ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1258.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: physical activity; older adults; periodized training
Online: 19 October 2023 (12:46:18 CEST)
Abstract: Background: The periodization of physical exercise to optimize the objectives is common in competitive sports, however physical exercise programs for the older adults do not usu-ally present periodization in their programming, they are limited to carrying out similar sessions throughout the program. Methods:137 people over 60 years old performed a physical exercise program, 71 people participated in a multicomponent non-periodized program as the Control Group (CG) and 66 people participated in a program periodized in blocks as the Experimental Group (EG). The block periodization program was oriented to the development of strength, and was carried out in 86 sessions three times per week during a period of 8 months. Anthropometric assessments were made using: weight, height, BMI and electrical bioimpedance; and functional evaluations through standardized tests: SPPB, TUG, handgrip and two-minute stair test. Results: After the intervention, the EG presents significant improvements in the TUG, in the weight and in the BMI. On the other hand, the CG presents significant improvements in fat weight, in BMI and in the 2-minute stair test. The SPPB did not present changes after the intervention. Conclusion: The periodization of physical exercise for older adults does not have a significant impact on the functional capacity in this population group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1081.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Reminisce; Older Adults; Qualitative; Narrative; Life review; Oman
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:03:19 CEST)
Background: Reminiscence studies and life reviews have a number of proven advantages. Future generations gain by learning from elders' life experiences, as do older adults themselves who share their memories. Despite Oman's sizable geriatric population, research on older individuals' life experiences is scarce. Therefore, this study aims to explore the life experiences of older Omani individuals across their many life stages, from childhood to the present. Methods: This was a qualitative study design. A total of 13 Omani older adults (9 females and 4 males) with an average age of 68 years were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic and life review information was gathered according to a set of semi-structured guiding questions. The responses were then captured on audio recordings, which underwent transcription and translation. Thematic analysis techniques were applied to the extracted data. Results: Three main themes were evident in the study’s findings: Childhood memories, Friendships, and Relationships, as well as the elders’ past. Additionally, older adults passed on a number of gems of wisdom to be shared with the younger generations. Conclusion: This study aided in revealing the resiliency, social connections, and life reflections of Omani older adults. Based on these findings, future studies might explore particular aspects of older experiences and pinpoint solutions to improve their quality of life and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1443.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: frailty; older adults; diet quality; sociodemographic; BMI
Online: 22 August 2023 (03:25:51 CEST)
This study aimed to identify sociodemographic and health indicators of diet quality in pre-frail community-dwelling older adults. Pre-frail older adults are those at risk of progression to clinical manifestations of frailty and are targets for preventative intervention. We previously reported that pre-frail older adults have reasonably good overall diet quality. However, further analyses found low intake of energy, protein and several micronutrients. Methods: We collected detailed dietary intake from pre-frail (FRAIL scale 1-2) older adults using NZ Intake24, an online version of 24-hour multiple pass dietary recall. Diet quality was ascertained with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). We used regression Generalised Linear Models to determine predictors of diet quality and Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis to examine the complex relationships of predictors and identified profiles of sub-groups of older adults that predict diet quality. Results. The median age in this sample (n=468) was 80.0 years (77.0-84.0). Living with others, high deprivation index and a higher BMI were independent predictors of poorer diet quality. With CART analysis, we found that those with a BMI >29 kg/m2, living with others and younger than 80 years were likely to have a lower diet quality. Conclusions: We found BMI, living arrangement and socioeconomic status were independent predictors of diet quality in pre-frail older adults, with BMI being the most important variable in this sample when the interacting relationships of these variables were considered. Future research is needed to determine the similarities and/or differences in the profile of subgroups of older adults with poorer diet quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0263.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: response; dropout; older adults; physical activity interventions; OSM; GIS
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:47:38 CET)
Research is still lacking regarding the question as to how programs to promote healthy aging should be organized in order to increase acceptance and thus effectiveness. For older adults, ecological factors, such as physical distance to program sites, might predict participation and retention. Thus, the key aim of this analysis was to examine these factors in a physical activity intervention trial. Adults (N=8,299) aged 65 to 75 years were invited to participate and n=589 participants were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups with 10 weeks of physical activity home practice and exercise classes or a wait-list control group. Response, participation, and dropout data were compared regarding ecological, individual, and study-related variables. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to determine predictors of dropout. In total, 405 participants completed the study. Weekly class attendance rates were examined regarding significant weather conditions and holiday periods. The highest rates of nonresponse were observed in districts with very high neighborhood levels of socioeconomic status. In this study, ecological factors did not appear to be significant predictors of dropout, whereas certain individual and study-related variables were predictive. Future studies should consider these factors during program planning to mobilize and keep subjects in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza; vaccine; adult; vaccine effectiveness; elderly; older adults
Online: 10 October 2022 (10:14:42 CEST)
Older adults (age ≥65) are at high risk of influenza morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the impact of a hypothetical two-dose influenza vaccine regimen per season to reduce symptomatic flu cases by providing preseason (first dose) and mid-season (second dose) protection to offset waning vaccine effectiveness (VE). The Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based modeling platform, was used to compare typical one-dose vaccination to a two-dose vaccination strategy. Primary models incorporated waning VE of 10% per month and varied influenza season timing (December through March) to estimate cases and hospitalizations in older adults. Additional scenarios modeled reductions in uptake and VE of the second dose, and overall waning. In seasons with later peaks, two vaccine doses had the largest potential to reduce cases (14.4% with February peak, 18.7% with March peak) and hospitalizations (13.1% with February peak, 16.8% with March peak). Reductions in cases and hospitalizations still resulted but decreased when 30% of individuals failed to receive a second dose, second dose VE was reduced, or overall waning was reduced to 7% per month. Agent-based modeling indicates that two influenza vaccine doses could decrease cases and hospitalizations in older individuals. The highest impact occurred in the more frequently observed late-peak seasons. The beneficial impact of the two-dose regimen persisted despite model scenarios of reduced uptake of the second dose, decreased VE of the second dose, or overall VE waning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0874.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online frailty check application; older adults; co-design; co-development; reliability; participatory action research
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:25:59 CEST)
Frailty, an age-related decline in homeostatic reserves, markedly proceeded during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To continuously assess frailty status, a remote system is urgently required. We aimed to co-design/co-develop an online frailty check (FC) application alongside FC supporters who were facilitators in a pre-existing onsite FC program. The online FC included a screening measurement for sarcopenia and an 11-item questionnaire covering dietary, physical, and social behaviors. Using prototype applications, 55 opinions obtained from 32 FC supporters (median 74.0 years) were categorized and reflected refinement. Regarding the self-efficacy of FC supporters, a significant increase in social positioning was seen after the mock test (P=.031). For FC supporters and participants, the average system usability scale (SUS) score was 70.2±10.3 points, which was “marginally high” for acceptability and “good” for the adjective range. Multiple regression analysis showed that the SUS score was significantly correlated with online-onsite reliability but not online communication, even after adjusting by age, sex, education level, and ICT proficiency (b=0.400, 95% CI: 0.243-1.951, P=.013). Additionally, a significant association between onsite and online FC scores was observed (R=0.670, P=.001). Our online FC application was evaluated to be a valuable tool to practically assess frailty status remotely.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0779.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Social isolation; risk factors; older adults; long-term care
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:24:17 CET)
Objectives: A wealth of literature has established risk factors for social isolation among older people, however much of this research has focused on community-dwelling populations. Relatively little is known about how risk of social isolation is experienced among those living in long-term care (LTC) homes. We conducted a scoping review to identify possible risk factors for social isolation among older adults living in LTC homes. Methods: A systematic search of five online databases retrieved 1535 unique articles. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Thematic analyses revealed that possible risk factors exist at three levels: individual (e.g., communication barriers), systems (e.g., location of LTC facility), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). Discussion: Our review identified several risk factors for social isolation that have been previously documented in literature, in addition to several risks that may be unique to those living in LTC homes. Results highlight several scholarly and practical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; stress; coping; older adults; resilience
Online: 10 November 2021 (09:00:20 CET)
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing measures were put into place to flatten the pandemic curve. It was projected older adults were at increased risk for poor psychological and health outcomes resulting from increased social isolation and loneliness. However, little re-search has supported this projection among community-dwelling older adults. While growing body of research has examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on older adults, there is a paucity of qualitative research that captures the lived experience of community-dwelling older adults. The current study aimed to better understand the lived experience of community-dwelling older adults during the first six months of the pandemic. Semi-structured one on one interviews were conducting with independent living older adults aged 65 years and older. After achieving saturation, 22 interview were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Following a recursive process, two overarching themes emerged from the data: perceived threat and challenges of the pandemic and coping with the pandemic. Specifically, participants reflected on the threat of contracting the virus and challenges associated with living arrangement, social isolation, and financial insecurity. Participants shared their coping strategies to maintain health and wellbeing, including behavioral strategies, emotion-focused strategies, and social support. Overall, this re-search highlights resilience among older adults during the first six months of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1309.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: healthy aging; group dynamics; psychological well-being; older adult
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:18:38 CEST)
The United Nations Organization in its agenda for 2023 approved Health and Well-being as one of the objectives of sustainable development, in this sense, Higher Education Insti-tutions contribute with interventions to improve each human process that generates a healthy life. In Latin America as well as in European countries, studies have been con-ducted to observe psychological well-being at this stage of life. The present study analyzes in a longitudinal way the psychological well-being in three times in people who attend group dynamics programs. The sample is 668 participants, with an age range between 65 and 80 years. The sample has been distributed in two analysis groups controlling for gender and age: group 1 (with group dynamics) and group 2 (without group dynamics). The Spanish adaptation of Ryff's (2006) Psychological Well-being scale α= 0.87 was ap-plied to both groups. The scale is composed of six dimensions of psychological well-being (self-acceptance, positive relationships, autonomy, mastery of the environment, purpose in life and personal growth). Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the two groups: greater psychological well-being and differences in the dimensions of positive relationships and personal growth in group 1. In addition, logistic regression analysis was carried out to test the predictive capacity of psychological well-being by the existence or not of group dynamics, with significant results in several dimensions. With the results obtained, we can conclude that group dynamics have a relevant role in con-tributing to the development of better levels of psychological well-being of the elderly with longitudinal increase in time. Future studies should be aimed at evaluating the value of group dynamics in the way of successful aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Tele-exercise; physical activity; rural; older adults; knee osteoarthritis; clinical trial
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:36:22 CEST)
Enhance®Fitness (EF) is an evidence-based exercise program recommended for management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, access to EF is limited in rural areas. Accordingly, we evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of remotely delivered EF in rural, community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee OA. A single arm pilot trial of remotely delivered EF classes was conducted. Videoconferencing was used to livestream the instructor-led, 1-hour EF classes 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention. A total of 15 participants were enrolled with a median age of 70 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67-75) and 14 (93%) were women. Median EF class attendance rate was 91% (IQR: 85-94%). Knee pain, as measured by the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), improved significantly from baseline to 12-week endpoint (mean difference=-11.4 [95% CI:-20.9, -2.0); P=0.02). In addition, participants’ self-reported knee function improved significantly (mean difference in KOOS Function score=-11.8 [95% CI:-18.4, -5.2]; P<0.01) as well as their physical capacity (mean difference in Timed Up and Go test time=1.8 seconds [95% CI: 0.2, 3.4]; P=0.03). All participants (100%) were very satisfied with remotely delivered EF classes and there were no serious adverse events. Findings from this pilot trial indicate that remotely delivered EF is feasible and acceptable in rural older adults with knee OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0992.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: behavioral geography; everyday life; older adults; coupling constraints; gendered mobilities
Online: 15 November 2023 (10:01:54 CET)
Many Western studies have indicated that older women are generally more vulnerable in terms of mobility compared to older men, particularly regarding driving. However, the situation may differ in the context of China. This study, based on activity diaries and semi-structured inter-views, focuses on the spatiotemporal behavior of older adults in Tianjin and explores how the constraints posed by activity companions (in terms of type, size, and composition) shape the mo-bilities of older men and women, including activity locations, travel distances, and transporta-tion modes. The key findings are as follows: First, older women are more engaged with their families due to a higher percentage and longer duration of activities spent with family members. Second, older men tend to have more concentrated travel distances near their homes compared to older women. Third, older women exhibit a broader range of activities in different locations and engage in longer-distance leisure travel with family members when compared to older men. In the context of Western literature, this study discusses older women's enhanced social interactions, their earlier retirement in China, and the impact of COVID-19 as factors that help explain these findings. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of accompanied mobilities among Chinese older adults using geographical theory and methods, emphasizing the importance of flexible work schedules for the workforce and the organization of community-based activities to promote the social interactions and mobilities of older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: woodworking program; MCI; mild dementia; psychological health; social health; older adults
Online: 17 November 2022 (16:13:43 CET)
ackground: This study aimed to examine the effects of a woodworking program on psychosocial health in older adults who had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia (MD) in Korea. Setting: The study was carried out in a dementia center in Seoul in Korea. Population: A total of 61 participants who had MCI or MD were allocated into two groups: the experimental group (EG, n = 35) and the control group (CG, n = 26). Methods: This study was carried out using a nonequivalent control group pre-test–post-test design. The EG participated in the woodworking program a total of 10 times for 120 min per session twice a week for 5 weeks, and the CG did not participate in the woodworking program. Both groups completed the same survey before and after the intervention. In the survey, demographic characteristics, psychological health (life satisfaction, depression, self-efficacy, and resilience), and social health (social isolation and social support) were measured. Results: In the within-group comparison, there was no significant difference between any factors of the CG before and after the intervention. In contrast, the EG had a significant improvement before and after the woodworking program. Participants in the EG with MCI and MD significantly improved their social support (p < 0.05). Psychological factors (life satisfaction, depression, and self-efficacy) were positively changed, although not significantly. Conclusions: The woodworking program promoted psychosocial health, such as life satisfaction, resilience, and social support, among older adults with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: older adult; happiness; family type; socio-physical environment; social activities
