details of LULC for the past decades within a specific spatial location, while they did not address the challenge of forecasting future LULC changes at the basin scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0288.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ecosystem services; valuation; monetization; assessment; mapping, biodiversity; geographic information technologies
Online: 12 November 2018 (11:51:07 CET)
Putting value to ecosystem services is something that society still refuses or simply ignores because it is not aware of the benefits that ecosystems provide us. In fact, people should be aware that a good understanding of ecosystem services can lead to win-win situations. Being aware of the importance of preserving the ecosystem and attaching value to its services will enable the development of self-sustaining strategies and appropriate policies for better ecological governance. Decades of over exploitation of natural resources, introduction and spread of alien species and, also, climate change, forest fires among other threats, have fostered biodiversity loss. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy has as one of its main goals to stop biodiversity loss and the degradation of ecosystem services; if possible, to recover the most threatened and degraded ecosystems, based on 20 Actions divided into 6 Targets. The present work falls within the scope of Action 5 of Target 2 – Improve knowledge of ecosystems and their services in the EU. The specific focus of this study is the Site of Community importance “Dunas de Mira, Gândara and Gafanhas” (Portugal) and the assessment of its ecosystem services, in accordance with the methodology proposed by the MAES (Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services) Working Group. The work currently under way, a small segment of which is presented here, aims to identify, map and, when possible, assign value to the ecosystem services. For this purpose, modern GIS technologies will be used. This approach was implemented using a combination of data and tasks, including the photo-interpretation of Sentinel 2 (COPERNICUS Program) satellite imagery. The data geoprocessing tasks and image segmentation were developed using QGIS software and IMPACT Toolbox software (developed by the Joint Research Center – JRC, of the European Union), respectively. The analysis of Land Use and Burned Areas maps for the SCI "Dunas de Mira, Gândara and Gafanhas" led us to conclude that Forests ecosystems, the most affected by the fire of October 2017, continue to have the greatest expression in the area under study even though they have lost more than 50% of the area, and their services were also the ones most affected by the fire.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: hyperpigmentation; palpebral region; geographic skin differences; ethnic predisposition; skin disorder;
Online: 23 July 2018 (12:56:47 CEST)
POH (Peri Orbital Hyperpigmentation) represents a minor clinical entity that attracts immense aesthetic damages and it generates social integration difficulties. This review focuses on the etiopathogenic causes of this entity, differentiating and reclassifying this defect as having, on the one hand, genetic causes of melanic hyperproduction – for Fitzpatrick cutaneous phototypes IV and V – and, on the other hand, both genetic and acquired vascular causes, in individuals with light-coloured skin phototypes. Hence, there is a big difference in the field of pathogenic treatment, for the two entities. In addition, this study notes the direct relationship between skin aging and POH, especially for aquired vascular causes. In this reasoning, other aesthetic deficiencies of the skin in the palpebral area should be also considered, like: blepharochalasis, wrinkles, the anatomical causes of the lower eyelid shading, symmetrical or asymmetric suborbital oedema. All of these issues will complicate the therapeutic decision and subsidiary, the pharmaceutical advice. In this context, the review shows the guidelines for a honest councelling of the patients, pointing the efficiency limit for the topical pharmaceutical medication (depigmentants, exfoliants) versus the necessity of minimally invasive or/ and surgical treatments (in blefarochalasis).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0338.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: crowdsourced data; relevance; semantics; geographic information retrieval; natural language processing
Online: 26 April 2018 (10:19:02 CEST)
Crowdsourced Data (CSD) generated by citizens is becoming more popular as its potential utilisation in many applications is increasing due to its currency and availability. However, the quality of CSD, including its relevance, is often questioned as the data is not generated by professionals nor follows standard data collection procedures. The quality of CSD can be assessed according to a range of attributes including its relevance. Information relevance has been explored through using in Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) techniques to identify relevant information. This research tested a relevance assessment approach for CSD by adapting relevance assessment techniques available in the GIR domain. The thematic and geographic relevance were assessed using the Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF), Vector Space Model (VSM) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. The thematic and geographic specificities of the queries were calculated as 0.44 and 0.67 respectively, which indicates the queries used were more geographically specific than thematically specific. The Spearman's rho value of 0.62 indicated that the final ranked relevance lists showed reasonable agreement with a manually classified list and confirmed the potential of the approach for CSD relevance assessment for other possible crowdsourced data analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Agricultural Tractor; Diesel Emission; Air Pollutants; Emission Inventory; Geographic Information System
