ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; problematic Internet use; game addiction; social media addiction; Russia
Online: 20 May 2022 (08:26:04 CEST)
We aimed to assess the prevalence, content structure and psychological comorbidity of PIU in Russian adolescents. In addition, the design of our research provided an opportunity to compare demographic and psychological patterns of different forms of PIU: generalised (PIUgen) and specific – problematic video game use (PUgame) as well as problematic social media use (PUsocial). Methods: This is a one-stage cross-sectional observational study of school sampling in three major Siberian cities. A total of 4514 schoolchildren aged 12-18 (mean age 14.52±1.52 years) were surveyed. Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents”, and The Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify PIU and its types. Results: The prevalence of PIUgen among adolescents in Central Siberia was 7.2%; the prevalence of PUgame was 10.4%; the prevalence of PUsocial was 8.0%. The results of structural equation modelling, as well as the correlation analysis data, suggest two possible patterns of psychosocial problems with PIU – the first one characteristic of both PIUgen and PUsocial, the second one, significantly different, – of PUgame. Conclusions: Urban adolescents in Central Siberia do not differ significantly from their Asian and European peers. Our findings support the concept of rejecting the term “generalised PIU” as a single psychological construct.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0472.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; game addiction; social media addiction; sleep problems; daytime sleepiness
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:07:14 CEST)
This study aims to establish a link between disturbances in the night sleep habitus, quality of sleep, and daytime sleepiness in adolescents with Internet addiction and different types of content consumed. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of a school sample in three large cities in Central Siberia. 4,615 schoolchildren of 12–18 years old were examined. The Russian-language versions of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents, and the Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify Internet addiction. Questions from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire were used to assess nighttime sleep. Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Results: Adolescents with Internet addiction go to bed and wake up late; they are characterized by a decrease in the duration of nighttime sleep, an increase in sleep onset latency, and frequent nighttime awakenings, as well as more pronounced daytime sleepiness. Among the sleep parameters studied, the indicators of daytime sleepiness and night awakening scales have the highest effect size in Internet-addicted adolescents, regardless of the media consumed. Conclusion: Internet-addicted adolescents are characterized by significant disturbances in the quality of nighttime sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness, which requires appropriate psychological correction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: smartphones; addiction; self-perceived addiction; ROC analysis; cutoff point; SPAI-Spain
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:06:58 CET)
Background: In recent years, the abusive use of the smartphone has reached a situation that could be considered pathological, although there is no such classification in the DSM-IV. In this sense, different instruments to assess this problematic use or addiction to the smartphone are used. Among them, we found the SPAI, which has been validated in the Spanish language. The main difficulty of these scales is to establish a cut-off point that determines such mobile addiction. On the other hand, self-perception has been used in different addictions as a predictor of the problem. Aim: The objective of this study is to establish the cutting point in the scores of the SPAI scale validated in Spanish, using as a referent the self-perception of addiction values. Methods: A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was carried out, establishing as the cut-off point the one that presented a higher value of Youden J, indicative of its sensitivity and specificity. Results: 2598 participants from the university community completed the SPAI-Spain questionnaire. When using the self-perception of smartphone addiction as the benchmark value, a score of 44 has been established as the cutting point of the SPAI questionnaire, with a Youden J corresponding to 0.416. Conclusions: The implementation of a cut-off point of the SPAI questionnaire makes it an instrument that allows early identification of those individuals at risk of addiction as well as the establishment of preventive and/or intervention measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Alcohol addiction; substance addiction; self-awareness; rehabilitation; scale development; tertiary prevention; dangerous and harmful use; positive psychotherapy in addiction
Online: 13 April 2023 (08:19:34 CEST)
Alcohol and substance addiction is a type of brain disease that damages many areas of life of the individual and has psychological components. Since questioning alcohol use alone is not sufficient in the diagnostic evaluation process, self-awareness and the individual's long-term psychological well-being are important in the rehabilitation process. Since investigating alcohol use alone is not sufficient in the diagnostic evaluation process, self-awareness and the individual’s long-term psychological well-being are important in the rehabilitation process. Primary prevention is used to prevent disease in healthy people, and secondary prevention is used for early diagnosis to people at risk. Tertiary prevention is important to prevent recurrence of the disease in the treated person. In addiction, which is a chronic problem, a need has emerged for tertiary prevention, that is, rehabilitation standards. If people are uncertain about the harm perception and the natural result of their behavior, they easily slip into the substance. Therefore, as a positive psychotherapy technique, harm perception and result awareness levels should be clarified. For this reason, scales were developed. The inclusion of new psychology perspectives and therapy techniques, such as positive psychology, in the treatment process requires setting new standards. In this study, it was aimed to develop result awareness and harm perception scales to determine the awareness levels and rehabilitation standards of alcohol and substance addicted individuals, and to compare awareness in normal and addicted groups. The study group consisted of 1134 participants, 41 of whom were addicts. Among the two scales developed in the study, the Uskudar Result Awareness Scale (USRAS) consisting of 25 items and 6 factor, explained 58.4% of the total variance. The Uskudar Harm Perception Scale (USHPS), consisting of 36 items and 10 factors, explained 56.3% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the two scales resulted in acceptable goodness-of-fit values. (X2/df<3; RMSEA<.08; NFI>.90; NNFI>.95; CFI>.95; GFI>.90; AGFI>.85). In the comparisons made, the result awareness of the normal group was moderate (X=3,81); whereas the addicted group had a low result awareness (X=3,20); The effect size of the difference between the two groups was found to be high (d=1,45; >0,8). In the other measure, the harm perception of the normal group was found in the low-risk group (X=3,78); the harm perception of the addicted group was found in the moderate-risk group (X=3,43). According to Cohen d calculations, the effect size of the difference between the two groups is high (d=1,43; >0,8). It has been concluded that the two scales that emerged in the research are valid and safe, can be included in the rehabilitation studies and the creation of self-awareness, and their effectiveness should be tested.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1883.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Semaglutide; addiction; alcohol use
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:29:46 CET)
With more than half of U.S. adults reporting alcohol consumption the last 30 days and nearly 6% reporting heavy drinking, alcohol imposes a significant socioeconomic burden. While there are a host of current medications approved to treat alcoholism, they have limited effectiveness and lack support from both providers and patients. Semaglutide, a medication originally developed for obese type 2 diabetics, may offer a distinctly new approach. A survey to assess the impact of semaglutide on alcohol consumption and desire was designed and distributed in semaglutide-user Facebook and Reddit groups. Of those who had reported drinking before starting semaglutide, 21% of respondents (N= 121) ceased drinking altogether, and 88·4% of respondents (N=538) reported a reduction in their desire to consume alcohol after commencing their medication. Respondents also shared further personal accounts of decreased occurrences of compulsive or "addictive" behaviors beyond a reduction in the desire to consume alcohol. Considering the growing number of reports detailing experiences such as these, combined with our survey results indicating a reduction in both frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, we strongly recommend conducting scientifically rigorous investigations and clinical trials to explore the potential of semaglutide for addressing conditions associated with alcohol use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0351.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: topography; cotinine; fagerstrom score; addiction
Online: 27 April 2018 (06:21:27 CEST)
The difference of smoker’s topography has been found to be a function of sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) ethnicity and etc. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas, South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette, compared to female smokers [15.0 (13.0–19.0) vs. 17.5 (15.0–21.0) as median (Interquartile range)], but had a significantly larger puff volume [62.7 (52.7–75.5) mL vs. 53.5 (42.0–64.2) mL); p = 0.012]. The interpuff interval was similar between men and women [8.9 (6.5–11.2) s vs. 8.3 (6.2–11.0) s; p = 0.122] but much shorter than other study results. A dose-response association (p = 0.0011) was observed between daily total puff volumes and urinary cotinine concentrations, after controlling for sex, age, household income level, nicotine addiction level. Understanding of the difference of topography measures, especially, larger puff volume and shorter interpuff interval of Korean smokers may help to overcome potential underestimation of internal dose of hazardous substitutes of smoking or corresponding its health effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychopharmacology; mental health; addiction; biopsychology