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:33:26 CET)
This study used secondary data from the 2017 Korean Community Health Survey to compare the associations of socio-physical environment, social support networks, and social activities with happiness among older adults with three different family types. As per the results, there was a significant difference in happiness index between the three groups (F = 86.688, p < .001). Older adults living alone (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57–0.99) and those living with family (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65–0.99) showed greater happiness as the frequency of contact with family increased. Older adults living with only their spouse showed an increase in happiness when their contact with friends was higher (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.56–0.84). It was confirmed that there were differences in factors influencing happiness according to the family type of the older adults in this study. Therefore, the happiness of older adults needs to be adequately ensured, while considering their various circumstances, including family type.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Older adults; Physical exercise; Virtual exercise; COVID-19
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:08:37 CET)
Social isolation magnified by the restriction of movement order during the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to negative psychosocial health impact among community-dwelling older adults. We evaluated the feasibility of virtual research methods and virtual group exercises among individuals aged 60 years and over in Malaysia. Participants were recruited from the Promoting Independence in Seniors with Arthritis (PISA) pilot cohort through social media messages. A four-week course of virtual group exercise was offered. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during the last attended follow-up of the cohort study (pre-pandemic), pre-intervention, and post-intervention. Exercise adherence was recorded using diary with daily entries and attendance to the virtual group exercise sessions were captured daily. The outcomes of interest were changes of anxiety and depression scores from baseline to pre-intervention (pandemic-related) and post-intervention (virtual exercise related). Forty-three individuals were recruited. A significant increase in anxiety scores from baseline to pre-intervention was observed. Comparisons using repeated-measures analysis of variance between those who attendance ≥14 and <14 group exercise sessions revealed no between-within subjects differences in depression scores. There was a 23% dropout rate in the post intervention survey and 60.5% of diaries were returned. This study demonstrated the feasibility of conducting research entirely virtually among older persons during the peak of global first wave of a pandemic. The pandemic has led to increased anxiety among community-dwelling older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0430.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Vietnam; dementia; older adult; quality of life; related factors; nursing home
Online: 6 December 2023 (15:39:13 CET)
Better understanding of the quality of life among nursing home residents with dementia is im-portant for developing interventions. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to examine factors associated with poor health-related quality of life in older adults with dementia living in nursing homes in Hanoi, Vietnam. In-person interviews were conducted with 140 adults 60 years and older with dementia and information about their quality of life was obtained using the Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease scale (QOL-AD). A number of sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with poor health-related quality of life (lowest tertile) were assessed through the results of physical tests, interviews with nursing home staff, and review of medical records. The average age of the study sample was 78.3 years, 65% were women, and their av-erage QOL-AD total score was 27.3 (SD = 4.4). Malnutrition, total dependence in activities of daily living, and urinary incontinence were associated with poor quality of life after controlling for multiple potentially confounding factors. Our findings show that Vietnamese nursing home residents with dementia have a moderate quality of life and interventions based on comprehen-sive geriatric assessment remain needed to modify risk factors associated with poor health-related quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1327.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Short Physical Performance Battery; comprehensive geriatric assessment; older adults; institutionalization; psycometric properties
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:54:04 CEST)
Background: The validation of measuring instruments in health is a requirement to be able to use them safely and reliably. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) tool is an instrument widely used in the clinic and validated in numerous countries and languages and for different populations. The objective of this research was to determine the psychometric properties of SPPB for a sample composed of institutionalized Spanish older adults. Methods: Multicenter study of the psychometric properties of the Short Physical Performance Battery tool with a convenience sample of 194 institutionalized older adults. Reliability (internal consistency), validity (construct validity and convergent validity) tests were performed. Results: The results show a very good internal consistency, construct validity and convergent validity. In addition, the factorial structure of the SPPB is provided, which reflects that it is a unidimensional scale. Conclusions: In conclusion, the Short Physical Performance Battery is a valid and reliable tool for use with institutionalized older adults. Its use is recommended as part of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment for the evaluation of the physical or functional sphere. Authors should include one of the following statements about the registration status of the manuscript here: This study was prospectively registered and approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Burgos (IR 11/2018).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0741.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dancing; dual-task; older adults; qualitative study; Zumba; cognition
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:10:45 CEST)
Despite the popularity of Zumba in several countries, research is scarce about its impact on older adults. Meanwhile, the integration of cognitive tasks with physical exercises, known as dual-tasking, is an evolving strategy to facilitate activities for older people. This study investigated the perceptions of older adults regarding Zumba and the potential of implementing it in a dual-task program. We conducted a qualitative-descriptive research involving 44 Filipino older adults from August to November 2020. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. Four themes were identified: moving towards match or mismatch; balancing benefits with burdens; dual-tasking as innovative yet potentially challenging; and overcoming barriers with enablers. While Zumba is an inclusive and beneficial activity, individual and contextual limitations could hinder its suitability for older people. Dual-tasking in Zumba was also recognized as an innovative approach, although challenges should be addressed to promote its utility. Several strategies could support the design of these programs in communities. This is the first study to explore older adults’ perceptions towards Zumba and its potential utilization as a dual-tasking program. Findings could guide the implementation of appropriate Zumba and dual-tasking activities that seek to integrate cognitive and physical training for older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0046.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: end-of-life (EOL); relational dialectics theory (RDT); older adults (OA); aging; families
Online: 7 April 2017 (12:56:28 CEST)
For older adults, approaching end-of-life (EOL) brings unique transitions related to family relationships. Unfortunately, most families greatly underestimate the need to discuss these difficult issues. For example, parents approaching EOL issues often struggle with receiving assistance from others, avoiding family conflict, and maintaining their sense of personhood. In addition, discussions of EOL issues force family members to face their parents’ mortality, which can be particularly difficult for the adult children to process emotionally. This study explored aging issues identified by aging parents and their families as they traverse these impending EOL changes. Ten focus groups of seniors (n = 65) were conducted. Focus groups were organized according to race (African American/Caucasian), gender, and whether the older adult was living independently or in an assisted care facility. When asked open-ended questions about discussing aging and EOL issues with family members, participants revealed tensions that led us to consider Relational Dialectics Theory as a framework for analysis. The predominant tension highlighted in this report was certainty versus uncertainty, with the two sub-themes of sustained life versus sustained personhood and confronting versus avoiding EOL issues. For these data, there were more similarities than differences as a result of gender, race, or living situation than one might expect, although culture and financial status were found to be influential in the avoidance of EOL discussions. The results of this study help to provide additional insight into relational dialectics related to aging, EOL, and the importance of communication in facilitating family coping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1890.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: gratitude, enjoyment of life, life satisfaction, social support, aging, older adults, Saudi Arabia
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:19:32 CEST)
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, and the mediation role of social support and enjoyment of life among older individuals. The Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test, the Enjoyment of Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale were administered to a sample of 260 older individuals aged between 60 and 80. The main findings revealed a positive association between gratitude and life satisfaction, and social support was a partial mediator in this relationship. Although enjoyment of life was not a direct mediator in the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, the final model indicated a significant serial pathway from gratitude to social support and then through enjoyment of life-to-life satisfaction. In conclusion, enhancing gratitude, promoting enjoyment of life, and social support in older individuals might increase their life satisfaction, which in turn might contribute to their successful aging
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1752.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: vaccine uptake; immunisation; adults; older people; elderly; Asia-Pacific; barriers; facilitators; factors; interventions
Online: 28 November 2023 (07:15:38 CET)
This rapid review aims to present a comprehensive overview of barriers and facilitators or factors, and, effective interventions that promote immunisation uptake by older people in the Asia-Pacific region. Rapid review methodology was applied using two databases (PubMed, Embase). Articles were included if studies were conduced in Australia, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines, included human population ≥50 years old, used original data, adopted quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method designs, and published from 2016 to August 2022. The study selection yielded 1424 articles. A total 23 papers met the inclusion criteria, of which 19 reported on barriers and facilitators, while, 4 articles reported on effective interventions to promote vaccination uptake. Among the 19 studies that identified barriers and facilitators to vaccination uptake, the more common factors were social influences (n=8/19), perceived benefits of vaccine (n=7/19), and perceived vaccine safety (n=6/19). Strategies that focussed on supporting clinicians were found to be effective in leading them to recommend vaccinations among older adults such as creating awareness on the low baseline vaccination rates among older adults, provision of structured health assessment, and nurse reminders. More studies are needed ascertain the factors, and effective interventions influencing vaccine uptake among older people in the Asia-Pacific region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0864.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: frailty; physical exercise; physical performance; community-dwelling older adults; intrinsic capacity; functional capacity
Online: 13 October 2023 (16:38:00 CEST)
Background. The measurement of physical performance constitutes an indicator of physical functional capacity and allows the design of physical exercise programs adapted to the individual abilities and needs of older adults with and without frailty. Aim. To present a synthesis of knowledge on the effect of exercise programs on physical performance in older adults with and without frailty in the community. Method. A systematic review was carried out in accordance with the PRISMA-2020 criteria. The search for articles was made until May 4, 2023 in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO and LILACS. The outcome variable was physical performance, measured through the SPPB (Short Physical Performance Battery). The mean difference (MD) was estimated to evaluate the effect. Results. We found 2,483 studies, of which 12 met the eligibility criteria for the systematic review and 9 for the meta-analysis. The effect of exercise on SPPB score was significantly higher in the exercise group compared to control in non-frail older adults with MD=0.51 [95% CI, 0.05 to 0.96, p<0.05]. Likewise, in older adults with frailty, the effect of exercise on the global SPPB score was significantly higher in the exercise group compared to the control with an MD=0.66 [95% CI, 0.09 to 1.24, p<0.05 ]. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that exercise programs are effective in increasing and/or maintaining physical performance in older adults with and without frailty, whose effect is more evident in older adults with frailty, probably due to the greater margin of recovery of intrinsic capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: quality of life; physical activity; physical function; food and nutrition; older Japanese adults
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:32:36 CET)
Japan is experiencing a super-aging society faster than is anywhere else worldwide. Consequently, extending healthy life expectancy is an urgent social issue. To understand diet that supports the extension of healthy life expectancy, we studied the relationships among quality of life (QOL: SF-36 questionnaire), physical activity (number of steps and activity calculated using an accelerometer), physical function (muscle strength, movement function, agility, static balance, dynamic balance, and walking function) and dietary intake among 469 older adults living in the Tokyo metropolitan area (65–75 years old, men/women = 166/303) from February 23, 2017, to March 31, 2018. There was a significant positive association between physical QOL and steps, moderate-intensity activity, and high-intensity activity (p < 0.05), and a significant positive association (p < 0.05) between physical activity and movement, static balance, and walking functions, but no association with muscle strength. These three body functions were significantly positively correlated with intake of vegetables, seeds, fruits, and milk, and with magnesium, potassium, vitamin B6, and the dietary fibre/carbohydrate ratio and composition ratios (p < 0.05). Balancing food and nutrition may improve QOL in older adults through increased physical function and physical activity. Future verification of interventions is needed.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: older adults; blood pressure; blood glucose,; depression,; senior center; comprehensive healthcare
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:48:21 CET)
This study explored the effects of a comprehensive health care program (CHCP) on blood pressure, blood glucose, body composition, and depression in older adults living alone. We used a quasi-experimental, two-group, pre-posttest design. The CHCP consisted of open lectures, health counseling, exercise classes, nutrition counseling, and self-help group meetings at a local senior welfare center. Fifty-eight subjects participated in this study, with thirty subjects in the experimental group and twenty-eight subjects in the control group. Data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics, χ²-test, and t-test. Comparisons of the pretest and posttest systolic blood pressure (t = - 2.530, p < .016) and blood glucose (t = 3.089, p < .004) between the experimental and control groups showed significant differences. In both the experimental (t = 3.949, p < .001) and control groups (t = 3.816, p < .002), depression symptoms showed a significant decrease post-test, compared with pre-test. Our findings infer that older adults require physical and psychosocial healthcare and that more efforts must be made to improve the general health and wellbeing of this population group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0076.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: low-income Hispanics; type 2 diabetes; diet and exercise intervention; older adults; Health Belief Model
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:45:46 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to present the challenges faced when implementing a diet and exercise intervention for low-income older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes with an observational study of recruitment, attendance, and characteristics of Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes in a community congregate meal site pre and post administration of a diet and exercise intervention. This report evaluates retentions and diabetes self-management beliefs Hispanic adults ≥60 years with type 2 diabetes (n=17) at baseline, and completion of the six-month intervention in terms of the Health Belief Model. There was limited interest in controlling diabetes with diet and exercise. Major barriers included lack of perceived vulnerability to diabetes complications and a belief that medication alone is sufficient to stabilize blood glucose. Environmental barriers included lack of transportation, access to exercise groups, access grocery stores, and limited ability to pay for healthy foods. A lesson learned from this intervention was that the diet and exercise intervention given was insufficient as a cue to action for this population interventions to engage low-income, older Hispanics with diabetes in diet and exercise need to consider strategies to overcome barriers such as health beliefs, transportation issues, lack of access to nutritious food and group exercise classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1055.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: caregivers; mental health; older adults; long-term care; photovoice; art-based research; focus group; meaningful engagement; quality of life.