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:36:45 CET)
Due to the shortage of agricultural labor forces and rapid aging of farmers, the utilization of tractors is becoming popular and essential in Korea. Tractors can be classified into two types, a walking tractor called as a power tiller and a riding tractor. In this study, agricultural tractors including walking and riding types were categorized into 4 levels by rated output power. And diesel emission inventory of tractors was established and analyzed using 2011 and 2019 survey data in Korea. Emission inventory including CO, NOx, SOx, TSP(PM10), PM2.5, VOCs and NH3 were established using Tier 3 methodology. The total amount of emission using agricultural tractors was decreased about 13% from 2011 to 2019. The number of walking tractors were decreased by about 19% in 8 years, on the other hand that of riding tractors were increased by about 12%. However, the emission reduction is about 48% for walking tractors and the emission increment is about 5% for riding tractors. Thus, the total emission from agricultural tractors was decreased by about 16% in those periods. It is due to the decrease of 21% and 15% in the hours of use of walking and riding tractors, respectively, in 2019. Walking tractors mainly emit air pollutants from spraying and transporting. Riding tractors mainly 61% of total air pollutants emits from soil preparation and transporting operations. Geographic information system (GIS) was used to spatially assign air pollutants variables into 17 provinces and metropolitan cities in Korea. High emission generating regions and changes of emissions during 8 years were clearly seen in GIS analysis. High air pollutant emitting regions are mainly located in the western and southern regions of Korea, which have plenty of arable areas compared to other regions in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Geographic Information Systems; Women’s Health; Cancer Screening; Breast Cancer; Health Programs
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:36:12 CEST)
The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) of Minnesota, “Sage”, provides breast cancer screening to uninsured women. We introduce a novel mapping technique, spatially adaptive filters (SAFs), to estimate utilization of Sage screening in Minnesota. Sage screenings (N = 74,712) were geocoded. The eligible population was modeled with the RTI synthetic population dataset. Between 2011 and 2015, 36,979 women a year were Sage eligible. Utilization was highly variable across Minnesota (M = 37.2%, range 0% - 131%, SD = 18.7%). This replicable approach modeled utilization rates to the neighborhood-level, allowing Sage to prioritize locations and engage communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0271.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: geographic information system; land demand; land use; universal soil loss erosion
Online: 12 August 2020 (05:09:55 CEST)
The information on the land use and soil conservation practice based on year 2006, 2010 and 2014, hence offering an opportunity to model the impacts of land use change on erosion, deposition and surface water runoff. Limitation in the use of hydrological models had been their inability to handle the large amount of input data that describe the heterogeneity of the natural system. In this study, a procedure that takes into account soil conservation practice based on the land use change, the response of soil erosion and sediment export from the George Town Conurbation catchment area, and average annual sediment yields were estimated for each grid cell of the watershed to identify the critical erosion areas of rural and urban planning proposes. Average annual sediment yield and data on a grid basis estimated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and an emerging technology represented by Geographic Information System (GIS) used as a tool to produce a map for erosion rate. The changing of the land use from forest to agriculture and then to an urban area is a challenging task to research on land use demand for population, and environmental impact assessment is important for the planning of natural resources management, allowing research the modification of land use properly and implement more sustainable for long term management strategies. The challenge is to formulate strategies that would promote an integrated approach to the land use planning at an appropriate level as to address the issues that arose. Modelling for creating urban growth boundary for the George Town Conurbation must have to be controlled surface runoff and soil loss and sediment export from land use of the George Town Conurbation catchment.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: geographic information fusion; data quality; data consistency checking; historic GIS; railway network; patrimonial data; crowdsourcing open data; volunteer geographic information VGI; wikipedia geo-spatial information extraction.