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:51:06 CET)
This study investigated the psychosocial factors influencing substance abuse among undergraduates. The study was conducted in Ekiti State university Ado Ekiti. 150 participants who are undergraduates of the university were used in this research. They consist of 82 males and 68 females selected from all faculties in the institution. 3 questionnaires were administered to respondent to measure the factors influencing substance abuse and the level at which they are abused. Independent T-test, multiple regression and Pearson Correlation method were used to analyze the data collected. Five hypotheses were tested: hypothesis 1, 2, 3 and 4 were significant while hypothesis 5 was insignificant. It was observed that there was significant influence of religiosity on substance abuse among undergraduates, the result also revealed that there was a significant influence of self-esteem on substance abuse among undergraduates, it also revealed that religiosity and self-esteem jointly predicted substance abuse among undergraduates, likewise the result also show that there was significant influence of sex on substance abuse among undergraduates and finally the result revealed there was no significant relationship between religiosity and self-esteem among undergraduates. The results were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusion and recommendations subsequently followed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Internet addiction; mobile phone addiction; online social network; university students; technological addictions; behavioral addictions
Online: 25 January 2018 (05:10:00 CET)
1) Background: It has been more than a decade since the concern about addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has been a popular topic of discussion recently, thus it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the evolution of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the evolution of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006–2017; 2) Methods: To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and the CERI and CERM questionnaires on negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students and compared with data from former studies over the period 2006–2017; 3) Results: The perception of problematic Internet and mobile phone use has increased over the last decade, social networks are considered responsible for this increase, and females are the ones perceived to be more affected than males. The degree to which participants agree with the statement “I am addicted to the Internet” can be used as a screening item for problematic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1876.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: public health; social media; misinformation; addiction
Online: 28 September 2023 (17:56:59 CEST)
This article explores the significant parallels between big tobacco companies and major social networking sites regarding their influence on public health and society. While acknowledging the fundamental differences in their products and services, the paper scrutinises both industries through five primary lenses: addiction, misinformation, lack of regulation, harm to public health, and youth targeting. Both industries exhibit addictive characteristics, have faced criticism for the spread of misinformation, operate with limited regulation and transparency, and have raised concerns about targeting young demographics. Moreover, the potential harm to public health is a significant concern, with tobacco leading to well-established physical health issues. At the same time, excessive social media use has been linked to psychological harm, particularly among young users. The comparison underscores the necessity for greater regulation and oversight of social media companies, highlighting the urgent need for more comprehensive policies to mitigate potential harm and safeguard public health in the digital age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0821.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; distress; internet addiction; depression
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:18:41 CEST)
The new coronavirus SARS Cov2 disease from 2019. (COVID-19), started as a cluster of unexplained pneumonia cases in Wuhan in December 2019, has spread globally and caused a serious public health threat. People were scared due to the COVID-19 cases that were rapidly increasing all over the world and the quick changes in how people lived. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of life, one of which is the increased use of the internet, especially social media platforms. Past research has clearly linked a pandemic with signs of stress, depression, anxiety, and suicide thoughts, as well as with excessive internet use. The findings of research conducted around the world indicate that the higher the level of stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in an individual, the greater the tendency to develop an addiction to the internet. The aim of this paper was to provide a brief overview of the available scientific findings on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and internet addiction. Methods: A sweep through available literature was performed using the database Medline via the PubMed interface for articles written in English, using keywords and MeSH terms "Internet addiction", "mental health" and "COVID-19". Results: With insight into the scientific literature on COVID-19, mental health, and internet addiction, we have concluded that during the COVID-19 pandemic, time spent on the internet increased. Conclusion: Additionally, due to reduced social activities, above mentioned consequently led to internet addiction and thus to psychological distress, increased loneliness and depression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: suicidal ideation; adolescent; internet addiction; loneliness
Online: 9 July 2021 (09:59:03 CEST)
The Internet has become an essential tool for adolescents. It is part of their social integration within peers and supports their identity construction. The Internet can also become a source of addiction; especially when used as a coping strategy towards unpleasant life situations. The feeling of loneliness is an emotion present during the adolescence. However, when in excess, it can lead to suicidal ideations. We questioned ourselves on the impact of an excessive use of the Internet by adolescents, with their feeling of loneliness and the risks of suicidal ideations. We attempted to find an answer to this question by performing a literature review. We found one result matching our search criteria’s, which is itself a literature review. We noted the absence of studies with regards to the interaction between the feeling of loneliness, the addiction to the Internet, and the risk of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents. We established a theoretical model which could be used as a lead for future research. We insist on the importance that studies are made in this domain, in order to enable us to establish efficient preventive measure on the risks of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0215.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: addiction; triathletes; bogy image; behavior regulation
Online: 21 June 2019 (11:36:23 CEST)
The aim of the research was getting to know the risk of dependency on physical exercising in individual sportspeople and the relationship with body dissatisfaction and motivation. 225 triathletes, swimmers, cyclists and athletes- with ages going from 18 to 63 years old took part in the research, of which 145 were men (M = 35.57 ±10.46 years) and 80 women (M = 32.83 ±10.31 years). The EDS-R was used to study the dependency on exercising, BSQ to study body dissatisfaction, BREQ-3 to know the motivation of participants and BIAQ to analyse conducts of avoidance to body image. The obtained results show that 8.5% of the subjects had risk of dependency on exercising and that 18.2% tend to have corporal dissatisfaction, without meaningful differences in the kind of sport they practiced. However, there were important differences concerning the dependency on physical exercise (15% vs 4.8%) and body dissatisfaction (31.1% vs 11%) in relation to sex, being the higher percentage referring to women. The introjected regulation and the conduct of food restriction were the predictor variables of the dependency on exercising and corporal dissatisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0562.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: adolescents; family functioning; muslim; smartphone addiction; Thailand
Online: 27 November 2023 (09:14:08 CET)
This study examines the prevalence and determinants of smartphone addiction (SA) in a sample of 825 Muslim secondary school students from three provinces along the southern border of Thailand. Employing purposive sampling, the research highlights a concerning 70% rate of SA, surpassing the rates observed in other Asian demographics. The investigation reveals a robust link between parental education levels and smartphone usage among adolescents. Utilizing a structural equation model (SEM), family functioning dimensions such as ‘Emotional Status’ and ‘Discipline’ are shown to have a considerable impact on SA. Contrary to expectations, enhanced ‘Family Support’ has emerged as a potential risk factor, suggesting nuances in family dynamics that may contribute to SA. The findings advocate for the reinforcement of family functioning and call for initiatives to improve digital literacy and foster open communication between parents and children. However, the reliance on self-reported measures and the cross-sectional nature of the study underlines the necessity for more expansive future research to validate these findings and explore underlying mechanisms.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Dopaminergic Pathways; Symmetry; Memory; NG Bosons; Addiction
Online: 25 July 2022 (09:38:50 CEST)
Human addiction, as a learned behaviour, has and is constantly being treated psychologically, with specific and timely interventions from Neuroscience. We endorse that human addiction can receive further boost as regards treatment, when we firmly understand how it works from a quantum scale. This is majorly because the dopaminergic pathway (DP) that is well elaborated in the brain of every addict is connected to the memory pathway. This further implies that the recall process in the brain of the addict, as regards his/her addiction is fully functional in line with the pleasure that arises from the element of his/her addiction. This dopamine-led pathway shows itself as prominent in what pertains to addiction, this is because of the role it plays in reward. As a neurotransmitter, dopamine flickers when reward is in the offing. It should be noted that a full understanding of the dimensions of addiction in the human person has not be attained to, therefore, we seek to add to this ongoing research, by considering excerpts arising from Quantum Field Theory. We are introducing excerpts from QFT, because DP, is an attendant element in the process of reward and motivation. In clear terms, we are alluding that it all begins with the memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social media; addiction; anxiety; fear; health issues