Online: 14 August 2023 (14:02:54 CEST)
Background: Carers (or care partners) of adults in LTC contribute substantially to the health and well-being of their loved ones by providing physical care, emotional support, and companionship. Despite their critical role, little is known about how caregivers have been impacted by the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of caregivers of people living in long-term care (LTC) homes during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and potential supports and resources needed to improve caregivers’ quality of life.Design: An interpretive descriptive approach that incorporated photovoice method was used. Methods: Using purposive sampling strategy, six family carers in Ontario, Canada were recruited between September and December 2021. Over a four-week period, caregivers took pictures depicting their experience of the pandemic that were shared in a virtual focus group. Visual and text data were analyzed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach.Findings: Caregivers expressed feelings of frustration, confusion, and joy. Emerging themes included: (i) feeling like a “criminal” amidst visitor restrictions and rules; (ii) experiencing uncertainty and disappointment in the quality of care of long-term care homes; (iii) going through burnout; and (iv) focusing on small joys and cherished memories.Conclusions: The combination of visual and textual methods provided unique insight into the mental distress, isolation, and intense emotional burdens experienced by caregivers during the pandemic. Impact: Our findings underscore the need for LTC organizations to work in unison with caregivers to optimize the care of residents and support mental health of caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0039.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Chronic conditions; diabetes; older adults; race or ethnicity; health care access; home health care; social determinants of health; inequalities or inequities
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:03:38 CET)
Racial and ethnic disparities exist in diabetes prevalence, health services utilization, and out-comes including disabling and life-threatening complications. Home health care may especially benefit older adults with diabetes through individualized education, advocacy, care coordina-tion, and psychosocial support for patients and their caregivers. This study examined factors as-sociated with hospital discharge to home health care and subsequent utilization of home health care among a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes, age 50 and older, living in the United States. The cohort (n=786,758) was followed for 14 days after a diabetes-related index hospitalization, using linked Medicare administrative, claims, and assessment data (2014-2016). Multivariate logistic regression models included patient demographics, comorbidities, hospital length of stay, geographic region, neighborhood area deprivation, and rural/urban setting. In ful-ly adjusted models, hospital discharge to home health care was significantly less likely among Hispanic (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.8) and American Indian (OR 0.8, CI 0.8-0.8) compared to white patients. Among those discharged to home health care, all racial/ethnic minority patients were less likely to receive services within 14-days. Further work should focus on eliminating systemic racism in home health care referral and systemic barriers to receiving home health care services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2078.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; remote island; family with older adults; Concentric Sphere Family Environment Theory; family ethnographic research
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:07:07 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected not only individuals but also families. The purpose of this study was to clarify the temporal changes in the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on entire families with older adults susceptible to infection living on small islands in Japan over the duration of the pandemic. Family ethnographic research was conducted from 2021 to 2023, using the Concentric Sphere Family Environment Theory as the theoretical framework. Formal interviews were conducted with 20 families. In addition, data from informal interviews, participant observation and other sources were compiled into field notes. All data on the impact on the entire family were extracted and content analysis was conducted. Five categories and a total of 85 subcategories were extracted. The results show that COVID-19 exerted not only negative but also positive impacts on the entire family, and their temporal changes are clarified. The impact on families is believed to have been influenced by the family external environment, such as increases and decreases of infection cases or events that occurred outside the family. The knowledge acquired from these studies will help healthcare professionals in providing appropriate family support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0842.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Assessment, community, fall prevention, low-income, non-communicable diseases, public health, older people, risk, primary care
Online: 11 May 2023 (10:48:30 CEST)
Older adults in low-and middle-income countries experience a disproportionate burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Unintentional injuries are among the major NCDs, and falls are the second leading cause of these injuries and deaths worldwide, including in Thailand. We aimed to culturally adapt the CDC’s Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries (STEADI) for Thai older adults and explore the feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability of using STEADI in primary care via trained community health workers (CHWs) and care managers (CMs). STEADI takes a coordinated care approach that consists of three steps: screening, assessing, and intervening. In Step a, CHWs screened fall risk in 20 community-dwelling older adults using three key questions and found that all of them had fall risk, then CHWs screened with a Stay Independent questionnaire (range 0-14) and found that 100% have high fall risk (total scores 9.7± 2.4). In Step b, CMs assessed balance, vision, footwear, postural hypotension, medications, and CHWs assessed home hazards. They found that 50% had poor balance, 70% took 4+ medications,75% fell on the walkway, and 70% had no bathroom modifications. In Step c, individual participants received fall prevention interventions to mitigate their specific fall risk factors. CHWs and CMs indicated high acceptability (19.20±.1.31 of 20 total), appropriateness (18.80± 1.79 of 20 total), and feasibility (18.60±1.67 of 20 total) of the Thai-STEADI intervention. Our study showed that the community-based multifactorial Thai-STEADI delivered by CHWs and CMs is feasible and acceptable to prevent falls in older adults with limited access to health care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: palliative and end-of-life care; older adults; advance care planning (ACP); health care professionals.
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:59:45 CEST)
This paper reports the findings from a pilot study designed to explore the barriers, facilitators and similarities with the delivery and implementation of two distinct models of Advance Care Planning (ACP) documentation for older adults in their last year of life used by health care professionals in their clinical practice. PACe (Proactive Anticipatory Care Plan): a GP led model and PEACE (Proactive Elderly Persons’ Advisory CarE): a nurse led model with community geriatrician oversight were used by participants in their clinical practice. Telephone interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs) to explore their views of using the PACe tool. Hospital admission avoidance matrons took part in face to face interviews and care staff employed in private residential care homes took part in individual telephone interviews to explore their views of using the PEACE tool. GPs and admission avoidance matrons were employed by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) and all study participants were recruited from the South East of England where data collection took place in 2015. Nine telephone interviews and two face-to-face interviews (one joint and one individual) were conducted with twelve participants. The data was analysed thematically. Participants highlighted the similarity of both tools in providing focus to ACP discussions to inform individual end-of-life care preferences. The importance of relationships was a pivotal theme-established, trusting inter-professional relationships to enable multidisciplinary teamwork and a prior relationship with the older person (or their proxy in the case of cognitive impairment) to enable conversations of this nature. Using both tools enabled participants to think critically and reflect on their own practice was another theme identified. Notwithstanding participants’ views to improve the layout of both tools, using a paper-based approach to deliver streamlined ACP and end-of-life care was a theme to emerge as a barrier which focused on the problems with access to paper-based documentation, accuracy and care co-ordination in the context of multidisciplinary team working. The value of technology in overcoming this barrier and underpin ACP as a means to help simplify service provision, promote integrated professional practice and provide seamless care was put forward as the solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: older adults; cognitive impairment; tango-therapy; quality of life; well-being; physical performance; walking performances; abilities of daily living; dance movement therapy; arts with therapeutic intent
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:11:39 CET)
Cognitive impairment in older adults is associated with poor gait performance, physical decline, falls and poor quality of life. This paper analyzes the feasibility and efficacy of a tango-based in-tervention in older people with cognitive impairment living in nursing homes. A multicenter study, with pre and post-test, was carried out. Intervention attendance, well-being, physical abilities (Short Physical Performance Battery), walking performance, functional capacities (Katz Index), and quality of life (Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease) were assessed. Fifty-four participants (84.9 ± 6.7 years, Mini Mental State Examination 14.5 ± 7.4) completed the protocol. Intervention attendance was 92%, and the mean subjective well-being after each session was 4.5 ± 0.5 (on a five-point scale). Statistically significant improvement was found in the quality of life (p = 0.030). Non statistically significant changes were found in walking performance, physical abilities, or in functional capacities. The study shows feasibility and suggests evidence for the effects of Tango therapy on well-being and quality of life. Further studies are necessary to contrast these findings and to verify the role of Tango interventions as a holistic approach to prevent functional decline in older people with cognitive impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0802.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: freestyle; swimming; cervical; video; older
Online: 10 August 2023 (09:18:26 CEST)
Background: Swimming and, specifically, front crawl, can be included among the "overhead" sports. Overhead sports are a risk factor for some problems of the musculoskeletal system, especially the shoulder. The aim of the study was assessing the incidence of shoulder and neck pain in a Masters Swimming Team and its correlation with the crawl stroke. Methods: It is an observational study through video-analysis of the stroke and a questionnaire. The participants are 61 athletes of a Master team, whose prevailing training stroke was the front crawl were selected for the present study. Their stroke was analyzed during training by a go-pro camera mounted on a sliding trolley on a track, evaluating with their trainer their technical defects. A questionnaire about frequency of shoulder and neck pain during the last five years was administered to all the participants at the study. Results: From the questionnaire, 45 and 55 out of 61 athletes had suffered from shoulder pain and cervical pain, respectively. Both types of pain were correlated with the weekly swimming volume. The swimmers with hyperflexion of the wrist and prolonged internal rotation in the pulling phase had shoulder problems. Those who suffered from current shoulder pain reduced the underwater time. The four swimmers with an excessive body roll during breathing and those who kept their heads extended, reported cervical pain. Conclusions: Shoulder and neck pain could be prevented with the correction of specific technical errors in crawl stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0494.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: mobility; hospitalization; older adults; implementation
Online: 25 July 2018 (16:03:50 CEST)
Immobility during hospitalization is widely recognized as a contributor to deconditioning, functional loss, and increased need for institutional post-acute care. Several studies have demonstrated that inpatient walking programs can mitigate some of these negative outcomes, yet hospital mobility programs are not widely available in U.S. hospitals. STRIDE is a supervised walking program for hospitalized older adults that fills this important gap in clinical care. Herein we describe how STRIDE works and how it is being disseminated to other hospitals using the Replicating Effective Programs (REP) framework. Guided by REP, we define core components of the program and areas where the program can be tailored to better fit the needs and local conditions of its new context (hospital). We describe key adaptations made by 4 hospitals who have implemented the STRIDE program and discuss lessons learned for successful implementation of hospital mobility programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0886.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; functional status; hospitalization; older people
Online: 13 October 2023 (11:30:15 CEST)
(1) Background: Older people hospitalized with Covid-19 can reduced the capacity to walk. However, the prevalence of impairment of ambulation capacity still need to be established. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with the impairment of ambulation capacity at hospital discharge of older people with Covid-19. (2) Methods: A retrospective cohort study. Included age > 60 years, both sexes, hospitalized due to Covid-19. Clinical data was collected from the medical records. Ambulation capacity prior to Covid-19 infection was assessed through the patient report from his relatives. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the risk factors associated with the impairment of ambulation at hospital discharge. (3) Results: Data from 429 older people were randomly. Among the 56.4% who were discharged, 57.9% had reduced ambulation capacity. Factors associated with reduced ambulation capacity at discharge were hospital stay higher than 20 days (OR: 3.5) and dependent ambulation capacity prior to Covid-19 (OR: 11.3). (4) Conclusion: More than half of the older people who survived hospitalized due to Covid-19 had reduced ambulation capacity at hospital discharge. Impaired ambulation prior to the infection, and a longer hospital stay were risks factors for reduced ambulation capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1628.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Children; Family Caregiver; Older Adults; Sandwich Generation
Online: 24 July 2023 (13:34:18 CEST)
The sandwich generation caregivers provide simultaneous care for multiple generations. Caregiving is a dynamic process, and each generation has its unique set of needs. Moreover, studies have indicated a growing population within this group. However, despite extensive research efforts, the caregiving practices employed by the sandwich generation remain inadequately explained. Therefore, the objective of this study was to shed light on the caregiving practices offered by the sandwich generation. The grounded theory approach was selected as the conceptual framework for investigating the research objective. Purposive and snowball sampling methods were utilized to recruit 18 participants from the sandwich generation. The data collected through interviews and observations were analyzed using the 2015 version of Corbin and Strauss methodology. The findings revealed that sandwich generation caregivers are influenced by prominent personality traits, issues related to the elderly, and dependencies and interdependencies within the caregiving process. Sandwich caregivers employ a range of strategies influenced by intervening and background factors. Throughout this process, caregivers encounter both positive and negative consequences. Consequently, policymakers and planners should prioritize the establishment and expansion of support systems for caregiving.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Ceftobiprole; sepsis; older; Real-World Data; OPAT
