ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0270.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; problematic Internet use; game addiction; social media addiction; Russia
Online: 20 May 2022 (08:26:04 CEST)
We aimed to assess the prevalence, content structure and psychological comorbidity of PIU in Russian adolescents. In addition, the design of our research provided an opportunity to compare demographic and psychological patterns of different forms of PIU: generalised (PIUgen) and specific – problematic video game use (PUgame) as well as problematic social media use (PUsocial). Methods: This is a one-stage cross-sectional observational study of school sampling in three major Siberian cities. A total of 4514 schoolchildren aged 12-18 (mean age 14.52±1.52 years) were surveyed. Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents”, and The Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify PIU and its types. Results: The prevalence of PIUgen among adolescents in Central Siberia was 7.2%; the prevalence of PUgame was 10.4%; the prevalence of PUsocial was 8.0%. The results of structural equation modelling, as well as the correlation analysis data, suggest two possible patterns of psychosocial problems with PIU – the first one characteristic of both PIUgen and PUsocial, the second one, significantly different, – of PUgame. Conclusions: Urban adolescents in Central Siberia do not differ significantly from their Asian and European peers. Our findings support the concept of rejecting the term “generalised PIU” as a single psychological construct.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0472.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; game addiction; social media addiction; sleep problems; daytime sleepiness
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:07:14 CEST)
This study aims to establish a link between disturbances in the night sleep habitus, quality of sleep, and daytime sleepiness in adolescents with Internet addiction and different types of content consumed. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of a school sample in three large cities in Central Siberia. 4,615 schoolchildren of 12–18 years old were examined. The Russian-language versions of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents, and the Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify Internet addiction. Questions from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire were used to assess nighttime sleep. Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Results: Adolescents with Internet addiction go to bed and wake up late; they are characterized by a decrease in the duration of nighttime sleep, an increase in sleep onset latency, and frequent nighttime awakenings, as well as more pronounced daytime sleepiness. Among the sleep parameters studied, the indicators of daytime sleepiness and night awakening scales have the highest effect size in Internet-addicted adolescents, regardless of the media consumed. Conclusion: Internet-addicted adolescents are characterized by significant disturbances in the quality of nighttime sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness, which requires appropriate psychological correction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: smartphones; addiction; self-perceived addiction; ROC analysis; cutoff point; SPAI-Spain
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:06:58 CET)
Background: In recent years, the abusive use of the smartphone has reached a situation that could be considered pathological, although there is no such classification in the DSM-IV. In this sense, different instruments to assess this problematic use or addiction to the smartphone are used. Among them, we found the SPAI, which has been validated in the Spanish language. The main difficulty of these scales is to establish a cut-off point that determines such mobile addiction. On the other hand, self-perception has been used in different addictions as a predictor of the problem. Aim: The objective of this study is to establish the cutting point in the scores of the SPAI scale validated in Spanish, using as a referent the self-perception of addiction values. Methods: A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was carried out, establishing as the cut-off point the one that presented a higher value of Youden J, indicative of its sensitivity and specificity. Results: 2598 participants from the university community completed the SPAI-Spain questionnaire. When using the self-perception of smartphone addiction as the benchmark value, a score of 44 has been established as the cutting point of the SPAI questionnaire, with a Youden J corresponding to 0.416. Conclusions: The implementation of a cut-off point of the SPAI questionnaire makes it an instrument that allows early identification of those individuals at risk of addiction as well as the establishment of preventive and/or intervention measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0351.v1
Online: 27 April 2018 (06:21:27 CEST)