Online: 2 February 2022 (10:53:03 CET)
Social media addiction has attracted the attention of researchers especially during the COVID era because negative emotions generated from the pandemic may have increased social media addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the role of negative emotions and social media addiction on health problems during and after the COVID lockdown. A survey was conducted with 2926 participants aged between 25 and 45 years. The data collection period was between 2nd September and 13th October 2020. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling was conducted for data analysis by controlling the respondents' working time, leisure time, gender, education, and age. Our study showed that social media addiction and time spent on social media impact health. Interestingly, while anxiety about COVID increased social media addiction, fear about COIVD reduced social media addiction. Also, long working hours contributed most to people’s health issues, and its impact on social media addiction and hours was much higher than negative emotions, where males faced more health challenges than females. The impacts of negative emotions generated by the COVID on social media addiction and health issues should be reconsidered. Government and employers' control of people's working time stress should prioritize solving social media addiction-related issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Internet Addiction Test; Reduced Version; Factorial Analysis; Youth
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:27:19 CEST)
This study adapted and assessed a shortened version of the IAT (Internet Addiction Test) scale completed by young people aged 12 years and older regarding their online behaviors and risk of online addiction. The psychometric qualities of the reduced version - Screening IAT - youth are presented in order to validate its use in the early detection of online addiction. The total sample is composed of 3021 participants being 55.9% female and 44.1% male, with a mean age of x ̅=15 years (σ=3.028), attending junior high school (56.2%), high school (37.8%) and college (5.9%). The procedure included a factorial analysis, in which the total sample was randomly divided into three samples. An exploratory factor analysis was performed with one part of the sample, and a confirmatory factor analysis was performed with the others parts, assessing internal consistency, construct reliability, and discriminant validity. The results indicate that this reduced version of the IAT for young people has good psychometric qualities and can be applied in research and clinical settings. With this version and the parent-teacher version there is a direct contribution to a tripartite assessment of internet addiction risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0284.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Emergency Health Services; Addiction; Substance Use Disorder; Paramedicine
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:43:50 CEST)
Background and Aims: Paramedics attend an unprecedented number of drug poisoning events daily in British Columbia (BC), Canada due to the ongoing public health crisis related to an increasingly toxic and unregulated supply of illicit drugs. Paramedics have the potential to support alternative models of care to reduce harm, but their perspectives towards harm reduction initiatives are polarized. Understanding the drug-related substance use content in paramedic curriculum documents is important for deploying effective harm mitigating programs. The objective of this study was to understand what drug-related substance use content currently exists within paramedic curriculum documents in British Columbia. Methods: We performed a document analysis of curriculum documents in BC’s paramedic training institutions, the primary program textbook, and the 2011 National Occupational Competency Profile (NOCP). We used the Checklist for Assessment and Reporting of Document Analysis (CARDA) tool to perform our analysis. We analysed and coded documents both inductively and deductively and subsequently combined, refined, and used the codes to inform the development of themes via reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Of the 44 documents analysed, 22 included codes relevant to the research questions. Paramedics are primarily taught to care for people who use drugs in an acute drug-poisoning response only, with little consideration of holistic care, and no meaningful mention of harm reduction. Some stigmatizing language was found within the content. Conclusions: Many opportunities to introduce holistic models of care for people who use drugs along the entire continuum of care are unaddressed by paramedic curriculum documents in BC. Curriculum developers should include people who have lived and living experience of drug use in the co-design of educational programs involving their care. Further qualitative analyses are required to evaluate the relationship between paramedic education and provider-based stigma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1945.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Risk Decision-Making; College Students; fNIRS
Online: 29 August 2023 (11:18:58 CEST)
Smartphone Addiction is a social issue caused by excessive smartphone use, affecting decision-making processes. Current research on the risky decision-making abilities of smartphone addicts is limited. This study used the fNIRS brain imaging technique and a Sequential Risk-Taking Task experimental paradigm to investigate the decision-making behavior and brain activity of smartphone addicts under varying risk levels. Using a mixed experimental design, the research assessed decision-making ability and brain activation levels as dependent variables across two groups (addiction and control), two risk amounts (high and low), and two outcomes (gain and loss). The study included 42 participants, with 25 in the addiction group and 17 in the control group. Results indicated that risk level significantly impacted the decision-making ability of smartphone addicts, with high-risk levels leading to weaker decision-making ability and increased risk-taking. However, at low risk levels, decision-making abilities between addicts and healthy individuals showed no significant difference. Furthermore, brain imaging results using fNIRS revealed stronger brain activation in the dlPFC region for smartphone addicts under loss outcome conditions, with no significant differences between the two groups in terms of brain activation at varying risk volumes. These findings are critical in promoting healthy smartphone use, guiding clinical treatment, and advancing brain mechanism research.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Dietary supplement, μ-opioid-receptor agonist, addiction, antidepressant
Online: 5 July 2023 (13:04:28 CEST)
In the United States (US), tianeptine is sold as a dietary supplement under the trade name Tianaa™. Tianeptine is a synthetic drug prescribed by physicians as an antidepressant in parts of Europe, Asia and South America. The drug is not permitted for use by physicians in the US, be-cause it is a μ-opioid receptor agonist with a propensity for severe addiction. As incidence of Tianaa™ related opioid addiction across the southern US escalate, the current study aimed to quantify tianeptine in over the counter Tianaa™ White, Red, and Green products. The results of this investigation measured tianeptine levels between 3.1 to 10.9 mg per 531 mg capsules. Tianaa™ White capsules consistently contained the least tianeptine, while Green had the most. Close inspection of Tianaa™ products showed that capsule mass varied by as much as 16% from label claim, and the amount of tianeptine per capsule varied by as much as 35 % from the aver-age measured amount for each product. Tianaa™ Red contains kava leaf extract, which led to the identification of four kavapyrone components by mass spectrometry. The data presented pro-vide insight into tianeptine quantity and capsule mass variation for Tianaa™ supplements sold to customers naive to the risk of addiction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Mobile; addiction; child psychology; mental health; social impact
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:58:56 CEST)
The relationship between child psychology and the widespread usage of mobile devices in the modern day is examined in "The Mobile Dilemma: Child Psychology and the Era of Technological Dependence." The abstract serves as a brief synopsis of the work, highlighting its important ideas and arguments. Concerns concerning the effects of excessive time spent on mobile devices on children's mental health and development have arisen in this age of technology dependency. The essay opens by pointing out the importance of investigating the psychological effects of kids' exposure to mobile gadgets. The effects of mobile phone addiction on learning, memory, and social and emotional health are investigated. The neurodevelopmental implications are explored further in the abstract, with a focus on the impact of mobile technology on brain plasticity and the formation of the developing brain. It offers advice on how to establish appropriate limits for children's screen time, encourages the development of digital literacy, and promotes responsible behavior.The pros and cons of using mobile devices in the classroom are also examined, along with their effects on students' ability to study and the risks and difficulties that could arise from implementing such a strategy. The emotional and social impacts of mobile device addiction are discussed in the abstract. This includes the impact on one's social life, empathy, ability to communicate, and sense of self-worth. The abstract also stresses the importance of interdisciplinary efforts involving parents, teachers, psychologists, and legislators to combat mobile device addiction through intervention and preventative techniques. Future directions are highlighted, with a focus on topics such as mobile technology development, digital well-being, privacy protection, mental health implications, screen time limits, digital literacy, and the impact of cultural and socioeconomic variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Online surfing; Screen addiction; Physical inactivity; Mood; Cognition
