ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0065.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: prime numbers; composite numbers; prime-composite relationship; formula of composite; formula of all composite; formula of all odd composite
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:13:27 CET)
Prime number-related issues can be viewed from drastically different perspectives by examining the close connections between prime numbers and composite numbers. We think that multiple perspectives are the pillars on the path to solutions so we have created this study. As a result of the study, we proposed two new formulas by presenting three theorems and one proof for each theorem, a total of three proofs. We proved that the formula p · n + p returns a composite number in the first of the theorems, which is the preliminary theorem. Our first theorem except the preliminary theorem is that the formula p · n + p returns all composite numbers, and we proved that too. Finally, we created Theorem II using Theorem I to use in our other work and proved that the formula 2 · n · p + p returns all odd composite numbers, which is Theorem II. Afterward, we presented the similarities of the 2 · n · p + p formula we put forth with another known formula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0249.v4
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: composite number; composite numbers distribution; composite numbers generation; prime number
Online: 24 December 2021 (07:36:30 CET)
Integer is either a composite number or a prime number. Therefore, detecting composite numbers is important for solving prime numbers. The study of prime numbers, apart from satisfying human curiosity, can be very important. In this article, the order of composite numbers has been detected. And explained with a simple method and a simple function. And, a method has been developed in which all composite numbers and therefore prime numbers can be determined by using the specified methods, functions and formulas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0045.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Polyamide solvent, composite, coated-fabric, Nylon, single-polymer composite, all-polyamide composite coated-fabric
Online: 5 February 2018 (16:19:09 CET)
Polyamides (PAs) are one of the most important engineering polymers; however, the difficulty in dissolving them hinders their applications. Formic acid (FA) is the most common solvent for PAs, but it has industrial limitations. In this contribution, we proposed a new solvent system for PAs by replacing a portion of the FA with urea and calcium chloride (FAUCa). Urea imparts the hydrogen bonding and calcium ion from the calcium chloride, as a Lewis acid was added to the system to compensate for the pH decrease due to the addition of urea. The results showed that the proposed solvent (FAUCa) could readily dissolve PAs, resulting in less decrease in the mechanical properties during the dissolution. The composite prepared using the FAUCa has almost the same properties like the one prepared using the FA solution. The solution was applied on a polyamide 66 fabric to make an all-polyamide composite coated-fabric, which then was characterized. The FAUCa solution had a higher viscosity than the one prepared using the neat FA solvent, which can be an advantage in the applications which needs higher viscosity like preparing the all-polyamide composite coated-fabric. A more viscouse solution makes a denser coating which will increase the water-/gas-tightness. In conclusion, using the FAUCa solvent has two merits: 1. replacement of 40 % of the FA with less harmful and environmentally-friendly chemicals and 2. enabling for the preparation of more viscouse solutions, which makes denser coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0724.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Composite structures, Concrete-encased composite column, Economic comparison between R.C.C columns and concrete-encased composite columns, Modeling of composite columns.
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:10:18 CEST)
Modern day construction is widely influenced using concrete-steel composite columns. A lot of research on concrete-steel composite columns is being carried out around the world. The rapid growth in concrete-steel composite construction has widely decreased the use of conventional reinforced cement concrete construction (R.C.C), and the steel construction practices. The concrete-steel composite construction has obtained an extensive receiving around the globe. As Pakistan is a developing country, so, it is relatively a new concept for its construction industry when compared with the developed countries around the globe. Although, the R.C.C construction is suitable and economical for construction of framing systems of low-rise buildings, however, the increased dead load, span restrictions, less stiffness and risky formwork makes it uneconomical and unviable when it comes across the construction of intermediate to high-rise buildings. This research is an effort to learn the cost effectiveness, increased or decreased stiffness, and change on the functionality of the composite construction for intermediate to high-rise buildings constructed in Pakistan. A Base + Ground + 11 storey commercial building is selected for this study. A comparison is made between conventional R.C.C columns structure and concrete-encased composite columns structure. The equivalent static nonlinear analysis is performed using ETABS 2017 software. Although, for Base + Ground + 11 storey building, the construction cost of concrete-encased composite structure is 7.7% more than the conventional R.C.C columns structure, but the concrete-encased composite structure will have 13.013% more constructed floor area. This increased floor area helps to settle the cost difference between the two structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1859.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Composite materials; polymeric composite; hybrid composites; ultrasonic test; acous-tic importance
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:18:45 CEST)
Acoustic energy dissipates in multi-phase or multi-boundary materials. Hybrid composites are described as multi-phase with many interfaces between their materials. The current research proposes studying the acoustic behavior of polymeric hybrid composites by estimating the time, velocity, and hybrid composite acoustic impedance. Two groups of hybrid composites were prepared, including unsaturated polyester with PMMA, except one with HDPE and the other with PS. Each group has 28, 35, and 40% weight fractions. An ultrasonic test measured time to determine velocity and acoustic impedance later. The results show that increasing the weight fraction will increase density with respect to the density of the reinforcing material. Different ultrasonic times were obtained with increasing weight fractions. As the weight fraction of PS increased, the time increased; unlike the velocity, it decreased but increased with density. In contrast, this behavior was changed if the hybrid had PE. The highest acoustic impedance was at 28% UP/PMMA+PS. In conclusion, UP/PMMA+PS can dissipate ultrasonic waves more than UP/PMMA+PE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0257.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Composite material; Bumper beam; Machine learning; Stacking sequence; Piecewise integrated composite
Online: 15 February 2023 (10:08:12 CET)
In the present study, piecewise integrated composite (PIC) bumper beam for passenger cars was proposed and design optimisation process for composite bumper beam against IIHS test was carried out with the help of machine learning. Several elements in IIHS bumper FE model have been assigned to be references, in order to collect training data which, allow the machine learning model to study the method of predicting loading types of each finite element. 2-D and 3-D implementations were provided by machine learning models, which determined stacking sequences of each finite element in PIC bumper beam. It was found that the PIC bumper beam, which was designed by machine learning model has direct impact on reducing the possibility of failure as well as increasing bending strength effectively than conventional composite bumper beam. Moreover, 3-D implementation produced better results compared with 2-D implementation since it was preferable to choose loading type information which was achieved from surroundings when the target elements were located either at corner or junction of planes instead of using information came from the same plane of target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0039.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: composite likelihood; maximum composite likelihood estimator; Wald test statistic; composite minimum density power divergence estimator; Wald-type test statistics.
Online: 6 November 2017 (12:59:45 CET)
In this paper a robust version of the Wald test statistic for composite likelihood is considered by using the composite minimum density power divergence estimator instead of the composite maximum likelihood estimator. This new family of test statistics will be called Wald-type test statistics. The problem of testing a simple and a composite null hypothesis is considered and the robustness is studied on the basis of a simulation study. Previously, the composite minimum density power divergence estimator is introduced and its asymptotic properties are studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0153.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Composite; Fusion; Materials; Tungsten
Online: 11 October 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W) have been in development to overcome the inherent brittleness of tungsten as one of the most promising candidate for the first wall and divertor armour material in a future fusion power plant. As the development of Wf/W continues, the fracture toughness of the composite is one of the main design drivers. In this contribution the efforts on size upscaling of Wf/W based on Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) is shown together with fracture mechanical tests of two different size samples of Wf/W produced by CVD. Three-point bending tests according to ASTM E399 for brittle materials were used to get a first estimation of the toughness. A provisional fracture toughness value of up to 346MPam1/2 was calculated for the as-fabricated material. As the material does not show a brittle fracture in the as-fabricated state, the J-Integral approach based on the ASTM E1820 was additionally applied for this state. A maximum value of the J-integral of 41kJ/m2 (134,8MPam1/2) was determined for the largest samples. Post mortem investigations were employed to detail the active mechanisms and crack propagation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0229.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: conducting polymer; composite; bioapplication
Online: 23 January 2019 (04:44:55 CET)
This review is focused on current state-of-the-art research on electroactive-based materials and their synthesis, as well as their physicochemical and biological properties. Special attention is paid to pristine intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) and their composites with other organic and inorganic components, well-defined micro- and nanostructures, and enhanced surface areas compared with those of conventionally prepared ICPs. Hydrogels, due to their defined porous structures and being filled with aqueous solution, offer the ability to increase the amount of immobilized chemical, biological or biochemical molecules. When other components are incorporated into ICPs, the materials form composites; in this particular case, they form conductive composites. The design and synthesis of conductive composites result in the inheritance of the advantages of each component and offer new features because of the synergistic effects between the components. The resulting structures of ICPs, conducting polymer hydrogels and their composites, as well as the unusual physicochemical properties, biocompatibility and multi-functionality of these materials, facilitate their bioapplications. The synergistic effects between constituents have made these materials particularly attractive as sensing elements for biological agents, and they also enable the immobilization of bioreceptors such as enzymes, antigen–antibodies, and nucleic acids onto their surfaces for the detection of an array of biological agents. Currently, these materials have unlimited applicability in biomedicine. In this review, we have limited discussion to three areas in which it seems that the use of ICPs and materials, including their different forms, are particularly interesting, namely, biosensors, delivery of drugs and tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0525.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ni-P-MoS2-SiO2 nano-composite coatings; Ni-P-MoS2 composite coatings; Ni-P-Toner composite coatings; Electrochemical properties; Electroless
Online: 26 October 2020 (13:56:19 CET)
In this paper, various Ni-P composite coatings containing toner, MoS2, and nano-SiO2 particles were deposited on steel substrates by the electroless method. Then, the electrochemical properties of these coatings after a heat treatment process were compared. The microstructural evaluations were also done by using the optical and electron microscopy methods. Both Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were utilized to survey the electrochemical behavior of such coatings. The surface morphology of all coatings contained cauliflower-like nodules. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the crystalline phases of Ni and Ni3P for all coatings after the heat-treatment step. Obtained results showed that all composite coatings exhibited lower corrosion rates with respect to Ni-P coatings. Such a reduction was about 21.6-92.2%. This behavior was attributed to the presence of reinforcement as barriers for corrosive ion diffusion through the coating plus the changes in detected phases and thickness. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test results also demonstrated that the increase in the polarization resistance for composites coatings was about 18.4-85.3% after 1 h immersion in a 0.6M NaCl solution; however, when the immersion time increased to 24 h, such increased resistance changed to 18.1 to 73.1%. Totally, despite the lower deposition rate, the presence of MoS2 and nano-SiO2 particles were more effective than toner particles to raise the corrosion rate of the Ni-P coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: computational mechanics; composite materials; FEA
Online: 8 February 2022 (15:40:53 CET)
Decades ago, when computational was expensive and limited, the structural design was mostly performed by hand calculations using simple mathematical models. For example, it was a common practice to design a structure as complex as the wing of an aircraft by simple beam analysis. However, ever since the classic paper by Turner et al., due to a rapid increase in computational, more complex mathematical models are being used to simulate the physical behavior of complex structural components. To solve intractable problems unsolvable by hand calculations, numerical techniques like Finite Element Analysis (FEA), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Finite Difference Method etc. are being employed. In fact, the availability of these methods has led to the development of an entirely new area of research known as Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) where various disciplines are considered in an optimization problem. The most important question while using a mathematical model to represent practical industrial problems is to what extent these models represent the real-life situation. Computational models are always built on upon assumptions. Simply at looking at the simulation outcomes i.e. the graphical and numerical results, it is often very difficult to ensure if the underlying assumption holds and that the results are reliable. This has led to the development of another field of research known as Verification and Validation (called V&V in short).