The difference of smoker’s topography has been found to be a function of sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) ethnicity and etc. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas, South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette, compared to female smokers [15.0 (13.0–19.0) vs. 17.5 (15.0–21.0) as median (Interquartile range)], but had a significantly larger puff volume [62.7 (52.7–75.5) mL vs. 53.5 (42.0–64.2) mL); p = 0.012]. The interpuff interval was similar between men and women [8.9 (6.5–11.2) s vs. 8.3 (6.2–11.0) s; p = 0.122] but much shorter than other study results. A dose-response association (p = 0.0011) was observed between daily total puff volumes and urinary cotinine concentrations, after controlling for sex, age, household income level, nicotine addiction level. Understanding of the difference of topography measures, especially, larger puff volume and shorter interpuff interval of Korean smokers may help to overcome potential underestimation of internal dose of hazardous substitutes of smoking or corresponding its health effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: psychopharmacology; mental health; addiction; biopsychology
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:51:06 CET)
This study investigated the psychosocial factors influencing substance abuse among undergraduates. The study was conducted in Ekiti State university Ado Ekiti. 150 participants who are undergraduates of the university were used in this research. They consist of 82 males and 68 females selected from all faculties in the institution. 3 questionnaires were administered to respondent to measure the factors influencing substance abuse and the level at which they are abused. Independent T-test, multiple regression and Pearson Correlation method were used to analyze the data collected. Five hypotheses were tested: hypothesis 1, 2, 3 and 4 were significant while hypothesis 5 was insignificant. It was observed that there was significant influence of religiosity on substance abuse among undergraduates, the result also revealed that there was a significant influence of self-esteem on substance abuse among undergraduates, it also revealed that religiosity and self-esteem jointly predicted substance abuse among undergraduates, likewise the result also show that there was significant influence of sex on substance abuse among undergraduates and finally the result revealed there was no significant relationship between religiosity and self-esteem among undergraduates. The results were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusion and recommendations subsequently followed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0236.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Internet addiction; mobile phone addiction; online social network; university students; technological addictions; behavioral addictions
Online: 25 January 2018 (05:10:00 CET)
1) Background: It has been more than a decade since the concern about addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has been a popular topic of discussion recently, thus it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the evolution of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the evolution of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006–2017; 2) Methods: To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and the CERI and CERM questionnaires on negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students and compared with data from former studies over the period 2006–2017; 3) Results: The perception of problematic Internet and mobile phone use has increased over the last decade, social networks are considered responsible for this increase, and females are the ones perceived to be more affected than males. The degree to which participants agree with the statement “I am addicted to the Internet” can be used as a screening item for problematic use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: suicidal ideation; adolescent; internet addiction; loneliness
Online: 9 July 2021 (09:59:03 CEST)
The Internet has become an essential tool for adolescents. It is part of their social integration within peers and supports their identity construction. The Internet can also become a source of addiction; especially when used as a coping strategy towards unpleasant life situations. The feeling of loneliness is an emotion present during the adolescence. However, when in excess, it can lead to suicidal ideations. We questioned ourselves on the impact of an excessive use of the Internet by adolescents, with their feeling of loneliness and the risks of suicidal ideations. We attempted to find an answer to this question by performing a literature review. We found one result matching our search criteria’s, which is itself a literature review. We noted the absence of studies with regards to the interaction between the feeling of loneliness, the addiction to the Internet, and the risk of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents. We established a theoretical model which could be used as a lead for future research. We insist on the importance that studies are made in this domain, in order to enable us to establish efficient preventive measure on the risks of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0215.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: addiction; triathletes; bogy image; behavior regulation