Online: 17 August 2020 (14:51:04 CEST)
Transportation of goods is as old as human civilizations : past networks and their evolution shed light on long term trends. Transportation impact on climate change is measured as major, as well as the impact on spreading a pandemic. These two reasons motivate the importance of providing relevant and reliable historical geographic datasets of these networks. This paper focuses on reconstructing the railway network in France at its maximal extent, a century ago. The active stations and lines are well documented by the French SNCF, in open public data. However, that information ignores past stations (ante 1980), which represent probably more than what is recorded in public data. Additional open data, individual or collaborative (eg. Wikipedia) are particularly valuable, but they are not always geo-coded, and two more sources are necessary to completing that geo-coding: ancient maps and aerial photography. Therefore, remote sensing and volunteer geographic information are the two pillars of past railway reconstruction. The methods developed are adapted to the extraction of information from these sources: automated parsing of Wikipedia Infoboxes, data extraction from simple tables, even from simple text. That series of sparse procedures can be merged into a comprehensive computer-assisted process. Beyond this, a huge effort in quality control is necessary when merging these data: automated wherever possible, or finally visually controlled by observation of remote sensing information. The main output is a reliable dataset, under ODbl, of more than 9100 stations, which can be combined with the information about the 35000 communes of France, for a large variety of studies. This work demonstrates two thesis: (a) it is possible to reconstruct transport network data from the past, and generic computer assisted methods can be developed; (b) the value of remote sensing and volunteered geo info is considerable (what archeologists already know).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0550.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: OpenStreetMap; MapSwipe; data completeness; disaster management; exposure, Volunteered Geographic Information; data quality
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:29:16 CET)
Natural hazards threaten millions of people all over the world. To address the risk, exposure and vulnerability models with high resolution data are essential. However, in many areas of the world, exposure models are rather coarse and aggregated over large areas. Although OpenStreetMap (OSM) offers great potential to assess risk at a detailed building-by-building level, completeness of OSM building footprints is still heterogeneous. We present an approach to close this gap by means of crowdsourcing based on the mobile App MapSwipe, where volunteers swipe through satellite images of a region collecting user feedback on classification tasks. For our application, MapSwipe was extended by a completeness feature that allows to classify a tile as “no building”, “complete” or “incomplete”. To assess the quality of the produced data, the completeness feature was applied at four regions. Our results show that the crowdsourced approach yields a reasonable classification performance of the completeness of OSM building footprints. Nevertheless, this study also revealed that volunteers tend to classify nearly completely mapped tiles as “complete”, especially in areas with a high OSM building density. Another factor that influenced the classification performance was the level of alignment of the OSM layer with the satellite imagery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Remote sensing (RS); Geographic Information system (GIS); geography; coastal geomorphology; Arabian Gulf
Online: 8 December 2022 (10:03:26 CET)
Researchers need to delineate the shoreline for different applications with no access to costly resources such as topographic maps and high-resolution satellite images. With the increase of open source data, this study aims to present a methodology to use open source data in the best possible way to map the shoreline. Several methods have been tested using open source remote sensing data (Landsat and Aster), such as supervised classification, unsupervised classification, manual mapping, and by applying some spectral indices, among others. The accuracy of the extracted shoreline data was verified using high-resolution open database images (such as Google Earth basemap). The results showed that the manually mapped shoreline through applying spectral index (green- near infrared/green+ near infrared) is the most accurate, although it remains important to modify it using high-resolution images of open databases. Open-source data showed acceptable accuracy in mapping the shoreline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0267.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: functional region; place; patterns; topic modeling; urban planning; Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI)
Online: 24 July 2019 (08:42:26 CEST)
The problem of identifying functional regions in an urban setting has been approached in literature using two general methodologies: top-down, encoding expert knowledge on urban planning and design (e.g. into patterns) and using that knowledge for identification, and bottom-up, relying on crowdsourcing and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to train learning models, using techniques such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling. Both approaches have their advantages but also face important limitations, with knowledge-based approaches being criticized for scalability and transferability issues and data-driven approaches for lacking interpretability and depending heavily on data quality. To mitigate these disadvantages, we propose a novel framework that fuses data and knowledge in three different ways: functional regions identified from individual approaches are evaluated against each other, knowledge from patterns is used to adjust learning model results and topic models are used to adjust pattern-based results. The proposed methodologies are demonstrated through the use case of identifying shopping-related functional regions in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Results show that the combination of results from knowledge-based and data-driven techniques can help uncover discrepancies between the two different approaches and smoothen inaccuracies caused by the limitations of each approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaics; PV plants; PV faults; Geographic Information System; PV supervision and maintenance