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:40:04 CEST)
Background: The Internet has become an essential component of college students' lives, serving as a tool for academic pursuits, daily activities, and social interactions with individuals and the global community. Productive internet use is associated with student success, while pathological internet use can negatively impact psychosocial performance. This study aimed to assess the impact of internet addiction on the cognitive function, mood, and physical activity of college students. Study design: The study was based on a correlational observational study design. Settings: The study’s participants were taken using a convenience sampling method from the Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies campus, Faridabad, Haryana, having a student strength of more than two thousand. Methods: With a response rate of 69.93%, one hundred male and female college students who could understand the self-administered questionnaires and obtained the internet addiction test (IAT) scores equal to or above twenty participated (aged 18-25 years) in this study. The participants were assessed for the study’s outcomes, such as the internet addiction (viz. average, moderate, and excessive) cognition, mood, and physical activity level, using an internet addiction test questionnaire (IATQ), cognitive failure questionnaire (CFQ), the profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS), and international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), respectively. A categorical analysis with mean scores was carried out for all the outcomes. The correlation between internet dependency and cognitive abilities, emotional state, and levels of physical activity among the participants was ascertained using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The threshold of significance was set to 95%, meaning any p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study’s outcome variable- internet addiction, revealed a moderate positive correlation with cognition (r=0.793; p=0.001) and mood (r=0.703; p=012), while a moderate negative correlation with physical activity (r=-0.681; p=003). Conclusion: The study concluded that internet addiction is positively linked to cognition and mood disruption; however, it negatively affects physical activities among college students. An awareness program should be executed on “Internet addiction and its effects on college students’ Cognition, Mood, and Physical Activity” and advocating Internet use in a limited manner for getting aroused, feeling better, and avoiding physical inactivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0073.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Vaping; e-cigarettes; addiction; social; flavors; nicotine; toxicity
Online: 6 April 2023 (05:40:10 CEST)
This article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of vaping from various perspectives that contributes to the origin, development, achievement, and consequences of the greed of e-cigarette manufacturers. In our analysis, multiple elements of the social landscape, including economic, cultural, moral, psychological, and philosophical dimensions, contributed to the origin and development of the vaping greed and shaped people’s behaviors. Further discussion was made on how the specific characteristics of e-cigarette products and the marketing strategies of the companies, especially social media marketing, fostered the growth of such greed. Through interviews, we have also discussed the unfolding of this greed within the community of teenage vapers. The growth of the vaping greed was manifested in the large market share taken by the companies, but these all significantly harm people’s health and the communities. Nicotine and other chemicals in e-liquids promote each other’s negative effects in the mechanism leading to pulmonary symptoms and addiction, which are not limited to the physical level. We described that addiction could be transgenerational and can induce trauma both at an individual level and a community level. Overall, the greed of the vaping industry is a very complex system. The treatment of the greed shall be complicated as well: Besides the public health measures taken to treat the symptoms of the greed, we should educate individuals to be aware of their unfulfilled needs to regain authenticity and establish an infallible authority to enforce universal morality, which eradicates the complications of addiction and the root of the capitalists’ greed, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Escapism; addiction; excessive behaviors; internet use; gambling; gaming
Online: 29 August 2022 (07:16:59 CEST)
Excessive online behaviors refer to harmful or disproportionate use of digital network applications. Such behaviors are likely to be associated with escapist motives. Our aim was to analyze whether escapism predicts excessive gambling, excessive gaming, and excessive internet use over time. A longitudinal sample of Finnish residents aged 18–75 years (N = 1,022, 51.27% male) was surveyed at three time points in 6-month intervals: April 2021 (Time 1), October–November 2021 (Time 2), April–May 2022 (Time 3). Of the original Time 1 respondents, 66.80% took part in the surveys at both Time 2 and Time 3. All surveys included measures for excessive gambling (Problem Gambling Severity Index), excessive gaming (Internet Gaming Disorder Test), and excessive internet use (Compulsive Internet Use Scale). Three escapism-specific questions were used to construct a dedicated escapism variable. Socio-demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and psychological distress were used as controls. The study was conducted with multilevel regression analyses using hybrid models. Our research showed that escapism had strong within-person effects on excessive gambling, B = 0.18, p = .003; excessive gaming, B = 0.50, p < .001; and excessive internet use, B = 0.77, p < .001 over time. The between-person effect of escapism was demonstrated on excessive gaming B = 0.91, p <.001; and excessive internet use B = 0.61, p = .036. Adverse societal events and uncertain times can manifest in excessive online behaviors motivated by escapism, highlighting a need to focus prevention efforts on healthy coping methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: electronic nicotine delivery systems; nicotine addiction; vaping; cessation
Online: 9 December 2020 (15:56:46 CET)
Currently 7.6% of the U.S. young adults aged 18-24 years old currently use e-cigarettes. This study piloted three methods of ENDS cessation by measuring cessation rates, motivational techniques that contributed to cessation success, and participants’ changes after decreasing vape use. Participants were randomized into three study arms [nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) + behavioral support, vape-taper + behavioral support, self-guided] in a 1:1:1 ratio. All participants were invited to attend 9 in-person or phone appointments over the 6 month study period. At 12 weeks, 3 of 7 (42.9%) participants in the NRT + behavioral support arm, 6 of 8 (75%) vape-taper + behavioral support arm, and 7 of 9 (77.8%) self-guided arm self-reported being vape- and nicotine-free. At 6 months, 3 of 7 (42.9%) participants in the NRT + behavioral support arm, 6 of 8 (75%) vape-taper + behavioral support arm, 4 of 9 (44.4%) self-guided arm self-reported being vape- and nicotine-free. A challenge to quitting and remain quit is social pressures, but participants identified self-control and establishing new habits to be the best methods to overcome the desire to vape. Participants who received behavioral support and a vape-taper plan from pharmacists were more likely to be vape- and nicotine-free at 6 months.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1417.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: tumor heterogeneity; cancer progression; oncogene addiction; cancer stem cell
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:39:49 CET)
Tumor heterogeneity is a major obstacle to achieving consistent outcomes in cancer therapy. We offer a novel perspective on tumor heterogeneity, informed by an advanced understanding of tumor evolution. We understand any cells, or any organism, will inherently respond with specific capacities when faced with adversity. Our concepts, which extend beyond canonical views, posit that tumor evolution is driven by cellular responses to survival challenges. The disease is driven by a rudimentary action taken by any organism when confronted with adversity - a cellular response to generate specific capacities to overcome the threat - the responses that utilize advantageous genetic mutations and other cellular contents to attain these capacities and further drive the disease. The disease is initiated by a cellular response to survival challenges and the ongoing development of hallmark cancer capabilities, as cells endeavor to obtain a competitive advantage, results in increased molecular disarray, observed as tumor heterogeneity. When the evolutionary drive for survival is impeded by therapeutic inhibition of critical genes, cell death occurs, a phenomenon termed oncogene addiction. Drawing from the same idea that cells responding to survival challenges, we recognize the increasing primitiveness of cancer during its progress stems from the innate cellular response to the demand for regeneration under sustained cellular damage. This necessitates a regression to a more primitive state purposed to renew progeny, unleashing a hitherto undiscerned cellular capacity. Taken together, the ideas explored herein pave the way for novel cancer therapies and the betterment of human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0563.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education, students, teachers, adolescent, sexuality, bullying, internet addiction, teaching
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:17:21 CEST)
In Greece, as in most European countries, the heterogeneity of students leads to conflicts resulting in a general inability of the educational process to function. This review study is focused on modern issues affecting youth and school education procedures such as internet addiction, student behaviour expressed as bullying, and adolescent sexuality development. All sides agree that the most essential purposes of education are to emphasize the cultivation of interpersonal relationships, the development of sociability, and self-esteem, and the prevention. Teachers wanting to respond to the spirit of the times to rationalize the pedagogical process introduced the pedagogical contract as a school practice as a valuable tool in taking control of the class and gaining students' attendance. The teacher's positive attitude will create added value to their knowledge and experiences while helping them to integrate into society.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0038.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: paramedicine; addiction; health and wellbeing; prehospital; emergency health services