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0492.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ecofriendly; piezoelectric; composite; material; 3Dprinting
Online: 21 July 2021 (12:12:24 CEST)
One century ago, ferroelectricity and then piezoelectricity were discovered using Rochelle salt crystals. Today, modern societies are invited to switch towards a resilient and circular economy model. In this context, this work proposes a method to manufacture piezoelectric devices made from agro-resources such as tartric acid and polylactide significantly reducing the energy budget without requiring any sophisticated equipement. These piezoelectric devices are manufactured by liquid phase epitaxy grown Rochelle salt (RS) crystals into a 3D printed poly(Lactic acid) (PLA) matrix being the artificial squared meshes which mimic the natural wood anatomy. This composite material can easily be produced in any fablab with renewable materials and at low processsing temperatures, reducing then the total energy consumed. Manufactured biodegradable samples are fully recyclable and have good piezoelectric properties without any pooling step. The measured piezoelectric coefficients of manufactured samples are higher than many piezoelectric polymers such as PVDF-TrFE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0741.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: composite resin; bibliometric analysis; restoration
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:21:03 CEST)
Introduction: To indentify the most effective actors(authors, countries, and journals) about composite resin restorations in the period 2000-2020.Material and Methods: An electronis research was conducted in the Scopus database by selecting the words ‘composite resin’ and ‘restoration and English language, article and review types, dentistry field. Their bibliometric data including publication title, authorship, citation count, citation dentistry, year of publication, country and institution of origin, journal of publication, study design, and keywords were extracted and analyzed.Results and Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first bibliometric article on composite resin restorations. This study provides information about authors, institutions and countries that contribute to significant improvements in composite resin restorations. From 2000 to 2020, there were 7118 articles published from 99 countries.Articles originate primarily from the USA and Brazil. Results indicate that the USA, Brazil, Germany, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Japan, Swtizerland, Italy, Netherlands and India are the leading countries in composite resin restoration research and account for 51.8% of the total number of publications. The total number of citations are 158.404, corresponding to 22 citations per paper publication. During the time period examined, 776 hot articles and 228 classic articles on composite resin restorations were found.The journal with the most publications is ‘Operative Dentistry’. The publishing houses of the top 10 journals are from 4 countries: USA(6),Netherlands(2),Germany(1),Japan(1). The most cited article within the boundaires of this study is Ferracane’s article titled ‘Resin composite-State of the art’, which was published in Dental Materials in 2011 and received 913 citations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0218.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ferroelectrics; Composite; Membranes; Wound healing
Online: 5 November 2020 (15:02:01 CET)
Herein, we report results of the study of the composite ferroelectric scaffolds based on vinylidene fluoride-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (VDF-TeFE) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) produced by electrospinning and their application as a wound-healing material. The physicochemical properties of ferroelectric composite polymer scaffolds depending on the content of PVP (in the range from 0 to 50 wt %) including morphology, composition and crystalline structure were studied. The cytotoxicity of materials and the proliferative activity of cells during their cultivation on the surface of formed scaffolds are reported. It has been found that the optimal PVP content in the VDF-TeFE composite scaffolds is 15 wt%. On a model of a full-thickness contaminated wound in vivo, it was shown that piezoelectric scaffolds based on VDF-TeFE copolymer containing 15 wt% PVP provide better wound healing results in comparison with standard gauze dressings impregnated with a solution of an antibacterial agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0159.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: inoculation; composite; scattering; diffraction; crystallinity
Online: 24 April 2020 (06:22:30 CEST)
Bulk metallic glass matrix composites have emerged as competent structural material of future bearing potential structural applications. However, the optimum percentage of crystallinity required to produce enough toughness that it can serve as structural component is still a matter of debate. In this study, an effort is made to address this problem by inoculation. A controlled amount of carefully selected inoculant is introduced in Zr47.5Cu45.5Al5Co2 bulk metallic glass matrix composite during melting and solidification. Its effect in promoting crystallinity is checked by detailed electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping. Proper pattern capture, background correction, binning, Hough space transformation, step size selection, indexing and matching with well-defined crystal structure files have shown to reflect upon map quality. This shows and bears direct relation with effect of inoculation. Results from two independent laboratories are reported. Inoculation treatment is shown to be advantageous.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: halloysite nanotube(HNT); hybrid composite; aramid fiber; basalt fiber; interfacial property; fiber reinforced composite; aggregation
Online: 16 May 2017 (07:39:07 CEST)
Hybrid fiber reinforced composites can be controlled by price, weight and various mechanical properties depending on fiber ratio and lamination method. Despite these excellent hybrid properties, there is a disadvantage that inter-laminar fracture due to external impact, which is the biggest weakness of fiber reinforced composite materials, is weak. The test specimens were prepared by using a vacuum bag method, which is manufactured by using an autoclave device. The pre-preg is manufactured in the form of a B-stage. In the process of fabricating the nanoparticle pre-preg, the homogeneizer using an ultrasonic wave was used to disperse the epoxy subject without the curing agent into nanoparticles. The dispersion of the nanoparticles was dispersed by the weight of the epoxy resin. This is to take into account the cohesion of HNT and to understand the range of cohesion of HNT in a matrix with viscosity and its phenomenon. According to the Comparison of the interlayer interfacial properties and mechanical properties of Aramid / Basalt fiber hybrid composites by HNT addition, the fracture toughness, ILSS and bending strength of specimens with HNT content of more than a certain level were decreased because of the aggregation of HNT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0709.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: polycaprolactone; blend; composite; adsorbent; degradation; wastewater
Online: 12 September 2023 (11:30:57 CEST)
Biodegradable poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and its composites or blends have gotten a lot of attention in the last decade because of their potential applications in human life and environmental remediation. As a result, there is a growing interest in the synthesis of PCL-composites/blends and their applications. Greater efforts have been made to develop biodegradable chemical materials as adsorbents that do not pollute the environment in order to replace traditional materials. Among the numerous types of degradable materials, PCL is currently the most promising, the most popular, and the best material to be developed, and it is referred to as the "green" eco-friendly material. Membranes and adsorbents for water treatment, packaging and compost bags, controlled drug carriers, biomaterials for tissues such as bone, cartilage, ligament, skeletal muscle, skin, cardiovascular and nerve tissues are just some of the applications of this biodegradable polymer (PCL). The goal of this review is to present a brief overview of PCL, its properties, syntheses of PCL, PCL composites, and PCL blends, but to provide a detailed investigation into the utility of PCL/PCL-based adsorbing agents in the removal of dyes/heavy metal ions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1704.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Infilled composite beam; Horizontal shear; FEA
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:34:54 CEST)
A composite beam is a structural member that behaves as a single unit by using shear connectors between a concrete slab and an H-shaped steel girder. The composite ratio is crucial and determined by the shear connectors' ability to withstand the horizontal shear forces between the concrete and steel girder. In this study, a U-shaped composite beam was designed, which differs from conventional composite beams as it allows the use of a steel girder as a formwork. Moreover, angle-type shear connectors, instead of stud-type connectors, were employed. Based on this design, large-scale U-shaped composite beams with angle-type shear connectors were fabricated, and load tests were conducted to analyze the behavior after composite action and the influence of shear connector spacing. Additionally, the strength of the angle-type shear connectors used in this paper was evaluated through finite element analysis. Finally, a strength evaluation method for composite beams of this configuration was proposed.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rubber composites; Nano composite; laser vulcanization
Online: 18 October 2022 (07:08:58 CEST)
Rubber-based composites are widely used especially in transportation. The goal of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of rubber-based composites of carbon black and Nano Aluminum trioxide additive (50 nm). Various percentage of carbon black was used (20,40, and 60 phr). The increase in Carbon black percentage shows an increase in mechanical properties of the composites (for 60 phr properties tensile test improve by 49%, for hardness resistance the improve was 21%, and for the wear test the composite improve by 22%). Various wetting percentage of nano Aluminum trioxide was used (1,1.5,2, and 2.5 %). Increasing the wetting percentage increase tensile strength (27%, hardness resistance increase by 28%, and wear resistance increase nonlinearly with a percentage reaching 70%). Selecting the optimal composition of the two fillers, then study different irradiances for it with the ultraviolet laser of moderately low energy after the vulcanization process. Post ultraviolet laser of (345 nm). Furthermore, laser vulcanization shows improvement in mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0143.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Composite; Micromechanics; Cell Method; Failure; Isolation
Online: 6 September 2020 (15:38:28 CEST)
In this study, the elastic properties of composite materials are investigated, considering the effects of separation of fiber-matrix joint boundary and matrix failure. In this method, by assuming periodic microstructure and using a linear approximation of the displacement field by applying continuity and equilibrium conditions, the composite fiber composite relation is determined. The effect of separation is assumed by introducing tangential and normal scalar parameters in the equations by assuming the displacement field jump at the common boundary. In order to express the effect of matrix micro-cracks, the fracture mechanics framework of continuous environments was used and the micro-cracks parallel to the fibers, perpendicular to the fibers and in the thickness direction with scalar parameters were expressed. At the end of the effect of these parameters the results are presented in graphs. The results show that the presence of defective joint at the joint boundary and the matrix micro-components reduce the hardness of the composite and thus it’s bearing load, which is more significant at the defective joint state.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bismuth; Chitosan; pressure; thermoelectric; composite film
Online: 3 February 2020 (04:52:51 CET)
The main aim of this work is to report an alternative energy efficient technique of fabricating flexible thermoelectric generators (TEGs) using printable ink. In this process, we have fabricated thermoelectric (TE) composite thick film and we are experimenting several ways to overcome the challenges of conventional and additive manufacturing methods. Two different mesh sizes of n-type bismuth particle, various binder to thermoelectric (TE) material weight ratio, and two different pressure (200 MPa and 300 MPa) were employed for optimizing the thermoelectric properties of TE composite films. We are also exploring naturally occurring chitosan as a binder. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dissolved chitosan was used for the binder and less than 0.2 wt% of chitosan was sufficient for the fabrication of TE inks and composite films. Low energy intensive curing process was employed to evaporate the solvent from the drop casted inks. External uniaxial pressure not only eliminated high energy intensive curing processes but also increased the packing density of the film by removing pores and voids in the chitosan-bismuth composite film. The microstructure analysis reveals that bulk-like structure, which rarely has voids, pores and grain boundaries, was observed in the composite films pressed at sufficiently high pressures. The highest performing composite film was obtained with the conditions of 1:2000 binder to bismuth weight ratio, 100 mesh of particle size, and 300 MPa of pressure. The best performing bismuth chitosan composite film pressed at 300 MPa had the power factor as 4009 ± 391 μW/m·K2 with high electrical conductivity value of 7337 ± 522 S/cm. The measured thermal conductivity of the best performing chitosan-bismuth composite film was 4.4 ± 0.7 W/m·K and the figure of merit calculated from the thermal conductivity was 0.27 at room temperature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0193.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: conductive polymer composite; orientation; electrical conductivity.
Online: 9 August 2018 (14:53:38 CEST)
Bipolar plates significantly contribute in the development of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells technology due to their ability to produce high electrical conductivity based on type of materials used. Mismatching of inappropriate materials and manufacture may lead to the inferior performance of PEM fuel cells. Hence, material development was determined crucial to balance the overall performance of PEM fuels including the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the materials. Studies on conductive polymer composites (CPCs) offered filler orientation as an alternative method to enhance the overall performance of bipolar plate. Filler orientations permit an excellent conductivity network formation while controlling the filler alignment based on required applications. This paper reviewed various studies of filler orientations including materials used and methods of manufacture of CPC materials for the effective development of bipolar plate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0396.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Composite Flour; Local Tubers; Gluten-Free; Pancakes
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:11:41 CEST)
Pancakes are fast food snacks that are generally made with the basic ingredients of wheat flour, which is an imported commodity and detrimental for people who are allergic to gluten. To reduce the use of wheat, alternative raw materials derived from local commodities are used, such as modified cassava flour (mocaf), arrowroot flour, and suweg flour. The experiment was carried out by mixing mocaf flour, arrowroot flour, and suweg flour to produce composite flour with a ratio of 70:15:15 (CF1), 70:20:10 (CF2), and 70:20:5 (CF3). The result showed that the ratio of mocaf flour, arrowroot flour, and suweg flour had a significant effect on pasting temperature, peak viscosity, hold viscosity, breakdown viscosity, setback, L*, a*, hue, whiteness, ∆E, as well as swelling volume and solubility on the characteristics of the composite flour It also had a significant effect on the texture characteristics of hardness, adhesiveness, chewiness, color characteristics L*, a*, whiteness, ∆E, and preference for the flavor of gluten-free pancake products. It is known that the best formulation for the resulting pancake product is P1, with the addition of a 70% ratio of mocaf flour, 15% ratio of arrowroot tuber flour, and 15% ratio of suweg flour.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioactive glass; gelatin; tissue engineering; bone; composite
Online: 7 December 2022 (04:30:39 CET)
Nano/micron-sized bioactive glass (BG) particles are attractive candidates for both soft and hard tissue engineering. They can chemically bond to the host tissues, enhance new tissue formation, activate cell proliferation, stimulate the genetic expression of proteins, and trigger unique an-ti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer functionalities. Recently, composites based on bi-opolymers and BG particles have been developed with various state-of-the-art techniques for tis-sue engineering. Gelatin, a semi-synthetic biopolymer, has attracted the attention of researchers because it is derived from the most abundant protein in the body, viz., collagen. It is a polymer that can be dissolved in water and processed to acquire different configurations, such as hydro-gels, fibers, films, scaffolds, etc. Searching "bioactive glass gelatin" in the tile on Scopus renders 80 highly relevant articles published in the last ~10 years, which signifies the importance of such composites. First, this review addresses the basic concepts of soft and hard tissue engineering, in-cluding the healing mechanisms and limitations ahead. Then, current knowledge on gelatin/BG composites including composition, processing and properties is summarized and discussed both for soft and hard tissue applications. This review explores physical, chemical and mechanical features and ion-release effects of such composites concerning osteogenic and angiogenic respons-es in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, recent developments of BG/gelatin composites using 3D/4D printing for tissue engineering are presented. Finally, the perspectives and current challenges in developing desirable composites for the regeneration of different tissues are outlined.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: poverty; composite indicators; interval data; symbolic data