Online: 10 May 2017 (04:24:13 CEST)
It is well known that working PV plants show several maintenance needs due to wiring and modules degradation, mismatches, dust and PV cells defects and faults. There are a wide range of studies that show the theoretical and some laboratory tests of how these circumstances may affect the PV production. Thus, it results mandatory to evaluate the whole PV plant performance and, then, it’s payback time, profitability and environmental impact or carbon footprint. However, very few studies include a systematic procedure to quantify and supervise the real degradation effects and faults impacts on the field. In this paper, the authors first conduct a brief review of the most frequent PV faults and degradation that can be found on real conditions operative PV Plants. Then, they propose and develop an innovative Geographic Information System application to locate and supervise them. The designed tool has been applied to either a large PV plant of 108 kWp and a small PV plant of just 9 kWp installed on a home rooftop. For the large PV plant, 24 strings of PV modules have been modelized and introduced into the GIS application and every module in the power plant has been studied including voltage, current, power, series and parallel resistance, fill factor, normalized PV curve to STC, thermography and visual analysis. For the small PV installation 3 strings of PV panels have been studied identically. It must be noticed that PV modules in this case include power optimizers. The precision of the study allows the researchers to locate and supervise up to a third part of every PV cell in the system, which are adequately georreferenciated. The developed tool allows both the researchers and the investors to increase control on the PV plant performance and conducts to a better planification of maintenance actuations and to evaluate several PV modules replacement strategies in a preventive maintenance programme. Found PV faults include hot spots, snail tracks, EVA discoloration, PV cells fractures, busbars discoloration, bubbles and Si discoloration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0582.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: COVID-19; copy number variation (CNV); virome; microbiome; endoretroviral genome (ERV); geographic disparity
Online: 6 February 2023 (11:15:27 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the emissary behind the worst global pandemic of the 21st century, is primarily a respiratory disease-causing virus called SARS-CoV-2 which is responsible for millions of new cases (incidence) and deaths (mortalities), worldwide. Many factors have played a role in the differential morbidity and mortality experienced by nations and ethnicities against SARS-CoV-2, such as the quality of primary medical health facilities or enabling economies. Nevertheless, the most important variable, i.e., the subsequent ability of individuals to be immunologically sensitive or resistant to the infection, was not properly discussed before. Therefore, an astounding issue arose when some developed countries experienced higher morbidity and mortality, compared with their relatively underdeveloped counterparts, despite having excellent medical health facilities. Hence this investigative review attempts to analyze the issue from an angle of previously undiscussed genetic, epigenetic, and molecular immune resistance mechanisms in correlation with the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 and varied ethnicity-based immunological responses against it. The biological factors discussed here include the overall landscape of human microbiota, endogenous retroviral genes spliced into the human genome, copy number variation, and how they could modulate the innate and adaptive immune systems, which put a particular ethnic genetic architecture at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than others. Considering an array of these factors in their entirety may help explain the geographic disparity of disease incidence, severity, and subsequent mortality associated with the disease while at the same time encouraging scientists to design new experimental approaches to investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0354.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Digital Twin; Unmanned Traffic management; Geographic Information Systems; Immersive Simulator; Unmanned Aerial Systems
Online: 26 May 2022 (02:58:51 CEST)
This paper presents the design of a digital twin that blends aviation, gaming, simulation, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to create a synthetic environment within which strategies, laws and platforms for electric aviation may be tested out. This digital twin has been called Future Urban Synthetic Environment (FUSE). FUSE includes an in-built Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) that can be used to run simulations to test the coordination of all urban traffic. It uses real GIS tagged imagery data and implements it at runtime into the game engine and thus link the optimised imagery loading to the visual performance of the simulation engine. FUSE provides a 3D digital twin of specified areas designed to simulate the effects (in terms of noise, visual impact, privacy) of drones and electric air taxis operating under various operational scenarios (such as number of deliveries allowed per day, maximum payload weight, no-fly areas, position of depots, vertiports, etc.). With so much high-fidelity data it is difficult for any game system to effectively render the environment and do justice to the detail whilst enabling enough of the landscape to be rendered to keep in focus the detail when looking out at the horizon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0409.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Air Pollutant Emissions; Rice Cultivation; Agricultural Machinery; Tier 1 Methodology; Geographic Information System