Online: 21 June 2023 (04:10:08 CEST)
Background: Ceftobiprole is a fifth-generation cephalosporin that has been approved in Europe solely for the treatment of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. The objective was to analyze the use of ceftobiprole medocaril (Cefto-M) in Spanish clinical practice in patients with infection in hospital or outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT). Methods: This retrospective, observational, multicenter study included patients treated from September 1, 2021 to December 31, 2022. Results: 249 individuals were enrolled, aged 66.6±15.4 years, 59.4% male, with Charlson index of 4 (IQR 2-6); 13.7% had COVID-19, and 4.8% were in intensive care unit (ICU). The most frequent type of infection was respiratory (55.8%), followed by skin and soft tissue infection (21.7%). Cefto-M was administered to 67.9% as empirical treatment, being in monotherapy for 7 days (5-10) in 53.8% of cases. The infection-related mortality was 11.2%.The highest mortality rates were for ventilator-associated pneumonia [40%], and infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (20.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.1%). Mortality-related factors were age (OR: 1.1, 95%CI [1.04-1.16]), ICU admission (OR:42.02, 95%CI[4.49-393.4]), and sepsis/septic shock (OR:2.94, 95%CI [1.01-8.54]).Conclusions: In real life, Cefto-M is a safe antibiotic, with only half of prescriptions in respiratory infections, mainly administered as rescue therapy in pluripathological patients with severe infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Distal radius fracture; fall; elderly; older adults
Online: 23 February 2023 (01:57:10 CET)
Introduction: Fractures in older individuals are often caused by falls, with approximately 90% of hip fractures resulting from falls. The risk of falling increases with age, and while a significant portion of individuals over 65 fall at least once per year, only a small percentage of these falls result in hip fractures. Factors that influence the likelihood of a fracture occurring include the intensity of the fall and the quality of the bone, with lower bone mineral content increasing the risk of fracture. Older women, particularly those in their 70s, are significantly more prone to hip fractures and any type of fracture. Efforts to reduce the likelihood of falls or mitigate the associated trauma are more complex than treating osteoporosis, due in part to a lack of understanding of the causes and contributing factors of falls in older age.Methods: This study analyzed data from patients admitted to Carmel medical center with upper or lower limb fractures between 2017 and 2019 to determine the side of wrist fractures and compare it to patient age in order to examine whether there was a difference in the distribution of sides in distal radius fractures based on age and test the hypothesis that falls are more likely to occur on the left side due to the assumption that dominant hand gross motor skills are better preserved. The study received approval from the Institutional Helsinki Committee and used statistical analysis with a significance level of 0.05. Potential sources of bias include limited availability of reliable data for many patients and the risk of errors in fracture registration or diagnosis, although the small sample size is expected to minimize these biases.Results: In this analysis of patient data from 2019 to 2017, a binomial test found that the probability of breaking the left wrist is significantly greater than the probability of breaking the right wrist (p < 0.05), while a t-test found no difference in the distribution of fractures between the right and left wrists of the distal radius based on age (p = 0.2774). Discussion: The findings of the study are consistent with previous research, and indicate that there is no change in side preference for fractures with age. Conclusion: The probability of breaking the left wrist is approximately 1.5 times greater than the probability of breaking the right wrist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: frailty; older people; cognitive impairment; assessment; gait
Online: 14 April 2022 (12:19:35 CEST)
Background: This study aims to set out key clinical features of different Motoric Cognitive Risk (MCR) subtypes based on individual quantitative measures of cognitive impairment and to compare their predictive power on survival over an 8-year observation time. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based study of 1138 subjects aged 65 years and older in south Italy. These individuals were targeted and allocated to subtypes of the MCR phenotype according to the slowness criterion plus one other different cognitive domain for each characterized phenotype. Clinical evaluation and laboratory assays, along with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological and physical tests, completed the sample investigation. Results: MCR prevalence was found to be 9.8% (N=112), 3.6% (N=41), 3.4% (N=39), and 1.8% (N=21) for the MCR, MCR-GlobalFunction, MCR-StructuredSCC, and MCR-SCC&GlobalFunction, respectively. Univariate Cox survival analysis showed an association only of the MCR-GlobalFunction subtype with a significant, 1.5-fold increased risk of overall death as compared to the other counterparts (HR 2.53, 95%CI 1.28 to 4.99, P-value<0.01) over an 8-year observation period, even after major adjustment (HR 2.02, 95%CI 1.02 to 4.02). Conclusions: MCR phenotypes assigned to the MMSE cognitive domain are more likely to have an increased risk of overall mortality, 1.5-fold higher than counterparts, over 8-year observation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; comorbidities; older women; radiotherapy; survival
Online: 29 May 2018 (13:01:28 CEST)
Background: Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management and survival of patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age, comorbidities and use of radiotherapy in this population. Methods: Patients diagnosed with breast cancer from 2004–2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Cancer Database (NCDB). Follow-up time was measured from the date of diagnosis (baseline) to the date of death or censoring. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used as the measure of association. Results: Independently of comorbidities and other important outcome-related factors, patients >65 years of age who received radiotherapy survived significantly longer than those who did not receive radiotherapy (aHR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.52–0.54). However, as women aged, those with comorbidities were less likely to receive RT (adjusted P-trend by age <0.0001). Conclusions: The development of decision-making tools to assist clinicians, and older women with breast cancer and comorbidities, are needed to facilitate personalized treatment plans regarding RT. This is particularly relevant as the population ages and the number of women with breast cancer is expected to increase in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Heart Failure; older adults; ultrasound; outcomes; pleural effusion
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:31:43 CET)
The decompensation trajectory check is a basic step to assess the clinical course and to plan future therapy in hospitalized patients with acute heart failure (ADHF). Due to the atypical presentation and clinical complexity, trajectory checks can be challenging in the oldest old patients with acute HF. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) proved to be helpful in the clinical decision-making of patients with dyspnea, but no study has attempted to verify its effectiveness in predicting determinants of HF in-hospital worsening. In this single-center prospective study, we consecutively enrolled patients aged 75 or older hospitalized with acutely decompensated HF in a tertiary care hospital. All the patients underwent complete clinical examination, blood tests, and POCUS including Lung Ultrasound, Focused Cardiac Ultrasound, Pleural Effusion score (PEFs), and Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) assessment. Out of 184 patients hospitalized with ADHF enrolled in the study, sixty experienced HF in-hospital worsening. No differences were found among patients with HF worsening and controls in terms of age, gender, frailty, and left ventricular ejection fraction. By multivariable logistic analysis, total PEFs [aOR: 1.15 (CI95% 1.02– 1.33), p = 0.043], and IVC collapsibility [aOR: 0.90 (CI95% 0.83 – 0.95), p = 0.039] emerged as independent predictors of acute HF worsening after extensive adjustment for potential confounders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0397.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: caregivers; survey; health determinants; physical activity; older people
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:37:01 CEST)
Background: Informal caregivers' own quality of life, health status, and determinants are poorly understood despite their concerns for the health of the individuals they assist. Objectives: To compare the quality of life and the health determinants of older informal caregivers with those of older adults without caregiving responsibilities. Methods: An online survey was designed to investigate the quality of life and the health determinants of people aged 65 years and over, with a focus on informal caregivers. In addition to socio-demographic data, the number of informal caregiver and the Zarit scale of caregiver burden were collected. Quality of life (SF-12) and health determinants (access to technology and level of physical activity (IPAQ)) were assessed and compared between informal caregivers and the others. Results: A total of 111 participants (70 ± 3.83 years, 71.2% of women). The majority of respondents (91.8%) were Belgian. One third of the respondents identified themselves as informal caregiver and declared to have severe burden (61.9±15.2/88). Socio-demographic characteristics and access to technology were similar between informal caregivers and non-caregivers (p>0.05). However, informal caregivers have a lower SF-12 score in the mental score domain (44.3±10.2 vs; 50.7±7.0; p=0.004) and a lower level of physical activity (434±312 METS/min/week vs.1126±815 METS/min/week; p=0.01) than their peers. Conclusions: Informal caregivers reported lower quality of life and lower level of physical activity than their peers. Given the recognized importance of physical activity for overall health, this survey highlights the need to promote physical activity among older informal caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1804.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Wearable sensors; Locomotion; Algorithm design; Accelerometer; Older adults
Online: 25 August 2023 (11:49:54 CEST)
Accurate and reliable measurement of real-world walking activity is clinically relevant, particularly for people with mobility difficulties. Insights on walking can help understand mobility function, disease progression, and fall risks. People living in long-term residential care environments have heterogeneous and often pathological walking patterns, making it difficult for conventional algorithms paired with wearable sensors to detect their walking activity. We designed two walking bout detection algorithms for people living in long-term residential care. Both algorithms used thresholds on the magnitude of acceleration from a 3-axis accelerometer on the lower back to classify data as “walking” or “non-walking”. One algorithm had generic thresholds, while the other used personalized thresholds. To validate and evaluate the algorithms, we compared the classifications of walking/non-walking from our algorithms to the real-time research assistant annotated labels and the classification from an algorithm validated on a healthy population. Both the generic and personalized algorithms had acceptable accuracy (0.83 and 0.82 respectively). The personalized algorithm showed the highest specificity (0.84) of all tested algorithms, meaning it was the best suited to determine input data for gait characteristic extraction. The developed algorithms were almost 60% quicker than the previously developed algorithms, suggesting they are adaptable for real-time processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: assistance dogs; aged care; older adults; regulation; support
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:29:06 CEST)
Assistance dogs provide significant benefits to older adult owners. However, despite protective legislation, aged care facilities continue to not allow owners to retain their dog on relocation. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether older adults should be allowed to retain their dog on relocation to an aged care facility, and what factors should impact this decision. Further, if allowed to retain their dog, what would be the best practice to allow for this. A deliberative democracy methodology was used, with a range of key stakeholders recruited. Focus groups were held, with follow up questionnaire to establish deliberation for all questions. Results indicated that with sufficient objective measurement, fair decisions can be made to ensure the welfare and wellbeing for owner and dog. Key policy and procedure changes would also be necessary to ensure ongoing support, such as training, care plans, and emergency directives. By ensuring sufficient policies and procedures are in place, training and support could lead to an ideal outcome where facilities could be at the forefront of a better future for aged care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0855.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Amphetamine; Methylphenidate; Suicide attempt; Intentional misuse; Older adults
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:23:41 CEST)
Introduction: Given increasing adult use of amphetamine and methylphenidate and their high misuse potential, we examined suspected suicide attempts and other intentional misuse and medical outcomes and their associations with co-used other substances among amphetamine and methylphenidate exposure cases age 50+.Methods: Using the 2015-2021 U.S. National Poison Data System (N=7,701 amphetamine and/or methylphenidate cases), we fit two generalized linear models for a Poisson distribution with log link function, with suspected suicide attempt versus intentional misuse and major medical effect/death versus other outcomes as the dependent variables. Results: Of all amphetamine/methylphenidate exposure cases, suspected suicide attempts and intentional misuse were 28.4% and 13.2%, respectively. Benzodiazepine use was associated with a higher likelihood but any illicit drug use was associated with a lower likelihood of suspected suicide attempts compared to intentional misuse. Type of stimulant involved (amphetamine or methylphenidate) was not significant. Co-use of antidepressants (IRR=1.43, 95% CI=1.16-1.76), prescription opioids (IRR=1.48, 95% CI=1.21-1.81), drugs for cardiovascular disease (IRR=1.51 95% CI=1.20-1.90), antipsychotics (IRR=1.26, 95% CI=1.02-1.55), or illicit drugs (IRR=2.40, 95% CI=1.82-3.15) was associated with a higher likelihood of major effect/death.Conclusions: Suspected suicide attempts or intentional misuse accounted for more than 40% of amphetamine or methylphenidate exposure cases age 50+. The higher likelihood of major effect/death in cases involving antidepressants, antipsychotics, and cardiovascular disease drugs also suggests confounding effects of comorbid mental and physical health problems. Careful monitoring of those who were prescribed amphetamine or methylphenidate and use other substances are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: hypovitaminosis D; cholecalciferol; calcifediol; vitamin D; older patient
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:31:26 CET)