Online: 2 February 2023 (09:17:25 CET)
Introduction: As the paramedic profession continues to grow and evolve, a shift from reactive to holistic patient care models is required. As the first and often the only point of medical contact for many patients from marginalized and under-served populations, the paramedic role, and its potential future implications in caring for these patients needs to be explored. Aim: The objective of this scoping review was to explore the paramedic's role in caring for people who use illicit drugs. Methods: A scoping review of English language literature published since 2002 was conducted using CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. We used a previously published paramedic search term filter for sensitivity combined with search terms related to drug-related substance use and addiction. Studies were selected based on relevance to the research question. Results: A total of 104 peer-reviewed and 14 grey literature articles were selected for inclusion. The main finding of this scoping review is the notable lack of evidence base surrounding the contemporary paramedic role in the care provision of people who use drugs (PWUD). The results highlight high rates of mortality following a paramedic-attended drug poisoning event, presenting a unique opportunity for paramedics to intervene in meaningful ways that extend past traditional drug poisoning response. Conclusions: The interface between the community of PWUD and the paramedic may be a highly influential encounter during a patient's journey through the healthcare system. The evolving role of the paramedic in this encounter requires focused study and should be viewed as a research priority in response to the ongoing drug poisoning crisis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0487.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Memory reconsolidation; Animal models; Alcohol addiction; Nicotine; relapse; tobacco
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:29:50 CET)
Alcohol and nicotine are widely-abused legal substances worldwide. Relapse to alcohol or tobacco seeking and consumption after abstinence is a major clinical challenge, and is often evoked by cue-induced craving. Therefore, disruption of the memory for the cue-drug association is expected to suppress relapse. Memories have been postulated to become labile shortly after their retrieval, during a “memory reconsolidation” process. Interference with the reconsolidation of drug-associated memories has been suggested as a possible strategy to reduce or even prevent cue-induced craving and relapse. Here, we surveyed the growing body of studies in animal models and in humans assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological or behavioral manipulations in reducing relapse by interfering with the reconsolidation of alcohol and nicotine/tobacco memories. Our review points to the potential of targeting the reconsolidation of these memories as a strategy to suppress relapse to alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. However, we discuss several critical limitations and boundary conditions, which should be considered to improve the consistency and replicability in the field, and for development of an efficient reconsolidation-based relapse prevention therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0443.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: opiate; mu; kappa; delta; nociceptin; addiction; overdose; prenatal; postnatal
Online: 17 November 2020 (09:53:19 CET)
Buprenorphine, an analogue of thebaine, is a Schedule III opioid in the United States used for opioid-use disorder and as an analgesic. Research has shown drugs like buprenorphine have a complicated pharmacology with characteristics that challenge traditional definitions of terms like agonist, antagonist, and efficacy. Buprenorphine has a high affinity for the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), kappa (KOR), and intermediate for the nociceptin opioid receptors (NOR). Buprenorphine is generally described as a partial MOR agonist with limited activity and decreased response at the mu-receptor relative to full agonists. In opioid naïve patients, the drug’s analgesic efficacy is equivalent to a full MOR agonist, despite decreased receptor occupancy and the “ceiling effect” produced from larger doses. Some argue buprenorphine’s effects depend on the endpoint measured, as it functions as a partial agonist for respiratory depression, but a full-agonist for pain. Buprenorphine’s active metabolite, norbuprenorphine, attenuates buprenorphine's analgesic effects due to NOR binding and respiratory depressant effects. The method of administration impacts efficacy and tolerance when administered for analgesia. There have been eleven-thousand reports involving buprenorphine and minors (age < 19) to US poison control centers, the preponderance (89.2%) with children. The consequences of prenatal buprenorphine exposure in experimental animals and humans should continue to be carefully evaluated. In conclusion, buprenorphine’s characterization as only a partial mu-agonist is an oversimplification. Contemporary research shows the traditional explanation of the pharmacology of buprenorphine does not take into account changes to receptor theory, pharmacological terminology, route of administration, and biologically active major metabolites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: GSEA; cocaine; addiction; enrichment analysis; bioinformatics; in silico research
Online: 24 April 2018 (08:46:31 CEST)
Cocaine addiction is a global health problem that causes substantial damage to the health of addicted individuals around the world. Dopamine synthesizing neurons in the brain play a vital role in the addiction to cocaine. But the underlying molecular mechanisms that help cocaine exert its addictive effect have not been very well understood. Bioinformatics can be a useful tool in the attempt to broaden our understanding in this area. In the present study, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was carried out on the upregulated genes from a dataset of Dopamine synthesizing neurons of post-mortem human brain of cocaine addicts. As a result of this analysis, 3 miRNAs have been identified as having significant influence on transcription of the upregulated genes. These 3 miRNAs hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of cocaine addiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: behavioral sensitization; ethanol; oxytocin; addiction; estrous cycle; ethanol self-administration
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:36:43 CEST)
Oxytocin (OXT), a pro-social peptide, is increasingly recognized as a potential protective substance against drug addiction. In the context of ethanol, previous researches have shown OXT properties to reduce self-administration, alleviate motor impairment in rodents, and reduce craving in humans. However, its role in behavioral sensitization, a neuroadaptive response resulting from repeated drug exposure linked to increased drug incentive, remains unexplored. OXT is also associated with modulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, with corticosterone well-known as a significant factor in behavioral sensitization development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Carbetocin (CBT), an analogue of OXT, on the expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol and concurrent alterations in plasma corticosterone levels in male and female Swiss mice. We also aimed to confirm previous studies on OXT impact on ethanol consumption in male mice, but with a focus on CBT, using the two-bottle choice model and drinking in the dark (DID) methodology. For the sensitization study, mice received either ethanol (1.8 g/kg, ip) or saline treatments daily for 15 consecutive days, followed by treatment with carbetocin (0.64 mg/kg, ip) or a vehicle for 6 days. Subsequently, on day 22, all animals underwent an ethanol challenge to assess the expression of behavioral sensitization. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured on days 21 and 22. CBT effectively prevented the expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization in both male and female subjects, with no alterations detected in corticosterone levels. In the ethanol consumption study, following an initial phase of ethanol acquisition, mice underwent a 6-day treatment with CBT i.p or saline before being reexposed to ethanol. We also found a reduction in ethanol consumption due to CBT treatment. In conclusion, carbetocin emerges as a promising and effective intervention in mitigating ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and reducing ethanol intake, highlighting its potential significance in alcohol addiction treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: methocinnamox; opioid; naloxone; naltrexone; methadone; buprenorphine; overdose; treatment; receptors; addiction
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:48:27 CET)
The opioid epidemic is an ongoing public health crisis, and the United States health system is overwhelmed with increasing numbers of opioid-related overdoses. Methocinnamox (MCAM) is a novel mu-opioid receptor antagonist with an extended duration of action and potential to reduce the burden of the opioid epidemic through overdose rescue and could treat opioid use disorder (OUD) long-term. We compared the efficacy and effects of MCAM to the current treatments available to treat OUD including naloxone, naltrexone, methadone, and buprenorphine which have their own limitations including short duration of action, patient non-compliance, and diversion. A literature review was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar databases covering the history of the opioid epidemic, pain receptors, current OUD treatments and the novel drug MCAM. MCAM could potentially be used as both a rescue and long-term treatment for opioid misuse. This is due to its pseudo-irreversible antagonism of the mu opioid receptor, abnormally long duration of action of nearly two weeks, and the possibility of using kappa or delta opioid receptor agonists for pain management during OUD treatment. MCAM’s novel pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties open a new avenue for treating the opioid crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0698.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sugar; ultraprocessed food; addiction; toxicity; public health; non-communicable disease