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:22:08 CEST)
In Korea, rice is a major staple grain and is mainly cultivated using various agricultural machinery. Air pollutants emitted from agricultural machinery have their origins mainly from the exhaustion of internal combustion engines. In this study, emission characteristics of five main air pollutants by European Environment Agency's Tier 1 method for rice cultivation was analyzed. Diesel is a main fuel for agricultural machinery and gasoline is generally used only for rice transplanters as a fuel in Korea. Tractors consume 46% of total fuel consumption and 56% of diesel fuel consumption. Gasoline used for rice transplanters accounts for 17% of total fuel consumption each year. Tractors and rice transplanters are emitting 82% of all total pollutants. From 2011 to 2019, the total amount of air pollutant emissions was decrease by 15%. That accounted for the reduction of rice cultivation fields in those periods. Rice transplanting operation was in charge of 42% of total emissions. Then, harrowing, harvesting, tilling, leveling, and pest control operations generated 10%, 10%, 8%, 8% and 7% of total emissions, respectively. The contribution of each air pollutant held 54% of CO, 39% of NOx, 5% of NMVOC, and 2% of TSP from the total emission inventory. The three major regions emitting air pollutants from mechanized agricultural practices were Jeollanam-do, Chungcheongnam-do, and Jeollabuk-do, which consume 55% of total fuel usage in rice farming. The total amount of air pollutant emissions from rice cultivation practices in 2019 was calculated as 8,448 Mg in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: SAHP (Spatial Analytical Hierarchy Process); Moringa Oleifera; multicriteria evaluation; GIS (Geographic Information System)
Online: 26 August 2020 (10:35:37 CEST)
Land suitability analysis is a basic premise for allocating specific land for specific purpose. The objective of this study was to predict the suitable sites for cultivating Moringa oleifera tree in Ethiopia using Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process. Findings of this study will have paramount significance in supporting decision making in the agroforestry development sector. This study employs Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process and Geographic Information System to generate valuable information in land allocation for moringa oleifera tree production. Climate, topography, soil type and land use parameters were evaluated for suitability analysis. The results of the study revealed that most of the central part of the country are categorized as moderately suitable for the production of moringa oleifera tree. Areas classified as highly suitable are distributed along the borders of southern and western part of the country. However, some of the central part was classified as not suitable for Moringa oleifera tree production. This paper tried to investigate analysis of spatial data to predict suitable site for moringa tree production at national level. At national level, highly suitable, moderately suitable, and not suitable class covers an area of 308,508.2, 1,628,930.8 and 59891.3 Square Kilometer respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: VGI; Crowdsourcing; data quality; OSM; Volunteered geographic information; user participation; contribution pattern; OpenStreetMap
Online: 12 July 2020 (17:02:31 CEST)
Recent advancements in web-based geospatial software and smartphone technology have popularized the process of voluntary production and sharing of geospatial data by individual citizens. Through such Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) activities, people across the world participate in online mapping projects (such as OpenStreetMap) to insert their spatial information. The quality of data generated by such VGI activities has profound impacts on online mapping projects and their spatial database. In this study, we examine the VGI contribution pattern in OpenStreetMap through three case study neighborhoods located in three major cities: Tehran, London, and Los Angeles, and investigate how it might affect the process of quality assessment of VGI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0328.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Geographic information science; gerrymandering; formal science; empirical science; spatial data science; DIKW paradigm; Metascience
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:04:08 CEST)
Sometimes there are clear and natural limits to the scope of action of a science, and in other cases they are simply convenient ones. Geographic Information Science (GISc) is a transversal science, with contacts with all geosciences but also with various formal sciences such as Mathematics, Logic and Computer Science. A first approach to specifying the limits of a science is through its definition. Definitions of GISc are often so expansive that they have been rightly criticized for practicing gerrymandering, in particular with the rest of the geosciences. To avoid this, an operational definition is proposed that places GISc among the sciences that handle Data and not Information. This solves the gerrymandering problem without really implying a significant cut of what is usually considered within GISc. As an unforeseen consequence, this delimitation will allow it to be characterized as Formal Science, leaving it as the only geoscience with this characteristic.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: volunteered geographic information; agricultural intensification; sustainability; smart farming; citizen science; SDGs; decision support tool
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:56:48 CEST)