Online: 21 June 2019 (11:36:23 CEST)
The aim of the research was getting to know the risk of dependency on physical exercising in individual sportspeople and the relationship with body dissatisfaction and motivation. 225 triathletes, swimmers, cyclists and athletes- with ages going from 18 to 63 years old took part in the research, of which 145 were men (M = 35.57 ±10.46 years) and 80 women (M = 32.83 ±10.31 years). The EDS-R was used to study the dependency on exercising, BSQ to study body dissatisfaction, BREQ-3 to know the motivation of participants and BIAQ to analyse conducts of avoidance to body image. The obtained results show that 8.5% of the subjects had risk of dependency on exercising and that 18.2% tend to have corporal dissatisfaction, without meaningful differences in the kind of sport they practiced. However, there were important differences concerning the dependency on physical exercise (15% vs 4.8%) and body dissatisfaction (31.1% vs 11%) in relation to sex, being the higher percentage referring to women. The introjected regulation and the conduct of food restriction were the predictor variables of the dependency on exercising and corporal dissatisfaction.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0369.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Dopaminergic Pathways; Symmetry; Memory; NG Bosons; Addiction
Online: 25 July 2022 (09:38:50 CEST)
Human addiction, as a learned behaviour, has and is constantly being treated psychologically, with specific and timely interventions from Neuroscience. We endorse that human addiction can receive further boost as regards treatment, when we firmly understand how it works from a quantum scale. This is majorly because the dopaminergic pathway (DP) that is well elaborated in the brain of every addict is connected to the memory pathway. This further implies that the recall process in the brain of the addict, as regards his/her addiction is fully functional in line with the pleasure that arises from the element of his/her addiction. This dopamine-led pathway shows itself as prominent in what pertains to addiction, this is because of the role it plays in reward. As a neurotransmitter, dopamine flickers when reward is in the offing. It should be noted that a full understanding of the dimensions of addiction in the human person has not be attained to, therefore, we seek to add to this ongoing research, by considering excerpts arising from Quantum Field Theory. We are introducing excerpts from QFT, because DP, is an attendant element in the process of reward and motivation. In clear terms, we are alluding that it all begins with the memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0028.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: social media; addiction; anxiety; fear; health issues
Online: 2 February 2022 (10:53:03 CET)
Social media addiction has attracted the attention of researchers especially during the COVID era because negative emotions generated from the pandemic may have increased social media addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the role of negative emotions and social media addiction on health problems during and after the COVID lockdown. A survey was conducted with 2926 participants aged between 25 and 45 years. The data collection period was between 2nd September and 13th October 2020. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling was conducted for data analysis by controlling the respondents' working time, leisure time, gender, education, and age. Our study showed that social media addiction and time spent on social media impact health. Interestingly, while anxiety about COVID increased social media addiction, fear about COIVD reduced social media addiction. Also, long working hours contributed most to people’s health issues, and its impact on social media addiction and hours was much higher than negative emotions, where males faced more health challenges than females. The impacts of negative emotions generated by the COVID on social media addiction and health issues should be reconsidered. Government and employers' control of people's working time stress should prioritize solving social media addiction-related issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0469.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Escapism; addiction; excessive behaviors; internet use; gambling; gaming
Online: 29 August 2022 (07:16:59 CEST)