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:08:24 CEST)
Past public health crises (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, opioids, cholera, HIV, lead, pollution, venereal disease, even COVID-19) have been met with interventions targeted both at the individual and all of society. While the healthcare community is very aware that the global pandemic of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) has its origins in our Western ultraprocessed food diet, society has been slow to initiate any interventions other than public education, which has been ineffective, in part due to food industry interference. This article provides the rationale for such public health interventions, by compiling the evidence that added sugar, and by proxy the ultraprocessed food category, meets the four criteria set by the public health community as necessary and sufficient for regulation — addiction, toxicity, ubiquity, and externalities (how does your consumption affect me?). To its credit, some countries have recently heeded this science and have instituted sugar taxation policies to help ameliorate NCD’s within their borders. This article also supplies scientific counters to food industry talking points, in order to guide both scientists and policy makers in instituting further appropriate public health measures to quell this pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Physical Activity; Exercise; Sedentary Behaviour; Hyperpalatable Food; Obesity; Food Addiction
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:52:42 CET)
Obesity is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, and food addiction has been considered one of its phenotypes. The study aims to determine the effectiveness of physical activity (PA), exercise, and sedentary behaviour management in attenuating food addiction in obese and overweight healthy adults. A search strategy was undertaken using MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and CINAHL until April 2019. A total of 295 studies were found from which seven studies, after duplicates were removed, were included. The acute effect of PA of moderate intensity had an effect on attentional bias, craving, and sweet taste perception, although no difference was observed between genders and body mass index groups. No effect was observed on the hedonic and reward value. The acute effects of PA of moderate intensity may be a useful tool to control the levels of food addiction. More research is needed to clarify if this effect also occurs during chronic application, at different doses and types of PA, and for all populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0968.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: tobacco; cigarettes; nicotine addiction; Duke University; James B. Duke; modern medicine
Online: 26 April 2023 (07:38:11 CEST)
Duke University was founded in 1930 primarily due to funds generated from James B. Duke’s tobacco business. Duke achieved great financial wealth primarily due to the early application of machine rolled cigarettes, as opposed to hand rolled. This early adoption of technology allowed Duke Tobacco to out-produce other companies still selling hand rolled cigarettes. By making smoking more inexpensive and easier than pipe smoking, the cigarette formed the foundation for nicotine addiction in the 1900s, generating huge profits for the tobacco industry. At the time Duke University was founded, little was known about the connection between nicotine, cigarettes, and respiratory diseases such as emphysema and lung cancer. Through James Duke’s philanthropy, the devastating harm from cigarettes has been mitigated in part through the founding of one of the world’s most prominent medical centers and research universities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Middle School Students; Smartphone Usage Types; Depression; Parenting Attitude
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:27:01 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smartphone addiction of middle school students and smartphone usage types, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude. This study was also performed with the aim of verifying the relationships among depression, ADHD, perceived stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude, which are predictors of smartphone addiction. The subjects of this study were 487 local middle school students (234 males and 253 females). The measurement instruments used were the smartphone addiction scale, depression scale (PHQ-9), ADHD scale (K-ARS), perceived stress scale (PSS), interpersonal problem scale (KIIP-SC), and the parenting attitude scale. This study identified the relationships between the variables with correlation analysis and examined the predictors of smartphone addiction with hierarchical multiple regression analysis. According to the study results, the factors that influenced smartphone addiction were gender, stress, and interpersonal problems. In addition, when the confounding variables of smartphone addiction were controlled to examine the effects of smartphone usage types on smartphone addiction, social media use and music/videos were found to have a positively significant effect on smartphone addiction while study had a negatively significant effect. The order of the usage types with the highest influence on smartphone addiction was enjoying music/videos, social media use, and study. This suggests that selective intervention depending on the main smartphone usage type can be effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: MOSH syndrome; lifestyle change; food addiction; aromatase activity; testosterone/estradiol ratio
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:19:03 CEST)
Male obesity secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) impairs fertility, sexual function, bone mineralization, fat metabolism, cognitive function, deteriorates muscle mass and alters body composition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention and physical activity on the MOSH patient’s hormonal profile after a 10% weight loss compared to baseline. Fourteen male patients were enrolled. Hormonal, lipid, glycemic profiles and body composition were determined at baseline and after a 10% weight loss. Aging Male Symptoms Scale (AMS) and Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) were administered to patients in order to investigate hypogonadal symptoms and food addiction. Compared to baseline, a significant increase of Total Testosterone (TT) (300.2 ± 79.5 ng/dl vs 408.3 ± 125.9, p = 0.002, 95% CI 26.8; 167.7) and a reduction of 17-Beta Estradiol level (48.3 ± 14.9 pg/mL vs 39.2 ± 15.2, p = 0.049, 95% CI 3.1; 0.0) were observed. Total Fat Mass (FM) percentage, android and gynoid fat mass percentage (39.2 ± 6.4% vs 36.2 ± 5.8%, p = 0.0001, 95% CI 22.5; 62.3; 51.5 ± 6.8% vs 47.6 ± 6.8%, p = 0.001, 95% CI 0.6; 1.8, vs 39.2 ± 6.2% vs 36.5 ± 6.3% p= 0.0001, 95% CI 0.9; 2.0 respectively) were significantly decreased after nutritional intervention. In addition, total Fat Free Mass (FFM) in kg was significantly reduced after 10% weight loss (62.3± 2.8 kg vs 60.3± 7.7 kg, p = 0.002, 95% CI 45.0; 93.0). Lifestyle changes, specifically dietotherapy and physical activity, induce positive effects on hypogonadism due to obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0750.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: behavior; theory; addiction; gambling; college students; university students; young adults; betting; gaming
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:54:54 CEST)
Gambling among college students can start as a pastime activity. However, this pastime can lead to problem gambling and pathological gambling. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify and explain gambling behavior among university students using a novel fourth-generation multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change. Data were collected from a sample of 1,474 university students at a large southwestern university in the U.S. between January 2023 and February 2023, utilizing a validated 39-item survey. The statistical analyses employed in this study encompassed descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests, and hierarchical regression modeling. Among students who engaged in gambling in the past month, the constructs of participatory dialogue (β = 0.052; p < 0.05), behavioral confidence (β = 0.073; p < 0.0001), and changes in the physical environment (β = 0.040; p = 0.0137) accounted for 27.7% of the variance in the likelihood of initiating the behavior change. Furthermore, the constructs of emotional transformation (β = 0.104; p = 0.0003) and practice for change (β = 0.060; p = 0.0368) accounted for 22.6% of the variance in the likelihood of sustaining quitting gambling behavior. The Multi-Theory Model (MTM) can be employed to design interventions aimed at reducing problem gambling among college students.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0072.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Dopamine; Brain; Reward; Stress; Pathological Adaptation; Behavior; Covid19 pandemic; Digital Addiction; Global Mental Health
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:09:42 CEST)
When “hijacked” by compulsive behaviors that affect the reward and stress centers of the brain, functional changes in dopamine circuitry occur as the consequence of pathological brain adaptation. As a brain explanans for mental health, with a central functional role in behavioral regulation from healthy reward seeking to pathological adaptation to stress in response to adversity, we may use dopamine regulation in interaction with other brain mechanisms, as discussed herein, to gather a deeper insight into environmentally triggered mental health changes to understand, for example, specific behavioral changes observed during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Pandemic-related adversities, the stresses they engendered, and the long lockdown periods where people had to rely on digital tools to get feed-back rewards via the internet can be seen as the major triggers of changes in motivation and reward seeking behavior worldwide. The pathological adaptation of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry in the brain offers a highly plausible explanation why, when pushed by fate and circumstance into a physiological brain state of anti-reward, human behavior and mental health changes almost inevitably depending on individual vulnerability to stress. A unified conceptual account that places dopamine function at the centre of the current global mental health context is proposed.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Cannabis use disorder, Virtual reality therapy, Psychotic disorder, Case report, Addiction intervention, Relational treatment.