Traditional agricultural extension services rely on extension workers, especially in countries with large agricultural areas. In order to increase adoption of sustainable agriculture, the recommendations given by such services must be adapted to local conditions and be provided in a timely manner. The AgroTutor mobile application was built to provide highly specific and timely agricultural recommendations to farmers across Mexico and complement the work of extension agents. At the same time, AgroTutor provides direct contributions to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, either by advancing their implementation or providing local data systems to measure and monitor specific indicators such as the proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture. The application is freely available and allows farmers to geo-locate and register plots and the crops grown there, using the phone’s in-built GPS, or alternatively, on top of very high-resolution imagery. Once a crop and some basic data such as planting date and cultivar type have been registered, the app provides targeted information such as weather, potential and historical yield, financial benchmarking information, data-driven recommendations as well as commodity price forecasts. Farmers are also encouraged to contribute in-situ information, e.g., soils, management, and yield data. The information can then be used by crop models, which, in turn, would send tailored results back to the farmers. Initial feedback from farmers and extension agents has already improved some of the app’s characteristics. More enhancements are planned for inclusion in the future to increase the app’s function as a decision support tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0011.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Spatial Landscape Patterns; Spatial Composite Indicators; Landscape Functions; Landscape Resilience; ANP method; Geographic Information System (GIS
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:18:46 CET)
The concept of transformative resilience emerges from complex recent literature and represents a way to interpret the potential opportunities to change in vulnerable territories, where a socio-economic change is required. This article extends the perspective of transformative resilience to assessing of the landscape multi-functionality of inland areas, exploring the potentials to identify a network of synergies among the different municipalities able to trigger a process of territorial resilience. A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for multi-functionality landscape assessment aims to support the local actors to understand local resources and multi-functional values of the Partenio Regional Park (PRP) and surrounding municipalities, in the South of Italy, stimulating their cooperation to the management of environmental and cultural sites and the co-design of new strategies of enhancement.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: soft constraints; Ordered Weighted Averaging Operators; Volunteered Geographic Information; standing water area mapping; decision attitude modeling
Online: 29 December 2019 (08:24:59 CET)
The paper proposes a human explainable artificial intelligence approach for mapping the status of environmental phenomena from multisource geo data. It is both knowledge and data driven: it exploits remote sensing expert’s knowledge to define the contributing factors from which partial evidence of the environmental status can be computed. Furthermore, it aggregates the partial evidences to compute a map of the environmental status by adapting to a region of interest through a learning mechanism exploiting Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), both from in situ observations and photointerpretation. The approach is capable to capture the specificities of local context as well as to cope with the subjectivity and incompleteness of expert’s knowledge. The proposal is exemplified to map the status of standing water areas (i.e. water bodies and river, human driven or natural hazard flooding) by considering satellite data and geotagged observations. Results of the validation experiments were performed in three areas of Northern Italy, characterized by distinct ecosystems. Results of the proposed methodological framework showed better performances than traditional approaches based on single spectral indexes thresholding. The use of expert’s knowledge, possibly imprecise/uncertain and incomplete, the need of few ground truth data for learning, and finally the explainability of learned rules are the distinguishing characteristics of the proposal with respect to traditional machine learning methods.
CONFERENCE PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0011.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: satellite data; fine particulate matter; air pollution; geographic information system; health risks; spatial analysis; Saudi Arabia
Online: 1 December 2016 (15:25:56 CET)
The study of the concentrations and effects of fine particulate matter in urban areas have been of great interest to researchers in recent times. This is due to the acknowledgment of the far-reaching impacts of fine particulate matter on public health. Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the trend of concentrations of particulate matter by deriving aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite images. The Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) has released the second version of its global PM2.5 data with improvement in spatial resolution. This paper revisits the study of spatial and temporal variations in particulate matter in Saudi Arabia by exploring the cluster analysis of the new data. Cluster analysis of the PM2.5 values of Saudi cities is performed by using Anselin local Moran’s I statistic. Also, the analysis is carried out at the regional level by using self-organizing map (SOM). The results show an increasing trend in the concentrations of particulate matter in Saudi Arabia, especially in some selected urban areas. The eastern and south-western parts of the Kingdom have significantly clustering high values. Some of the PM2.5 values have passed the threshold indicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets posing health risks to Saudi urban population.
