In the last years evidence has emerged that neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are strongly associated with the microbiome composition in the gut. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most intensively studied neurodegenerative disease in this context. In this review, we performed a systematic evaluation of published literature comparing changes in colonic microbiome in PD to the ones observed in other NDs including Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Multiple system atrophy (MSA), Multiple sclerosis (MS), Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To warrant comparability of different studies, only human case-control studies were included. Several studies showed an increase of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Verrucomicrobiaceae and Akkermansia in PD. A decrease in PD was observed of Faecalibacterium spp., Coprococcus spp., Blautia spp., Prevotella spp. and Prevotellaceae. On low taxonomic resolution, like phylum level, the changes are not disease specific and inconsistent. However, on higher taxonomic resolution like genus or species level, a minor overlap was observed between PD and MSA, both alpha synucleinopathies. We show that a methodical standardization of sample collection and analysis is necessary for ensuring the reproducibility and comparability of data. We also provide the evidence, that assessing the microbiota composition at high taxonomic resolution, reveals changes in relative abundance, that may be specific or characteristic for one disease, or a disease-group and might evolve discriminative power. The interactions between bacterial species and strains and moreover the co-abundances must be more deeply investigated before assumptions of the effects of specific bacteria on the host can be made with certainty.