Online: 20 July 2023 (11:23:33 CEST)
Considering the harmful effects of cannabis on individuals with a severe mental disorder and the limited effectiveness of current interventions, this case report showcases the beneficial results of a 10-session Avatar intervention for cannabis use disorder (CUD) on a polysubstance user with a comorbid schizoaffective disorder. Virtual reality allowed the creation of an Avatar representing a person significantly related to the patient’s drug use. Avatar intervention for CUD aims to combine exposure, relational, and cognitive behavioral therapies while practicing real-life situations and learning how to manage negative emotions and cravings. Throughout therapy and later on, Mr. C managed to maintain abstinence from all substances. Also, an improvement in the severity of CUD as well as a greater motivation to change consumption, were observed after therapy. As observed by his mother, his psychiatrist, and himself, the benefits of Avatar intervention for CUD extended to other spheres of his life. The drastic results observed in this patient could be promising as an alternative to the current treatment available for people with a dual diagnosis of cannabis use disorder and psychotic disorder, which generally lack effectiveness. A single-blind randomized control trial comparing the treatment with a classical intervention in a larger sample is currently underway to evaluate whether the results are reproducible on a larger sample.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: bariatric surgery; feeding and eating disorders; binge-eating disorder; food addiction; night eating syndrome.
Online: 21 June 2021 (12:33:11 CEST)
Background: Patients in the postoperative period following bariatric surgery are at risk of developing eating disorders. This study aims to analyse the relation between bariatric surgery and the development and recurrence of eating disorders. Material and methods: Literature review was done on 15th November 2020. Fourteen studies that met the eligibility criteria were included for qualitative synthesis, and 7 studies for meta-analysis. Results: The prevalence of eating disorders in the postoperative period was 7.83%, based on the 7 studies in the meta-analysis. Binge eating disorder alone was 3.81%, which was the most significant factor, and addressed in 6 of these studies. Conclusion: The investigated studies have significant methodological limitations in assessing the relation between bariatric surgery and eating disorders, since they mostly present data on prevalence. PROSPERO CRD42019135614.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: alcohol consumption; tobacco smoking; carcinogenesis; addiction; stem cells; stem cell division theory of cancer
Online: 27 July 2017 (12:34:00 CEST)
Almost 6% of cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol consumption. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially causes a local carcinogenic effect. We recently hypothesized that the cytotoxic activity of ethanol could explain the high risk of these cancers in alcohol users. Here we report that short-term exposures (2-3 seconds) to ethanol concentrations between 10% and 15% start to cause a marked cytotoxic effect on human epithelial keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. After discussing new evidence that cancer is the end-result of the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells, we explain why regular alcohol consumption imposes a high risk of cancer on these tissues. Briefly, the cytotoxicity of ethanol reduces the lifespan of the cells lining these tissues. The stem cells located in deeper layers need to divide more often than usual to renew the damaged epithelia. The accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication) that increase their risk of malignant transformation. Cell division also exposes the DNA of the stem cells to the genotoxic activity of acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens. We propose that choosing alcoholic beverages containing non-cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol, or diluting ethanol to non-cytotoxic concentrations, is a simple way to reduce the risk of cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus in alcohol users. This preventive strategy may also abolish the known synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on the risk of these cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Fear of missing out; FoMO; social media; Social networking sites; addiction; depression; anxiety; sleep; exercise
Online: 29 April 2022 (13:50:46 CEST)
The fear of missing out (FoMO) is characterized in the literature as a fear that others are having rewarding experiences while one is missing out, and a constant need to keep connected with one’s social network. Driven by Social Determination Theory (SDT) FoMO has been linked with Problematic Social Networking Sites use (PSNSU), negative affectivity (NA), self-esteem (SE) and sleep disturbances. The present study reports findings from 512 individuals (79.1% women, mean age 30.5 years, SD= 8.61). Structural equation modelling (SEM) suggests that the duration of SNSs use and the numbers of SNSs platforms actively used partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and PSNSU. In turns, PSNSU partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA. Furthermore, the present study has extended the literature by incorporating the Vulnerability Model in the FoMO concept, identifying that SE partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA, while NA fully mediated the relationship between FoMO and sleeping disturbances. Accordingly, the present has extended previous research findings in showing exercise as a potential protective factor to prevent against FoMO. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1614.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: online shopping; structural equation modeling; cognitive load; fear of missing out; personality type; online shopping addiction
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:55:24 CEST)
E-commerce platforms created to meet the needs of digital consumers, who are the leading actors of digital-oriented consumption, are increasing rapidly. Revolutionizing our daily lives by offering the digital equivalent of real-world experiences, e-commerce now offers a comfortable shopping experience that transcends the limitations of time and space. This phenomenon has been embraced by individuals spanning all age groups, from young children to the elderly. Structural equation modeling was used in this study, in which the factors affecting online shopping addiction were determined. In this direction, the causal and correlational relationships between the variables of fear of missing out (FoMO), cognitive load, personality types, some socio-demographic characteristics (gender and monthly shopping amount) and online shopping addiction in online shopping were revealed structurally. Since the purposive sampling was used, the study was carried out on 488 people. The goodness-of-fit indices included in the created model were found at an “acceptable” level (χ2/df= 2.248, p=0.000; RMSEA=0.051; GFI=0.878; AGFI=0.856; CFI=0.950; NFI=0.914). These results show that the final version of the model meets the necessary criteria for a good fit, its validity and accuracy. The study revealed the causal and correlational relationship between online shopping addiction and cognitive load, personality types, FoMO, gender, and monthly online shopping amount.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0547.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: twitch.tv; twitch; live streaming; online gambling; addiction; gambling disorder; internet use; slotstreams; online casino; online slots.