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: non-native populations; geographic expansion; invasiveness; invasibility; dispersal; phenotypic plasticity; evolution; historical ecosystem; hybrid ecosystem; novel ecosystem
Online: 30 October 2019 (07:13:34 CET)
Biological invasions have reached an unprecedented level and the number of introduced species is still increasing worldwide. Despite major advances in invasion science, the determinants of success of introduced species, the magnitude and dimensions of their impact, and the mechanisms sustaining successful invasions are still debated. Empirical studies show divergent impacts of non-native populations on ecosystems and contrasting effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the dynamics of non-native populations; this is hindering the emergence of a unified theory of biological invasions. We propose a synthesis that merges perspectives from population, community, and ecosystem levels. Along a timeline of ecosystem transformation driven by non-native species, from historical to human-modified ecosystems, we order invasion concepts and theories to clarify their chaining and relevance during each step of the invasion process. This temporal sorting of invasion concepts shows that each concept is relevant at a specific stage of the invasion. Concepts and empirical findings on non-native species may appear contradictory. However, we suggest that, when mapped onto an invasion timeline, they may be combined in a complementary way. An overall scheme is proposed to summarise the theoretical dynamics of ecosystems subjected to invasions. For any given case study, this framework provides a guide through the maze of theories and should help choose the appropriate concepts according to the stage of invasion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0417.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Cultural ecosystem services; urban green space management; Singapore; public participation geographic information system; social media text mining analysis
Online: 27 December 2021 (09:48:44 CET)
Cultural ecosystem services has been increasingly influential in both environmental research and policy decision-making, such as for urban green spaces However, its popular definition conflates the concepts of ‘services’ and ‘benefits’ which made it challenging for planners to employ it directly for urban green space management. One the most widely used definition of this non-tangible ecosystem services are “functions of environmental spaces and cultural activities which may then result in the enjoyment of cultural ecosystem benefits”; yet the latter itself have never found its way into official laws and regulations. In this study, via a case study in Singapore, we propose new evidence to re-evaluate and re-position the two of the most important emerging concepts in managing the green spaces in urban areas. Using the transdisciplinary mixed methods of public participation GIS and social media text mining analysis, a wealth of cultural ecosystem services and their associated benefits were reported. This was especially so with regards to recreational and aesthetic services and experiential benefits. Recommendations to improve the park were also suggested, alongside sharing of methodological considerations for future research. Overall, this paper recommends the employment of the redefined cultural ecosystem services conceptual framework to generate relational, data-driven and actionable insights to better support urban green space management, which is not only useful to Singapore governments but also world-wide relevant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0156.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Haar-like features, real time, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), human detection, geolocation error, OpenCV
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:41:39 CET)
Human detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is gaining popularity in the field of disaster management, crowd counting, people monitoring. Real time human detection from UAV is a challenging task, because of many constraints involved. This study proposes a system for real time detection of humans on videos captured from UAVs addressing three of these constraints namely, flying height, computation time and scale of viewing. The proposed method integrated an android application with a binary classifier based on Haar-features to automatically detect human / non-human class from UAV images. The video frames were parsed and detected humans from image frames were geo-localized and visualized on Google Earth. The performance was evaluated for geo-localization accuracy, computation time and detection accuracy, considering human coverage – pixel size relationship for various heights and scale factor. Based on flying height - human size relationship and tradeoff between detection accuracy vs computation time, the study came up with optimal parameters for OpenCV’s cv2.cascadeClassifier. detectMultiScale function. This paper establishes a strong ground for further research relating to real time human detection from UAV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0389.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI); Yelp; Natural Language Processing (NLP); machine learning; cultural boundaries; consumption behavior; urban computation; GIS; Word2Vec
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:50:46 CEST)