The aim of this single-center, open-label, non-controlled randomized study was to evaluate which formulation of vitamin D between cholecalciferol and calcifediol is most effective in the treatment of hypovitaminosis D in older adults. Demographic characteristics, clinical history and comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded at admission. Eligible patients randomly received an equivalent vitamin D supplement either with cholecalciferol or calcifediol from hospital admission to three months after discharge. Among the 140 older patients included (mean age 83±6.6, 57.8% females), 69 received cholecalciferol and 71 calcifediol. The mean plasma values of 25OH-Vitamin D3 found at the enrollment were 16.8 ± 9.9 ng/mL in patients receiving cholecalciferol and 18.8 ± 13.3 ng/mL in those treated with calcifediol (p =0.31). At the 3-month follow up, the mean concentration of 25OH-Vitamin D3 was significantly higher in patients treated with calcifediol than in patients treated with cholecalciferol (respectively, 30.7 ± 8.4 vs 45.4 ± 9.8 ng/mL, p <0.001). Supplementation with cholecalciferol or calcifediol results in both cases effective in reaching optimal circulating values of 25OH-VitaminD3 in the older patients suffering from hypovitaminosis D. However, supplementation with calcifediol led to average circulating values of 25OH- VitaminD3 significantly higher (over 50%) than those obtained with cholecalciferol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: atypical presentation; COVID-19; frailty; mortality; older patients
Online: 6 January 2021 (15:30:48 CET)
Introduction: We describe the clinical features and inpatient trajectories of older adults hospitalized with COVID-19, and explore relationships with frailty. Methods: This retrospective observational study included older adults admitted as an emergency to a University Hospital who were diagnosed with COVID-19. Patient characteristics and hospital outcomes, primarily inpatient death or death within 14 days of discharge, were described for the whole cohort and by frailty status. Associations with mortality were further evaluated using Cox Proportional Hazards Regression (Hazard Ratio [HR], 95% Confidence Interval). Results: 214 patients (94 women) were included of whom 142 (66.4%) were frail with a median Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score of 6. Frail compared to non-frail patients were more likely to present with atypical symptoms including new or worsening confusion (45.1% vs 20.8%, p<0.001) and were more likely to die (66% vs 16%, p=0.001). Older age, being male, presenting with high illness acuity and high frailty were independent predictors of death and a dose-response association between frailty and mortality was observed (CFS 1-4: reference; CFS 5-6: HR 1.78, 95% CI 0.90, 3.53; CFS 7-8: HR 2.57, 95% CI 1.26, 5.24). Conclusions: Clinicians should have a low threshold for testing for COVID-19 in older and frail patients during periods of community viral transmission and diagnosis should prompt early advanced care planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: resistance training; strength test; muscle strength; older women
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:58:41 CET)
Background: The maximal one-repetition test (1-RM) is widely used in scientific research; however, there are conflict results regarding its reproducibility in elderly population. The present study aimed to analyze the reproducibility the test both before and after a 12 week training period by using the bench press and leg press 45° 1-RM tests in the elderly taking into consideration the training experience and strength level of the women. Methods: Elderly women (n = 376; age, 68.5 ± 14.1 years; height, 162.7 ± 5.5 cm; body mass, 71.2 ± 16.0 kg) who underwent ≥3 months of resistance training performed an initial week of familiarization and a second week of testing and retest, with a 48–72 hour interval. Results: The results showed maximal and relative load strength of 39.3 kg and 0.59 kg/body mass for lower limbs and 20.9 kg and 0.31 kg/body mass for upper limbs. The Kappa indices were 0.93 and 0.95, and the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.99 for the lower and upper limbs, respectively. Conclusion: Therefore, the present study confirms that the 1-RM test has high reliability and reproducibility in the elderly, for both upper and lower limbs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0920.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive symptoms; older adults; geriatric depression scale; depression screening
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:07:25 CEST)
Although the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a well-established instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms in older adults, this has not been validated specifically for Portuguese cognitively impaired persons. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of two Portuguese versions of the GDS (GDS-27 and GDS-15) in a Portuguese mild-to-moderate cognitively impaired sample. Clinicians assessed for major depressive disorder and cognitive functioning in 117 participants with mild to moderate cognitive decline (76.9% female, Mage = 83.66 years). The internal consistency of GDS-27 and GDS-15 were 0.874 and 0.812, respectively. There was a significant correlation between GDS-27 and GDS-15 with Beck Depression Inventory-II GDS-27: rho = 0.738, p < 0.001; GDS-15: rho = 0.760, p < 0.001), suggesting good validity. A cutoff point of 15/16 in GDS-27 and 8/9 in GDS-15 resulted in identification of persons with depression (GDS-27: sensitivity 100%, specificity 63%; GDS-15: sensitivity 90%, specificity 62%). Overall, the GDS-27 and GDS-15 are reliable and valid instruments for the assessment of depression in Portuguese-speaking cognitively impaired persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social support; older persons; smokers; NHMS 2018; community survey
Online: 12 April 2023 (04:17:11 CEST)
Background Globally the average age of the worlds’ population of older persons continues to upsurge and social support becomes increasingly relevant. Overall, in Malaysia, social support and networking prevalence was found to be lower among older persons at 30.76%. In view of the scarce data on social support and its association with smoking status and its associated factors among the older Malaysian population this study was conducted. Methods Data from the National Health and Morbidity (NHMS) 2018 survey on health of older Malaysian adults was analyzed. This was a cross sectional population-based study using a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Elderly population aged 60 years and above was selected. Data were collected were sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, and social support. A validated Malay language, interviewer-administered questionnaire of 11-item Duke Social Support Index was applied for assessing social support among the elderly. A complex sampling design analysis was used for the descriptive statistics. The associated risk factors for social support were identified using Multiple Logistic Regression analysis. Results A total of 3923 elderly respondents participated in the study. The prevalence of good social support was significantly higher among the 60-69 years old respondents compared to the > 80 years old (73.1%, 95% CI :69.3% -76.5% vs 50.1 %, 95% CI:41.7 %- 58.6%).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of poor social support were 1.7 times (aOR: 1.72 % ,95%CI: 1.19 -2.48) higher for the respondents aged > 80 years old, than those aged 60-69 years. Respondents with no formal education were 1.93 higher odds of poor social support than the respondents with tertiary education (aOR: 1.93%, 95%CI: 1.13,3.30). Respondents with income < RM 1000 were 1.94 times more likely to have poor social support compared to respondents with income > RM 3000 (aOR: 1.94, 95% CI : 1.21 -3.13). Former smokers have good social support compared to current smokers (73.6% ,95% CI: 67.7-78.7 vs 65.1 %, 95%CI:58.4 -71.2). For current smokers, the odds of poor social support were 42.0% higher than for non-smokers (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05 -1.91. Conclusion There is poor social support among the older persons who are current smokers, advancing age, no formal education and low income However, further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exact effects of the studied variables. These findings could assist the policymakers to develop strategies at the national level to enhance social support among the older smokers to ensure cessation of smoking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0041.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: older adults; whispered speech; lexical tone; vowel; duration; intensity
Online: 2 November 2022 (03:53:54 CET)
Purpose: This study aimed to examine how aging and modifications of critical acoustic parameters may affect the perception of whispered speech as a degraded signal. Method: Forty Mandarin-speaking adults were included in the study. Part 1 of the study compared the perception of Mandarin lexical tones, vowels, and syllables in older and younger adults in whispered vs. phonated speech conditions. Parts 2 and 3 further examined how modification of duration and intensity cues contributed to the perceptual outcomes. Results: Perception of whispered tones was compromised in older and younger adults. Older adults identified lexical tones less accurately than their younger counterparts, particularly for phonated T2, T3 and whispered T3. Aging also negatively affected the vowel identification of /i, u/ in the whispered condition. Syllable-level accuracy was largely dependent on the accuracy of lexical tones and vowels. Furthermore, reduced duration led to the decreased accuracy of phonated T3 and whispered T2, T3 but increased accuracy of phonated T4. Reduced intensity lowered the recognition accuracy for phonated vowels /i, ɤ, o, y/ in older adults and /i, u/ in younger adults, and it also lowered the accuracy of whispered vowels /a, ɤ/ in older adults. Contrary to our expectation, increased duration and intensity did not improve older adults’ speech perception in either phonated or whispered conditions. Conclusion: The results suggest that aging adversely affected speech perception in both phonated and whispered conditions with more challenges in identifying whispered speech for older adults. While older adults’ diminished performance may be potentially due to problems with processing the degraded temporal and spectral information of the target speech sounds, it cannot be simply compensated for by increasing the duration and intensity of the target sounds beyond the audible level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: metabolic syndrome; diabetes; hypertension; obesity; frailty; older people; Asian
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:09:59 CET)
Background: There has been evidence that metabolic syndrome (MetS) may increase the risk of frailty. However, there is limited evidence on this association in Asian populations. Aims: This study aims to identify the association between MetS and frailty in older people in Vietnam. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a dataset obtained from an observational study on frailty and sarcopenia in patients aged ≥60 at a geriatric hospital in Vietnam. Frailty was defined by the frailty phenotype. Participants were defined as having MetS if they had ≥3 out of 5 criteria from the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adults Treatment Panel (ATP) III. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to estimate the risk of having frailty in patients with MetS. Results: There were 669 participants (mean age 71, 60.2% female), 62.3% had MetS and 39.0% was frail. The prevalence of frailty was 42.2% in participants with MetS, 33.7% in participants without MetS (p=0.029). On logistic regression models, MetS was associated with increased likelihood of being frail (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.01-2.28), allowing for age, sex, education, nutritional status, history of hospitalisation and chronic diseases. Conclusion: There was a significant association between MetS and frailty in this population. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm this association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: sarcopenia; slow gait speed; cognitive impairment; older adult; aging
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:28:59 CEST)
Cognitive impairment and sarcopenia may share common risk factors and pathophysiological pathways. This study was performed to examine the association between impairments in specific cognitive domains and sarcopenia (and its defining components) in a large group of community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on the baseline data of 3,014 adults aged 70–84 years enrolled in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS). The final analysis included 1,887 adults underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and cognitive function assessments. Those with disability in activities of daily living, dementia, severe cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease, musculoskeletal complaints, neurological disorders, or who were illiterate were excluded. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet, the Frontal Assessment Battery. For sarcopenia, we used the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 9.6% for men and 7.6% for women. Sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR] 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–2.99) and slow gait speed (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.34–4.99) were associated with cognitive impairment in men. Only slow gait speed (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.05–3.36) was associated with cognitive impairment in women. Sarcopenia is associated with cognitive impairment mainly due to slow gait speed. Our results suggested that cognitive impairment domains, such as processing speed and executive function, are associated with sarcopenia-related slow gait speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV+ older patients; ART; tat sequences; genetic diversity; CTL epitopes
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:55:01 CEST)
Despite advancements in antiretroviral therapy (ART) that reduces the viral load to undetectable levels, viral eradication has not been achieved due to HIV-1 persistence in resting CD4+ T-cells. We, therefore, characterized the tat gene, which is essential for HIV-1 replication, from 20 viro-logically controlled HIV-infected (HIV+) older patients on long-term ART with improved CD4+ T-cell counts. PBMC genomic DNA from HIV+ patients were used to amplify tat gene by PCR fol-lowed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that each patient’s tat sequences were confined to their own subtrees and well discriminated from other patients’ sequences. Moreover, there was a low degree of viral heterogeneity and lower estimates of genetic diversity within these patients’ tat sequences. Most patients’ Tat deduced amino acid sequences showed intact open reading frames and maintained the important functional domains for Tat functions, including transactivation, TAR binding and nuclear localization. Furthermore, Tat deduced amino acid sequences showed variation in previously characterized cytotoxic T lym-phocytes (CTL) epitopes, suggesting escape mutants. In conclusion, a low degree of genetic varia-bility and conservation of functional domains and variations in CTL epitopes were the features of tat sequences from 20 HIV+ older patients with undetectable viral load on long-term ART.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1898.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia; older patient; ibrutinib; acalabrutinib; zanubrutinib; venetoclax; sustainabiity
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:04:57 CEST)
Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia; older patient, Bruton tyrosine kinase, BCL2, cost-effectiveness Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi) and the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax, with or without the anti CD20 monoclonal antibody Obinutuzumab, represent the preferred options for the first-line therapy of CLL because they are more effective and may improve quality of life. However, pa-tient’s inclusion criteria were heterogeneous across trials designed for older patients and the identification of CLL-specific parameters identifying unfit patients at risk of developing drug-specific adverse events are required to guide treatment choice. Due to inclusion/exclusion criteria in trials, higher discontinuation rates with BTKi were reported in real-world studies and registry analyses provided useful information on factors predicting for earlier discontinuation in a real-world setting. Though targeted agents were shown to be cost-effective treatments in high-income countries, the out-of-pocket expenses may limit accessibility to these drugs and the overall expenditure for new drugs in CLL is projected to increase substantially posing an issue for sustainability. This being said, the choice of a finite duration treatment based on venetoclax containing regimens or treatment until progression with BTKi is today possible in high- income countries and the therapy choice drivers are represented by coexisting medical conditions rather than age, by patient expectations, logistics and sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional loneliness; social loneliness; nursing homes; older adults; social isolation