Online: 29 November 2022 (09:23:05 CET)
(1) Background: Twitch.tv is a live video content website. As of 2022, Twitch users are generally adolescents and young adults, with estimates of the percentage of users aged 16-24 between 22.3% and 41%, predominantly males with estimates ranging from 65% to 78.36%. In recent years, “slotstream” content has become increasingly popular, where streamers gamble online while users watch them. (2) Methods: from July 2022 to November 2022, we researched articles related to Twitch, live streaming, gambling, casino, slot, gambling online, modeling, social media influencers, conditioning, and celebrities, searching for relevant studies in the databases LexisNexis Academic, Business Source Complete, PubMed, Web of Science, Freedom Collection, Health & Medical Collection, Elsevier Journal, Springer, APA PsycARTICLES, Wiley, and other single journals. (3) Results: we took into consideration Gambling Disorder, Online Gambling Disorder, and Internet Gaming Disorder on the one hand, and consumer components such as persuasive communication and influencer-audience relationship on the other; we then hypothesized that the presence of these variables within the slotstream format is positively correlated with the development of pathological gambling, especially in an adolescent audience. (4) Conclusion: we assume that there is a positive correlation between watching slotstream content and the probability of developing both pathological and non-pathological gambling behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genome-wide association study; transcriptome-wide association study; meta-analysis; expression quantitative trait loci; nicotine addiction
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:46:13 CET)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified and reproduced thousands of diseases associated loci but many of them are not directly interpretable due to the strong linkage disequilibrium among variants. Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) incorporated expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) cohorts as reference panel to detect associations with the phenotype at the gene level and were gaining popularity in recent years. For nicotine addiction, several important susceptible genetic variants were identified by GWAS, but TWAS that detected genes associated with nicotine addiction and unveiled the underlying molecular mechanism were still lacking. In this study, we used eQTL data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) consortium as reference panel to conduct tissue specific TWAS on cigarettes per day (CPD) over 13 brain tissues in two large cohorts: UK Biobank (UKBB; N=142,202) and the GWAS & Sequencing Consortium of Alcohol and Nicotine use (GSCAN; N=143,210), and then meta-analyzed the results across tissues while considering the heterogeneity across tissues. We identified three major clusters of genes with different meta-patterns across tissues consistent in both cohorts, including homogenous genes associated with CPD in all brain tissues, partially homogeneous genes associated with CPD in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus tissues, and lastly the tissue-specific genes associated with CPD in only few specific brain tissues. Downstream enrichment analyses on each gene cluster identified unique biological pathways associated with CPD and provided important biological insights into the regulatory mechanism of nicotine dependence in the brain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; tickborne diseases; persistent infection; treatment; assessment; depression; anxiety; sleep disorders; opioid addiction
Online: 5 June 2018 (08:33:20 CEST)
There is increasing evidence and recognition that Lyme borreliosis, and other associated tick-borne diseases (LB/TBD) cause mental symptoms. Data was drawn from databases, search engines and clinical experience to review current information on LB/TBD. LB/TBD infections cause immune and metabolic effects that result in a gradually developing spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms, usually presenting with significant comorbidity and may include developmental disorders, autism spectrum disorders, schizoaffective disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety disorders (panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, intrusive symptoms), eating disorders, decreased libido, sleep disorders, addiction, opioid addiction, cognitive impairments, dementia, seizure disorders, suicide, violence, anhedonia, depersonalization, dissociative episodes, derealization and other impairments. Screening assessment followed by a comprehensive psychiatric clinical exam relevant to patient’s complaints and findings with a thorough history, mental status exam, review of systems, neurological exam, physical exam, a knowledgeable interpretation of laboratory findings, pattern recognition and clinical judgment facilitate diagnosis. Psychotropics and antibiotics may help improve functioning and prevent further disease progression. Awareness of the association between LB/TBD and neuropsychiatric impairments and studies of their prevalence in neuropsychiatric conditions can improve understanding of the causes of mental illness and violence and result in more effective prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2137.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Cancer; tobacco use; neurobiology of nicotine dependence; nicotine addiction; tobacco use treatment; smoking cessation; literature review article
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:50:24 CEST)
The prolonged exposure to nicotine and the development of nicotine dependence have significant implications for cancer risk. Tobacco use, driven by nicotine addiction, is a major contributing factor to the development of various types of cancer. Smoking tobacco, in particular, has been strongly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, as well as other malignancies. The harmful chemicals present in tobacco products, including carcinogens, can cause DNA damage and promote the initiation and progression of cancerous cells. This article presents a comprehensive literature review on the neurobiology of nicotine dependence and its implications for tobacco use treatment. Nicotine dependence is a complex phenomenon involving various neurobiological mechanisms. When nicotine enters the body, it binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain's reward circuitry, triggering the release of neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Over time, repeated nicotine exposure leads to neuroadaptive changes in the brain, resulting in increased motivation to seek and use the drug. Understanding the neurobiology of nicotine dependence is crucial for developing effective treatment strategies. Pharmacological interventions, such as nicotine replacement therapy and medications like bupropion and varenicline, can help individuals manage cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Additionally, behavioral therapies and counseling play a vital role in enhancing self-efficacy and providing support for smoking cessation efforts. By reviewing the existing literature, this article sheds light on the intricate neural pathways and processes involved in nicotine addiction. It emphasizes the importance of a multidimensional approach that combines pharmacological treatments and behavioral interventions to address the physiological and psychological aspects of nicotine dependence. This knowledge can inform the development of more targeted and personalized treatment approaches to help individuals overcome tobacco addiction and improve their chances of successful smoking cessation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fear of missing out (FOMO), Parental control, Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU), Social Media Addiction, Social Media Intrusion
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:23:46 CEST)
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). The perception of the possible role of parental supervision on online activities is also investigated. Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media. The results additionally demonstrate that students aged 30 and older believe more in the requirement of parental control than those aged 17-22.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0258.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: digital environments; over exposure; children; vitamin D; melatonin; myopia; sleep loss; depression; obesity internet addiction; serotonin; dopamine; oxidative stress
Online: 16 March 2020 (04:22:15 CET)
Environmental studies, metabolic research, and state of the art neurobiology point towards the reduced amount of natural day and sunlight exposure of the developing child’s organism as the consequence of increasingly long hours spent indoors online as the single unifying source of a whole set of health risks identified worldwide, as is made clear in this review of the current literature. Over exposure to digital environments, from abuse to addiction, now concerns even the youngest (ages 0 to 2), and triggers, as argued on the basis of clear examples herein, a chain of interdependent negative and potentially long-term metabolic changes. This leads to a deregulation of the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter pathways in the developing brain, currently associated with online activity abuse and/or internet addiction, and akin to that found in severe substance abuse syndromes. A general functional working model is proposed under the light of evidence brought to the forefront in this review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0115.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oncogenes; oncogene addiction; carcinogenesis; transcription factor; cancer genome; gene fusion; cancer genetics; cancer stem cell; targeted cancer therapy; personalized medicine
Online: 14 September 2016 (08:30:41 CEST)
It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ω-Amidase; L-glutamine; L-glutamate; L-glutamine addiction; glutaminase II; GLS1; GLS2; glutamine transaminase; GTωA pathway; α-ketoglutaramate; α-ketoglutarate; asparaginase II pathway; asparaginase, α-ketosuccinamate
Online: 18 July 2023 (08:55:27 CEST)
Many cancers utilize L-glutamine as a major energy source. This “L-glutamine addiction” involves a well-characterized pathway whereby L-glutamine is hydrolyzed by a glutaminase (GLS) to L-glutamate, which is then converted to α-ketoglutarate, the carbons of which enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, mammalian tissues/cancers possess a rarely mentioned alternative pathway (the glutaminase II pathway): L-Glutamine is transaminated to α-ketoglutaramate (KGM), followed by ω-amidase (ωA)-catalyzed hydrolysis of KGM to α-ketoglutarate. Uncertainty may prevail over the name glutaminase II which may be confused with the enzyme named glutaminase 2 (GLS2). Thus, we recently suggested a new name for the glutaminase II pathway, namely the glutamine transaminase-ω-amidase (GTωA) pathway. Herein, we 1) evaluate three recent articles that mention L-glutamine addiction, but not the GTωA pathway, 2) summarize the metabolic importance of the GTωA pathway, including its role in closing the methionine salvage pathway, and 3) as a source of anaplerotic α-ketoglutarate. An advantage of the GTωA pathway [i.e., L-glutamine + α-keto acid + H2O α-ketoglutarate + L-amino acid + +NH4] is that it is irreversible and that there is no net change in redox status, permitting α-ketoglutarate production during hypoxia. Finally, we discuss possible clinical benefits of GTωA pathway inhibitors.