Excessive online behaviors refer to harmful or disproportionate use of digital network applications. Such behaviors are likely to be associated with escapist motives. Our aim was to analyze whether escapism predicts excessive gambling, excessive gaming, and excessive internet use over time. A longitudinal sample of Finnish residents aged 18–75 years (N = 1,022, 51.27% male) was surveyed at three time points in 6-month intervals: April 2021 (Time 1), October–November 2021 (Time 2), April–May 2022 (Time 3). Of the original Time 1 respondents, 66.80% took part in the surveys at both Time 2 and Time 3. All surveys included measures for excessive gambling (Problem Gambling Severity Index), excessive gaming (Internet Gaming Disorder Test), and excessive internet use (Compulsive Internet Use Scale). Three escapism-specific questions were used to construct a dedicated escapism variable. Socio-demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and psychological distress were used as controls. The study was conducted with multilevel regression analyses using hybrid models. Our research showed that escapism had strong within-person effects on excessive gambling, B = 0.18, p = .003; excessive gaming, B = 0.50, p < .001; and excessive internet use, B = 0.77, p < .001 over time. The between-person effect of escapism was demonstrated on excessive gaming B = 0.91, p <.001; and excessive internet use B = 0.61, p = .036. Adverse societal events and uncertain times can manifest in excessive online behaviors motivated by escapism, highlighting a need to focus prevention efforts on healthy coping methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: electronic nicotine delivery systems; nicotine addiction; vaping; cessation
Online: 9 December 2020 (15:56:46 CET)
Currently 7.6% of the U.S. young adults aged 18-24 years old currently use e-cigarettes. This study piloted three methods of ENDS cessation by measuring cessation rates, motivational techniques that contributed to cessation success, and participants’ changes after decreasing vape use. Participants were randomized into three study arms [nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) + behavioral support, vape-taper + behavioral support, self-guided] in a 1:1:1 ratio. All participants were invited to attend 9 in-person or phone appointments over the 6 month study period. At 12 weeks, 3 of 7 (42.9%) participants in the NRT + behavioral support arm, 6 of 8 (75%) vape-taper + behavioral support arm, and 7 of 9 (77.8%) self-guided arm self-reported being vape- and nicotine-free. At 6 months, 3 of 7 (42.9%) participants in the NRT + behavioral support arm, 6 of 8 (75%) vape-taper + behavioral support arm, 4 of 9 (44.4%) self-guided arm self-reported being vape- and nicotine-free. A challenge to quitting and remain quit is social pressures, but participants identified self-control and establishing new habits to be the best methods to overcome the desire to vape. Participants who received behavioral support and a vape-taper plan from pharmacists were more likely to be vape- and nicotine-free at 6 months.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0487.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Memory reconsolidation; Animal models; Alcohol addiction; Nicotine; relapse; tobacco
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:29:50 CET)
Alcohol and nicotine are widely-abused legal substances worldwide. Relapse to alcohol or tobacco seeking and consumption after abstinence is a major clinical challenge, and is often evoked by cue-induced craving. Therefore, disruption of the memory for the cue-drug association is expected to suppress relapse. Memories have been postulated to become labile shortly after their retrieval, during a “memory reconsolidation” process. Interference with the reconsolidation of drug-associated memories has been suggested as a possible strategy to reduce or even prevent cue-induced craving and relapse. Here, we surveyed the growing body of studies in animal models and in humans assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological or behavioral manipulations in reducing relapse by interfering with the reconsolidation of alcohol and nicotine/tobacco memories. Our review points to the potential of targeting the reconsolidation of these memories as a strategy to suppress relapse to alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. However, we discuss several critical limitations and boundary conditions, which should be considered to improve the consistency and replicability in the field, and for development of an efficient reconsolidation-based relapse prevention therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0443.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: opiate; mu; kappa; delta; nociceptin; addiction; overdose; prenatal; postnatal
Online: 17 November 2020 (09:53:19 CET)