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:25:59 CET)
(1) Background: Loneliness, little studied in Nursing Homes (NHs), can affect physical and mental health. We aimed to verify the prevalence of loneliness in 5 NHs and its associated factors. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study. Older adults aged 65 or over with preserved cognitive status were included. The De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale was used to assess overall, social, and emotional loneliness; sociodemographic and health-related variables were collected. The chi-square (or Fisher’s) test and logistic regression were used for bivariate and multivariate analysis respectively. (3) Results: The final sample consisted of 65 participants (81.5% female) with a mean age of 84±7.13. Prevalence of overall loneliness was 70.7% (95%CI:58.2-81.4), social loneliness 44.6% (95% CI: 33.1-56.6) and emotional loneliness 46.2% (95% CI: 34.5–58.1). Overall loneliness was associated with lower perceived quality of life (Odds Ratio-OR= 5.52, 95% CI:1.25-24.38) and NH with state subsidized places (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.74); social loneliness with having 0-1 children (OR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.77), and emotional loneliness with depression (OR=4.54, 95% CI: 1.28-16.08) and urinary incontinence (UI) (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.23-17.52). (4) Conclusions: Loneliness was present in almost 71% of residents and was associated with the type of NH and poorer quality of life, emotional loneliness with depression and UI and social loneliness with having less than 2 children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0534.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: community-dwelling older individuals; comorbidity; deep learning; frailty; survival prediction model
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:30:19 CEST)
In a super-aged society, maintaining healthy aging, preventing death, and enabling a continua-tion of economic activities are crucial. This study sought to develop a model for predicting the survival time in community-dwelling older individuals by using a deep learning method, and to identify the level of influence of various risk factors on the survival period, so that older in-dividuals can manage their own health. This study used the Korean National Health Insurance Service claims data. We observed community-dwelling older people, aged 66 years, for 11 years and developed a survival time prediction model. Of the 189,697 individuals enrolled at baseline, 180,235 (95.0%) survived from 2009 to 2019, while 9,462 (5.0%) died. Using deep learning based models (C statistics = 0.7011), we identified Charlson’s comorbidity index; the frailty index; long-term care benefit grade; disability grade; income level; a combination of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia; sex; smoking status; and alcohol consumption habit as factors impacting survival. In particular, Charlson’s comorbidity index (SHAP value: 0.0445) and frailty index (SHAP value: 0.0443) were strong predictors of survival time. Older individuals should rec-ognize modifiable risk factors that affect survival period in order to manage their own health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0668.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Clubfoot; delayed presentation; walking age; neglected; immature; treatment; Ponseti; older child
Online: 9 August 2023 (05:04:19 CEST)
Treating clubfoot in walking age children is debated, despite studies showing that using Ponseti casting principles can correct the mid-foot effectively. We aimed to explore techniques and approaches for management of older children with clubfoot and identify areas of management consensus. A mixed-methods cross-sectional electronic survey on delayed presenting clubfoot (DPC) was sent to 88 clubfoot practitioners (response rate 56.8%). We collected data on decision-making, casting, imaging, orthotics, surgery, re-currence, rehabilitation, multidisciplinary care and contextual factors. The quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Many respondents used the Pirani score and some used the PAVER score to aid deformity severity assessment and correctability [1,2]. Ponseti casting principles were consistently applied with a stepwise approach. Con-textual factors influenced the timing of the treatment, the decision to treat a bilateral deformity simultaneously, and casting intervals. Differences were seen around orthotic usage and use of tibialis anterior tendon transfer following full correction. The survey identified consensus areas in overall principles of management for delayed presenting clubfoot and implementation of Ponseti principles, indicating these principles are well recognized as a multidisciplinary approach for older children with clubfoot. Some dif-ferences in approach may reflect different economic or social contexts. The principles can be adapted well for different geographical and healthcare contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid; Total protein; Reference interval; Older population; Japanese healthy volunteer
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:38:05 CEST)
The concentration of cerebrospinal fluid total protein (CSF-TP) is important for the diagnosis of neurological emergencies. Recently, some Western studies have shown that the current upper reference limit of CSF-TP is quite low for older patients. However, little is reported about the concentration of CSF-TP in older Asian population. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the CSF-TP concentrations in Japanese healthy older volunteers. CSF samples in 69 healthy Japanese volunteers (age range: 55–73 years) were collected by lumbar puncture, and the data of CSF were retrospectively analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) CSF-TP was 41.7 (12.3) mg/dL. The older group (≥ 65 years old) had higher CSF-TP concentration than the younger group (55–64 years old). The 2.5th percentile and 97.5th percentile of CSF-TP were estimated as 22.5 and 73.2 mg/dL, respectively, which were higher than the current reference range in Japan (10–40 mg/dL).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0899.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: oral health; body mass index; obesity; OHRQoL; OHIP-14; aging; older people
Online: 11 August 2023 (07:51:32 CEST)
Background: The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) assessment evaluated the impact of individual’s oral health on the patient's physical and psychosocial status. We evaluated the association between subjective OHRQoL, measured with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) questionnaire, and unfavorable body mass index (BMI) (i.e., too high or too low) in a large population-based study on older adults from Southern Italy. Moreover, we assessed which of the seven OHIP-14 domains was most strongly associated with an unfavorable BMI. Methods: We used data on a subpopulation of the Salus in Apulia Study, including 216 older adults. BMI <18.4 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2 were classified as unfavorable, values between 18.5 and 30 kg/m2 were classified as ideal. Results: Higher OHIP-14 total score increased the risk to have an unfavorable BMI [odds ratio (OR):1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.01-1.15]. In the model adjusted for age, sex, education, hypertension, carbohydrate consumption, and alcohol consumption, this finding was confirmed with higher OHIP-14 total score increasing the risk to have an unfavorable BMI (OR:1.10, 95% CI:1.01-1.22), and higher age linked to a decreased risk to have an unfavorable BMI (OR:0.89, 95% CI:0.82-0.97). In a random forest regression model, the most important predictive domains/sub-scales of OHIP-14 in mean decrease Gini for unfavorable BMI were, in order of decreasing importance, physical pain, functional limitation, psychological discomfort, physical disability, social disability, psychological disability, and handicap. Conclusions: In older age, negative OHRQoL, particularly linked to the physical pain domain, increased the risk of underweight or overweight and obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1990.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Tryptophan; Kynurenine pathway; Aging; older adults; Inflammation; Osteoporosis; Sarcopenia; Frailty; Biomarkers; Osteosarcopenia
Online: 29 May 2023 (07:32:17 CEST)
Tryptophan is an essential nutrient required to produce niacin (vitamin B3), which is needed for energy metabolism and DNA production. Alterations in tryptophan metabolism could have significant effects on aging and musculoskeletal health. The kynurenine pathway, the main catabolic route of tryptophan, is modulated by inflammatory factors, which are increased in older persons, a process known as inflammaging. Osteoporosis, sarcopenia, osteosarcopenia and frailty have also been linked with chronic increased levels of inflammatory factors. Due to the disruption of the kynurenine pathway by chronic inflammation and/or changes in the gut microbiota, serum levels of toxic kynurenines are increased and have been associated with osteoporosis, sarcopenia and frailty. In contrast, anabolic end products of this pathway, such as picolinic acid, have demonstrated a beneficial effect on bone and muscle. In addition, recent studies have shown that physical activity can modulate this pathway by promoting the secretion of anabolic kynurenines. According to the evidence collected, kynurenines could have a promising role as biomarkers for osteoporosis sarcopenia, osteosarcopenia and frailty in older persons. In addition, some of these metabolites could become important targets for developing new pharmacological treatments for these conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0939.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: oral health care; older people; multimorbidity; polypharmacy; frailty; sarcopenia; disability; care dependency
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:23:46 CEST)
The oral health of older individuals can be negatively impacted by various systemic health factors, leading to rapid oral health deterioration. Older people are at risk of experiencing adverse reactions to medications due to multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Hyposalivation, a significant side effect of some medications, can be induced by both the type and number of medications used. Frailty, disability, sarcopenia, care dependency, and limited access to professional oral healthcare can also compromise the oral health of older people. To prevent rapid oral health deterioration, a comprehensive approach is required that involves effective communication between oral healthcare providers, other healthcare providers, and informal carers. Regardless of their health status, it is crucial to prioritize the well-being of older people. Oral healthcare providers have a responsibility to advocate for the importance of maintaining adequate oral health and to raise awareness of the serious consequences of weakened oral health. By doing so, we can prevent weakened oral health from becoming a geriatric syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0419.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; social determinants of health; older people vulnerability; health welfare regimes
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:16:38 CEST)
As of July 7, 2022, the total number of confirmed cases caused by COVID-19 has reached 544,324 million, and the total number of 6.333 million deaths (WHO). Older people were globally the most vulnerable during the pandemic. This paper examined the mortality and psychological crisis of older people during the pandemic in four cities, namely Wuhan, Milan, London, and Hong Kong. The selection of cities was based on different degrees of social connectedness of older people and chronologically to cover the whole period of the outbreak from January 2020 to August 2022. Older people in Milan and Wuhan tended to rely on the close family relationship during times of crisis. Meanwhile, older people in Hong Kong and London were more dependent on social services. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed to analyze the situations of older people under different government responses and the strengths and weaknesses of respective healthcare systems. Government reports and official statistics were used to illustrate the seriousness of each city's COVID-19 outbreak while stories reported by the press, NGOs, and journal articles were used to reflect the reactions of the older people. Interactions of social culture, health care provisions, and government responses to the pandemic were discussed from the perspective of health welfare regimes. On one hand, results showed that governments have not learned from the experiences of other countries. On the other hand, older people have not successfully coped with the life-threatening stress by breaking institutional boundaries and redefining cultural norms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; AST/ALT ratio; mortality; artificial intelligence; older people
Online: 4 March 2022 (11:17:44 CET)
Low serum alanine aminotransferase activity and high aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ALT ratio may be associated with high mortality in older people. We aimed to confirm this in an 8-year retrospective cohort study. Clinical data for 5,958 people aged 67–104 years were analyzed for their relationships with all-cause mortality using artificial intelligence (AI; Prediction One [Sony Network Communications Inc.]) and conventional statistical analysis (SAS Enterprise Guide [SAS Institute Inc.]). In total, 1,413 (23.7%) participants died during the study. Auto-AI analysis with five rounds of cross-validation showed that AST/ALT ratio was the third largest contributor to mortality, following age and sex. Serum albumin concentration and body mass index were the fourth and fifth largest contributors, and the individual serum ALT and AST activities were the seventh and tenth largest contributors. Conventional survival analysis showed that ALT, AST, and AST/ALT ratio as continuous variables were all associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.98 (0.97–0.99), 1.02 (1.02–1.03), 1.46 (1.32–1.62), respectively; all p <0.0001). In conclusion, both AI and conventional analysis suggest that of the conventional biochemical markers, high AST/ALT ratio is most closely associated with all-cause mortality in older people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0170.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Integrated Care; Social Care; Health Care; Older People; Comorbidity: Person Centered Care
Online: 9 July 2020 (06:23:49 CEST)
Introduction Older people with complex, chronic conditions often receive insufficient or inefficient care provision. And few instruments are able to measure their perception on care provision. The "User Reported Measure of Care Coordination" instrument has been satisfactorily used to evaluate chronic care provision and integration. The aim of this study is to validate this instrument into Spanish. Methods The questionnaire was adapted and validate in two phases: translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire, and psychometric property measurement. Study population were chronic care conditions patients. Results A total of 332 participants completed test re-test as part of the questionnaire validation process. The final version of the questionnaire had 6 domains: Health and Well-being (D1), Health day to day (D2), Social Services (D3), Planned Care (D4), Urgent Care (D5) and Hospital Care (D6). Cronbach's alpha for the overall questionnaire was 0.86, indicating good internal consistency. When analysing each domain, only Planned Care (D4) and Urgent Care (D5) had Cronbach’s Alphas slightly lower than 0.7, although this could be related to the low number of items in each domain. A good temporal stability was observed for the distinct subscales and items, with intraclass correlation coefficients varying from 0.412 to 0.929 (p < 0.05). Conclusion The adapted version of the “User Reported Measure of Care Coordination” into Spanish proved to be a practical tool for use in our daily practice and an efficient instrument for assessment of care coordination in chronic, complex conditions in older people across services and levels of care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: WHOQOL; Senior Fitness Test; exercises; actigraph; accelerometry; elderly; older adults; physical fitness