Online: 24 August 2021 (15:46:09 CEST)
The analysis and measurement of poverty is a crucial issue in the field of social science. Poverty is a multidimensional notion that can be measured using composite indicators relevant to synthesizing statistical indicators. Subjective choices could, however, affect these indicators. We propose interval-based composite indicators to avoid the problem, enabling us in this context to obtain robust and reliable measures. Based on a relevant conceptual model of poverty we have identified, we will consider all the various factors identified. Then, considering a different random configuration of the various factors, we will compute a different composite indicator. We can obtain a different interval for each region based on the distinct factor choices on the different assumptions for constructing the composite indicator. So we will create an interval-based composite indicator based on the results obtained by the Monte-Carlo simulation of all the different assumptions. The different intervals can be compared, and various rankings for poverty can be obtained. For their parameters, such as center, minimum, maximum, and range, the poverty interval composite indicator can be considered and compared. The results demonstrate a relevant and consistent measurement of the indicator and the shadow sector's relevant impact on the final measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0363.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Dental composite, Methacrylated calcium phosphate, translucency, Biomineralization
Online: 16 May 2021 (22:39:21 CEST)
The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize a novel Methacrylate- functionalized Calcium Phosphate (MCP) used as a bioactive compound for innovative dental composites. The characterization was accomplished by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRDA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and EnergyDispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The incorporation of MCP as a bioactive filler in esthetic dental composite formulations and the ability of MCP containing dental composites to promote precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surfaces of those dental composites was explored. The translucency parameter, depth of cure, degree of conversion, ion release profile, and other physical properties of composites were studied with respect to the amount of MCP added to the composites. Composites containing 3 Wt.%, 6 Wt.%, and 20 Wt.% MCP were evaluated at 7, 14, and 21 days. The progress of surface precipitation of hydroxyapatite on MCP-containing dental composites was studied by systematically increasing the MCP content in the composite and the time of specimen storage in Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered solution with calcium and magnesium. It was found that there was a direct correlation between the percentage of MCP in a composite formulation, the amount of time the specimen was stored in PBS, and the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the composite’s surface
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0019.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: photocatalyst; TiO2/SiO2 composite; solvothermal; silica sand
Online: 1 October 2020 (14:31:31 CEST)
Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and have a high toxicity effect to living things which makes their presence in the environment extremely dangerous. The method of handling heavy metals waste by photocatalysis techniques using TiO2/SiO2 composite showed a good performance in reducing harmful pollutants. In this study, SiO2 from Bengkulu beach sand was used as a support material for TiO2 photocatalyst to reduce Cr(VI) and Pb(II) concentrations. SiO2 was obtained through leaching techniques using NaOH as a solvent. The TiO2/SiO2 composite photocatalyst were synthesized using a solvothermal method at 130 °C and then characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM and PSA. Based on the XRD diffractogram, the synthesized TiO2 showed the anatase structure while the SiO2 showed the amorphous structure. Ti-O-Si bond is defined in the IR spectra, which indicates that the relationship between TiO2 and SiO2 is a chemical interaction. The results of SEM and PSA characterizations show agglomerated spherical (round) particles with a mean particle size of 616.9 nm. The TiO2/SiO2 composite of 7:1 ratio showed the highest photocatalytic activity after 180 minutes of UV irradiation, with a concentration-decrease percentage of 93.77% and 93.55% for for Cr(VI) and Pb(II), respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0336.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Thermal conductivity; Electrical conductivity; Composite; Carbon fiber
Online: 15 September 2020 (09:00:04 CEST)
The electrical, mechanical and thermal conductivity of ethylene butene copolymer (EBC) composites with carbon fibers were studied. EBC/carbon-fiber composites can be utilized as an electro-mechanical material which is capable of changing it electric resistance with mechanical strain. Carbon fibers were introduced to EBC with different concentrations (5-25 wt%). The results showed that the addition of carbon fibers to EBC could increase the electric resistance up to 10 times. Increasing the load to 2.9 MPa could increase the electric resistance change by 4500% compared 25% fiber sample with pure EBC. It is also noted that the electric resistance of the EBC/CF composites underwent a dramatic increase with raising the strain, for example, the resistance change was around 13 times more at 15% strain in comparison to 5% of strain; The thermal conductivity tests showed that the addition of carbon fibers could increase the thermal conductivity by 40%, from 0.19 to 0.27 (Wm-1K-1). It was also observed that the addition of carbon fibers to EBC could increase the thermal conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0114.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: fabric; kenaf; plain; satin; woven composite; epoxy
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:59:56 CET)
Hybrid woven kenaf-carbon composite were fabricated in this study using epoxy resin as matrix. Effects of different fabric material namely weave designs (plain and satin) and fabric counts (5×5 and 6×6) on the properties of laminated woven kenaf polymer composite were evaluated. This study evaluates the mechanical and morphological properties of hybrid fabric kenaf-carbon from kenaf yarn of 500tex. Kenaf and carbon fabrics were used in this work, where vacuum infusion technique was selected to prepare the composite and epoxy resin was used as a matrix. The fibre weight content is 30% and four specimens were prepared for each samples and tested for their tensile, flexural, and impact strengths. The morphological properties of composites were analysed through the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results revealed that plain woven fabric is favourable in terms of tensile and impact strengths compared to satin woven fabric. Meanwhile, 5×5 of fabric count gives better flexural modulus than composite fabricated with 6×6 fabric count. The morphologies of the fractured surface investigated by SEM demonstrated better adhesion properties and less fibre pull-out on plain woven fabric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0220.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: composite fibers; flexural strength; polyester matrix; reinforcement
Online: 29 August 2016 (10:46:01 CEST)
Composite fiber materials are superior materials due to their high strength and light weight. Composites reflect the properties of their constituents, which is proportional to the volume fraction of each phase. There are different fiber reinforcement types and each affects it’s flexural, tensile and compression strength. When selecting a composite for a specific application, the forces excreted on the composite must be known in order to determine the reinforcement type. Unidirectional fiber reinforcement will allow very strong load resistance but only in one direction where as a random orientated fiber reinforcement can resist less load but can maintain this quota in all directions. These materials are said to be anisotropic. Certain composite fibers, taking into consideration there weights, are physically stronger than conventional metals. This research deals with the analysis of three composite materials with different reinforcement types, volume fraction and phase content. It was found that material A (glass epoxy) was the strongest in the longitudinal direction with a flexural strength of 534 MPa in the longitudinal and 420 MPa in the transverse direction. The flexural stresses of material B (glass silicone) and material C (glass polyester) where both found in the 120 to 135 MPa range. Differences were due to their differences in matrix composition and reinforcement type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Fiber-reinforced composite post; Short-glass fiber reinforced composite; Endodontically-treated teeth; Intra-radicular adhesion; Push-out bond strength
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:08:24 CET)
: This study was aimed at assessing adaptation and bonding of discontinuous (short) glass fiber-reinforced composite to intraradicular dentin EverX Flow (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), when used as intracanal composite filling and anchorage instead of traditional fiber posts. (2) Methods: Seventy intact extracted human teeth were endodontically treated and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10), depending on the materials used in the post space. In Group 1, a 2-bottle universal adhesive G2 Bond Universal + EverX Flow were tested. In group 2, a single-component universal adhesive G-Premio Bond + EverX Flow were used. In groups 3 and 4 the same materials are tested, but after cleaning of the canal walls with 17% EDTA and final irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl Ultrasound Activated. In the last three Groups (5-7) traditional prefabricated GC Fiber Posts 1.6 mm silanized with G-Multi Primer for 1 minute are cemented with a dual-cured composite resin cement (GradiaCore), after ultrasonic irrigation in the groups 6 and 7. In each group, 1 mm-thick slices from each sample (n=10) were cut for light microscope and SEM inspection for study materials adaption to the dentin and for measuring push-out strength of post / cemement material to the dentin / prefabricated post. These results were statistically analyzed: as the data distribution was not normal, the Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance by Ranks had to be applied. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Push-out forces varied between 6.66-8.37 MPa. No statistically significant differences were recorded among the groups. Microscopic examination showed that ultrasonic irri-gation increased adaptation of the materials to the dentin surface. There was a trend of higher bond strength among the tested groups when EverX Flow was used. Also, the type of failure was more often cohesive when ultrasonic irrigation and two-step adhesive system were used. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it may be concluded that when EverX Flow was used for intracanal anchorage in the post-endodontic recon-struction, similar push-out retentive forces and strength to those of traditional fiber posts cemented with particulate filler resin composite cements were achieved. Although further studies are necessary, EverX Flow represents an effective alternative to traditional fiber post adhesion in particular when used in combination with the two-step adhesive system and ultrasonic activation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0028.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Composite coating; Infrared emissivity; Hydrophobic property; Mechanical property
Online: 1 August 2023 (09:50:57 CEST)
In order to further reduce the emissivity of the hydrophobic low infrared emissivity composite coating and improve the mechanical properties of the coating, the dispersant, adhesion enhancer, and defoamer were used to improve the dispersion state of the fillers, the interface structure, and the surface state of the hydrogen silicone oil modified polyurethane/Al composite coating. The effects of dispersant, adhesion enhancer, and defoamer on the micro-structure, emissivity, glossiness, hydrophobic property, and mechanical properties of the coating were systematically studied. The results show that the polycarboxylate anionic dispersant can obviously improve the dispersion state of flake Al powder and nano-SiO2 in the coating, so that the infrared emissivity of the coating can be reduced, and the coating can have higher hydrophobic and mechanical properties. The bonding strength between the resin matrix and the metal substrate of the coating can be significantly improved by the adhesion enhancer through the bridging action, so that the adhesion strength and impact strength of the coating can be significantly improved. The defoamer can significantly reduce the pores in the coating, so that the surface state of the coating can be significantly improved, and the mechanical properties of the coating can be significantly improved. The coating has the best emissivity (0.527), glossiness (4.3), adhesion strength (grade 1), impact strength (40 kg.cm), and hydrophobic property (water contact angle (WCA) is 140o) when the amount of dispersant, adhesion enhancer, and defoamer is 5 wt%, 4 wt%, and 1 wt%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Dehumidification; natural gas; Nano composite membrane; TiO2 zeolite
Online: 15 June 2023 (13:22:37 CEST)
Some of Iran's gas resources are known as sour gas because one of the major by-products of this gas is water. In fact, natural gas is combined with water vapor in underground reservoirs. In some areas, the amount of water vapor in natural gas is so high that it can be used as a source of drinking water. However, it should be noted that water vapor in natural gas may exacerbate corrosion in pipes and industrial equipment, and the combustion of more natural gas produces high temperatures that can lead to the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which They are the cause of air pollution. This is while the processed gas has a standard percentage composition in which the amount of water has the lowest position. The removal of moisture from natural gas is due to the need to prevent the reduction of the calorific value of the gas and also to purify the gas in order to achieve the necessary standards for delivering gas to petrochemicals, industries and domestic uses. The main goal of this research is to investigate the influencing parameters on zeolite TiO2 nanocomposite membranes in order to absorb moisture from gas. For this reason, with the construction of a TiZ-V membrane as a standard membrane, the result of the initial evaluation of a suitable membrane for gas dehumidification was made, and this membrane was placed as a standard for measuring the effect of the manufacturing parameters in a way that in each stage of membrane construction It was found that it was different from standard TiZ-V membrane only in terms of one parameter. This type of investigation made it possible to determine the effect of various effective parameters in membrane construction on efficiency. The findings showed that increasing the concentration of SiO2 has the greatest effect on increasing the water flux of the membrane. According to the other findings of this study, the effect of increasing the reaction time of the vapor phase carrier has been to reduce the process of paternity selectivity loss at higher pressures. Although due to the safety limitation of the equipment to measure the efficiency of the membrane at pressures higher than 7 bar, this measurement was not carried out, but charts were presented regarding the state of the water in the water, which were a measure of the superiority of the water in the water in comparison to the gas in the water, which is the higher water in the water It is an indicator of the appropriateness of the membrane's efficiency at its corresponding pressure, so that the examination of the difference between these two graphs shows the possibility of using the membrane at higher pressures
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: WC-Co composite; Additive Manufacturing; Transversal Rupture Strength
Online: 4 May 2023 (09:03:20 CEST)
This study is focused on the mechanical properties of WC-Co composites obtained via Selective Laser Sintering using PA12 as a binder. The as-printed samples were thermally debonded, and sintered, first in vacuum, and then sinter-HIPed at 1400oC, using 50 bar Ar, which has led to relative densities up to 66 %. Optical metallographic images show a microstructure consisting of WC, with an average grain size in the range of 1.4 – 2.0 µm, with isolated large grains, in a well-distributed Co matrix. The shrinkage of the samples was 43 %, with no significant shape distortion. The printing direction of the samples has a great impact on the transversal rupture strength (TRS). Nevertheless, the bending strength was low, with a measured maximum of 612 MPa. SEM images of the fracture surface of TRS samples show the presence of defects that constitute the cause of the low measured values. The hardness values position the obtained composites in the range of medium coarse classical cemented carbides. The results were also related to the amount of free Co after sintering, close to the initial one, as assessed by magnetic measurements, indicating a low degree of interaction with PA12 decomposition products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0587.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: grinding, kinetics; Bond index; simplified procedure; composite samples.
Online: 31 January 2023 (15:30:54 CET)
The bond index is an indicator of the grindability of the material and is widely used in the preparation of mineral raw materials and the cement industry. Paper offers new, abbreviated and simplified procedure to determine Bond work index that relies on first-order kinetics law and can be performed with any number of grinding cycles, depending on the desired accuracy of the required data. The parameters G and P80 of each grinding cycle are multiplied by the newly founded coefficients giDT and piDT to obtain values approximately equal to these parameters of the last grinding cycle when the equilibrium state is reached in the standard test. The paper presents comparative results obtained by standard Bond and new shortened procedure on individual samples of andesite, limestone, copper-ore and smelter slag and on composite samples of andesite from limestone and copper-ore with smelter slag in different mass ratios. As the number of grinding cycles increases, the precision of the shortened procedure increases, and the mean square error decrease 3.59%, 2.61% and 1.74% for two, three and four grinding cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0295.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: Gas sensor; Jarosite; Manganite; Composite ceramic; Gas adsorption.
