Shen, S.; Gong, J.; Liang, J.; Li, W.; Zhang, D.; Huang, L.; Zhang, G. A Heterogeneous Distributed Virtual Geographic Environment—Potential Application in Spatiotemporal Behavior Experiments. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2018, 7, 54.
Shen, S.; Gong, J.; Liang, J.; Li, W.; Zhang, D.; Huang, L.; Zhang, G. A Heterogeneous Distributed Virtual Geographic Environment—Potential Application in Spatiotemporal Behavior Experiments. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 54.
Due to their strong immersion and real-time interactivity, helmet-mounted VR devices are becoming increasingly popular. Based on these devices, an immersive virtual geographic environment (VGE) provides a promising method for research into crowd behavior in an emergency. However, the current cheaper helmet-mounted VR devices are not popular enough and will continue to coexist with PC-based systems for a long time. Therefore, a heterogeneous distributed virtual geographic environment (HDVGE) could be a feasible solution to solve the heterogeneous problems caused by various types of clients, and support implementation of virtual crowd evacuation experiments, with large numbers of concurrent participants. In this study, we developed an HDVGE framework and put forward a set of design principles to define the similarities between the real world and the VGE. We discussed the HDVGE architecture and proposed an abstract interaction layer, a protocol-based interaction algorithm and an adjusted dead reckoning algorithm to solve the heterogeneous distributed problems. We then implemented an HDVGE prototype system focusing on subway fire evacuation experiments. Two types of clients are considered in the system, PC and all-in-one VR. Finally, we evaluated the performances of the prototype system and the key algorithms. The results showed that in a low-latency LAN environment, the prototype system can smoothly support 90 concurrent users consisting of PC and all-in-one VR clients. HDVGE could serve as a new means of obtaining observational data about individual and group behavior in support of human geography research.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.