Buprenorphine, an analogue of thebaine, is a Schedule III opioid in the United States used for opioid-use disorder and as an analgesic. Research has shown drugs like buprenorphine have a complicated pharmacology with characteristics that challenge traditional definitions of terms like agonist, antagonist, and efficacy. Buprenorphine has a high affinity for the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), kappa (KOR), and intermediate for the nociceptin opioid receptors (NOR). Buprenorphine is generally described as a partial MOR agonist with limited activity and decreased response at the mu-receptor relative to full agonists. In opioid naïve patients, the drug’s analgesic efficacy is equivalent to a full MOR agonist, despite decreased receptor occupancy and the “ceiling effect” produced from larger doses. Some argue buprenorphine’s effects depend on the endpoint measured, as it functions as a partial agonist for respiratory depression, but a full-agonist for pain. Buprenorphine’s active metabolite, norbuprenorphine, attenuates buprenorphine's analgesic effects due to NOR binding and respiratory depressant effects. The method of administration impacts efficacy and tolerance when administered for analgesia. There have been eleven-thousand reports involving buprenorphine and minors (age < 19) to US poison control centers, the preponderance (89.2%) with children. The consequences of prenatal buprenorphine exposure in experimental animals and humans should continue to be carefully evaluated. In conclusion, buprenorphine’s characterization as only a partial mu-agonist is an oversimplification. Contemporary research shows the traditional explanation of the pharmacology of buprenorphine does not take into account changes to receptor theory, pharmacological terminology, route of administration, and biologically active major metabolites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: GSEA; cocaine; addiction; enrichment analysis; bioinformatics; in silico research
Online: 24 April 2018 (08:46:31 CEST)
Cocaine addiction is a global health problem that causes substantial damage to the health of addicted individuals around the world. Dopamine synthesizing neurons in the brain play a vital role in the addiction to cocaine. But the underlying molecular mechanisms that help cocaine exert its addictive effect have not been very well understood. Bioinformatics can be a useful tool in the attempt to broaden our understanding in this area. In the present study, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was carried out on the upregulated genes from a dataset of Dopamine synthesizing neurons of post-mortem human brain of cocaine addicts. As a result of this analysis, 3 miRNAs have been identified as having significant influence on transcription of the upregulated genes. These 3 miRNAs hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of cocaine addiction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: methocinnamox; opioid; naloxone; naltrexone; methadone; buprenorphine; overdose; treatment; receptors; addiction
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:48:27 CET)
The opioid epidemic is an ongoing public health crisis, and the United States health system is overwhelmed with increasing numbers of opioid-related overdoses. Methocinnamox (MCAM) is a novel mu-opioid receptor antagonist with an extended duration of action and potential to reduce the burden of the opioid epidemic through overdose rescue and could treat opioid use disorder (OUD) long-term. We compared the efficacy and effects of MCAM to the current treatments available to treat OUD including naloxone, naltrexone, methadone, and buprenorphine which have their own limitations including short duration of action, patient non-compliance, and diversion. A literature review was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar databases covering the history of the opioid epidemic, pain receptors, current OUD treatments and the novel drug MCAM. MCAM could potentially be used as both a rescue and long-term treatment for opioid misuse. This is due to its pseudo-irreversible antagonism of the mu opioid receptor, abnormally long duration of action of nearly two weeks, and the possibility of using kappa or delta opioid receptor agonists for pain management during OUD treatment. MCAM’s novel pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties open a new avenue for treating the opioid crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0698.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: sugar; ultraprocessed food; addiction; toxicity; public health; non-communicable disease
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:08:24 CEST)
Past public health crises (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, opioids, cholera, HIV, lead, pollution, venereal disease, even COVID-19) have been met with interventions targeted both at the individual and all of society. While the healthcare community is very aware that the global pandemic of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) has its origins in our Western ultraprocessed food diet, society has been slow to initiate any interventions other than public education, which has been ineffective, in part due to food industry interference. This article provides the rationale for such public health interventions, by compiling the evidence that added sugar, and by proxy the ultraprocessed food category, meets the four criteria set by the public health community as necessary and sufficient for regulation — addiction, toxicity, ubiquity, and externalities (how does your consumption affect me?). To its credit, some countries have recently heeded this science and have instituted sugar taxation policies to help ameliorate NCD’s within their borders. This article also supplies scientific counters to food industry talking points, in order to guide both scientists and policy makers in instituting further appropriate public health measures to quell this pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0282.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Physical Activity; Exercise; Sedentary Behaviour; Hyperpalatable Food; Obesity; Food Addiction