Online: 17 January 2023 (06:08:41 CET)
This report aimed to know the performance of local mineral-based composite ceramic. The materials used consist of Indonesian local minerals, which are jarosite and manganite minerals as sources of oxide iron and Mangan. The materials were synthesized using the precipitation method, whereas composite ceramic was fabricated using a screen printing method and fired at 600 oC using a furnace. The results of the characterizations indicate that the sample forms three phases on diffraction peaks. The differences in the resistance values in ambient and ethanol environments indicate that the sample has very different responses. The high porosity of the sample greatly support the gas adsorption process. Thus, the sample has a high level of sensitivity. With the above characteristics, the composite ceramic which was fabricated has the potential to be applied to gas sensors, especially ethanol gas sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Composite electrode; Nanofiber; Hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties; Dispersibility; Supercapacitor
Online: 19 October 2021 (13:54:31 CEST)
Concerns associated with global warming and the depleting reserves of fossil fuels have highlighted the importance of high-performance energy storage systems (ESSs) for efficient energy usage. ESSs such as supercapacitors can contribute to improved power quality of an energy generation system, which is characterized by a slow load response. Composite materials are primarily used as supercapacitor electrodes because they can compensate for the disadvantages of carbon or metal oxide electrode materials. In this study, a composite of oxide nanoparticles loaded on a carbon nanofiber support was used as an electrode material for a hybrid supercapacitor. The addition of a small amount of hydrophobic Fe- and N-doped graphene nanoplates modified the surface properties of carbon nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. Accordingly, the effects of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface properties of the nanofiber support on the morphology of Co3O4 nanoparticles loaded on the nanofiber, as well as the performance of the supercapacitor, were systematically investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0191.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: nano-composite; blasting; pretreatment; adhesion; microhardness, corrosion resistance
Online: 7 June 2021 (15:14:17 CEST)
In this study, grit blasting pretreatment was used to improve the adhesion and corrosion resistance and microhardness of Ni-W/SiC nanocomposite coatings fabricated using conventional electrodeposition technique. Prior to deposition, grit blasting and polishing (more commonly used) pretreatment were used to prepare the surface of the substrate and the 3D morphology of the pretreated substrates was characterized using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The coatings surface and the cross section morphology were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition, crystalline structure, microhardness, adhesion, and the corrosion behavior of the deposited coatings were characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tester, scratch tester and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results indicated that the grit blasting and SiC addition, improved the microhardness, adhesion and corrosion resistance. The Ni-W-SiC nanocomposites pretreated by grit blasting exhibited the best adhesion strength, up to 36.5 ± 0.75 N. Its hardness was the highest and increased up to 673 ± 5.47Hv and its corrosion resistance was the highest compared to the one pretreated by polishing.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: textile reinforced composite; shape memory alloy; robust stability
Online: 22 December 2019 (01:56:09 CET)
This paper develops the mathematical modeling and deflection control of a textile-reinforced composite integrated with shape memory actuators. The model of the system is derived using identification method and unstructured uncertainty approach. Based on this model and robust stability analysis a robust proportional-integral controller is designed for controlling the deflection of the composite. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with a classical one through experimental analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0374.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: finishing; plastic working; machining; nickel matrix composite; coatings
Online: 29 November 2019 (09:43:58 CET)
Metal matrix composite are used in such fields of technology, such as: aerospace, electronics, energy, industry, defense, automotive, aviation, shipbuilding, and more. Composite coatings of ceramic - metals is used primarily to enhance the durability of machine parts. Therefore, new materials are permanently looked for, what has resulted in the past in development of composite materials. The coatings dispersed are consisting of metallic matrix (metals and their alloys) and small non-metallic particles. The deposition of ceramic particles simultaneously with metallic matrix leads often to composite coatings possessing properties much better than those of metallic coating. The nickel and less often, other iron group elements are usually used as a matrix and Al2O3 as tough particles. The welding technology of applying alloy and composite coatings is widely used. The technology of infrasound thermal spraying of metal matrix composite coatings was presented. It is a simple technology and a very useful one in ship machinery regeneration during the cruise craft (e.g. internal combustion engines, torque pumps, separators). The metal matrix composite coatings must undergo finishing due to high surface roughness after application. In the article to used finishing by plastic working and machining of coatings nickel matrix composite was proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0359.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Adaptation; climate change; composite indices; resilience; livelihoods; adaptation
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:43:50 CEST)
The missing link between cross-sectoral resource utilisation and management, and full-scale adoption of the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has been lack of analytical tools to support policy and decision-making. This paper defined WEF nexus sustainability indicators and developed a methodology to calculate composite indices to facilitate WEF nexus performance, monitoring and evaluation. WEF nexus indicators were integrated through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM). Data were normalised to determine composite indices. The method established quantitative relationships among WEF nexus sectors to indicate resource utilisation and performance over time, using South Africa as a case study. A spider graph of normalised indices was used to illustrate WEF nexus indicator performance and inter-relationships, providing a synopsis of the level of interactions and inter-connectedness of WEF nexus sectors. The shape of the spider graph is determined by the level of the interdependencies and interactions among the WEF nexus sectors, whose management is viewed either as sustainable or unsustainable depending on the classification of the developed integrated index. The spider graph produced for South Africa shows an over emphasis on food self-sufficiency and water productivity at the expense of other sectors, which results from the sectoral approach in resource management. Although the calculated integrated index of 0.203 for South Africa is classified as lowly sustainable, the emphasis is on the quantitative relationships among the indicators and on how to improve them to achieve sustainability. The developed method provides evidence to decision makers, indicating priority areas for intervention. The analytical model is another niche area for the WEF nexus, as it is now capable to evaluate synergies and trade-offs in a holistic way to improve efficiency and productivity in resource use and management for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0232.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: modelling; carbon fiber composite; experimental mechanics; multiscale; defect
Online: 20 May 2019 (08:55:18 CEST)
A multiscale modelling approach was developed in order to estimate the effect of defects on the strength of unidirectional carbon fiber composites. The work encompasses a micromechanics approach, where the known reinforcement and matrix properties are experimentally verified and a 3D finite element model is meshed directly from micrographs. Boundary conditions for loading the micromechanical model are derived from macroscale finite element simulations of the component in question. Using a microscale model based on the actual microstructure, material parameters and load case allows realistic estimation of the effect of a defect. The modelling approach was tested with a unidirectional carbon fiber composite beam, from which the micromechanical model was created and experimentally validated. The effect of porosity was simulated using a resin-rich area in the microstructure and the results were compared to experimental work on samples containing pores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0084.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Phase change; Composite, Thermal expansion; High temperature; Concrete
Online: 9 January 2019 (12:48:32 CET)
The expansion of concrete subjected to extreme elevated temperature is linked with intricate micro-structural variations, such as the transformation of the constituent phases. This study proposes a model to predict the thermal expansion of cement paste and concrete considering micro-structural changes under elevated temperatures ranging from 20°C to 800°C. The model presented can consider characteristics of various aggregates in the calculation of thermal expansion for concrete. The model is a combination of a multi-scale stoichiometric model and a multi-scale composite model. At the cement paste level, the model satisfactorily predicted a test result. At concrete level, upper bounds from the model were matched relatively well with test results by previous researcher. If the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus (E), Poisson’s ratio (ν), and thermal deformation, of the aggregates used in concrete are given, it is likely that the model will reasonably predict experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0130.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: energy efficiency; flexibility; heating film; graphite; composite material
Online: 6 November 2018 (05:33:39 CET)
Heating films were prepared by using poly(methyl methacrylate) and polybutadiene composites containing graphite. The heating film was prepared by casting the as-made polymer composite on PET film. Copper electrodes were attached to both ends of the as-prepared film, and the heating characteristics of the film was analyzed while applying DC voltage. The electrical conductivity and the heating temperature of the heating films depended on the size, the structure, the content and the dispersion characteristics of the graphite in the composite. The electrical resistance of the heating film was controlled to adjust the heating temperature of the film. The relationship between the physical/chemical structure and the heating characteristics of the composite film was studied by measuring the heating temperature as functions of film thickness and resistance by using an infrared thermal imaging camera. The lower the film resistance, the higher the heating temperature of the film. The surface temperature was uniform throughout the film.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0567.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: solution process; thin films; composite material; dielectric constant
Online: 24 October 2018 (10:48:45 CEST)
In this study is reported the optical, structural and dielectric properties of Poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films membranes with embedded ZnO nanoparticles (PVA/ZnO) obtained by solution casting method at low temperature of deposition. Fourier Transform Infrared spectra showed the characteristics peaks, which correspond to O-H and Zn-O bonds present in the hybrid material. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the presence of ZnO structure into the films. The composite material showed low absorbance and a wide band gap energy from 5.6 to 5.9 eV. The surface morphology for the thin films of PVA/ZnO was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The dielectric properties of the nanocomposites were measured from low to high frequencies, the results showed a high dielectric constant (ε) in the order of 104 at low frequency and values from ε ≈ 2000 to 100 in the range of 1KHz-1MHz respectively, the properties of PVA/ZnO such as the high permittivity and the low temperature of processing make it a suitable material for potential applications in the development of flexible electronic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0089.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: MoS2; composite; anode; low cost; Li-ion battery
Online: 19 January 2017 (11:08:29 CET)
A low-cost bio-mass-derived carbon substrate has been employed to synthesize MoS2@carbon composites through a hydrothermal method. Carbon fibers derived from natural cotton provide a three-dimensional and open framework for the uniform growth of MoS2 nanosheets, thus constructing hierarchically coaxial architecture. The unique structure could synergistically benefit fast Li-ion and electron transport from the conductive carbon scaffold and porous MoS2 nanostructures. As a result, the MoS2@carbon composites, when served as anodes for Li-ion batteries, exhibit a high reversible specific capacity of 820 mAh g-1, high-rate capability (457 mAh g-1 at 2 A g-1), and excellent cycling stability. The superior electrochemical performance makes the MoS2@carbon composites to be low-cost and promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0221.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: 2,5-bis((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)carbamoyl)terephthalic acid (PMDA-Si), core-shell composite; core-shel-shell composite; silica shell; photoluminescence; lifetime
Online: 22 January 2019 (12:01:07 CET)
Two novel core-shell composites SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb, SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb-phen with SiO2 as the core and terbium organic complex as the shell, were successfully synthesized. The terbium ion was coordinated with organic ligand forming terbium organic complex in the shell layer. The bi-functional organosilane ((HOOC)2C6H2(CONH(CH2)3Si(OCH2CH3)3)2 (abbreviated as PMDA-Si) was used as the first ligand and phen as the second ligand. Furthermore, the silica-modified SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb@SiO2, SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb-phen@SiO2 core-shell-shell composites were also synthesized by sol–gel chemical route. An amorphous silica shell was coated around the SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb and SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb-phen core-shell composites. The core-shell and core-shell-shell composites both exhibited excellent luminescence in solid state. The luminescence of core-shell-shell composites was stronger than that of core-shell composites. Meanwhile, an improved luminescence stability property for the core-shell-shell composites was found in the aqueous solution. The core-shell-shell composites exhibited bright luminescence, high stability, long lifetime, and good solubility, which may present potential applications in the field of bio-medical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1515.v1
Subject: Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Keywords: composite material; laminates orientation; optimization; simulated annealing; genetic algorithm
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:07:46 CEST)
The present work sets out the evaluation of composite laminates through optimization objective functions. Genetic Algorithms (GA), as well as Simulated Annealing (SA), were performed in order to determine the optimal ply orientations of a fiber-reinforced polymer laminate for three given load cases: 1) in-plane loads, 2) combined moments, and 3) in-plane loads and combined moments. It searches the optimal orientation layup, which fulfills at the same time both the maximum strain criterion and the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. Construction of an objective function based on the strains and the stresses involves a minimization process to deformations and a maximization of the safety factor. For the first load case, the initial solution is [±45/0/90/±45]s, and the best solution is [(45/135)2/452]s. For the second load case, [-45/45/45/-45/0/90]s is the initial layup sequence, then the best solution obtained is [(45/-45)2/452]s, where plies at 0° and 90º are not necessary even when axial loads are applied. For the third study case, the original layup sequence is [0/45/-45/45/0/90]s; meanwhile, the best solution calculated is [21/24/145/140/45/49]s. An interesting observation is that each pair of layers has a 5º gap. The simulations show that the qualitative results from the GA are better than the SA, but with a significantly higher computational cost. These kinds of computational tools are expected to be used as a reference guide for an optimal fiber configuration with respect to the common orientations used when composite laminates are designed for a structural application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0362.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: natural fibers composite; titica vine fibers; multilayered armor; ballistic