This study aims to put forth a new method to study the socio-spatial boundaries by using georeferenced community-authored reviews for restaurants. In this study, we show that food choice, drink choice, and restaurant ambience can be good indicators of socio-economic status of the ambient population in different neighborhoods. To this end, we use Yelp user reviews to distinguish different neighborhoods in terms of their food purchases and identify resultant boundaries in 10 North American metropolitan areas. This data-set includes restaurant reviews as well as a limited number of user check-ins and rating in those cities. We use Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to select a set of potential features pertaining to food, drink and ambience from Yelp user comments for each geolocated restaurant. We then select those features which determine one’s choice of restaurant and the rating that he/she provides for that restaurant. After identifying these features, we identify neighborhoods where similar taste is practiced. We show that neighborhoods identified through our method show statistically significant differences based on demographic factors such as income, racial composition, and education. We suggest that this method helps urban planners to understand the social dynamics of contemporary cities in absence of information on service-oriented cultural characteristics of urban communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0263.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: geoparser; geographic information retrieval; event extraction; argument extraction; information extraction; named entity recognition; conditional random function; semantic gazetteer; topic model
Online: 14 August 2020 (04:00:42 CEST)
One of the most important component of a Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) is the geoparser, which performs toponym recognition, disambiguation, and geographic coordinate resolution from unstructured text domain. However, news articles which report several events across many place references mentioned in the document is not yet adequately modeled by regular geoparser types where the scope of resolution is either on toponym-level or document-level. The capacity to detect multiple events, geolocate its true locations and coordinates along with their numerical arguments are still missing from modern geoparsers, much less in Indonesian news corpora domain. We propose a novel type event geoparser which integrates an ACE-based event extraction model and provides precise event-level scope resolution. The geoparser casts the geotagging and event extraction as sequence labeling and uses Conditional Random Field with keywords feature obtained using Aggregated Topic Model as a semantic exploration from large corpus, which eventually increases the generalizability of the model. The geoparser also use Smallest Administrative Level feature along with Spatial Minimality-derived algorithm to improve the identification of Pseudo-location entities, resulting 19.4% increase for weighted F1 score. As a side effect of event extraction, the geoparser also extracts various numerical arguments and able to generate thematic choropleth map from a single news story.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0296.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: crowdsourcing; citizen science; Flickr; land cover/use; social media; volunteered geographic information; wildlife tourism; Borneo Pygmy Elephant; Sabah; Malaysia; SDGs
Online: 24 November 2019 (16:40:15 CET)
This pilot study explores the potential of using a citizen science approach for sourcing volunteered geographic information via social media to research wildlife tourism interactions with endangered Borneo Pygmy Elephants on the lower Kinabatangan River in Sabah, Malaysia. Such information is critical if the lower Kinabatangan region is to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals through a sustainable tourism industry based around viewing the pygmy elephants. Guests and guides from the Sukau Rainforest Lodge were encouraged to become close-range remote sensors by sharing geotagged photographs of pygmy elephant sightings on Flickr. A ten week on-ground trail generated 247 photographs shared by 17 individual contributors with approximately two-thirds (65%) of photographs being georeferenced for the time and location of the elephant sighting. Plotting those sighting to explore the vegetation matrix (i.e. remnant forest or oil palm plantation) showed almost three-quarter (73%) of the sightings occurred within 1 km of an oil palm plantation. Of greater concern is that one in two sightings (50%) along the river occurred within the 500 m of an oil palm planation, which is inside the riparian buffer that the Sabah Government recommended for conservation of the elephants in their Lower Kinabatangan range. This study therefore demonstrates proof of concept for this research method and its further application at the nexus of wildlife conservation and sustainable ecotourism research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Infectious disease testing; public health preparedness; point-of-care testing (POCT); molecular diagnostics; therapeutic turnaround time (TTAT); acute medical challenges; geographic information systems; antimicrobial stewardship
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:13:53 CEST)
Our primary objectives were a) to determine the need for, and the availability of point-of-care testing (POCT) for infectious diseases and b) to recommend point-of-care testing strategies and spatial care paths (SCPs) that enhance public health preparedness in regional districts of Thua Thien Hue Province (TTHP), Central Vietnam, where we conducted field surveys. Medical professionals in 7 community health centers (CHCs), 7 district hospitals (DHs) and 1 provincial hospital (PH) participated. Survey questions (English and Vietnamese) determined the status of diagnostic testing capabilities for infectious diseases and other acute medical challenges in TTHP. Infectious disease testing was limited: 6 of 7 CHCs (86%) lacked infectious disease tests. One CHC (14%, 1/7) had two forms of diagnostic tests available for the detection of Malaria. All CHCs lacked adequate microbiology laboratories. District hospitals had few diagnostic tests for infectious diseases (Tuberculosis, Syphilis), blood culture (29%, 2/7), and pathogen culture (57%, 4/7) available. The PH had broader diagnostic testing capabilities but lacked preparedness for highly infectious disease threats (e.g., Ebola, MERS-CoV, SARS, Zika, and Monkeypox). All sites reported having COVID-19 rapid antigen tests; COVID-19 RT-PCR tests were limited to higher tier hospitals. We conclude that infectious disease diagnostic testing should be improved and POC tests must be supplied near patients’ homes and in primary care settings for the early detection of infected individuals and mitigation of the spread of new COVID-19 variants and other highly infectious diseases.