Online: 25 February 2019 (14:21:58 CET)
The aim of this study was to identify the differences in functional fitness and quality of life among women over 60 years of age depending on their level of objectively measured physical activity (PA) according to Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for health. The study used cross-sectional design with 213 volunteered women over 60 years of age. Physical activity was monitored for 7 days of the week using Actigraph Gt3x monitor. The Senior Fitness Test battery and Hand-grip strength tests were performed to assess functional fitness. Quality of life was self-reported using short version of WHOQOL-brief questionnaire. Women who met the PA recommendations achieved slightly better results in most functional tests and all domain of quality of life. The significant differences were found in upper body strength, dynamic balance and social relationships domain of quality of life. Physical activity programs developed on the basis of WHO recommendations have the potential to improve functional capacity and quality of life. However, further experimental studies in this area are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0383.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: older community renovation; all-age retrofitting; anxiety; PLS-SEM; payment behavioral response mechanisms
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:25:15 CEST)
Intergenerational integration has given rise to a novel aging paradigm known as all-age communities, which is garnering international attention. In China, the aging population and the implementation of the three-child policy have resulted in increased demand for retirement and childcare services among residents in older neighborhoods. Consequently, there is a pressing need to retrofit these older neighborhoods to accommodate all-age living arrangements given the high demand they generate. Therefore, this study undertakes research interviews with residents and constructs an exploratory theoretical model rooted in established theory. To assess the significance of our model, we employ Smart PLS 3.0 based on 297 empirical data points. Our findings indicate that anxiety has a significant negative effect on payment behavior; objective perception, willingness to pay, and government assistance exert significant positive effects on payment behavior. By comprehensively analyzing the mechanisms underlying residents’ payment behavior, this study provides valuable insights to the government for promoting the aging process within communities and formulating effective transformation policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cognitive screening; Efficiency Index; Free-Cog; Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (MACE); older adults
Online: 12 April 2023 (04:04:12 CEST)
Ageing is the strongest known risk factor for many of the neurodegenerative diseases causing cognitive decline and dementia. Identification of cognitive impairment may be a prelude to appropriate treatment, hopefully disease-modifying. Use of cognitive screening instruments may be an equitable way to identify cognitive impairment. This study examined the use of two such instruments, Free-Cog and Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (MACE), in patient cohorts referred to a dedicated cognitive disorders clinic based at a tertiary neurosciences centre. Results showed that: (1) specificity and positive predictive value increased with patient age for both tests with some loss of sensitivity and negative predictive value. (2) In the oldest age groups (≥75 and ≥70 years respectively) where specificity was at maximum, a positive test result (i.e. below the specified test cut-off) rules in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. (3) Values of an “Efficiency Index” for each test indicated qualitatively a moderate change in the probability of correct diagnosis and quantitatively an approximately 15-25% increase in the probability of correct diagnosis. These findings show that both Free-Cog and MACE may be used with confidence for the identification of cognitive impairment and dementia in older patient cohorts. These findings may have implications for public health policies directed to case-finding in clinical practice as opposed to population-based screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: physical education; older employee; ageing; work ability; coping at work; wellbeing at work
Online: 24 August 2022 (11:07:47 CEST)
This article examines older physical education (PE) teachers’ wellbeing over the course of their career in Finland. The study highlights challenges to physical and mental functioning as well as how teachers respond to these challenges. The six interviewees were over 55-year-old PE teachers, whose career had lasted for more than 30 years. Qualitative methods were used in the collection, transcription and analysis of the research data. The qualitative analysis consisted of a series of interpretations that visualised the world described by the interviewees. All the research participants had physical problems that affected their teaching and make teachers consider a potential career change. To be able to teach, teachers adapted their ways of working according to the challenges brought by age and injuries. The research participants found that the challenges caused by musculoskeletal problems and ageing were an inevitable part of the profession. They emphasised the positive sides of the work: the profession permits varied workdays. In addition, the teachers noted that their work provides them with opportunities to remain physically fit. Teaching health education is a means to lighten the workload of older teachers. PE teachers enjoy their profession and are dedicated to it, despite all the challenges. The interviewed participants clearly experienced work engagement. Our development proposal for teacher education is that future PE teachers be informed about the risks involved in the profession. Such activity helps young teachers reflect proactively on the measures taken to maintain their functioning during their career and on perspectives related to the ways of working.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Interdisciplinary co-design; healthcare design; exercise; low-back pain; older adult patients; rehabilitation
Online: 30 August 2021 (15:12:45 CEST)
This study presents three forms of interdisciplinary expertise in the healthcare design context to approach a particular multifaceted problem around the current healthcare for older adult patients with chronic low-back pain (LBP). Using an interdisciplinary co-design framework, first, our design approach performs the role of an initiator to define the problem by exploring the current context of healthcare. Second, it facilitates the experiences of experts and patients to reach the roots of the problem by functioning as a mediator. Third, our approach fulfills the primary role of healthcare design in producing new meanings considering the principles of patient-centeredness. These roles significantly contributed to the design of healthcare innovations. Our framework transformed the distributed disciplinary knowledge developed while tackling the multifaceted problem into new forms of expertise for collaboration in healthcare innovation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0849.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Cognitive function; ambient air quality; air pollution and brain health; older adults; cognitive frailty
Online: 14 November 2023 (16:54:32 CET)
(1) Background: Environmental and public health research has given considerable attention to the impact of air quality on brain health, with systematic reviews widespread. No literature review has been done for cognitive frailty – a multidimensional syndrome combining physical frailty and cognitive impairment and their apparent co-dependence, linked to increased vulnerability and adverse health outcomes, including dementia. Instead, cognitive decline and frailty is implicitly explored through research on air quality and comorbid cognitive and physical decline in elderly populations. (2) Methods: A scoping review was conducted to explore the need for a systematic review. Combining Arksey and O’Malley  and PRISMA-ScR checklist , a scoping review of SCOPUS using ‘cogniti*’ + ‘resilience’ + ‘air quality’ or ‘cogniti*’ + ‘ageing’ + ‘air quality’ resulted in N=2503 articles, screened and reduced using inclusion and exclusion criteria, to N=16 articles. (3) Results: Air quality appears to be a critical risk factor for cognitive decline, even at air quality levels below WHO targets. Moderate long-term ambient air pollution appears linked to increased risk of cognitive frailty, suggesting earlier and more active interventions to protect older people. There are varied effects on cognition across the life course, with both emotional and functional impacts. Effects may be more detrimental to elderly people with existing conditions, including economic and health inequalities. Generalisation of results is limited due to the absence of a dose-response, variations in methods, controlling for comorbid effects, and variance across studies. (4) Conclusions: The findings support the need for more research and a more extensive summary of the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0310.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: carers; community meals; home-delivered meals; Meals on Wheels; older adults; qualitative research; referral
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:17:25 CEST)
Meals on Wheels (MoWs) provide access to daily meals and social contact to adults with care and support needs.MoWs could be essential for the increasing rates of an ageing population and adults living with complex needs in England, yet many do not know that the service exists. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of MoWs service users, and people who refer them to MoWs (‘referrers’), with accessing and setting up the service in England, and what information would be valued when considering accessing MoWs services.Semi-structured interviews were conducted in May-July 2022 with seven service users and 21 referrers, recruited from four MoWs providers across England. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants indicated various pathways into the service, but referrers (family members) were more likely to be the ones enquiring about, and setting up, MoWs for service users. Once an enquiry about MoWs had been made, the service was perceived as straightforward to set up.However, existing preconceptions and stereotypes about the service (e.g. bringing to mind ‘school meals’, aimed solely at older adults) were perceived to act as barriers to accessing MoWs.Information that participants deemed important to have available when deciding on whether to access MoWs related to the meals (e.g. nutritional value, variety, need for any preparation, catering for individual needs), the specific services provided (e.g. wellbeing checks, daily social contact), the reliability and flexibility of delivery, and the cost of services. These findings could inform MoWs providers’ public awareness strategies about MoWs, in order to facilitate referrals to the service for adults with care and support needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Flamenco Dance; Mood; Subjective Well-being; social identity; Older Women; Self-esteem; Social dance
Online: 15 June 2023 (11:29:06 CEST)
This study investigated the effects of flamenco dance on mood and subjective well-being in older women. In a broader context, the question was raised about how participation in dance activities could influence the emotional well-being of this demographic group. Thirty-four older women, aged between 62 and 79 years, with a mean age of 70.11 years (SD = 5.13), voluntarily participated in the study after providing informed consent. All of them were enrolled in a 12-week flamenco dance workshop conducted by the Autoestima Flamenca Association, with one two-hour session per week. Mood measurements (sadness, anxiety, anger, and joy) were taken biweekly before and after each session, and subjective well-being assessments were conducted before and after the intervention. The results revealed significant improvements in the overall mood of the participants, as well as an increase in their subjective well-being. These improvements were observed at both the individual and group levels. In conclusion, participation in flamenco dance demonstrated a positive impact on the mood and subjective well-being of older women. These findings support the idea that physical and artistic activities, such as flamenco dance, can play an important role in promoting emotional well-being in this age group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1101.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Cognitive stimulation; physical activity; combined interventions; older adults; new technologies; exergaming; e-mental health
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:27:32 CEST)
Background: Demographic aging is a reality in developed countries, which poses a social challenge of great responsibility. Thus, numerous studies have been developed in an attempt to understand which factors best predict healthy aging. The aim of this study was to investigate and systematize literature on intervention programs that simultaneously include cognitive stimulation and physical activity, understand the importance of the use of new technology in these programs, and understand their impact on cognitive function in older adults, giving indications about their contribution to healthy aging. Methods: A narrative approach was used for extraction and synthesis of the data. Relevant studies were identified from electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Academic Search Complete. Results: Thirty-two articles, involving 2815 participants, were identified. All selected studies were randomized controlled studies. The studies were published between 2011 and 2020. All studies included a combination of cognitive and physical interventions. Many of the studies used technology to administer the cognitive stimulation program. Conclusions: Most of the analyzed studies use new technologies in physical and cognitive interventions, demonstrating that this new form of intervention exerts lasting and stable benefits in cognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Persistent Postural–Perceptual Dizziness (PPPD); Vertigo; Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV); Precipitant Conditions; Older patients
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:47:15 CEST)
(1) Background: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a syndrome described as secondary when it is the consequence of an organic disorder (s-PPPD) or primary when no somatic triggers cannot be identified. We evaluated a group of patients diagnosed as s-PPPD with Benign Positional Paroxysmal Vertigo (BPPV) as the main somatic trigger with the aim to identify predictive clinical elements of evolution towards PPPD.; (2) Methods: We compared the clinical characteristics of the 51 patients with s-PPPD having as trigger a BPPV (group 1) with 107 subjects diagnosed as BPPV but with no evolution in PPPD (control group). Results: A significant statistical difference in the mean age was found between s-PPPD and the non-s-PPPD group. The latency between the onset of BPPV and the final diagnosis was 25.2 days in the group 1 and 12.8 days in the control group; (4) Conclusions: The parameters mostly involved as potential precipitants of PPPD after BPPV are represented by the age of the patients and a long latency between the onset of BPPV and the final diagnosis: the mean age of the subjects who developed a PPPD following BPPV is significantly higher. These findings lead us to emphasize the importance of an early identification and treatment of BPPV, especially in older patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 outbreak; lockdown protocols; individual and social activities; mental health challenges; older people; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:51:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic’s mandatory lockdown protocols on activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n=24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by a qualitative data analysis framework. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); older people; frailty; antidiabetic drugs; comprehensive geriatric assessment; therapeutic targets; hypoglycemia.