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:02:14 CEST)
Titica vine fibers (TVFs) extracted from aerial roots of Heteropsis flexuosa, from the Amazon region, were 10, 20, 30 and 40 vol% incorporated into an epoxy matrix for applications in ballistic multilayered armor systems (MASs) and stand-alone tests for personal protection against high-velocity 7.62 mm ammunition. The back-face signature (BFS) depth measured for composites with 20 and 40 vol% TVFs used as an intermediate layer in MASs was 25.6 and 32.5 mm, respectively, below the maximum limit set by the international standard. Fracture mechanisms found by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attested the relevance of increasing the fiber fraction for applications in MASs. The results of stand-alone tests showed that the control (0 vol%) and samples with 20 vol% TVFs absorbed the highest impact energy (Eabs) (212 – 176 J), and consequently limit velocity (VL) values (213 – 194 m/s), when compared with 40 vol% fiber fractions. However, the macroscopic evaluation found that the plain epoxy, referring to control samples, shattered completely. In addition, for 10 and 20 vol% TVFs, the composites were fragmented or exhibited delamination fracture, which contributed to their physical integrity. On the other hand, the composite with 30 and 40 vol% TVFs, whose Eabs and VL varied between 166 – 130 J and 189 – 167 m/s, respectively, showed the best dimensional stability. The SEM images indicated that for composites with 10 and 20 vol% TVFs the fracture mode was predominantly brittle, due to the greater performance of the epoxy resin and the discrete action of the fibers. While for composites with 30 and 40 vol% TVFs, there was the activation of more complex mechanisms such as pullout, shearing and fiber rupture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0436.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Composite Deck; OSD; UHPC; stress behavior; fatigue; shear connection
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:02:06 CEST)
Although the Orthotropic steel decks (OSDs) have been widely used in the construction of long-span bridges, there are frequently reported fatigue cracks after years of operation, and the bridge deck overlay also presents severe damage due to OSD crack-induced stiffness reduction. The ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), recognized as the most innovative cementitious composites and the next generation of high-performance materials, shows high strength, ductility, toughness and well performance on durability. After its first application to the OSD bridge in early 2000s, the orthotropic Steel-UHPC composite deck has been comprehensively studied worldwide. This review will summarize some important studies and findings on behavior and fatigue performance of orthotropic steel-UHPC composite deck. The existing studies and engineering application indicate that such deck system presents good bending behavior and high fatigue performance. The failure mode of shear studs in UHPC layer is dominated by shear fractures. The cracking of UHPC layer shall consider the superposition effect of stress from both the whole bridge structure and local decks. While some reasonable structural details in the traditional OSD may not work for the orthotropic steel-UHPC composite deck. It is recommended to evaluate the stress behavior and structural parameters, as well as fatigue life by conducting the field test under in-service traffic conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0018.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: carbon footprint; embodied carbon; biomass; composite materials; material substitution
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:43:38 CEST)
Several methods of processing wood into strong, durable products for the construction industry provide transformative opportunities to substitute for less sustainable building materials. Carbon storage is a further advantage, with the added possibility of combustion for bioenergy at end of life. Intense research activity in this area is expected to open up new markets for wood fiber during the lifetime of trees now being planted. Here, wood-derived materials are classified according to the particle size, from metres to nanometres, into which the wood is fragmented before reconstitution. Materials made by densifying or chemically modifying solid wood with no fragmentation are already in production for exterior doors, window frames and cladding, with improved uniformity and stability compared with unmodified wood. Pre-commercial developments promise further gains in durability and strength. Emerging developments extend these process technologies to wood that has been chipped or stranded or pulped, retaining the above advantages over raw timber for weather-facing applications and adding processability by moulding or extrusion. Crucially, the raw material does not then need to be sawn timber but can be bioenergy-grade wood biomass. This will facilitate afforestation strategies that combine the aims of carbon sequestration and biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2049.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: carbon nanotube, polymer composite, molecular dynamics simulation, elastic modulus
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:01:48 CEST)
The use of carbon nanotubes to improve the mechanical properties of polymers is one of the promising directions in materials science. The addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) to a polymer results in significant improvement of mechanical, electrical, optical, and structural properties. However, the addition of SWCNTs does not always improve the polymer properties. Also, when a certain content of SWCNTs is exceeded, the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite are getting worse. This article reports the results of computer simulations for predicting the mechanical properties of polymer/single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites. The efficiency of reinforcing polymer composites is considered depending on the concentration of carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix, their size and structure. The elastic moduli of the nanocomposites were predicted using computer simulations for unit cell tension (0.1%). General trends in the mechanical properties of composites with polypropylene, poly (ethyl methacrylate), polystyrene matrices and SWCNTs are shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0649.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: abrasion; composite resin; erosion; glass ionomer cement; stannous ion
Online: 9 May 2023 (12:00:38 CEST)
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the nanomechanical properties and chemical composition of restorative materials and dental surfaces using different toothpastes. Methods: Enamel (n=60) and dentin (n=60) bovine blocks were obtained and restored using resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC, n=30) or composite resin (CR, n=30) to form the dentin adjacent to RMGIC (DRMGIC), enamel adjacent to RMGIC (ERMGIC), dentin adjacent to CR (DCR), and enamel adjacent to CR (ECR). After restoration, one hemiface of each specimen was coated with an acid-resistant varnish to create the control (C) and eroded (E) sides (erosion: 5 days, 4 × 2 min/day; 1% citric acid / abrasion: 2 × 15 s followed by immersion on slurries 2 min). Three toothpastes were used: without fluoride (WF; n=10), sodium fluoride (NaF; n=10), and stannous fluoride (SnF2; n=10). The specimens were analyzed for nanohardness (H), elastic modulus (Er), and chemical composition using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman microscopy. Data were analyzed using ANOVA two-way repeated measures and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). Results: The NaF presented lower values of H for DRMGIC-C, with a statistical difference for WF (p < 0.05). SnF2 resulted in lower Er values for ERMGIC-E and RMGIC-E than WF and NaF (p < 0.05). WF showed lower calcium and phosphorus concentrations for DCR-E than other types of toothpastes (p < 0.05). Only stannous-based toothpaste damaged the elasticity of eroded glass ionomer restorations performed in enamel. Toothpastes with fluoride was capable for maintaining main chemical elements of dentin adjacent to restorative materials under challenge conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0507.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Flexible humidity sensor; organosilica; Au NPs; composite; water-resistance
Online: 18 April 2023 (08:28:17 CEST)
A novel flexible humidity sensor, incorporating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and a trifunctional organosilica compound, has been developed through the integration of sol-gel processing, free radical polymerization, and self-assembly techniques. The trifunctional organosilica was initially synthesized by modifying (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (thiol-MPTMS) with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (vinyl-TMSPMA). Subsequently, a hydrophilic polyelectrolyte, [3(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethyl ammonium chloride (MAPTAC), was grafted onto the MPTMS-TMSPMA gel. The Au NPs were assembled onto the thiol groups present in the MPTMS-TMSPMA-MAPTAC gel network. The compositional and microstructural properties of the Au NPs/MPTMS-TMSPMA-MAPTAC composite film were investigated utilizing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of thiol groups and mesoporous silica skeletons ensured the stability of the humidity-sensing film on the substrate under highly humid conditions, while the hydrophilic groups functioned as humidity-sensitive sites. This innovative humidity sensor demonstrated high sensitivity, acceptable linearity, minimal hysteresis, and rapid response time across a broad range of working humidity levels. Based on the complex impedance spectra analysis, hydronium ions (H3O+) were determined to govern the conductance process of the flexible humidity sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0536.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: graphene oxide; nanosheet; polyurethane; composite; XPS spectra; Raman spectra
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:43:12 CET)
Mechanically strong and thermally stable films obtained from a water-based polyurethane (PU) dispersion with small (0.1–1.5 wt.%) additions of graphene oxide nanosheet (GO) were studied through elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential thermogravimetry, and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the depletion of near-surface layers in nitrogen was presented for all the samples under study. It was found that the introduction of GO into a PU matrix was ac-companied by a partial reduction of graphene oxide nanosheet and an increase in the concentra-tion of defects in its structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Bad Behavior; Unethical Behavior; Composite Index; Development.
Online: 28 October 2022 (12:14:41 CEST)
Objective. Political instability, corruption, exclusive institutions et al. are some of the hypotheses backed by literature as to why some nations are more developed than others. One hypothesis which has not been intensively studied is the culpability of individual and institutional behavior and its impact on development. To examine the validity of such a hypothesis, a composite index which quantifies such development hindering behavior must be developed. The prelude to developing this index is to investigate whether such a quantitative measure exists to begin with. To achieve this objective, a bibliometric analysis of Scopus and Web of Science databases will be conducted. Method. A bibliometric and content analysis of Scopus and Web of science databases using Excel, VOSviewer, and R software. Results. The findings of the bibliometric analysis indicate the absence of such measure particularly within the scope of ‘bad behavior’, ‘unethical behavior’, and ‘development’. Conclusions. The study findings provide the greenlight to proceed with the construction of the ‘Bad Behavior Index’. Contribution. The practical contribution of this study is that it provides researchers with an improved methodology on how to conduct a bibliometric analysis to identify the absence of knowledge and provide a justification for the creation of such knowledge by integrating and analyzing two journal databases instead of one, using three mediums: Excel, VOSviewer, and R software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Short fiber-reinforced composite; Random fields; Plasticity; Numerical simulation
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:11:54 CEST)
For the numerical simulation of components made of short fiber-reinforced composites the correct prediction of the deformation including the elastic and plastic behavior and its spatial distribution is essential. When using purely deterministic modeling approaches the information of the probabilistic microstructure is not included in the simulation process. One possible approach for the integration of stochastic information is the use of random fields. In this study numerical simulations of tensile test specimens are conducted utilizing a finite deformation elastic-ideal plastic material model. A selection of the material parameters covering the elastic and plastic domain are represented by cross-correlated second-order Gaussian random fields to incorporate the probabilistic nature of the material parameters. To validate the modeling approach tensile tests until failure are carried out experimentally, that confirm the assumption of spatially distributed material behavior in both the elastic and plastic domain. Since the correlation lengths of the random fields cannot be determined by pure analytic treatments, additionally numerical simulations are performed for different values of the correlation length. The numerical simulations endorse the influence of the correlation length on the overall behavior. For a correlation length of 5mm a good conformity with the experimental results is obtained. Therefore, it is concluded, that the presented modeling approach is suitable to predict the elastic and plastic deformation of a set of tensile test specimens made of short fiber-reinforced composite sufficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0190.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: adsorbent; palm oil; central composite design; bleaching; snail shell
Online: 13 May 2022 (10:40:35 CEST)
Agricultural wastes have posed as a treat to the environment over the years and they are found in large quantities due to domestic and industrial utilization of such materials in under developed and developing countries. The inability to recycle this waste has led to researches on how to use them in carrying out productive industrial activities. The aim of this study is to use Central Composite Design (CCD) to optimize the bleaching effects by snail shell as adsorbents on crude palm oil. The predictive ability of the model was close to accurate using MINITAB 19 software with the design application for the process simulation for % FFA yield to have 75.856% for experimental and 77.587% for predicted yield with just 1.731% residual. The saponification value increased with adsorption, and it indicates that palm oil can be used for soap making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0341.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: resistance; bending; axial force; reinforced concrete; composite; section models
Online: 19 November 2021 (08:26:27 CET)
The paper presents section models for analysis of the resistance of RC members subjected to bending moment with or without axial force. To determine the section resistance the nonlinear stress-strain relationship for concrete in compression is assumed, taking into account the concrete softening. It adequately describes the behavior of RC members up to failure. For the reinforcing steel linear elastic-ideal plastic model is applied. For the ring cross-section subjected to bending with axial force the normalized resistances are derived in the analytical form by integrating the cross-sectional equilibrium equations. They are presented in the form of interaction diagrams and compared with the results obtained by testing conducted on RC columns under eccentric compression. Furthermore, the ultimate normalized bending moment has been derived for the rectangular cross-section subjected to bending without axial force. It was applied in the cross-sectional analysis of steel and concrete composite beams, named BH beams, consisting of the RC rectangular core placed inside a reversed TT welded profile. The comparisons made indicated good agreements between the proposed section models and experimental results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0515.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Typhoid fever; Diagnostic; Metabolomics; Composite reference standard; Accuracy; Sensitivity.