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:52:42 CET)
Obesity is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, and food addiction has been considered one of its phenotypes. The study aims to determine the effectiveness of physical activity (PA), exercise, and sedentary behaviour management in attenuating food addiction in obese and overweight healthy adults. A search strategy was undertaken using MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and CINAHL until April 2019. A total of 295 studies were found from which seven studies, after duplicates were removed, were included. The acute effect of PA of moderate intensity had an effect on attentional bias, craving, and sweet taste perception, although no difference was observed between genders and body mass index groups. No effect was observed on the hedonic and reward value. The acute effects of PA of moderate intensity may be a useful tool to control the levels of food addiction. More research is needed to clarify if this effect also occurs during chronic application, at different doses and types of PA, and for all populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Middle School Students; Smartphone Usage Types; Depression; Parenting Attitude
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:27:01 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smartphone addiction of middle school students and smartphone usage types, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude. This study was also performed with the aim of verifying the relationships among depression, ADHD, perceived stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude, which are predictors of smartphone addiction. The subjects of this study were 487 local middle school students (234 males and 253 females). The measurement instruments used were the smartphone addiction scale, depression scale (PHQ-9), ADHD scale (K-ARS), perceived stress scale (PSS), interpersonal problem scale (KIIP-SC), and the parenting attitude scale. This study identified the relationships between the variables with correlation analysis and examined the predictors of smartphone addiction with hierarchical multiple regression analysis. According to the study results, the factors that influenced smartphone addiction were gender, stress, and interpersonal problems. In addition, when the confounding variables of smartphone addiction were controlled to examine the effects of smartphone usage types on smartphone addiction, social media use and music/videos were found to have a positively significant effect on smartphone addiction while study had a negatively significant effect. The order of the usage types with the highest influence on smartphone addiction was enjoying music/videos, social media use, and study. This suggests that selective intervention depending on the main smartphone usage type can be effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: MOSH syndrome; lifestyle change; food addiction; aromatase activity; testosterone/estradiol ratio
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:19:03 CEST)
Male obesity secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) impairs fertility, sexual function, bone mineralization, fat metabolism, cognitive function, deteriorates muscle mass and alters body composition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention and physical activity on the MOSH patient’s hormonal profile after a 10% weight loss compared to baseline. Fourteen male patients were enrolled. Hormonal, lipid, glycemic profiles and body composition were determined at baseline and after a 10% weight loss. Aging Male Symptoms Scale (AMS) and Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) were administered to patients in order to investigate hypogonadal symptoms and food addiction. Compared to baseline, a significant increase of Total Testosterone (TT) (300.2 ± 79.5 ng/dl vs 408.3 ± 125.9, p = 0.002, 95% CI 26.8; 167.7) and a reduction of 17-Beta Estradiol level (48.3 ± 14.9 pg/mL vs 39.2 ± 15.2, p = 0.049, 95% CI 3.1; 0.0) were observed. Total Fat Mass (FM) percentage, android and gynoid fat mass percentage (39.2 ± 6.4% vs 36.2 ± 5.8%, p = 0.0001, 95% CI 22.5; 62.3; 51.5 ± 6.8% vs 47.6 ± 6.8%, p = 0.001, 95% CI 0.6; 1.8, vs 39.2 ± 6.2% vs 36.5 ± 6.3% p= 0.0001, 95% CI 0.9; 2.0 respectively) were significantly decreased after nutritional intervention. In addition, total Fat Free Mass (FFM) in kg was significantly reduced after 10% weight loss (62.3± 2.8 kg vs 60.3± 7.7 kg, p = 0.002, 95% CI 45.0; 93.0). Lifestyle changes, specifically dietotherapy and physical activity, induce positive effects on hypogonadism due to obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: bariatric surgery; feeding and eating disorders; binge-eating disorder; food addiction; night eating syndrome.