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:07:51 CEST)
Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a chronic condition with increasing prevalence worldwide among the older population. T2DM condition increases the risk of micro and macro-vascular complications as well as the risk of geriatric syndromes as falls, fractures and cognitive impairment. The management of T2DM in the older population represents a challenge for the cli-nician, and a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment should always be prioritized, in order to tailor the glycate haemoglobin target according to functional and cognitive status comorbidities, life ex-pectancy and type of therapy. According to the most recent guidelines, older adults with T2DM should be cathegorized in three groups: healthy patients with good functional status, patients with complications and reduced functionality and patients at the end of life; for each group the target for the glycemic control is different, also according to the type of treatment drug. The therapeutic ap-proach should always begin with lifestyle changes; after that, several lines of therapies are available, with different mechanism of action and potential effect other than glucose level reduction. Partic-ular interest is growing around sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, due to their effect on the cardiovascular system. In this review we evaluate the therapeutic options available for the treat-ment of older diabetic patients, to ensure a correct treatment approach
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0159.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Diseases; electrocardiography; electroencephalography; Timed-Up and Go test; sensors; mobile devices; feature detection; diseases; older adults
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:46:57 CEST)
The use of smartphones, coupled with different sensors, makes it an attractive solution for measuring different physical and physiological features, allowing for the monitoring of various parameters and even identifying some diseases. The BITalino device allows the use of different sensors, including Electroencephalography (EEG) and Electrocardiography (ECG) sensors, to study different health parameters. With these devices, the acquisition of signals is straightforward, and it is possible to connect them using a Bluetooth connection. With the acquired data, it is possible to measure parameters such as calculating the QRS complex and its variation with ECG data to control the individual's heartbeat. Similarly, by using the EEG sensor one could analyze the individual's brain activity and frequency. The purpose of this paper is to present a method for recognition of the diseases related to ECG and EEG data, with sensors available in off-the-shelf mobile devices and sensors connected to a BITalino device. The data were collected during the elderly's experiences, performing the Timed-Up and Go test, and the different diseases found in the sample in the study. The data were analyzed, and the following features were extracted from the ECG, including heart rate, heart rate variability, the average QRS interval, the average R-R interval, and the average R-S interval, and the EEG, including frequency and variability. Finally, the diseases are correlated with different parameters, proving that there are relations between the individuals and the different health conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1069.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Medical Self-service Terminals (MST); Older adults; Unified Technology Acceptance and Use Theory (UTAUT); User interface characteristics
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:10:21 CEST)
Medical Self-service Terminals (MST) offer potential for process optimization and enhanced patient convenience in hospitals, including the elderly. However, the behavioral inclination (BI) of elderly Chinese individuals towards MST adoption remains suboptimal. This study aims to elucidate BI determinants for MST among the aging demographic, focusing on User Interface (UI) attributes within the extended Unified Technology Acceptance and Use Theory (UTAUT) Model. The empirical inquiry examines seven factors, comprising three key UI attributes and four fundamental UTAUT factors. Results reveal significant positive associations of Performance Expectancy (β=0.40, p<0.001), Effort Expectancy (β=0.50, p<0.001), and Social Influence (β=0.25, p<0.05) with BI. Notably, User Interface Design positively correlates with Performance Expectancy (β=0.89, p<0.001) and Effort Expectancy (β=0.81, p<0.001). These findings emphasize the interplay between objective UI attributes and subjective UTAUT determinants. This research enhances understanding of UI's impact on MST BI and acceptance, particularly within the Chinese elderly population, urging MST researchers to prioritize elderly attitudes for effective technological integration in healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: older patients; hospital acute care units; sub-intensive care units; clinical challenges; medical complexity; frailty syndrome; frailty diagnosis
Online: 6 December 2023 (04:33:50 CET)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence of the frailty syndrome in older patients hospitalized in the geriatric ward depending on the diagnostic criteria used, the feasibility of particular diagnostic scales in hospitalized patients, and their compatibility. Material and methods: Patients admitted to the Department of Geriatrics of Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration in Bialystok within eight months were included in the study. Four diagnostic scales were used to identify the frailty syndrome: Fried criteria, 7-point Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), 40-item Frailty Index (FI), and FRAIL Scale. The compatibility of the scales was determined using Cohen's Kappa statistics. Results: 416 patients (mean age 81.2 ± 6.91 years, 77.4% women) were included in the study. Depending on the scale, the prevalence of frailty syndrome varied from 26.8% ( FRAIL Scale), 52.3% (Clinical Frailty Scale), and 58.1% (Fried criteria) up to 62.9% (Frailty Index). We observed the highest feasibility for CFS (100%), intermediate for Frailty Index (95.2%), FRAIL Scale (89.7%), and the lowest for Fried scale (79.8%). The highest level of agreement was found between the CFS and Fried scale, with 70.2% consistent ratings (Cohen Kappa 0.49). Conclusions: Patients in the geriatric ward are characterized by a high prevalence of frailty, although it differs depending on the criteria. The Frailty Index found the highest prevalence and the lowest in the case of the FRAIL scale. The feasibility of scales and their comparability differed; the most difficult to use in daily practice was the Fried scale, while the Clinical Frailty Scale was determined feasible in all patients. The highest agreement was observed between the Fried criteria and the Clinical Frailty Scale and the lowest between the FRAIL scale and the remaining ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: older people; nursing home; incontinence; urinary incontinence; pelvic health; sedentary behaviour; physical health; faecal incontinence; low urinary tract symptoms
Online: 12 January 2022 (18:41:11 CET)
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common geriatric syndrome affecting bladder health and is especially prevalent in nursing homes (NHs). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of UI and its associated factors in 5 Spanish NHs. UI (measured with Minimum Data Set 3.0.), sociodemographic and health-related variables were collected. Chi- square (or Fisher’s) or Student’s t-test (or Mann Whitney U) for bivariate analysis were used, with Prevalence Ratio (PR) as an association measure. The prevalence of UI was 66.1% (CI:95%, 53.6–77.2) and was significantly associated with frailty (PR 1.84; 95%CI 0.96–3.53), faecal incontinence (FI) (PR 1.65; 95%CI 1.02–2.65), anxiety (PR 1.64; 95%CI 1.01–2.66), physical performance (PR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00–3.11) and cognitive state (PR 1.95; 95%CI 1.05–3.60). Statistically significant differences between incontinent-continent groups were found for activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, mobility, quality of life, sedentary behaviour (SB) and handgrip strength. It can be concluded that 2/3 of the residents experienced UI, and its significant associated factors were mainly physical (SB, frailty, physical performance, ADL limitations, mobility, FI and handgrip strength) followed by psycho-cognitive factors (cognition, anxiety and quality of life).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: extreme weather; heat waves; anvironment and public healt; aged; older adults; social behaviour; interpersonal relation; social isolation; mortality; lonelliness
Online: 11 October 2021 (08:59:11 CEST)
Background: Heat waves are correlated with increased mortality in the aged population. Social isolation is known as a vulnerability factor. This study aims at evaluating the correlation between an intervention to reduce social isolation and the increase in mortality in the population over 80 during heat waves. Methods: The study adopts a retrospective ecologic design. We compared the excess mortality rate (EMR) in the over 80 population during heat waves in urban areas of Rome (Italy), where a program to reduce social isolation was implemented compared to others where it was not implemented. We measured mortality of the summer periods from 2015 to 2019 compared with 2014 (a year without heat waves). Winter mortality, cadastral income and proportion of over 90 were included in the multivariate Poisson regression. Results: The EMR in the intervention and controls was 2.70% and 3.81%, respectively. Rate ratio 0.70 (c.i. 0.54 - 0.92, p-value 0.01). The Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) of the interventions with respect to the controls is 0.76 (c.i. 0.59 - 0.98). After adjusting for other variables, the IRR was 0.44 (c.i. 0.32 - 0.60). Conclusions: Reducing social isolation could limit the impact of heat waves on the mortality of the elderly population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0310.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: older women; ovarian stimulation protocol; in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer; cumulative live birth rate; time to live birth; cost-effectiveness.
Online: 6 November 2023 (10:39:42 CET)
The decline in assisted reproductive technology (ART) success among older women, attributed to decreased oocyte quantity and quality, poses a significant challenge. Currently, no consensus ex-ists on the optimal ovarian stimulation protocol for older women undergoing IVF. This retrospec-tive registered cohort study aimed to compare cumulative live birth rates (CLBR), time to live birth (TTLB), and cost-effectiveness in women over 35 years using gonadotropin-releasing hor-mone agonist (GnRHa) or clomiphene-primed ovarian stimulation (CPOS). We performed pro-pensity score matching (PSM) on 2,871 IVF cycles in women over 35 who received either GnRHa or CPOS protocols, resulting in 375 cycles in each group to compare treatment outcomes. Addition-ally, a decision tree model was utilized to assess the cost-effectiveness of the two protocols. Fol-lowing PSM, both groups showed similar baseline characteristics. The CPOS protocol exhibited a higher cycle cancellation rate (13.07% vs 8.00%, p=0.032), yet maintained comparable fertilization and embryo quality. While CLBRs per initial cycle (41.07% vs. 45.33%, p=0.269) and delivery out-comes were similar between the groups after a 24-month follow-up, TTLB was longer in the CPOS group. Notably, the average cost per live birth in the CPOS group was 21.27% less than that in the GnRHa group (￥32,301.42 vs ￥39,174.22). In conclusion, for women over 35 undergoing IVF, the CPOS protocol demonstrated similar CLBR to GnRHa but with lower costs, suggesting its potential as a viable and cost-efficient ovarian stimulation option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1549.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: patient supported research; COVID-19; older adult; mental health; pandemic management; policy evaluation; implementation science; staffing; quality of care; quality of life
Online: 25 October 2023 (04:12:46 CEST)
The Single Site Order – a policy restricting staff from working at multiple long-term care homes – was mandated by the Public Health Agency of Canada to control the spread of COVID-19 in long-term care homes, where nearly 70% of COVID-19-related deaths in Canada occurred. This mixed methods study assesses the impact of Single Site Order on long-term care residents in British Columbia. Interviews were conducted (residents (n=6), family members (n=9), staff (n=18), and leadership (n=10) from long-term care homes (n=4)) and analyzed using thematic analysis. Administrative data was collected between April 2019 – March 2020 and April 2020 – March 2021 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and data visualization. Qualitative and quantitative data were triangulated and demonstrate staffing challenges became worse during implementation of the SSO resulting in the mental and physical health deterioration of LTC residents. Qualitative data demonstrated decreased time for personalized and proactive care, increased communication challenges, and increased loneliness and isolation. Quantitative data showed a decline in activities of daily living, increased antipsychotic medication use, pressure ulcers, behavioural symptoms, and an increase in falls. Addressing staff workload and staffing shortages during SSO-related policy implementation is essential to avoid resident health deterioration.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chronic conditions; diabetes; older adults; race or ethnicity; social determinants of health; in-equalities or inequities; policy; health care access; home health care
Online: 6 April 2021 (14:40:37 CEST)
Older adults with diabetes are at elevated risk of complications following hospitalization. Home health care services mitigate the risk of adverse events and facilitate a safe transition home. In the United States, when home health care services are prescribed, federal guidelines require they begin within two days of hospital discharge. This study examined the association between timing of home health care initiation and 30-day rehospitalization outcomes in a cohort of 786,734 Medicare beneficiaries following a diabetes-related index hospitalization. Of these patients, 26.6% were discharged to home health care. To evaluate the association between timing of home health care initiation and 30-day rehospitalizations, multivariate logistic regression models including patient demographics, clinical, geographic variables, and neighborhood socio-economic variables were used. Inverse probability-weighted propensity scores were incorporated into the analysis to account for potential confounding between the timing of home health care initiation and the outcome in the cohort. Compared to patients who received home health care within the recommended first two days, patients who received delayed services (3-7 days after discharge) had higher odds of rehospitalization (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.25-1.32). Among patients who received late services (8-14 days after discharge), the odds of rehospitalization were four times greater than for patients receiving services within 2 days (OR 4.12, 95% CI 3.97-4.28). Timely initiation of home health care following diabetes-related hospitalizations is one strategy to improve outcomes.