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:28:33 CEST)
Typhoid fever is a major public health burden which causes substantial global morbidity and mortality due to lack of decisive diagnostic protocols. The capacity of commonly use diagnostic test to validate the absence of typhoid fever is controversial. This study explores to evaluate new techniques for typhoid diagnosis and proposed a harmonised suitable standardized composite reference to be adopted. Published peer-reviewed articles indexed in PubMed, MEDLINE and Google scholar were reviewed for hospital-based studies. This study reveals new typhoid diagnostic techniques such as proteomics, serology, Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs), transcriptomics, genomics, and metabolomics. 34.4% of the studies use prospective study design. The study result establishes that, Widal test has a moderate diagnostic accuracy with average percentage sensitivity (52.9%), specificity (54%), positive predictive value (PPV) (56.8%) as well as negative predictive value (NPV) (55.6%) when compared with 29.4%, 28%, 29.5%, and 27.8% of Typhidot respectively. The findings showed a statistically significant difference on the sensitivity between Widal and Typhidot t (40) = 2.639, p = 0.012 at p<0.05 using independent sample t-test. When there is no perfect reference standard that has an optimal diagnostic accuracy, the need for a harmonised suitable standardized composite reference is essential. Hence, this study recommends that, peripheral blood culture with established sensitivity of 60% and Widal test with average sensitivity of 52.9% be adopted as a consensus composite reference standard for typhoid fever diagnosis in other to improve confidence in prevalence estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0076.v6
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Unification; Composite Photon; Negative Mass; Antimatter; Grand Unification Theory, Dark Energy, Dark Matter
Online: 28 October 2021 (10:06:39 CEST)
A deep relationship is identified between the Coulomb Force and Gravity. A gravitational constant for strong gravity is calculated from the relationship. The equivalence between mass and charge is explored. Implications are given for the expansion of Einstein's Field Equations to include vector gravity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0038.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Kirchhoff-Love plate; Composite material; Thin inclusion; Asymptotic analysis
Online: 2 October 2020 (10:38:58 CEST)
An equilibrium problem of the Kirchhoff-Love plate containing a nonhomogeneous inclusion is considered. It is assumed that elastic properties of the inclusion depend on a small parameter characterizing width of the inclusion $\varepsilon$ as $\varepsilon^N$ with $N<1$. The passage to the limit as the parameter $\varepsilon$ tends to zero is justified, and an asymptotic model of a plate containing a thin inhomogeneous hard inclusion is constructed. It is shown that there exists two types of thin inclusions: rigid inclusion ($N<-1$) and elastic inclusion ($N=-1$). The inhomogeneity disappears in the case of $N\in (-1,1)$.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0312.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene oxide; nano composite; ruthenium oxide; supercapacitor; XRD; XPS
Online: 20 March 2020 (09:27:19 CET)
Graphene-oxide (G) was prepared by the Hummers’ method. A G-COOH layer was synthesised using chloroacetic acid and G. To fabricate carboxylated graphene-RuO2 (G-COORu) nano¬¬-composites, RuO2 nano particles were grown on graphene layers using a one-step thermal method, -COOH(G-COOH), and RuCl3. All materials were characterised using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance as well as X-ray photoelectron, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman. The electrochemical characteristics of the G-COORu supercapacitors were analysed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge tests, and Nyquist impedance plots. The supercapacitors exhibit a specific capacitance of ~125 F g-1 at 100 mA cm-2 within the potential range of 0–1.0 V. The method used here provides a simple approach for the deposition of RuO2 nano particles on graphene layers and can be widened to the fabrication of other classes of hybrids based on G layers for specific technical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: amphiphilic block copolymers; carbon nanotubes; stimuli responsive; conductive composite
Online: 12 August 2019 (12:28:23 CEST)
Homogeneous water dispersions of MWCNTs were prepared by ultrasonication in the presence of an amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) copolymer. The ability of PS-b-PAA to disperse and stabilize MWCTNs was investigated by UV-vis, SEM and zeta potential. It is shown that the copolymer can disperse nanotubes directly by sonication in water. The results show that the addition of a styrene block to PAA enhances the dispersion efficiency compared to pure PAA, possibly due to the nanotube affinity with the polystyrene moiety. Notably, the dispersions show an evident pH-responsive behavior, being MWCNTs reaggregation promoted in basic environment. Furthermore, composites obtained by drop casting display electrical conductivity responsive to pH variations, showing the potential of such materials for sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: basalt fibre; fabric; magnesium; centrifugal cast; metal matrix composite
Online: 1 August 2019 (04:57:31 CEST)
Magnesium is one of the lightest structural metal used in different industrial sector and many works are present in literature about the study of its reinforcement by fillers addition. Basalt fibres are natural fillers with good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to high temperature and lower cost than carbon fibres. For these aspects, in the last years they are increasingly used in the production of composite materials with polymeric matrices. However, very few information are presents in literature about the use of basalt fibres as reinforcement in metal matrix composite materials. It is well known that the impregnation of fibres reinforcement affects the mechanical behavior of composites materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the impregnation and the behavior of basalt fibres in a magnesium alloy composite material manufactured by a centrifugal casting technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: polypropylene; composite; constitutive model; reprocessing; mechanical properties; strain rate
Online: 18 June 2019 (12:56:48 CEST)
The effect of reprocessing on the quasi-static uniaxial tensile behavior of two commercial polypropylene (PP) based composites is experimentally investigated and modeled. In particular, the studied materials consist of an unfilled high-impact PP and a talc-filled high-impact PP. These PP composites are subjected to repeated processing cycles including a grinding step and an extrusion step to simulate recycling at the laboratory level, the selected reprocessing numbers for this study being 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12. Because the repeated reprocessing leads to thermo-mechanical degradation by chain scission mechanisms, the tensile behavior of the two materials exhibits a continuous decrease of elastic modulus and failure strain with increasing number of reprocessing. A physically consistent three-dimensional constitutive model is used to predict the tensile response of non-recycled materials with strain rate dependence. For the recycled materials, the reprocessing effect is accounted by incorporating the reprocessing sensitive coefficient into the constitutive model for Young’s modulus, failure strain, softening and hardening equations. Our predictions of true stress - true strain curves for non-recycled and recycled 108MF97 and 7510 are in a good agreement with experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0302.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: experimental tests; composite laminates; tensile strength; artificial neural networks
Online: 25 December 2018 (09:32:08 CET)
The objective of this article was to forecast the ultimate failure load laminate stacking sequence combination on bonding joints which are exposed to tensile strength by using artificial neural networks. We have glass fiber composite materials with three different sequence combinations ([0°/90°], [±45°], [0°/90°/±45°]). Various adherend thicknesses and also ductile type adhesive was used in the experiment. The bonding geometry is a single lap and has four types of overlap angles 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that composite laminate stacking sequence profoundly affects the bonding joints of failure load. Taking experimental results into account, Levenberg–Marquardt learning algorithm model was used by preferring a three layer forward on ANN so as to discipline network. In order to procure a precise ANN tool, an integrate methodology of experimental method has been used. The outcomes are used to ensure the experimental data’s to the ANN. The method of ANN permits surveying much adequately the probabilities of composite laminate stacking sequence combination using the prevalent ones which are [0°/90°], [±45°] and [0°/90°/±45°]. Testing data and training results were quite well 0.998, 0.997 and 0.998 in turn. Consequences acquired can be used by engineers who are interested in the composite material design to enhance failure load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0351.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: blend; bio-derived polymers; compatibilization; thermoplastic matrix for composite
Online: 15 November 2018 (08:49:26 CET)
High density polyethylene (HDPE) and poly(lactic) acid (PLA) blends with different ratios of both polymers, namely 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30, were produced. Polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride and a random copolymer of ethylene and glycidyl methacrylate, were also proposed as compatibilizers to modify HDPE-PLA optimal blends and were added in the amounts of 1, 3 and 5 wt.%. Blends properties have been evaluated through different aspects by performing tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy to analyze blend morphology and interfaces, and thermomechanical analysis through differential scanning calorimetry, thermo-gravimetric analyses and infrared spectroscopy. The second blend, the one with equal amounts of HDPE and PLA seems to represent a good balance between high amount of bio-derived charge and acceptable mechanical properties. This suggests a good potential of these blends, which would be a good starting point for the production of composites with lingo-cellulosic fillers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Adhesive, Dentin, Composite, Adaptation, Tooth, Optical coherence tomography, Gap
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:52:54 CEST)
Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the adaptation of the restored class-I cavities with two self-etch adhesives bonded to two resin composite using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT). Materials and Methods: Cylindrical class-I cavities were prepared on twenty, extracted human premolars. Two self-etch adhesives; Clearfil SE bond 2 (SE; Kuraray Noritake Dental, Japan) and Bond Force (Palfique Bond) adhesive (PL; Tokuyama Dental, Japan) were used in this study that were bonded to either resin composites materials; Herculite XRV microhybrid dental composite (HRV; Kerr, Italy) or Estelite Alpha composite (ESA; Tokuyama Dental, Japan). The specimens were divided into four groups (n=5); SE-HRV, SE-ESA, PL-HRV and PL-ESA. All specimens were varnished and stored in distilled water for 24h. Then, they were submerged in a contrasting medium. After that, all groups were optically imaged under CP-OCT at every 250 µm interval distance. Later, image binarization and gap quantification were carried out using Image analysis software. Result: There was a significant difference between all the groups except between SE-ESA and PL-ESA (p = 0.51). The highest median gap % was seen in PL-HRV group followed by SE-ESA, PL-ESA and SE-HRV. Conclusion: Other than composite filler loading and adhesive formula, the interactions of the adhesive and composite copolymers have great influence on composite adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0161.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: copper; carbonous nanomaterial; composite coating; heat-dissipation material; nanodiamond
Online: 24 November 2017 (16:18:35 CET)
Carbonous nanomaterials are promising additives for composite coatings for heat-dissipation materials because of their excellent thermal conductivity. Here, copper/carbonous nanomaterial composite coatings were prepared using nanodiamond (ND) as the carbonous nanomaterial. The copper/ND composite coatings were electrically deposited onto copper substrates from a continuously stirred copper sulfate coating bath containing NDs. NDs were dispersed by ultrasonic treatment, and the initial bath pH was adjusted by adding sodium hydroxide solution or sulfuric acid solution before electrodeposition. The effects of various coating conditions—the initial ND concentration, initial bath pH, stirring speed, electrical current density, and the amount of electricity—on the ND content of the coatings were investigated. Furthermore, the surface of the NDs was modified by hydrothermal treatment to improve ND incorporation. A higher initial ND concentration and a higher stirring speed increased the ND content of the coatings, whereas a higher initial bath pH and a greater amount of electricity decreased it. The electrical current density showed a minimum ND content at approximately 5 A/dm2. Hydrothermal treatment, which introduced carboxyl groups onto the ND surface, improved the ND content of the coatings. A copper/ND composite coating with a maximum of 3.85 mass% ND was obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: TIG process; Composite Coating; St 304; Hardness; Wear Resistance
Online: 14 April 2017 (04:29:16 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to develop a composite coating on St 304 steel employing TIG process. Ti wire cored with graphite powder is used as the means of coating material. The process parameters are varied in order to develop coating with optimum characteristics (i.e., hardness and wear resistance). The microstructure of the coating is analyzed with SEM and XRD. It is found that both of the hardness and wear resistance increase as the current increases while both of these properties decrease as the travelling speed increases. It is found that the coated samples with composite layers have more hardness than the substrate and it could range up to 1100 HV being almost 4.5 times higher than the hardness of St 304. Likewise, the wear resistance of coating is observed to be 4.5 times higher than that of substrate. The high performance of coating, as revealed by microstructural analysis, is due to formation of TiC and Cr23C6 .The optimum conditions to produce the coating are proposed to be 120 A current and 3.17 mm/s travel speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0084.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: textile composite; biaxial tensile; modulus; plain weave fabric (PWF)
Online: 16 November 2016 (13:34:41 CET)
This paper addresses a new micromechanical model to predict biaxial tensile moduli of plain weave fabric (PWF) composites by considering the interaction between the orthogonal interlacing strands. The two orthogonal yarns in micromechanical unit cell (UC) were idealized as the curved beams with a path depicted by using sinusoidal shape functions. The biaxial tensile moduli of PWF composites were derived by means of the minimum total complementary potential energy principle founded on micromechanics. The biaxial tensile tests were respectively conducted on the RTM-made EW220/5284 PWF composites at five biaxial loading ratios of 0, 1, 2, 3 and ∞ to validate the new model. The predictions from the new model were compared with experimental data and good correlation was achieved between the predictions and actual experiments, demonstrating the practical and effective use of the proposed model. Using the new model, the biaxial tensile moduli of plain weave fabric (PWF) composites could be predicted based only on the properties of basic woven fabric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1200.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: binary representation; composite function; Collatz conjecture; ultimately periodic sequence; chaos
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:07:22 CEST)
The two main strategies used in this study are the binary representation and the decomposition of a natural number into many compound functions of odd function and even function. The Collatz conjecture regarding odd even numbers in number theory can be examined and discussed using them in this way: The sequence created by the finite iterations of the Collatz function becomes the ultimately periodic sequence if any natural number is the beginning value, proving the conjecture that has been held for 85 years.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0350.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: composite preparation; random fiber design; natural frequency; moderate thick plates
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:09:48 CEST)
The experimental verification for the computational method sometimes varies due to numerous factors such as the manufacturing process and the materials' property change due to environmental aspects. In this work, we performed verification of experimental and computational evaluation of a hybrid composite moderate thick plate. The experiment was performed with simplistic approaches and without the advanced tools of preparing composite materials. This is due to the fact that most of the students in many developing countries around the world cannot have access to such equipment. As such, in this research, we are presenting cheap and easy preparation methods, with some details, for even equipment calibration and some tricks to attain a reliable composite structure for educational purposes. Moreover, the software and solvers used in this study are freely provided by the supplier for educational purposes. This study examined two methods for producing carbon and glass/polyester composite plates and discussed which one was best based on mechanical properties for different volume fractions, random stacking sequences, and ply angles (using OCTAVE's random estimation program). It also determined the three natural frequencies experimentally and with the aid of ANSYS. Less than 6% separated the experimentally determined natural frequencies from the calculated results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0404.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: activated carbon; lithium-ion batteries; LTO/Sn composite; sol-hydrothermal
Online: 29 June 2022 (10:04:27 CEST)
Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) exhibits zero-strain behavior, exceptional cycle stability, low cost, and high safety. However, it is still low in electronic and ionic conductivity. Incorporating Sn into LTO materials can increase electronic conductivity and specific capacity. However, Sn still experiences volumetric expansion during the charging/discharging process. Adding activated carbon (AC) into the LTO/Sn composite can help improve the expansion resistance and electronic conductivity. In this work, the AC was first synthesized from charcoals through the carbon activation process and mixed with LTO precursors through the sol-hydrothermal method followed by mixing with Sn through the mechanochemical process to produce LTO@AC/Sn composites. The Sn content was fixed at 15 wt.%, while the AC contents were varied at 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%, and 5 wt.%. The AC specific surface area is increased by more than 100% compared to the non-activated one. The best effects of AC on grain morphology and distribution were found in the LTO/Sn contained 3 wt.% of AC, leading to transfer resistance, ohmic resistance, specific capacity, and coulombic efficiency were found to be 48.1 Ω, 8.5 Ω, 138 mAhg-1, and near 100%, respectively. The result suggests that the LTO@AC/Sn could be a favorable anode active material in lithium-ion batteries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0371.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Bentonite-Kaolinite-Worm Cast Clay; composite; Diclofenac-Na; geosorption; wastewater
Online: 27 May 2022 (08:48:13 CEST)
Under batch experiment conditions, this work seeks to successfully remove Diclofenac-Na (DCF-Na) from an aqueous solution utilizing a composite sorbent made of Bentonite, Kaolinite clay, and Worm casting (BKW). This study investigated the structural modification of the H3PO4 Modified Clay by X-ray fluorescence and the effect of selected adsorption factors – DCF-Na concentration and modified BKW composite dosage. The concentration equilibrium data was used to study six isotherm models. Freundlich isotherm model better explained the adsorption of DCF-Na onto modified BKW composite with a correlation coefficient close to 1. Kinetics models were examined, and the Elovich model gave a better fit than other kinetic models studied. Mass diffusion mechanisms and thermodynamics studies were successfully carried out. The enthalpy change values evaluated were negative, which revealed the spontaneity of DCF-Na remediation onto modified BKW, and that DCF-Na adsorption is exothermic and occurred through a physisorption process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0148.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Cellulose Nanofiber; Organoclay; PCM; Thermal Energy Storage; Building; Composite materials
Online: 15 April 2022 (14:55:52 CEST)
In this research, Cellulose Nanofibers (NFC) modified with a eutectic of lauric acid (LA) was prepared as a new form-stable phase change material (NFC-LA). Thermal properties of this composite were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results revealed that the melting temperature and latent heat of NFC/LA were 21.56 °C and 88.5 J/g, respectively; and the super cooling degree for the NFC-LA composite decreased to 13.99 °C when compared to 20.28 °C of the pure lauric acid. Natural clay was purified and modified with Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to prepare organoclay. Through FTIR spectra, we have confirmed that the clay was successfully modified. The PCM-composite was then added to the organoclay to obtain a new composite denoted NFC-LA-OC. this latter was added to cement and was investigated as a reinforcement material in cement mortars for thermal energy storage application. The prepared material can both solve the leakage problem associated to the phase change material, and reduce or even avoid the use of heating and air conditioning systems, which are energy-intensive systems, and therefore reduce energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Composite CNT bundle; crosstalk delay; interconnect; propagation delay; RLC model
Online: 16 November 2021 (10:06:06 CET)
The aroused quest to reduce the delay at interconnect level is the main urge of this paper to come across a configuration of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) bundle namely squarely packed bundle of composite CNTs. The approach, demonstrated in this paper, adapts the composite bundle to adopt for high speed Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) interconnect with technology sizing down. To reduce the delay of the proposed configuration of composite CNT bundle, the behavioral change of Resistance (R), Inductance (L) and Capacitance (C) has been observed with respect to both width of the bundle and diameter of the CNTs in the bundle. Consequently, the performance of the modified bundle configuration is compared with previously developed configuration namely squarely packed bundle of dimorphic MWCNTs in terms of propagation delay and crosstalk delay at local, semiglobal and global level interconnect. The proposed bundle configuration is ultimately enacted as better one for 32nmand 16nmtechnology node and suitable for 7nmas well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0169.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: commingle yarn; carbon fiber; opening yarn fabric; nylon fiber; composite
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:39:22 CEST)
Fiber-opening treatment of commingled yarns consisting of thermoplastic nylon fibers and carbon fibers could produce superior CFRTP, but few studies toward that end have been conducted. In this study, we investigated whether an open weave fabric consisting of commingled yarns made of carbon and nylon fibers could shorten the impregnation distance of resin to carbon fibers, and there are few reports on the design of fabrics by opening carbon fiber bundles consisting of commingled yarns. From this study, following are cleared. The impregnation speed of the nylon resin on the carbon fiber was very fast, less than 1 minute. As the molding time increased, the tensile strength and tensile fracture strain slightly decreased and the nylon resin deteriorated. The effects of molding time on flexural strength, flexural modulus, and flexural fracture strain were negligible. From the cross-sectional observation conducted to confirm the impregnation state of the matrix resin, no voids were observed in the molded products regardless of molding time or molding pressure, indicating that resin impregnation into the carbon fiber bundle of the open-fiber mixed yarn fabric was completed at a molding pressure of 5 MPa and a molding time of 5 min.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0178.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Chemical Physics Keywords: generalized nonlinear constitutive law; composite beam; Timoshenko beam; Bernoulli beam
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:48:26 CEST)
The paper presents a modified finite element method for nonlinear analysis of 2D beam structures. To take into account the influence of the shear flexibility, a Timoshenko beam element was adopted. The algorithm proposed enables using complex material laws without the need of implementing advanced constitutive models in finite element routines. The method is easy to implement in commonly available CAE software for linear analysis of beam structures. It allows to extend the functionality of these programs with material nonlinearities. By using the structure deformations, computed from the nodal displacements, and the presented here generalized nonlinear constitutive law, it is possible to iteratively reduce the bending, tensile and shear stiffnesses of the structures. By applying a beam model with a multi layered cross-section and generalized stresses and strains to obtain a representative constitutive law, it is easy to model not only the complex multi-material cross-sections, but also the advanced nonlinear constitutive laws (e.g. material softening in tension). The proposed method was implemented in the MATLAB environment, its performance was shown on the several numerical examples. The cross-sections such us a steel I-beam and a steel I-beam with a concrete encasement for different slenderness ratios were considered here. To verify the accuracy of the computations, all results are compared with the ones received from a commercial CAE software. The comparison reveals a good correlation between the reference model and the method proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0811.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: magnetorheological; elastomer; magnetorheological elastomer; MRE; weather; accelerated; rubber; composite; rheological
Online: 31 December 2020 (13:28:19 CET)
Silicone RTV-based engineering rubber composite products have been widely used for several applications in various fields as a major component such as structure, automotive, and medical. In its application, the rubber composite product is placed in an open area that is directly exposed to sunlight and rain. It has a significant negative impact on changes in chemical and rheological properties, making the product life of rubber composite products shorter. Therefore, in this study, changes in the chemical and rheological properties of both isotropic and anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) treated with accelerated weathering were studied compared to untreated specimens with specimens that had been treated. MRE specimens with 40% by weight CIP were prepared with no current excitation and another sample were made under 1.5 T of magnetic flux density. Each specimen was treated in an accelerated weathering machine Q-Sun Xe-1 Xenon Test Chamber with a UV light exposure cycle for 102 minutes and 18 minutes of UV light combined with water spray for 24 hours followed by a condensation cycle of 4 hours in a dark period. Material characterization was carried out using FTIR and Rheometer to determine the changes in chemical and rheological properties. The morphological analysis results showed that the surface was rough and more cavities occurred after being given weather treatment. Rheometer test results showed a decrease in storage modulus in each MRE specimen that had been treated compared to untreated MRE specimens. Meanwhile, FTIR testing showed a change in wave peak between untreated and treated MRE specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0295.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: damage and defect assessment; magnetic resonance imaging; polymer matrix composite
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:17:19 CET)
Defectively manufactured and deliberately damaged composite laminates fabricated with different continuous reinforcing fibres (respectively, carbon and glass) and polymer matrices (respectively, thermoset and thermoplastic) were inspected in magnetic resonance imaging equipment. Two pulse sequences were evaluated during non-destructive examination conducted in saline solution-immersed samples to simulate load-bearing orthopaedic implants permanently in contact with biofluids. The orientation, positioning, shape, and especially the size of translaminar and delamination fractures were determined according to stringent structural assessment criteria. The spatial distribution, shape, and contours of water-filled voids were sufficiently delineated to infer the amount of absorbed water if thinner image slices than this study were used. The surface texture of composite specimens featuring roughness, waviness, indentation, crushing, and scratches was outlined, with fortuitous artefacts not impairing the image quality and interpretation. Low electromagnetic shielding glass fibres delivered the highest, while electrically conductive carbon fibres produced the poorest quality images, particularly when blended with thermoplastic polymer, though reliable image interpretation was still attainable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0158.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: progressive fatigue model; micromechanical model; finite element simulation; composite laminate
Online: 7 September 2020 (07:21:35 CEST)
A micromechanical model is implemented to indicate the progressive fatigue problem of a laminated composite with a central circular hole under fatigue loading based on a finite element model. The mechanical properties of the composite lamina are represented based on the characteristics of the fiber and the matrix through a micromechanics model. An appropriate algorithm is then adopted to simulate fatigue damage development in the composite lamina. According to this algorithm, the stress field of the composite subjected to fatigue load is initially obtained using the finite element method. Finally, the predicted results of the stresses in the constituents i.e. fiber and matrix are determined according to the micromechanical bridging model. Finally applying proper damage driving relations leads to damage degree in each element. The proposed model is proven to be successful in the observation of the fatigue behavior with stiffness degradation in each element of the composite in each cycle. Results are reported and validated using those micromechanical models and experimental data available in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0065.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Semiconductors; X-ray diffraction; Composite nanopowder; SEM; Optical properties; VSM
Online: 3 September 2020 (08:18:50 CEST)
ZnS-CdS composite nano-powder doped with (0.01 mol %) Cobalt has been collected by a co-precipitation process at 300 K. The sample is characterized by structural, combined spectroscopic methods and magnetic studies. The prepared samples were belonging to cubic structure no impurity phases were observed. Doping of cobalt increase the neighborhood strain assessment and a decreases lattice constants decides from x-ray diffraction data. The crystallite size is 10.42nm. From UV-absorption and EPR studies revealed that the energy band gap of Co2+ doped ZnS-CdS composite nanopowder and extension of sp-d exchange interactions and common d-d transitions. The variation in the energy bandgap varies as a function of cobalt concentration is due to structural modification. Photoluminescence spectrum reveals the defect-related emissions and shows the formation of luminescence. FT-IR spectrum confirmed the feature vibrational manner of Zn, Cd, O–H and sulfide ions are in the host lattice. The doping-induced magnetic properties are studied by vibrating sample magnetometer which matches with the theoretical values besides ferromagnetic nature. Magnetic studies confirm the ferromagnetic nature of the material. Surface morphology and chemical homogeneity studies were carried out by using SEM with EDAX. Transmission electron microscope recommends the crystalline nature of nanoparticles, with average particle size is of the order of 20-100nm.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: nanofiber; multiscale; X-ray tomography; composite filter media; numerical simulation
Online: 20 July 2020 (11:28:45 CEST)
Air filtration mechanisms in the composite filter media used in practical applications are important and challenging to understand because the component fibers could have various size scales and morphologies. In this work, a three-dimensional digital model of nanofiber-based filter media was reconstructed for the first time based on the X-ray tomography data for the cellulose substrate and the Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB-SEM) image analysis for the several microns thick (3.82-7.90 μm) electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiber membrane. Besides the high-resolution model where the details of the fibrous structures were fully resolved, another low-resolution model with approximated unresolved structures was also established. Filtration simulations utilizing these models were conducted considering the drag force, Brownian diffusion and aerodynamic slip. The simulated filtration efficiencies agreed well with the experiments for particles of 70-400 nm, including the most penetrating particle size (MPPS, 100-200 nm). Moreover, the structure-resolved models had higher accuracy but higher computational costs, while the unresolved simulations saved much running time but over-predicted the filtration efficiency, especially for smaller particles (<100 nm). Our study presents a comprehensive strategy for investigating the composite filter media with multiscale complex structures using a combination of advanced characterization technologies and modular simulation models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: ceramic materials; composite structure; additive technologies; dynamic loading; transformation hardening
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:27:49 CEST)
This paper presents a physical and mathematical model that has been developed in the framework of the approach used in the computational mechanics of materials. The model is designed to enable the study of the patterns of deformation and fracture of ceramic composites with a transformation-hardened matrix that are obtained by additive technologies at the mesoscopic and macroscopic levels under intense dynamic loading. The influence of the loading rate on the formation of the fracture and energy dissipation fronts for composite materials, based on the Al2O3 20%ZrO2 system, is shown. Nonlinear effects under intense dynamic loading in the considered composites are associated with the processes of self-organization of structural fragments at the mesoscopic level, as well as the occurrence of martensitic phase transformations in matrix volumes adjacent to the strengthening particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric ceramic; piezo-composite actuator; unimorph; piezoelectric single crystal; LIPCA
Online: 18 March 2020 (02:58:14 CET)
Research on piezo-composite actuators has been actively conducted over the past two decades as a response to strong demand for light, compact actuators to replace electro-magnetic motor actuators in micro robots, small flying drones, and compact missile systems. Layered piezo-composite unimorph actuators have been studied to provide active vibration control of thin-walled aerospace structures, control the shapes of aircraft wing airfoils, and control the fins of small missiles, because they require less space and provide better frequency responses than conventional electro-magnetic motor actuator systems. However, based on the limited actuation strains of conventional piezo-composite unimorph actuators with poly-crystalline piezoelectric ceramic layers, they have not been implemented effectively as actuators for small aerospace vehicles. In this study, a lightweight piezo-composite unimorph actuator (LIPCA-S2) was manufactured and analyzed to predict its flexural actuation displacement. It was found that the actuated tip displacement of a piezo-composite cantilever could be predicted accurately using the proposed prediction model based on the nonlinear properties of the piezoelectric strain coefficient and elastic modulus of a piezoelectric single crystal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polymeric composites; composite technology; vacuum infusion; process modeling and optimization
Online: 3 February 2020 (06:34:49 CET)