Online: 21 June 2021 (12:33:11 CEST)
Background: Patients in the postoperative period following bariatric surgery are at risk of developing eating disorders. This study aims to analyse the relation between bariatric surgery and the development and recurrence of eating disorders. Material and methods: Literature review was done on 15th November 2020. Fourteen studies that met the eligibility criteria were included for qualitative synthesis, and 7 studies for meta-analysis. Results: The prevalence of eating disorders in the postoperative period was 7.83%, based on the 7 studies in the meta-analysis. Binge eating disorder alone was 3.81%, which was the most significant factor, and addressed in 6 of these studies. Conclusion: The investigated studies have significant methodological limitations in assessing the relation between bariatric surgery and eating disorders, since they mostly present data on prevalence. PROSPERO CRD42019135614.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0079.v1
Subject: Keywords: alcohol consumption; tobacco smoking; carcinogenesis; addiction; stem cells; stem cell division theory of cancer
Online: 27 July 2017 (12:34:00 CEST)
Almost 6% of cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol consumption. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially causes a local carcinogenic effect. We recently hypothesized that the cytotoxic activity of ethanol could explain the high risk of these cancers in alcohol users. Here we report that short-term exposures (2-3 seconds) to ethanol concentrations between 10% and 15% start to cause a marked cytotoxic effect on human epithelial keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. After discussing new evidence that cancer is the end-result of the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells, we explain why regular alcohol consumption imposes a high risk of cancer on these tissues. Briefly, the cytotoxicity of ethanol reduces the lifespan of the cells lining these tissues. The stem cells located in deeper layers need to divide more often than usual to renew the damaged epithelia. The accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication) that increase their risk of malignant transformation. Cell division also exposes the DNA of the stem cells to the genotoxic activity of acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens. We propose that choosing alcoholic beverages containing non-cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol, or diluting ethanol to non-cytotoxic concentrations, is a simple way to reduce the risk of cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus in alcohol users. This preventive strategy may also abolish the known synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on the risk of these cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0306.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Fear of missing out; FoMO; social media; Social networking sites; addiction; depression; anxiety; sleep; exercise
Online: 29 April 2022 (13:50:46 CEST)
The fear of missing out (FoMO) is characterized in the literature as a fear that others are having rewarding experiences while one is missing out, and a constant need to keep connected with one’s social network. Driven by Social Determination Theory (SDT) FoMO has been linked with Problematic Social Networking Sites use (PSNSU), negative affectivity (NA), self-esteem (SE) and sleep disturbances. The present study reports findings from 512 individuals (79.1% women, mean age 30.5 years, SD= 8.61). Structural equation modelling (SEM) suggests that the duration of SNSs use and the numbers of SNSs platforms actively used partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and PSNSU. In turns, PSNSU partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA. Furthermore, the present study has extended the literature by incorporating the Vulnerability Model in the FoMO concept, identifying that SE partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA, while NA fully mediated the relationship between FoMO and sleeping disturbances. Accordingly, the present has extended previous research findings in showing exercise as a potential protective factor to prevent against FoMO. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0547.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: twitch.tv; twitch; live streaming; online gambling; addiction; gambling disorder; internet use; slotstreams; online casino; online slots.
Online: 29 November 2022 (09:23:05 CET)
(1) Background: Twitch.tv is a live video content website. As of 2022, Twitch users are generally adolescents and young adults, with estimates of the percentage of users aged 16-24 between 22.3% and 41%, predominantly males with estimates ranging from 65% to 78.36%. In recent years, “slotstream” content has become increasingly popular, where streamers gamble online while users watch them. (2) Methods: from July 2022 to November 2022, we researched articles related to Twitch, live streaming, gambling, casino, slot, gambling online, modeling, social media influencers, conditioning, and celebrities, searching for relevant studies in the databases LexisNexis Academic, Business Source Complete, PubMed, Web of Science, Freedom Collection, Health & Medical Collection, Elsevier Journal, Springer, APA PsycARTICLES, Wiley, and other single journals. (3) Results: we took into consideration Gambling Disorder, Online Gambling Disorder, and Internet Gaming Disorder on the one hand, and consumer components such as persuasive communication and influencer-audience relationship on the other; we then hypothesized that the presence of these variables within the slotstream format is positively correlated with the development of pathological gambling, especially in an adolescent audience. (4) Conclusion: we assume that there is a positive correlation between watching slotstream content and the probability of developing both pathological and non-pathological gambling behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0386.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: genome-wide association study; transcriptome-wide association study; meta-analysis; expression quantitative trait loci; nicotine addiction