This paper considers a new approach to the modeling of the vacuum infusion process at the manufacturing three-dimensional composite parts of complex shape. The developed approach and numerical methods are focused on the reliable prediction with the needed accuracy and elimination the unrecoverable defect of composite structure such as the dry spots. The paper presents some experimental results, which demonstrate two cases of dry spots formation in large aircraft composite panels, and analyses the reasons of these defects arising. Our numerical technique is based on the vacuum infusion of the liquid resin into porous preform as the two phase flow, which is described by the phase field equation coupled with the Richards equation describing the fluid motion in unsaturated soils with spatially varied pressure dependant porosity and saturation. This problem statement allowed to correctly reconstruct the resin front motion and formation of inner and outer dry spots depending on its movement. For the rapid detection of preform zones that are suspicious for defect formation two indicators calculated during process simulation are proposed and tested at the numerical experiments. The auxiliary program tool has been developed in MATLAB environment to correctly detect the times of formation, localization and dimensions of the arising dry spots by using the results of the finite element model simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0004.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: waveform decomposition; Hyper Point Cloud; deconvolution; waveform voxel; composite waveform
Online: 3 May 2019 (14:15:41 CEST)
A wealth of Full Waveform (FW) LiDAR data are available to the public from different sources, which is poised to boost the extensive application of FW LiDAR data. However, we lack a handy and open source tool that can be used by potential users for processing and analyzing FW LiDAR data. To this end, we introduce waveformlidar, an R package dedicated to FW LiDAR processing, analysis and visualization as a solution to the constraint. Specifically, this package provides several commonly used waveform processing methods such as Gaussian, adaptive Gaussian and Weibull decompositions, and deconvolution approaches (Gold and Richard-Lucy (RL)) with users’ customized settings. In addition, we also developed functions to derive commonly used waveform metrics for characterizing vegetation structure. Moreover, a new way to directly visualize FW LiDAR data is developed through converting waveforms into points to form the Hyper Point cloud (HPC), which can be easily adopted and subsequently analyzed with existing discrete-return LiDAR processing tools such as LAStools and FUSION. Basic explorations of the HPC such as 3D voxelization of the HPC and conversion from original waveforms to composite waveforms are also available in this package. All of these functions are developed based on small-footprint FW LiDAR data, but they can be easily transplanted to the large footprint FW LiDAR data such as Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) and Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) data analysis. It is anticipated that these functions will facilitate the widespread use of FW LiDAR and be beneficial for better estimating biomass and characterizing vegetation structure at various scales. The package and code examples can be found at https://github.com/tankwin08/waveformlidar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Co-B/SiC composite coatings; electrodeposition; hard coatings; wear volume
Online: 4 April 2019 (12:52:34 CEST)
In the present paper, Co-B/SiC composite coatings were obtained via electrodeposition from colloidal suspensions with different concentrations of SiC particles and subsequent heat treatments at 350 °C. The composition, morphology and structure of the Co-B/SiC composite coatings were analyzed using glow discharge spectrometry (GDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hardness and tribological properties were also studied. The results showed that an increase in the SiC concentration in the colloidal suspensions resulted in both an increase in the SiC content and a decrease in the B content in the obtained Co-B/SiC coatings. The Co-B/SiC coatings were adherent, glossy and soft and exhibited a homogeneous composition in all thicknesses. By contrast, an increase in the SiC particle content of the Co-B/SiC composite coating from 0 to 2.56 at.% SiC reduced the hardness of the film from 680 to 360 HV and decreased the wear volume values from 1180 to 23 mm3 N-1 m-1, respectively (that is, the wear resistance increased). Moreover, when the Co-B/SiC coatings with SiC content ranging from 0 to 2.56 at.% SiC were subjected to a heat treatment process, the obtained coating hardness values were in the range of 1200 to 1500 HV and the wear volume values were in the range of 382 to 19 mm3 N-1 m-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0033.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: PIN-PMN-PT; 1-3 composite; high frequency; phased array
Online: 4 February 2019 (12:01:44 CET)
Based on a modified dice-and-fill technique, a PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite with the kerf of 12 μm and pitch of 50 μm was prepared. The as-made piezoelectric composite material behaved with high piezoelectric constant (d33 = 1500 pC/N), high electromechanical coefficient (kt = 0.81), and low acoustic impedance (16.2 Mrayls). Using lithography and flexible circuit method, a 48-element phased array was successfully fabricated from such a piezoelectric composite. The array element was measured to have a central frequency of 20 MHz and a fractional bandwidth of approximately 77% at −6 dB. Of particular significance was that this PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite-based phased array exhibits a superior insertion loss compared with PMN-PT single crystal and PZT-5H-based 20 MHz phased arrays. The focusing and steering capabilities of the obtained phased array were demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. These promising results indicate that the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite-based high frequency phased array is a good candidate for ultrasound imaging applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0180.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: SMA reinforced composite; low-velocity impact; vibrating boundary; numerical analysis
Online: 7 November 2018 (16:08:13 CET)
Structural vibration induced by dynamic load or natural vibration is a nonnegligible factor in failure analysis. Based on vibrating boundary condition, impact resistance of shape memory alloy reinforced composites is investigated. In this investigation, modified Hashin’s failure criterion, Brinson’s model and visco-hyperelastic model are implemented into the numerical model to charactering the mechanical behavior of glass fiber/epoxy resin laminates, SMAs and interphase, respectively. First, fixed boundary condition is maintained in simulation to verify the accuracy of material parameters and procedures by comparing with experimental data. Then, a series of vibrating boundaries with different frequencies and amplitudes are applied during the simulation process to reveals the effect on impact resistances. The statistics of absorbed energy and contact force indicate that impact resistance of the composite under high frequency and large amplitude is lower than that under low frequency and small amplitude, and summarized by a mathematical expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0085.v3
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: impact localization; composite materials; PPS; imaging method; immersion ultrasonic scanning
Online: 24 August 2018 (05:00:39 CEST)
This paper focused on impact localization of composite structures, which possess more complexity in the guided wave propagation because of the anisotropic behavior of composite materials. In this work, a composite plate was manufactured by using a compression molding process with proper pressure and temperature cycle. Eight layers of woven composite prepreg were used to manufacture the composite plate. A structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is implemented with piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to detect and localize the impact on the plate. There are two types of impact event are considered in this paper (a) low energy impact event (b) high energy impact event. Two clusters of sensors recorded the guided acoustic waves generated from the impact. The acoustic signals are then analyzed using a wavelet transform based time-frequency analysis. The proposed SHM technique successfully detect and localize the impact event on the plate. The experimentally measured impact locations are compared with the actual impact locations. An immersion ultrasonic scanning method was used to visualize the composite plate before and after the impact event. A high frequency 10 MHz 1-inch focused transducer was used to scan the plate in the immersion tank. Scanning results show that there is no visible manufacturing damage in the composite plate. However, clear impact damage was observed after the high-energy impact event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0582.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: ZnO/N-doped graphene composite; modified separator; lithium/sulfur batteries
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:33:23 CEST)
Fabrication of a nanocrystal zinc oxide (ZnO)/nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene composite using a novel and facile in situ sol-gel technique is demonstrated. Two-dimensional nanostructure morphology with uniform ZnO nanoparticles (average diameter of 10.25 nm) anchored on N-doped graphene nanosheets was observed via electron microscopy. Because of the polar heteroatoms on the graphene sheets, an abundance sites for polysulfide absorption were provided. More importantly, the strong chemical interaction between ZnO and polysulfides efficiently hindered the transport of polysulfides. Consequently, the lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery with the ZnO/N-doped graphene composite-coated separator delivered enhanced performance in terms of discharge capacity and cycling stability when compared to the cell with a normal separator. With the modified separator, the battery achieved a discharge capacity as high as 942 mAh g-1 for the first cycle and remained at 90.02 mAh g-1 after the 100th charge/discharge test at 0.1 C. Results indicate that impeding the shuttling of polysulfides contributes to efficiently improving the behavior of the Li/S battery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0475.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: ZnO/N-doped graphene composite; modified separator; lithium/sulfur batteries
Online: 25 July 2018 (09:54:21 CEST)
Fabrication of a nanocrystal zinc oxide (ZnO)/nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene composite using a novel and facile in situ sol-gel technique is demonstrated. Two-dimensional nanostructure morphology with uniform ZnO nanoparticles (average diameter of 10.25 nm) anchored on N-doped graphene nanosheets was observed via electron microscopy. Because of the polar heteroatoms on the graphene sheets, an abundance sites for polysulfide absorption were provided. More importantly, the strong chemical interaction between ZnO and polysulfides efficiently hindered the transport of polysulfides. Consequently, the lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery with the ZnO/N-doped graphene composite-coated separator delivered enhanced performance in terms of discharge capacity and cycling stability when compared to the cell with a normal separator. With the modified separator, the battery achieved a discharge capacity as high as 942 mAh g-1 for the first cycle and remained at 90.02 mAh g-1 after the 100th charge/discharge test at 0.1 C. Results indicate that impeding the shuttling of polysulfides contributes to efficiently improving the behavior of the Li/S battery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0386.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Steel-UHPC, Composite slab, Debonding detection, PZT technology, Clustering algorithm
Online: 30 April 2018 (19:31:18 CEST)
A lightweight composite bridge deck system composed of steel orthotropic deck stiffened with thin Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) layer is developed to eliminate fatigue cracks in orthotropic steel decks. During the construction and operation period of the bridge, the debonding between the steel deck and the UHPC layer may introduce the several issues, such as crack-induced water invasion and distinct reduction of the shear resistance. In the study, an effective and novel non-destructive interface condition monitoring approach using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based technologies is proposed to detect interfacial delamination between steel deck and UHPC layer. Experimental tests are performed on several steel-UHPC composite slabs and a conventional steel-concrete composite slab. The thin styrofoam sheets with different sizes and thicknesses are set on different locations of the steel deck as the artificial debondings. The PZT ceramic patches are bonded on the surfaces of the steel deck and UHPC layer as the actuators/sensors. An improved PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization)-K-means clustering algorithms is proposed to obtain the debonding patterns based on the feature data set. The laboratory tests demonstrate that the proposed approach provides an effective and accurate way to detect interfacial debonding of steel-UHPC composite slab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0008.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: titania; kaolin; carbon; sintering temperatures; phases developed; sintered ceramic composite
Online: 4 September 2017 (06:37:14 CEST)
The effects of the additives (silicon carbide and titania) and sintering temperatures on the phases developed, physical and mechanical properties of sintered mullite-carbon ceramic composite produced from kaolin and graphite was investigated. The kaolin and graphite of known mineralogical composition were thoroughly blended with 5 and 3 (vol.) % silicon carbide and titania respectively. From the homogeneous mixture of kaolin, graphite and titania, standard samples were prepared via uniaxial compaction. The test samples produced were subjected to firing (sintering) at 1300˚C, 1400˚C and 1500˚C. The sintered samples were characterized for the developed phases using x‐ray diffractometry analysis, microstructural morphology using ultra‐high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (UHRFEGSEM). Various physical and mechanical properties were determined. It was observed that the addition of SiC/TiO2 additives to the samples made them to possess very low oxidation indices .This also resulted in improvement in the bulk densities and cold crushing strength of the sample when compared with those without additives. It was concluded that the addition of SiC/TiO2 additives improves on the high temperature oxidation resistance of the mullite-carbon ceramic composite sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1444.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Sn; hybrid TiO2-C matrix; ternary composite; anode; Li-ion batteries
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:51:41 CEST)
Although Sn has been intensively studied as one of the most promising anode materials to replace commercialized graphite, its cycling performance and rate performance are still unsatisfactory owing to insufficient control of its large volume change during cycling and poor electrochemical kinetics. Herein, we propose a Sn-TiO2-C ternary composite as a promising anode material to overcome these limitations. The hybrid TiO2-C matrix synthesized via two-step high-energy ball milling effectively regulated the irreversible lithiation/delithiation of the active Sn electrode and facilitated Li-ion diffusion. At the appropriate C concentration, Sn-TiO2-C exhibited significantly enhanced cycling performance and rate capability compared to its counterparts (Sn-TiO2 and Sn-C). Sn-TiO2-C delivers good reversible specific capacities (669 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g-1 and 651 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at 500 mA g-1) and rate performance (446 mAh g-1 at 3000 mA g-1). The superiority of Sn-TiO2-C over Sn-TiO2 and Sn-C was corroborated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which revealed faster Li-ion diffusion kinetics in the presence of the hybrid TiO2-C matrix than in the presence of TiO2 or C alone. Therefore, Sn-TiO2-C is a potential anode for next-generation Li-ion batteries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0791.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: guided waves; ultrasonic lamb waves; air-coupled transducer; composite sandwich plate
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:55:22 CEST)
This paper describes the design and implementation of an ultrasonic non-contact air-coupled technique (UNCACT) using antisymmetric Lamb waves (ALW) for NDT assessment in novel composite sandwich plates of the car body shell. This technique is complemented with a C-Scan image implementation using this kind of guided waves. The finite element method using Comsol 6.1 is developed for the interpretation of the several wave modes presented in the experiments, including the ALW mode. The phase velocity method (PVM) is applied for the verification of the ALW mode in the portion of the RF signal necessary in the C-Scan image.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0687.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: composite films; chitosan; NBT; dielectric properties; local piezoelectric response; optical properties
Online: 12 September 2023 (05:45:29 CEST)
The purpose of this research work was to synthesis bio-derived nanocomposite films by incorporating Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) nanoparticles into Chitosan matrix. The NBT nanoparticles were synthesized using a traditional solid-state technique. Then, through a solution casting approach, flexible composite films were fabricated using Chitosan polymer. The morphology and structural assessments were carried out utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared technique. The SEM micrographs showed that NBT nanoparticles were randomly distributed and interconnected with other particles, forming interconnected grains with substantial interspaces within the matrix. The spectral response between 300 and 800 nm of the composites is mainly governed by light scattering of NBT particles with diameter sizes in the 100 - 400 nm range and the bandgap of the NBT phase. The dielectric studies demonstrated that the composite films exhibited higher dielectric values compared to the pure Chitosan film. Besides, the increase of NBT amount was found to increase the dielectric values. Additionally, local piezoelectric measurements reveal the expected piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior for the NBT particles dispersed into the polymer matrix, as locally probed by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. The studied system bears interest for advanced biocompatible opto- and piezo-electric materials.