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:46:13 CET)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified and reproduced thousands of diseases associated loci but many of them are not directly interpretable due to the strong linkage disequilibrium among variants. Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) incorporated expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) cohorts as reference panel to detect associations with the phenotype at the gene level and were gaining popularity in recent years. For nicotine addiction, several important susceptible genetic variants were identified by GWAS, but TWAS that detected genes associated with nicotine addiction and unveiled the underlying molecular mechanism were still lacking. In this study, we used eQTL data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) consortium as reference panel to conduct tissue specific TWAS on cigarettes per day (CPD) over 13 brain tissues in two large cohorts: UK Biobank (UKBB; N=142,202) and the GWAS & Sequencing Consortium of Alcohol and Nicotine use (GSCAN; N=143,210), and then meta-analyzed the results across tissues while considering the heterogeneity across tissues. We identified three major clusters of genes with different meta-patterns across tissues consistent in both cohorts, including homogenous genes associated with CPD in all brain tissues, partially homogeneous genes associated with CPD in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus tissues, and lastly the tissue-specific genes associated with CPD in only few specific brain tissues. Downstream enrichment analyses on each gene cluster identified unique biological pathways associated with CPD and provided important biological insights into the regulatory mechanism of nicotine dependence in the brain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; tickborne diseases; persistent infection; treatment; assessment; depression; anxiety; sleep disorders; opioid addiction
Online: 5 June 2018 (08:33:20 CEST)
There is increasing evidence and recognition that Lyme borreliosis, and other associated tick-borne diseases (LB/TBD) cause mental symptoms. Data was drawn from databases, search engines and clinical experience to review current information on LB/TBD. LB/TBD infections cause immune and metabolic effects that result in a gradually developing spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms, usually presenting with significant comorbidity and may include developmental disorders, autism spectrum disorders, schizoaffective disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety disorders (panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, intrusive symptoms), eating disorders, decreased libido, sleep disorders, addiction, opioid addiction, cognitive impairments, dementia, seizure disorders, suicide, violence, anhedonia, depersonalization, dissociative episodes, derealization and other impairments. Screening assessment followed by a comprehensive psychiatric clinical exam relevant to patient’s complaints and findings with a thorough history, mental status exam, review of systems, neurological exam, physical exam, a knowledgeable interpretation of laboratory findings, pattern recognition and clinical judgment facilitate diagnosis. Psychotropics and antibiotics may help improve functioning and prevent further disease progression. Awareness of the association between LB/TBD and neuropsychiatric impairments and studies of their prevalence in neuropsychiatric conditions can improve understanding of the causes of mental illness and violence and result in more effective prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Fear of missing out (FOMO), Parental control, Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU), Social Media Addiction, Social Media Intrusion
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:23:46 CEST)
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). The perception of the possible role of parental supervision on online activities is also investigated. Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media. The results additionally demonstrate that students aged 30 and older believe more in the requirement of parental control than those aged 17-22.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: digital environments; over exposure; children; vitamin D; melatonin; myopia; sleep loss; depression; obesity internet addiction; serotonin; dopamine; oxidative stress
Online: 16 March 2020 (04:22:15 CET)
Environmental studies, metabolic research, and state of the art neurobiology point towards the reduced amount of natural day and sunlight exposure of the developing child’s organism as the consequence of increasingly long hours spent indoors online as the single unifying source of a whole set of health risks identified worldwide, as is made clear in this review of the current literature. Over exposure to digital environments, from abuse to addiction, now concerns even the youngest (ages 0 to 2), and triggers, as argued on the basis of clear examples herein, a chain of interdependent negative and potentially long-term metabolic changes. This leads to a deregulation of the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter pathways in the developing brain, currently associated with online activity abuse and/or internet addiction, and akin to that found in severe substance abuse syndromes. A general functional working model is proposed under the light of evidence brought to the forefront in this review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0115.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oncogenes; oncogene addiction; carcinogenesis; transcription factor; cancer genome; gene fusion; cancer genetics; cancer stem cell; targeted cancer therapy; personalized medicine
Online: 14 September 2016 (08:30:41 CEST)
It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis.