ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1320.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: job crafting; work-life balance; job design; mature organization
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:03:51 CEST)
The study is focused on identifying areas of individualization in those mature organizations in which employees are free to make changes. In addition, factors affecting work-life balance and overlap between the jobs employees do and would like to do are determined. A critical review of the literature and a diagnostic survey, including interviews, questionnaires and observations, were used in the research process, together with the analysis of data concerning working conditions. Employees' opinions (n=300) on individualization areas, job crafting and overlap between performed and preferred jobs were analyzed. Calculations were done using IBM SPSS. According to the results, the maintenance of work-life balance (WLB) and the implementation of job crafting positively affect employee efficiency, counteracting professional burnout and a decrease in motivation. It turns out that employees of mature organizations are familiar with the areas of individualization and in some cases have freedom to implement job crafting. They like the work they do, which translates into well-maintained work-life balance. However, a big challenge for mature organizations is the constantly changing economic environment, the long-term nature of work-life balance programmes and their deferred effects. The results of the research can be an important starting point for extended studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0408.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: mentoring; women studies; work-life balance; role management; grounded theory
Online: 22 December 2022 (02:31:23 CET)
The purpose of this study was to model the impact of mentoring on women’s work-life balance. Indeed, this study considered mentoring as a solution to create a work-life balance of women. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews with both mentors and mentees of Tehran Municipality were conducted and the collected data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. Findings provided a model of how mentoring affects women's work-life balance. According to this model, role management is the key criterion for balancing work-life of women. In this model, antecedents of role management and the contextual factors affecting role management, the constraints of mentoring in the organization, as well as the consequences of effective mentoring in the organization are described. The findings of this research contribute to the mentoring literature as well as to the role management literature and provide recommendations for organizations and for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Burnout; career satisfaction; COVID-19; faculty shortage; nursing faculty; turnover intentions; work environment; work-life interference
Online: 10 January 2022 (13:58:18 CET)
The interactions between work and personal life are important for ensuring well-being especially during COVID-19 where the lines between work and home are blurred. Work-life interference/imbalance can result in work-related burnout, which has been shown to have negative effects on faculty members’ physical and psychological health. Although our understanding of burnout has advanced considerably in recent years, little is known about the effects of burnout on nursing faculty turnover intentions and career satisfaction. Thus, this study aimed to test a hypothesized model examining the effects of work-life inference on nursing faculty burnout (emotional exhaustion and cynicism), turnover intentions and ultimately, career satisfaction. A predictive cross-sectional design was used. An online national survey of nursing faculty members was administered throughout Canada in Summer 2021. Nursing faculty who held full-time or part-time positions in Canadian academic settings were invited via email to participate in the study. Data was collected from an anonymous survey housed on Qualtrics. Descriptive statistics and reliability estimates were computed. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling. Data suggest that work-life interference significantly increase burnout which contribute to both higher turnover intentions and lower career satisfaction. Turnover intentions in turn was negatively associated with career satisfaction. The findings add to the growing body of literature linking burnout to turnover and dissatisfaction, highlighting key antecedents and/or drivers of burnout among nurse academics. These results provide suggestions for suitable areas for the development of interventions and policies within the organizational structure to reduce the risk of burnout during and post-COVID-19 and improve faculty retention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0540.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: work-life balance; work-life enrichment; outside-of-work activity; sustainable human capital development; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:04:46 CET)
Nowadays, the development of civilization requires a vision of balancing the interests of employees and employers in the sphere of work as never before. Work-life balance is directly linked to social sustainability. The aim of this article is to analyse various dimensions of mutual enrichment of the professional and private life of an individual and to describe how positive experiences in professional and non-professional life influence the improvement of satisfaction, health and achievements, thus enabling the sustainable development of the individual. The conducted research was of a qualitative nature. Thematic exploration was used to analyse the findings of 34 in-depth interviews with experienced HR managers and employees at various levels of enterprises in Poland. The research shows that the work and personal life of the respondents interact, complement, and enrich in different ways, depending on the stage of the employee’s life. Habits developed by practicing a specific sport discipline or other type of hobby are helpful in the effective implementation of professional tasks. Also, non-professional interests, including communing with culture and art have a positive impact on professional activities. On the other hand, the respondents emphasized that thanks to their professional activities, specific to the type of work they perform, they are sometimes more extroverted, meticulous, organized and consistent when performing activities outside of work and in other aspects of private life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0414.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: nursing values; burnout; hardy personality; work-life balance; nursing stress; co-counselling; critical realism; nurse education; nurse-patient ratios
Online: 19 November 2018 (04:21:47 CET)
This initial report of a longitudinal study of 192 English hospital nurses has measured Nursing Values (the 6Cs of nursing); Personality, Self-Esteem and Depression; Burnout Potential; Work-Life Balance Stress; ‘Hardy Personality’; and Intention to Leave Nursing. Correlational, component and cluster analysis identifies four groups: “The Soldiers” (N = 79) , with medium scores on most measures, who bravely ‘soldier on’ in their nursing roles, in the face of numerous financial cuts to the National Health Service, and worsening nurse-patient ratios; “Cheerful Professionals” (N = 54), coping successfully with nursing roles, and a variety of challenges, in upwardly mobile careers; “High Achievers” (N = 39), senior nurses with strong profiles of a ‘hardy personality’, and commitment to fundamental nursing values; “Highly Stressed, Potential Leavers” (N = 20), with indicators of significant psychological distress, and difficulty in coping with nursing role challenges. We propose a model of co-counselling and social support for this distressed group, by nurses who are coping more successfully with multiple challenges. We discuss the role of nurse educators in fostering nursing values, and developing and supporting ‘hardy personality’ and emotional resilience in recruits to nursing. This study is framed within the disciplinary approach of Critical Realism, which identifies the value basis for research and dialogue in developing strategies for social change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: contextual risk factors; gender; individual risk factors; life-work interference; self-employed; wellbeing; work-life interference
Online: 3 July 2018 (05:56:36 CEST)
This study explores individual and contextual risk factors for the onset of work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and wellbeing among self-employed men and women and the effect of macro level risk factors. Data from the fifth round of European Working Conditions Survey was utilized and a sample of self-employed men and women with active businesses was extracted. Applying multilevel regressions, results show that though business characteristics are important for level of WIL, time demand is the most evident risk factor for WIL and LIW. There is a relationship between wellbeing and WIL and LIW respectively, and time demands is the most important factor in this relationship. Gender equality on the labor market did not relate to level of interference, nor did it mediate the relationship between interference and wellbeing. However, the main and most important risk factor for experiencing WIL and LIW and for how interference relate to wellbeing is gender relation processes in work and life, both on individual and contextual level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0408.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: quality of work life; organizational culture; organizational support; self-efficacy; maritime workers; culture-work-health model
Online: 23 July 2018 (10:00:06 CEST)
Using the culture-work-health model, this study investigates the factors influencing the quality of life of maritime workers. This study conducted a survey of 320 maritime workers who have experience living and working on a ship for more than six months. This self-administered questionnaire included questions on organizational culture and support, self-efficacy, perceived fatigue, as well as the quality of work life. Organizational culture and self-efficacy were identified as factors affecting the quality of work life, while organizational support was found to have an indirect effect after passing through self-efficacy and perceived fatigue. The final model accounts for 63.1% of the variance in maritime workers’ quality of life. As such, this study shows that self-efficacy is important for the quality of life of maritime workers, having both direct and indirect effects. Moreover, organizational support may prove the primary intervention point for relieving perceived fatigue and enhancing self-efficacy, thus improving the quality of work life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0198.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: forest carbon; carbon stock; roundwood harvest; climate change mitigation; life cycle assessment; scenarios; modelling
Online: 15 March 2022 (07:23:46 CET)
Fossil-based emissions can be avoided through using wood in place of non-renewable raw materials as energy and materials. However, increasing wood harvest influences forest carbon stocks. This effect may reduce the overall climate benefit of wood use significantly but is widely overlooked. We carried out a systematic review of simulation studies and compared differences in forest carbon and amount of wood harvested between more and less intensive wood harvest scenarios for three different time perspectives; short (1-30 years), mid (31-70 years) and long (71-100 years). Out of more than 450 reviewed studies 44 provided adequate data. Our results show that increased harvesting reduced carbon stocks over 100 years in temperate and boreal forests roughly 1.6 (stdev 0.9) tC per tC harvested. The value proved to be robust when outliers explicitly influenced by other factors than change in harvest rate, such as increase in fertilization or forest area, were removed. Interestingly, no significant difference in carbon impacts was found for average values of boreal and temperate forests or between short and long time-horizons. However, impacts tend to be greatest in the mid-term. This carbon balance indicator that we estimated can be interpreted as carbon debit of wood harvest in forests. It is significant compared with the typical GHG credits in technosphere generated by avoiding fossil emissions in substitution and increase in carbon storage in harvested wood products, and should not be ignored. Our estimates provide default values that can directly be included in GHG balances of products or assessment of mitigation policies and measures related to wood use. However, more systematic scenarios and transparent data in which different factors influencing forest carbon stocks are separately studied are clearly required to provide better constrained estimates for specific forest types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: work-related rumination; overcommitment; psychological detachment; burnout; irritation; problem-solving pondering; positive work reflection; negative work reflection; affective rumination; satisfaction with life
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:36:21 CET)
Work-related thoughts in off-job time have been studied extensively in occupational health psychology and related fields. We provide a focused review of research on overcommitment – a component within the effort-reward imbalance model – and aim to connect this line of research to the most commonly studied aspects of work-related rumination. Drawing on this integrative review, we analyze survey data on ten facets of work-related rumination, namely (1) overcommitment, (2) psychological detachment, (3) affective rumination, (4) problem-solving pondering, (5) positive work reflection, (6) negative work reflection, (7) distraction, (8) cognitive irritation, (9) emotional irritation, and (10) inability to recover. First, we leverage exploratory factor analysis to self-report survey data from 357 employees to calibrate overcommitment items and to position overcommitment within the nomological net of work-related rumination constructs. Second, we leverage confirmatory factor analysis to self-report survey data from 388 employees to provide a more specific test of uniqueness vs. overlap among these constructs. Third, we apply relative weight analysis to quantify the unique criterion-related validity of each work-related rumination facet regarding (1) physical fatigue, (2) cognitive fatigue, (3) emotional fatigue, (4) burnout, (5) psychosomatic complaints, and (6) satisfaction with life. Our results suggest that several measures of work-related rumination (e.g., overcommitment and cognitive irritation) can be used interchangeably. Emotional irritation and affective rumination emerge as the strongest unique predictors of fatigue, burnout, psychosomatic complaints, and satisfaction with life. Our study assists researchers in making informed decisions on selecting scales for their research and paves the way for integrating research on effort-reward imbalance and work-related rumination.
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:43:44 CET)
This paper presents a hypothesis about the origins of life in a clay mineral, starting with the earliest molecules, continuing through the increasing complexity of the development, in neighboring clay niches, of “Metabolism First,” “RNA World,” and other necessary components of life, to the encapsulation by membranes of the components in the niches, to the interaction and fusion of these membrane-bound protocells, resulting finally in a living cell, capable of reproduction and evolution. Biotite (black mica) in micaceous clay is the proposed site for this origin of life. Mechanical energy of moving biotite sheets provides one endless source of energy. Potassium ions between biotite sheets would be the source of the high intracellular potassium ion concentrations in all living cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0025.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: work engagement; job satisfaction; quality of life; occupational health; nursing practitioners; nursing
Online: 8 July 2022 (04:20:10 CEST)
Objective: To investigate the correlation between engagement and quality of life at work in nursing professionals, from a public hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study, with nursing professionals, conducted between December 2020 and January 2021. We used the Brazilian versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Walton Model scale. Results: The nursing professionals obtained a strong and positive correlation (r≥0.70) between the social integration domain of QWL and vigor dimension of work engagement (r=0.88; p=<0.001); moderate positive correlation (r≥0.40≤0.69) between QWL working conditions and vigor (r=0.40; p=<0.001), dedication (r=0.40; p=<0.001) and overall score (r=0.41; p=<0.001) of the work engagement. The correlations were positive and weak (r≤0.39) for the other domains of QWL and dimensions of work engagement. Conclusion: Professionals with satisfactory levels of quality of life tended to have higher levels of engagement at work. Professionals were strongly engaged and satisfied with their quality of life at work at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0525.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Occupational Health; Quality of Life; Nurses; Working Conditions; Work; Primary Health Care.
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:54:29 CET)
Background: The concept of Quality of Work Life (QWL) has been built multidimensionally through social reproduction; it is impacted by the perceptions of each individual and by the relationship between workers and the work environment. Objective: to analyze the Work Process and QWL of assisting nurses in public health. Methods: Research in a critical paradigm, descriptive, exploratory with a qualitative approach. The population corresponds to Nurses who work in care work. Semi-structured guiding questions were applied and were analyzed with content analysis. Results: seven participants declared female; all Chilean; seven are young adults; six singles; only one has children, and one has a person dependent on her care; six are heads of household, and five receive help with housework. All have a nursing degree, five have a diploma, but none have a postgraduate. Work Process has three subcategories: work object, instrument, organization, and work conditions; the QWL category has six subcategories: definition and perception of QWL, QWL potentiating factors, QWL exhausting factors, QWL improvement strategies, the emotional burden associated with QWL, and Health problems. Conclusions: In this way, the lifestyle built by the assistance in the health area has repercussions on the quality of life and health in general.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 29 April 2019 (07:51:38 CEST)
Forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various other forms of energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ESSAY | doi:10.3390/sci2020019
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; mechanochemistry; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 25 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Mechanical forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because mechanical forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various forms of chemical energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0088.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: organization and management; life-work-conflict theory; mental health; female; human resources; qualitative; child
Online: 3 October 2023 (09:18:47 CEST)
: This study investigates the workplace experiences of mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. These mothers may face challenges in balancing motherhood, disability, and employment. Therefore, it is important to understand the challenges they are facing and the mechanisms they use to cope with caregiving and work responsibilities in managing the stress that develops throughout this ongoing experience. The purpose of this research was to investigate the workplace experiences of single mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. A review of the literature was conducted. For this research, a qualitative methodology was adopted to gain an in-depth understanding of the mothers’ experiences. A narrative method was used for data collection. Thematic analysis was utilized to obtain a clear understanding. The findings suggest that mothers of children with intellectual disabilities face difficulties in balancing between caregiving for their child with a disability and their job responsibilities, in addition to showing that there is a lack of flexibility in the workplace, less awareness from colleagues and bosses of the challenges these mothers face, and a lack of organizational legislation that supports these mothers. According to our findings, workplaces should provide assistance to mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in order to ensure that they are not disadvantaged in their employment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry cycles
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:36:31 CET)
Intracellular potassium concentrations, [K+], are high in all types of living cells, but the origins of this K+ are unknown. The simplest hypothesis is that life emerged in an environment that was high in K+. One such environment is the spaces between the sheets of the clay mineral, mica. The best mica for life’s origins is the black mica, biotite, because it has a high content of Mg++ and it has iron in various oxidation states. Life also has many of the characteristics of the environment between mica sheets, giving further support for the possibility that mica was the substrate on and within which life emerged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0123.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: work context; work conditions; work stress; job satisfaction; lifestyle; sonographers; ergonomics
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:53:13 CET)
Work context is essential to understand in relation to handle the stress at work that ultimately creates a feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among health professionals. The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship of work context and work stress among sonographers (n=153) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Additionally, the study provided a gender-based comparison of both variables among sonographers. Work context was measured by administering subscale of work context derived from Work Design Questionnaire. Whereas, work stress was measured by Job Stress Scale. In addition, relationship of lifestyle was explored with work context and work stress. Data was collected through survey research forms. Results revealed the significant relationship of work context and work stress (r=.251, p=.002). Among lifestyle variables, perceived good health (r= .214, p=.008) and sleep (r=.242. p=.003) were found positively related with satisfaction toward work. Whereas, the strong positive correlation was found between work context and frequency of physical activity (r=.255, p=.005). No significant difference was found among male and female sonographers. The findings of this study contributed to evaluating the working condition of sonographers in relation to work stress. Effective strategies for better working settings as well as strategies for achieving satisfaction in work will be discussed to enhance the performance of sonographers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: framing; online discourse strategies; ethical behaviour; work-life blurred boundaries; effective teamwork; individual virtuousness; alignment
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:02:03 CET)
The present paper brings to the fore issues relating to the meaning and construction of ethics in online team communication by exploring the discursive strategies that contribute to the construction of a team’s sense of duty and individual virtuousness. The study relies on a complex toolkit which includes ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistics, discourse and conversation analysis. Data consist in a one-day interaction unit as part of a larger set of real communication exchanges (ca. 34,000) over a time period of six months, observation notes, as well as unstructured interviews. Our empirical analysis has revealed that individual virtuousness and sense of duty are actually interrelated. A virtuous team climate leads team members to share positive perceptions about the team, which in turn increases team commitment. Furthermore, we argue that the blurring of private and professional life not only allows for the enactment of ethic-driven discourse strategies that result in enhanced cooperation and improved team performance but also for high levels of interconnectivity and improved social interaction. The results of the analysis supplement organisational literature based on ethics-centred observations on the effectiveness of virtual work, and show how a discourse-driven approach can provide tools for further theorisations about the practices and the ecology of digital communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: physical education; older employee; ageing; work ability; coping at work; wellbeing at work
Online: 24 August 2022 (11:07:47 CEST)
This article examines older physical education (PE) teachers’ wellbeing over the course of their career in Finland. The study highlights challenges to physical and mental functioning as well as how teachers respond to these challenges. The six interviewees were over 55-year-old PE teachers, whose career had lasted for more than 30 years. Qualitative methods were used in the collection, transcription and analysis of the research data. The qualitative analysis consisted of a series of interpretations that visualised the world described by the interviewees. All the research participants had physical problems that affected their teaching and make teachers consider a potential career change. To be able to teach, teachers adapted their ways of working according to the challenges brought by age and injuries. The research participants found that the challenges caused by musculoskeletal problems and ageing were an inevitable part of the profession. They emphasised the positive sides of the work: the profession permits varied workdays. In addition, the teachers noted that their work provides them with opportunities to remain physically fit. Teaching health education is a means to lighten the workload of older teachers. PE teachers enjoy their profession and are dedicated to it, despite all the challenges. The interviewed participants clearly experienced work engagement. Our development proposal for teacher education is that future PE teachers be informed about the risks involved in the profession. Such activity helps young teachers reflect proactively on the measures taken to maintain their functioning during their career and on perspectives related to the ways of working.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: hotel housekeepers; stress; occupational health; job demands-resources model; qualitative research; work- life balance; gender perspective.
Online: 19 November 2020 (15:11:33 CET)
Tourism is the main economic sector in the Balearic Islands (Spain) and hotel housekeepers (HHs) are a large occupational group, in which stress is becoming a major issue. This study aims at exploring in-depth factors perceived as stressors by HHs and key-informants, and their effects on work-life balance (WLB). A qualitative design with phenomenological approach was used, conducting six focus groups with 34 HHs and 10 individual interviews with key-informants. Results were analyzed adopting the job demands-resources model and a gender perspective. High demands –e.g work overload, time pressure, physical burden...-, lack of enough resources and little control –derived from role conflict, unexpected events...- were the most important factors explaining HHs’ stress. Additionally, this imbalance was perceived as leading to health problems –mainly musculoskeletal disorders-. Working schedule was mentioned as a facilitator to WLB, whereas an imbalance between job demands and resources led to work-home conflict –preventing them from enjoying leisure time-. Multiple roles at work and at home increased their stress. HHs experienced their job as invisible and unrecognised. Regarding practical implications, our recommendations for hotel organization include reducing workload and increasing resources, which would improve the job demands-resource balance, diminish negative mental and physical outcomes and improve WLB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0419.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: self-employed; cancer; work; return to work; cancer survivors
Online: 24 February 2023 (04:44:52 CET)
Self-employed individuals comprise around 15% of Canada’s workforce. For those with cancer, frequent functional loss and diminished work ability due to side effects of the disease and its treatment significantly impact their well-being and business vitality. Compared to salaried can-cer survivors, the self-employed experience greater reductions in work hours and up to 48% greater income loss, yet most research addresses the former population. To describe self-employed Canadian cancer survivors’ experiences continuing and returning to work, our quali-tative study examines their strategic efforts to continue working throughout the disease trajecto-ry or return to work post-recovery. Employing an interpretive description approach and an in-terview guide based on a vocational rehabilitation model for cancer survivors, we analyze data from 23 participants—both French- and English-speaking—from six Canadian provinces, with eight different job types and nine different cancer diagnoses. Our constant comparative analysis of the transcribed interviews reveals four major themes and twelve sub-themes: Impact of can-cer on the self-employed function (physical, cognitive, and psychological), on their ability to maintain their business, and financial well-being, and facilitating factors for working with can-cer. Cancer disclosure and non-disclosure were both deemed viable strategies, but ceasing work was not. We thus recommend professional support for self-employed cancer survivors in plan-ning any necessary business modifications to accommodate their condition and cancer treatment to lessen the negative impact of cancer on self and on their business well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0294.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: work environment; employers; office space; remote work; COVID-19
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:31:48 CEST)
The pandemic is fast moving, accelerating rapid changes that lead to new challenges and making organizations suffer an impact. A big mark has been left on the workplaces - places where we do business, because an ongoing change to remote work challenges the role of the office. It is highly possible that as the change is progressing, it is not only the workplace that will change its design, but also the way in which work will be planned, organized, done and controlled. However, as the restrictions ease up questions appear: What is the potential of office sustainability? How has the perception of flexible office space changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic? This paper used an online survey as a quantitative research method. In this paper, we looked at the employer’s vision of the office. We investigated employers’ perspectives of where and in what settings the work will be done in the post-pandemic time. Specifically, we discussed the changes employers will apply in terms of work environment and office layout. The findings suggest that an increasing mobile workforce and expansion of the new workstyle will not mean an office exodus, but will certainly have an impact on office utilization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: remote work; telework; systematic literature review; work design; workforce planning
Online: 2 September 2022 (05:54:08 CEST)
The practice of telework, remote work, and working from home has grown significantly across the pandemic era (2020+). These practices offer new ways of working but come with a lack of clarity as to the role it plays in supporting the wellbeing of staff. (1) Background: the purpose of this study is to examine the current literature on wellbeing outcomes and effects of telework; (2) Methods: this study adopts a systematic literature review from 2000-2022 using the PRISMA approach and thematic analysis guided by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (Wellbeing, Decent Work, Gender Equality, and Inclusive Production); (3) Results: it was evident that there is a lack of clarity on the actual effects of telework on employee wellbeing, but it appeared that it had a generally positive effect on short-term wellbeing of staff, and created more flexible and proactive work design opportunities; (4) Conclusions: there is a need for more targeted research into work designs that support wellbeing and productivity of staff, and consider the environmental sustainability changes from reduced office and onsite work and increased working from home.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Dialectical Critical Realism; Education; Islam; Childhood Studies; Child Abuse; Work-Life-Balance; Roy Bhaskar; Priscilla Alderson; Margaret Archer
Online: 18 September 2016 (06:04:09 CEST)
Critical realism emerged from the philosophical writings of Roy Bhaskar, and has evolved into a philosophy of social science research using the model of “dialectical critical realism” (DCR) which begins with the researcher’s assumptions that the structures being researched have a real, ontological grounding which is independent of the researcher. This approach has proved fruitful in British and European social science research, but has had less influence in North America. We outline DCR’s four level model for understanding society and its changing social structures through “the pulse of freedom”. DCR has been used by Marxists, Muslims, Catholics and secular scholars who engage fruitfully in morphogenic dialogues leading to a critical realist understanding of society and social research, which transcends positivist and social constructionist models. Examples of DCR’s application in the fields of childhood research, child abuse, education, and research on organisations are outlined to illustrate the working of this new research paradigm. We are enthusiastic in our advocacy of DCR as a model of qualitative research, and for constructing models of positive social change, and are particularly impressed by the substantive and theoretical expositions of DCR by Priscilla Anderson, Matthew Wilkinson and Margaret Archer, whose work we document and review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: organizational change; employee innovation performance; work pressure; work engagement; organizational identity
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:38:56 CET)
Affected by the COVID-19 and the international development pattern, the international environment has undergone profound changes, and enterprises, as the main body of activities rushing in the front line of production and operation and the main battlefield of market competition, are facing various risk challenges in the domestic and international markets. For theoretical research, the impact of organizational change on employee innovation performance has become a key issue in organizational behavior and human resource management research. However, the influence mechanism of organizational change on employee innovation performance is still unclear. In this study, we examine whether, how, and when organizational change increases employee innovation performance in accordance with job demands-resource theory, as well as the effect of work pressure and work engagement on employee innovation performance. Data from 289 employees at three time points are examined. The results show that: (1) Organizational change negatively affects employee innovation performance through work pressure, i.e., work pressure mediates the impact of organizational change on employee innovation performance. (2) Organizational change positively affects employee innovation performance through work engagement, i.e., work engagement mediates the impact of organizational change on employee innovation performance. (3) Organizational identity plays a moderating role between organizational change and work pressure and work engagement, respectively, and there is a moderating effect in the process of mediation of work pressure and work engagement. The findings of this study provide important insights into how and when organizational change influences employee innovation performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0112.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Discipline; Work Environment; Productivity
Online: 6 May 2021 (16:11:55 CEST)
Objective: This paper aims to test and evaluate the Effect of Discipline And Work Environment on Employee Productivity of state-owned public bodies.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a quantitative approach using a survey approach. The survey is a study conducted on the employee population of state-owned public agency companies, samples taken from the employee population of state-owned public agency companies to find events related to discipline variables and work environments that can affect employee productivity variables, to analise the influence between discipline variables and the work environment on employee productivity variables using a statistic regression approach. This method is used to explain the influence of discipline variables and work environment on employee productivity variables. This approach is simply to provide a description and test the influence between discipline variables and the work environment on employee productivity variables that can be known how much the influence of discipline variables and work environment on employee productivity variables.Findings: The findings of this study explain that discipline has an influence on the productivity of employees of publicly owned companies, the work environment has an influence on the productivity of employees of publicly owned companies, while together discipline and work environment have an influence on the productivity of employees of publicly owned companies.Practical Implications: The results of the study are recommended for employees to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the performance of state-owned public bodies.Originality: Previous research conducted to test the influence of discipline and work environment on the productivity of employees of manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, the findings concluded that discipline and work environment have an influence on the work productivity of employees of manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. This research object of research on publicly owned companies owned by the state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1944.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Inclusive Leadership; Psychological Contract Fulfillment; Employee Well-Being; Workplace Well-Being; Life Well-Being; Proactive Work Behavior; Business Services Sector professionals
Online: 29 May 2023 (02:13:53 CEST)
Proactivity is a particularly important attribute of knowledge-intensive organizations, where the work required to increase the potential of knowledge-intensive employees is crucial. A priority challenge for these firms is also to understand the increasing importance of the functioning of cognitive mechanisms leading to increased knowledge workers' well-being following the implementation of the psychological contract. The aim of this article is to identify the relationship between inclusive leadership, the fulfillment of the psychological contract, two dimensions of well-being: workplace and life well-being and knowledge workers' proactivity. Based on survey data collected through the CAWI method from 1.000 knowledge workers employed in Polish companies in the business services sector, the research hypotheses were tested using a stepwise equation modelling (SEM) technique, leading to a model containing all the main constructs. The results obtained indicate that inclusive leadership positively impacts the fulfillment of the psychological contract. Furthermore, the fulfillment of the psychological contract positively affects proactive working behavior with and the wellbeing of knowledge workers. Along with proactive work behavior, two dimensions of well-being, were examined as outcome variables. The analysis also shows that knowledge-intensive organizations, intending to build the proactivity of their employees and nurture a high level of well-being in their lives and in the workplace, should take care to fulfil the expectations and obligations of the psychological contract. However, one way to achieve this is for managers to use an inclusive management style, which supports an atmosphere of a safe working environment in a diverse setting and leads to employees feeling comfortable sharing their opinions and ideas. The study of inclusive leadership in the context of knowledge-intensive organizations provides human resource professionals and employee man-agers with important insights into how inclusive leadership can effectively contribute to the psychological contract, which will consequently lead to proactive work behavior and also improve employees' workplace and life well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1205.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Vocations; Leadership; Work Environment; Nursing
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:10:16 CEST)
Background: The presence of a leadership role in the nursing manager appears to be closely related to a positive and productive work environment within health settings. In some contexts, such as Mexico, the profile of the nursing manager has not been formally defined, and, sometimes those who occupy these positions do not always have sufficient training, and therefore this vocation, which is related to the social image of the nursing profession. This study aims to understand the influence of the vocation for leadership that the nursing manager has and how it can influence the work environment, through the analysis of experiences lived by health professionals with a management profile of different health environments; Methods: Qualitative study of an approximation to grounded theory using Corbin & Strauss as reference, using semi-structured individual interviews as a technique, and with the participation of 10 Mexican nursing managers from second-level care hospitals; Results: The meaning of the vocation for the interviewed managers is based in the first instance on the love of the profession and the vocation to be a nurse, then on the development of leadership for decision-making in practice and is fed back with the positive effects that it generates in the work environment, helping them to better organize human resources and professional activities, and strengthening themselves with specific training on the subject and the experience acquired. ; Conclusions: An understanding model is provided about the phenomenon where two central categories were identified, the first central category is the "Management vocation and natural nursing leadership" which is the basis; The second central category is the "Explanation and influence of the managerial vocation, natural leadership and work environment in nursing". Two connection categories were also created; the connection category one "Motives, meaning, and practical vocation of managerial nursing" and the connection category two "Description of the managerial vocation, natural leadership, and work environment", said connection categories emanate from the central category one, to connect with the central category two, which contains the interaction of the managerial vocation, natural leadership, and work environment in nursing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1266.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: responsibility; trust; willingness to work
Online: 30 April 2023 (05:27:09 CEST)
(1) Background: Little research has been done on professionals' perceptions of institutions and governments during epidemics. We aim to create a profile of physicians who feel they can raise public health issues with relevant institutions during a pandemic. (2) Methods: A total of 1285 Romanian physicians completed an online survey as part of a larger study. We used binary logistic regression to profile physicians who felt able to raise public health issues with relevant institutions; (3) Results: Five predictors could differentiate between respondents who tended to agree with the trust statement and those who tended to disagree: feeling safe at work during the pandemic, considering the financial incentive worth the risk, receiving training on the use of protective equipment, having the same values as colleagues, and enjoying work as much as before the pandemic; (4) Conclusions: Physicians who trust the system to raise public health issues with the appropriate institutions feel they share the same values as their colleagues, say they were trained in the use of protective equipment used during the pandemic, felt they were safe at work during the pandemic, enjoyed their work as much as before the pandemic, and felt the financial bonus justified the risk.
Online: 5 January 2021 (17:12:44 CET)
This study seeks to understand, from a gender perspective, the experiences of mining couples in Antofagasta, Chile, especially the negotiation between their intimate lives and the absences of their partners due to the shift work modality. We analyzed testimonies from men and women living in Antofagasta, considered one of the three largest mining regions in the world. Among the main findings, power relations based on the hegemonic gender model supported by the sexual division of labor are identified, which persist in this mining area, despite progress in equity issues in Chile. We propose that, although there are differences between the discourses of men and women and their subjective positioning, both actively collaborate with the reproduction of social gender relations marked by male domination. We observe that this way of living as a couple is associated with the organization of mining work, which is central to the reproduction of the gender order with a hetero-patriarchal tone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0259.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: work accidents; drivers; waste; Finland
Online: 16 July 2018 (07:54:19 CEST)
Resilience embodies the personal qualities that enable one to thrive in the face of adversity. A previous Italian study showed that injured workers had a lower level of resilience than non-injured workers. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between occupational injuries and psychological resilience. The subjects were 197 drivers from two Finnish waste transport companies. As a part of larger questionnaire, they fulfilled the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, which consisted of 25 items. Drivers reported their occupational injuries during the last three years. The drivers involved in occupational injuries had higher score (average 69.3) on Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale than drivers avoided injuries (67.7). According to Student’s t-test the difference between groups was highly significant (t = 40.44, df = 196, p<0.001). The result of this study was contradictory to earlier Italian study. One explanation may be that the Italian study was done with traumatic context with seriously injured patients. Waste transport drivers were rather young and fit males, who had suffered only minor injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: smart work; psychosocial stressors; health promotion; work-related stress; Covid-19; anxiety; depression; happiness
Online: 1 March 2021 (14:43:47 CET)
Telecommuting is a flexible form of work that has progressively spread over the last 40 years and which has been strongly encouraged by the measures to limit the Covid19 pandemic. There is still limited evi-dence on the effects it has on workers' health. In this survey we invited 905 workers of companies that made a limited use of telework to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate: Intrusive leadership of managers (IL), the request for work outside traditional hours (OFF-TAJD), workaholism (BWAS), effort / reward imbalance (ERI), happiness and common mental issues (CMIs), anxiety and depression, assessed by the Goldberg scale (GADS). The interaction between these variables has been studied by structural equation modeling (SEM). Intrusive leadership and working after hours were significantly associated with occu-pational stress. Workaholism is a relevant moderator of this interaction: intrusive leadership significantly increased the stress of workaholic workers. Intrusive leadership and overtime work were associated with reduced happiness, anxiety and depression. These results indicate the need to guarantee the right to disconnect, to limit the effect of the OFF-TAJD. In addition to this, companies should implement policies to prevent intrusive leadership and workaholism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0086.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: workplace; health promotion; work-related stress; anxiety; depression; participatory ergonomics; wellbeing; best practice; work organization
Online: 12 February 2018 (09:09:57 CET)
The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers' wellbeing using a holistic approach that goes beyond the simple prevention of occupational risks enables us to promptly identify problems in work organization and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach. In this study participatory ergonomics groups were used to improve occupational life in a small company. After intervention we observed a reduction in levels of perceived occupational stress measured with the effort / reward imbalance model, and an improvement in psychological wellbeing assessed by means of the Goldberg anxiety / depression scale. Although the limited size of the sample calls for a cautious evaluation of this study, the GEP© strategy proved to be a useful tool due to its cost-effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0251.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Performance; Validation; Psychometric properties; Satisfaction.; Work
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:48:25 CET)
The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) can be defined as the individual be-haviour capable of generating value and competitive advantage for the organization. It is a mul-ti-dimensional construct, consisting of task performance, contextual performance and counter-productive work behavior. Albeit important, a comprehensive measure of individual job per-formance is still lacking in the Italian context. This paper describes the validation of an Italian adaptation of the IWPQ. A back translation procedure was used. To investigate the psychometric properties of the 18-item Italian IWPQ, 1053 participants (502 men, 47.7%; 551 women, 52.3%) were enrolled; the age of participants ranged between 19 and 69 (Mage=34.6, SD= 11.8), and for the oc-cupation, the sample is classified in blue collar 32.5%, pink collar 33% and white collar 34.5%. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test the structural factor of the IWPQ. The results supported the goodness of the IWPQ in the Italian context and the scales were found consistent with the original structure. One item was omitted due to a low factor loading, resulting in a final 17-item structure. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor solution was invariant across both gender and occupational category and found evidence of metric invariance, uniqueness and scalar invariance, and structural invariance. Convergent and discriminant validity were also tested and showed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0568.v1
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:27:01 CEST)
The average working person can spend between 35-60 hours a week in the workplace, making it an influential place for mental well-being while also being a place for socio-economic contribution. Workplace incivility can diminish positive mental health outcomes and negatively impact work engagement through increased social anxiety. To investigate this, 118 working adults aged between 19 to 67 years old in Singapore were recruited for a survey comprising of demographics questions, the Workplace Incivility Scale, Brief DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-9 over the period of November 2022 to April 2023. Correlational, regression and mediation analysis showed workplace incivility scale scores to significantly pre-dict social anxiety after controlling for covariates, supporting our hypothesis that employees exposed to work-place incivility would have higher levels of social anxiety that mediated work engagement after controlling for age and gender. The findings here show workplace incivility to be a possible intervention target for social anx-iety to reduce negative impacts on work engagement in order to improve employee experience and retention for organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0865.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: MEvAR; work environment; construction; certainty; risks
Online: 6 May 2023 (02:49:43 CEST)
Aspects are presented on the interpretation of certainties by assessing risks with maximum level in order to establish reasonable limits of acceptance, tolerance or assumption of risks, supplementing environmental risk factors with external, social, financial elements and introducing a category in the work system analysis.Comparative aspects between INCDPM and MEvAR methods are presented as proposals in the associated tables.The conclusions highlight the current aspects implemented in the method and their usefulness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0329.v1
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:41:50 CEST)
Intersectional experiences, socio-cultural meanings, ethnic traditions and morals compound stigma-related stress (Jackson et al., 2020; Schmitz 2019). Sex workers are subject to various stigmatizing forces which can lead to secrecy, isolation and lack of social and cultural support (Koken 2012). Stigmatizing forces include structural humanitarian governance and aid interventions that conflate migration and sex work with insidious constraints and coercion. This study explored how migrant female sex workers from distinctive ethnic cultures manage their identity on a day to day basis in relation to the separation of work and home life. Methods: The perspectives of female sex workers were collected via a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were that the women had worked in sex work for over 18months, defined their involvement in sex work as voluntary, and were over 18yrs of age. The perspectives of seven women from South Asian (Pakistani), Brazilian, and British backgrounds were analyzed using Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Ethnicity was considered to explore how the women experienced stigma, how it impacted on the management of their identity, and how the process of change occurred. Results: The women used a variety of methods to maintain work and home life boundaries, processes they used switch into a role and all experienced stigma and tried to deal with it in ways such as concealment from friends and family. Two core categories and properties emerged from the data as participants felt guilt and/or shame but only the South Asian participants spoke of this with reference to their culture and religion. Conclusion: It was not migration per se but rather the relationship of migration to culture that was key to identity management. Participants reflected that as their country was considered collectivist country with interdependent thought, that any negativity felt could not only be reflected on the individual, but also the entire family. For these reasons Pakistani sex workers were subject to more complex stigmatizing forces, shame and guilt as regards risk and exposure. Discussion focusses on the processes and management strategies used to extend social and cultural support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0519.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: personality; emotional aspects; communication; work activity
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:06:12 CET)
One of the trends in current research in psychology explores how personal variables can determine a person’s communication style. Our objective was to find out the moderating effect of Mood in the relationship between the five big personality traits and an aggressive verbal communication style risk factor from work activity in a sample of nursing professionals. This study is a quantitative descriptive design. The final sample was 596 nurses with a range of 22 to 56 years. An ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, the 10-item Big Five Inventory, the Communication Styles Inventory, and the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens. This study showed that for nursing professionals, the “Agreeableness”, “Conscientiousness” and “Neuroticism” traits have a close relationship with aggressive verbal communication. Even though Mood moderates this relationship, it is only significant for those individuals with high scores in “Neuroticism”. Because personality dimensions are considered relatively stable over time and consistent from one situation to another, organizations should hold workshops and other types of practical activities to train workers in communication skills and Emotional Intelligence in order to promote employee health and that of their patients and avoid risk factor from work activity in nursing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1485.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: gig workers; platform work; gig economy; remote work; employee motivation; Mongolia; well-being; white-collar workers
Online: 21 June 2023 (05:37:51 CEST)
Flexibility is perceived as a primary reason for working as a gig worker. However, there are not enough studies that investigate gig workers' motivations. Hence, this study aims to examine the motivation of white-collar gig workers using a sample size of 327 gig workers in Mongolia, a developing country’s labor market. The purpose of this study is to investigate intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors for white-collar gig workers and their impact on behavioral intentions such as those of remote workers, freelancers, and any representatives of digital gig workers, not location-based gig workers. The primary data used in this study were collected through questionnaires from an online platform that attracts white-collar gig workers. The characteristics of this group are analyzed using Smart PLS4.0 software through the PLS-SEM technique to test the hypothesized relationships. Overall, the study contributes to an extension of current literature by understanding the white-collar digital gig workforce’s motivations and reasons behind it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: rumination; psychological detachment; perseverative cognition; work reflection; vitality; burnout; thriving; work engagement; employee well-being; mental health
Online: 28 June 2019 (12:09:30 CEST)
In the literature on occupational stress and recovery from work several facets of thinking about work in off-job time have been conceptualized. However, research on the focal concepts is currently rather disintegrated. In this study we take a closer look at the five most established concepts, namely (1) psychological detachment, (2) affective rumination, (3) problem-solving pondering, (4) positive work reflection, and (5) negative work reflection. More specifically, we scrutinized (1) whether the five facets of work-related rumination are empirically distinct, (2) whether they yield differential associations with different facets of employee well-being (burnout, work engagement, thriving, satisfaction with life, and flourishing), and (3) to what extent the five facets can be distinguished from and relate to conceptually similar constructs, such as irritation, worry, and neuroticism. We applied structural equation modeling techniques to cross-sectional survey data from 474 employees. Our results provide evidence that (1) the five facets of work-related rumination are highly related, yet empirically distinct, (2) that each facet contributes uniquely to explain variance in certain aspects of employee well-being, and (3) that they are distinct from related concepts, albeit there is a high overlap between (lower levels of) psychological detachment and cognitive irritation. Our study contributes to clarify the structure of work-related rumination and extends the nomological network around different types of thinking about work in off-job time and employee well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0337.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Calligraphy work authentication; neural networks; attention mechanism
Online: 6 December 2023 (07:34:10 CET)
Calligraphy works have high artistic value, but there is a rampant problem of forgery. Indeed, authentication of traditional calligraphy heavily relies on calligraphers' subjective judgment. Therefore, spurred by the recent development of neural networks, this paper proposes a method for authenticating calligraphy works based on an improved EfficientNet network. Specifically, the developed method utilizes the character box algorithm and the centroid algorithm to extract individual calligraphy characters, which are then augmented and used as the training set for the model. The training process employs CBAM and Self-Attention modules to enhance the attention mechanism of the EfficientNet network. The model is tested on authentic works, imitated works, and works from other calligraphers and is compared with other networks. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method effectively achieves the authentication of calligraphy works, and the improved CBAM-EfficientNet network and SA-EfficientNet network achieve better authentication performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Mastication; Mulching; Broadcasting Productivity; Cost; Work quality
Online: 19 July 2023 (03:37:09 CEST)
Forest harvesting generates variable amounts of residue that represent a fire hazard and a hindrance to regeneration and must be managed accordingly. In South Africa, burning is the most common residue management method, but there is an interest in introducing safer and more effective techniques, such as mulching. For that reason, a productivity study was conducted in the Eastern Cape province to gather information on the productivity, cost, and work quality of the three main alternatives: manual broadcasting, manual broadcasting followed by mulching with an adapted farm tractor and mulching with a purpose-built mulcher. Manual broadcasting required 16 h/ha, mulching with a farm tractor 3.6 h/ha, and mulching with a purpose-built mulcher 0.9 h/ha (one pass). Manual broadcasting was the cheapest option, at a cost of 400 ZAR/ha. Mulching with a farm tractor and a purpose-built mulcher incurred a cost of 3 267 ZAR/ha and 4 083 ZAR/ha, respectively. Manual broadcasting achieved a minimal reduction of residue size, with 50% of the slash (branches and stem wood) having a mean length above 40 cm. When mulching with a farm tractor was applied, 49% of the slash (branches and stem wood) length reduced to about 30 cm. When a purpose-built mulcher was used, only 10% of the slash elements exceeded 40 cm length.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0853.v1
Online: 11 May 2023 (12:40:52 CEST)
Just 2 years ago, 35% of Americans were involved with gig work. According to Statista, over half of Americans will be freelancing through online gig work by 2027. Research on how consumers select gig workers, or taskers, is still mostly underexplored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of a tasker's gender and self-presentation in their profile picture on consumer perceptions and choices. We proposed that taskers who have a professional headshot as the profile picture will receive higher ratings on competence, warmth, and trustworthiness than taskers whose profile picture is a selfie. We also proposed that taskers who smile in their profile picture will receive higher ratings on competency, warmth, and trustworthiness than taskers who do not smile. Furthermore, we predicted that professionalism has a stronger positive impact on perceptions of male taskers than on female taskers for our third hypothesis. Lastly, we hypothesized that gender bias exists on gig platforms, such that smiling will have a stronger positive effect on female taskers’ competence, warmth, and trustworthiness than on male taskers. Our study had 292 Kennesaw State University students who were tested online through Qualtrics. Our first and second hypotheses are not supported but our last two have partial support. There is a significant main effect of gender, and we find that male taskers are rated significantly higher on competence, warmth, and trustworthiness, compared to female taskers. Professional photos give male taskers an advantage over professional female taskers and female taskers are punished more for not smiling than male taskers. Future directions include looking into factors such as Race, Age, or background setting could be investigated. Conducting similar tests in a larger and more externally valid setting could yield more concrete results. Continuation into this new area of gig work could lead the way into revolutionizing how freelancers conduct their public appearance or how gig work platforms could handle this new market.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0253.v1
Online: 19 May 2022 (08:01:56 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic has influenced the style of work of many people. However, it remains a question to what extent it has influenced the work of outdoor workers like forestry workers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the level of professional burnout among forest-ry workers, as a lack of burnout symptoms is a dimension of well-being at work. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory was administered to 42 respondents. Both subscales of the inventory were reliable: Cronbach’s alpha was 0.806 for disengagement and 0.865 for exhaustion. The mean number of overtime hours was 10.13 hours per month. The mean disengagement score of 2.24 was lower than the reference value of 2.25, but the mean exhaustion score of 2.33 was high-er than the reference value of 2.1. Age correlated significantly with stage of work, as did exhaustion with stage of work, and over-time hours with disengagement. The average forestry officer had no symptoms of disengagement and slight symptoms of exhaustion. These results suggest that being in the forest can help prevent burnout. Overtime work and a heavy workload appear to threaten forestry workers’ well-being, as they can cause exhaustion and lower commitment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; occupational health; returning to work
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:15:02 CEST)
With the COVID-19 pandemic continuing and the resulting economic burden increasingly apparent, the Indonesian government began to prepare a "new normal" phase and make peace with COVID-19. From this new decision arises the question of the readiness of businesses and the industrial sector to resume operations amid COVID-19. This article aims to provide concise and precise information about the preparations that can be made by businesses to operate safely amid COVID-19 based on existing scientific studies and literatures. From the literature visits it can be concluded that transmission and danger of a COVID-19 pandemic can be prevented through: creation of infectious disease prevention and response plan, implementing basic infection prevention measures, policies and procedures for proper identification and isolation of sick people, applying flexibilities in policies, and protections in the workplace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0226.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Fatigue, heat treatment, hot-work tool steel
Online: 18 December 2018 (16:37:32 CET)
The fatigue strength of the hot work steel depends on various factors, including the mechanical, properties and behavior and bulk and the surface under layer, the microstructural features as well as heat treatments. The influence of a series of heat treatments on the fatigue strength of H13 hot work steel was investigated. Different preheating, quenching and tempering treatments were applied to four sets of specimens and fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature using a rotating bending test machine. All heat treatments resulted in a certain improvement of the fatigue strength. Highest fatigue strength obtained by applying a double tempering heat treatment (first tempering at 550 °C for two hours and second tempering at 610 °C for two hours) after initial preheating and quenching. One tempering treatment (550 °C for two hours after preheating and quenching) did not significantly improve the fatigue strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0005.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: stress perceived; self-efficacy; engagement; work; nursing
Online: 3 December 2018 (04:10:41 CET)
Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP) examines the mechanisms that promote workers’ health and wellbeing, in addition to risk factors arising from work activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the mediating role of perceived stress in the effect that self-efficacy has on engagement in nurses. The sample comprised 1777 currently working nurses. We administered the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Following bivariate correlational analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, and simple and multiple mediation analysis the results showed Self-efficacy to be a powerful personal resource that positively predicts employees’ engagement, although the effect diminishes when there are mediating variables of stress. We found differences in the way the different aspects of stress mediated the relationship between Self-efficacy and the engagement dimensions. “Energy–joy” was the strongest mediating variable for all of the engagement dimensions, and this, together with “harassment–social acceptance” dampened the effect of Self-efficacy on vigor and dedication, whereas “Overload” was only a mediator for dedication. Because nurses work in a stressful environment, risk factor arising from work activity, hospital management should design interventions to enhance their workers’ personal resources and improve personal and organizational wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0115.v1
Online: 6 August 2018 (10:59:49 CEST)
Despite numerous interventions to promote gender equality, sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest prevalence rates of non-partner sexual assault in the world, thus constituting a major social and public health issue in the region. As social workers frequently provide services to this population, an exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted to explore rape myth acceptance among undergraduate social work students studying in Namibia. Findings revealed the positive influence of social work education in reducing rape myth acceptance as well as highlighted the influence of age, gender, country of origin, self-identification as a feminist, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance among this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: high-intensity functional training; work capacity; performance
Online: 12 March 2018 (05:33:23 CET)
High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a novel exercise intervention that may test body systems in a balanced and integrated fashion by challenging individuals’ abilities to complete mechanical work. However, research has not previously determined if physical work capacity is unique to traditional physiologic measures of fitness. Twenty-five healthy men and women completed a six-week HIFT intervention with physical work capacity and various physiologic measures of fitness assessed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, these physiologic measures of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) were significantly associated with physical work capacity and this relationship was even stronger at post-intervention assessment. Further, there were significant improvements across these physiologic measures in response to the delivered intervention. However, the change in these physiologic measures failed to predict the change in physical work capacity induced via HIFT. These findings point to the potential utility of HIFT as a unique challenge to individuals’ physiology beyond traditional resistance or aerobic training. Elucidating the translational impact of increasing work capacity via HIFT may be of great interest to health and fitness practitioners ranging from strength/conditioning coaches to physical therapists.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: : viruses; synthetic organisms; artificial life; life domains; Lithbea
Online: 7 June 2022 (04:42:38 CEST)
As synthetic/artificial life forms become more abundant and sophisticated, an increasing number of bizarre creatures - xenobots, robots, soft A-life entities, genetically engineered organisms, etc. - are invading our society. Therefore, we need to bring order to all this, to establish what is living and what is not. Here, I intend to classify all these non-natural entities and clarify their status with reference to their consideration or not as living beings, leaving the door open to an uncertain future in which perhaps we can see how "the artificial" and "the natural" merge to originate something new. To order all this "new biodiversity" and to also give entry to viruses (which are excluded of the three-domains tree of life), I propose the creation of a new domain, Lithbea (from the name: life-in-the-border entities), in which all these new human-made entities as well as the viruses will be included. Within this domain there would be two kingdoms, Virus and Humade (contraction of human-made), based on their origin, natural or human-made. A brief description of each component of Lithbea is included and the implications for society and biology of this “new biodiversity” is briefly discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Definition of life; self-replicators; paralife; Utility-Product paralife; abiotic life; mechanical life; complexity
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:06:48 CET)
Here I describe an overlooked form of non-biological paralife (i.e., near-life) that has been evolving on Earth for millions of years, and is currently in the final stages of transitioning into a new form of life. Any consideration of non-biological life or paralife is complicated by the fact that there is no consensus among biologists for the definition of life. This ambiguity has caused disagreement about whether subcellular reproduction systems like viruses are a form of life, despite having genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes and system-improving evolution. To resolve this problem, I develop a definition of life that is entirely functional and independent of any of the structural idiosyncrasies of biological life on Earth: an order-generating system controlled by internally-encoded information that perpetuates itself by functioning to counteract its entropic decay. Using this definition, subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses are paralife because they match the definition of life in all ways except that they induce their order-generating functioning by a living host rather through their own self-sustaining production system. Using this functional definition of life, I show that utility- products (UPs) like fabricated hand tools are part of induced-reproduction systems that have features equivalent to biological genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes, and a process of system-improving evolution. The perceived benefit of utility-products causes them to induce their reproduction by a biological life-form (humans). For these reasons, human utility products are functionally just as close to being a form of life as subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses, i.e., they are Utility-Product paralife (UP-parlife). I also show that some forms of UP-paralife are currently evolving into mechanical life that is capable of both self- sustaining reproduction and system-improving evolution without outside assistance. This transition requires the development of a high level of factory and/or UP automation and artificial intelligence (AI) that is capable of complex reasoning, imagination and creativity. Finally, I consider the influence of UP-life and UP-paralife on the development of the level of structural complexity in the universe, and I briefly speculate about how these non-biological forms of life and paralife will influence the expansion of scientific knowledge about the universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1910.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: willingness to work; COVID-19; personal protective equipment
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:51:47 CET)
Background: The risk to physicians who worked with patients without confirmed COVID-19 testing during the pandemic has been little studied. However, they were at high risk. Methods: A total of 1285 Romanian physicians completed an online survey. We performed Mann-Whitney comparisons between physicians who reported that they knowingly had direct contact with COVID patients and those who didn't regarding their willingness to work. Results: Compared with their colleagues, physicians who reported not knowingly having direct contact with COVID patients reported less access to protective equipment, less overall willingness to respond when asked to work with infected patients, more likely to work out of fear of losing their jobs, and fear of legal repercussions. They received less training in the use of protective equipment. Conclusions: Physicians who worked with patients not yet diagnosed with COVID-19 were significantly less willing to work. The perception of invisible risk may explain the observed differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2101.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: work-related; working condition; farmworker; agriculture; musculoskeltal; KWC
Online: 31 August 2023 (08:48:21 CEST)
This study investigated gender differences in exposure to hazardous factors, health problems, and work environment satisfaction and identified the effects of such differences on farmworkers in Korea. Through the 6th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI), the raw data on 2,347 farm-workers were analyzed to present descriptive statistics for demographic characteristics, exposure to hazardous factors, health problems, and work environment satisfaction. We compared be-tween genders using chi-squared tests and investigated the effects of gender-specific working conditions on work-related health problems and work environment satisfaction using multi-variate logistic analysis. The results were presented as an odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval. Job position predicted work-related health problems in male farmworkers and work environment satisfaction in female farmworkers. Furthermore, female farmworkers perceived themselves to have more health problems than male farmworkers. Nevertheless, female farm-workers received less health and safety information and had lower work environment satisfac-tion compared to male farmworkers. The findings may improve the occupational welfare of farmworkers through continuous enhancement of the agricultural labor environment. Keywords: work-related; working condition; farmworker; agriculture; musculoskeletal; KWCS
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2250.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Calling; Meaning of Work; Prosociality; Prosocial behaviours; Values
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:18:43 CEST)
Work on callings has burgeoned in the past 20 years, yet recent reviews exposed a lack of conceptual clarity and disagreements around its definition, components and measures. One lingering point of contention revolves around the element of prosociality: Is a calling orientation primarily motivated by self-interest, prosocially orientated, or a mix of both? This conceptual paper reviews and examines the pro-self and prosocial component of a calling outlook, by examining and comparing the ways in which they feature in different calling subtypes: Classic, neoclassic, and modern callings. Our analysis suggests that these subtypes vary in where they are located on a pro-self – prosocial continuum: Classic callings are located on the prosocial side of the axis, modern callings are located on pro-self side of the axis, and neoclassic callings can be situated in the middle of the con-tinuum, integrating self-orientated and other-orientated motivations. Our analysis further suggests that these calling subtypes draw on divergent value systems: Classic callings are propelled by self-transcendent values, modern callings are driven by self-actualization motivations, and neoclassic callings integrate both value systems. We therefore argue that the subjective experiences of pursuing a calling within each subtype pathway differ, alt-hough they may culminate in similar outcomes. The paper offers a novel framework for analyzing people’s calling that draws on their values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1987.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Giant hail; Field work; hailstorm; damages; Weather Radar
Online: 29 May 2023 (07:04:30 CEST)
Three facts characterize the hailstorm of 30 August 2022 in the Catalan village of La Bisbal d'Empordà and its surroundings: first, the most dramatic, the death of a child hit by a hailstone. Second, the damage to most of the roofs and cars in the town. Finally, because of the record of hail size (more than 10 cm) in Catalonia in at least the last 30 years. This research focuses on the radar field comparison and the observations provided by an electronic survey of the study area. The results reveal that weather radar sub-estimated the hail size because of different factors. On the opposite, some reporters provided an inaccurate hour. The difference of three months between the hail event and the electronic survey is the probable cause of this mistake in the time estimation. However, the survey delay helped to avoid answers with larger hail sizes than those provided by the official spotters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0555.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; social work/er; stress; burnout; VUCA
Online: 20 April 2021 (17:50:05 CEST)
This paper aims to contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social workers and the social work profession in Romania. Research has shown that social work is a profession at high risk for developing the burnout syndrome, which has many detrimental effects on both social workers and the clients that they serve. Two conceptual models are used to frame the discussion: the theoretical framework of VUCA (volatility, uncer-tainty, complexity, and ambiguity) to discuss the challenges of the unprecedented context the COVID-19 pandemic has created for social workers; stress and burnout to explain the negative impact of this period of time. Based on convergent mixt methods, the study sample consisted of 83 social workers employed in statutory and private social services in Romania, from different fields of intervention. Results show that 25,3% of respondents suffer from a high level of burnout and 44.6% scored in a range that indicate a medium level of burnout. A group of 31.1% have managed to handle stress factors in a healthy manner. Main stressors found are especially personal (fear of contamination, personal and family) and work-related factors (workload, new legislative rules and decisions, inconsistency, instability, ambiguity of managerial decisions, or even their absence or non-assumption, lack of clarity of working procedures, limited managerial and supervisory support, limited financial resources), less than client related factors (lack of direct contact, risk of contami-nation in two ways, managing beneficiaries fears, difficulties related to technology and digital skills). Study results point to the importance of organizational support and developing a self-care plan that help protect against occupational stress and burnout. Recommendations are made putting forward the voice of fieldworkers and managers fostering initiatives and applications of sustainability-based measures and activities designed to deal with the challenges of the VUCA environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: urban forestry; work analysis; residual biomass; pruning costs
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:24:12 CET)
The Italian Stone Pine (Pinus pinea L.) is one of the most employed ornamental trees in towns with Mediterranean climates. For example, in the city of Rome, Pinus is the most common genus, with more than 51,000 trees. This study investigates technical and economic features of maintenance operations of Stone Pines and evaluates the productivity and costs of the observed yards. Pruning and felling are the most frequent management operations of trees in towns and this study analyzes the features of these operations carried out in 14 work sites. The operations were carried out either with aerial platforms (19 trees) or ascending the crown by tree-climbing (6 trees). The operations were sampled with time studies (12 trees for pruning and 13 for felling). Work time was measured from the beginning of operations to the transport of the residual biomass to the collection and loading point, using centesimal stopwatches and video recording. The total residual biomass was weighed or assessed. Total observation time amounted to 63.1 hours. The evaluation of the costs of each work site considered the fixed and the variable costs and the costs for the labor force. A Multiple Linear Regression model (statistics: determination coefficient R2: 0.74, adjusted R2: 0.67, p-value < 0.001) which utilizes four regressors easily evaluable before the work, was adopted to predict the gross time of the operations. This paper can contribute to optimize trees maintenance methods in urban sites and to assess the potential residual wood biomass attainable from urban forestry maintenance in the city of Rome.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: aerobic capacity, graded‑exercise test, total work-load
Online: 27 August 2018 (16:31:45 CEST)
The aim of this study was to clarify effects of 3-week work-matched high-intensity intermittent cycling training (HIICT) with different cadences on VO2max in university athletes. Eighteen university athletes performed HIICT with either 60 rpm (n = 9) or 120 rpm (n = 9). HIICT consisted of eight sets of 20-s exercise with a 10-s passive rest between each sets. The initial training intensity was set at 135% of VO2 max and was decreased by 5% every two sets. Athletes in both groups performed 9 sessions of HIICT during 3-week. The total work-load and achievement rate of the work load calculated before experiments in each group were used for analysis. VO2max was measured pre and post-training. After 3-week of training, no significant differences in the total work-load and achievement rate of the work load were found between the two groups. VO2max similarly increased in both groups from pre to post training (p = 0.016), with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.680). These results suggest that cadence during HIICT is not training variable affecting effect of VO2max.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0265.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: psychosocial work environment; work-related psychosocial risk; healthcare worker; human resource advisor; COVID-19; mental health; psychosocial safety climate; Quebec
Online: 6 November 2023 (03:12:25 CET)
: Healthcare workers are affected by mental health issues, burnout and turnover, and this burden is even greater during epidemics and pandemics, such as COVID-19. The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the measures introduced or supported in the institutions of Quebec’s health and social services network during the COVID-19 pandemic with the aim of protecting healthcare workers’ mental health. An online questionnaire survey was administered in 2021 among human resources department personnel in health and social services network institutions involved in workplace mental health in Quebec. A total of 223 key informants representing 31 of the 34 public health and social services institutions in the province of Quebec in Canada responded to the questionnaire. Measures that focus on the needs of staff, involve all levels of authority and the ones that provide flexibility, support and recognition at work were more successful, according to the advisors surveyed. Future research into whether the same measures are considered effective or ineffective outside of a pandemic context is needed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Urban Form; Urban Life; Street Life; Urban Space; Proximity
Online: 24 July 2023 (09:31:58 CEST)
Today’s urban spaces face precipitous challenges and complications, which include the COVID-19 pandemic, urbanization, population growth, and climate change. Proximity plays an essential role in influencing the integrity of public spaces and urban environments, while proxemics studies people’s experience, and the benefits, of urban space, and is based on a behavioral system of activities that includes ‘territoriality’. There is a need to study the behavioural patterns of people in given situations with proxemic dimensions in order to sustain both human beings and the quality of urban space. However, people behave spontaneously within environmental settings and reflect each other’s responses, meaning it is important to distinguish between different cultures, which tend to respond in particular ways to the meaning of proximity. This suggests there is no universal indicator for phenomena such as crowding. The aim of this paper is to highlight the interrelationship between urban form and urban life. This study focuses on two patterns of activity - street life and social life - by adopting a descriptive-analytical approach to documentary and desk research. The findings reveal a vital distinction between social and public patterns of proximity, while other proximities, although critical, are not observed within interactions between people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1390.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: eating; drinking; daily life; real life; sensors; technology; behavior
Online: 20 July 2023 (07:55:54 CEST)
To monitor adherence to diets and to design and evaluate nutritional interventions it is essential to obtain objective knowledge about eating behavior. In most research, measures of eating behavior are based on self-reporting, such as 24-h recalls, food records (food diaries), and food frequency questionnaires. Self-reporting is prone to inaccuracies due to inaccurate and subjective recall and other biases. Recording behavior using non-obtrusive technology in daily life would overcome this. We here provide an up-to-date systematic overview encompassing all (close-to) publicly or commercially available technologies to automatically record eating behavior in real-life settings. 1328 studies were screened and after applying defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 122 studies were included for in-depth evaluation. Technologies in these studies were categorized by what type of eating behavior they measure and which type of sensor technology they use. In general, we found that relatively simple sensors are often used. Depending on the purpose, these are mainly motion sensors, microphones, weight sensors, and photo cameras. While several of these technologies are commercially available, there is still a lack of publicly available algorithms that are needed to process and interpret the resulting data. We argue that future work should focus on developing robust algorithms and validating these technologies in real-life settings. Combining technologies (e.g., prompting individuals for self-reports at sensed, opportune moments) is a promising route toward ecologically valid studies of eating behavior.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0234.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Theory of Life; Definition of Life; Origin of Life; Electron Bifurcation; Hydrothermal Vents; Biophysics; Biological Physics
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:30:35 CEST)
The definition, origin and recreation of life remain elusive. As others have suggested, only once we put life into reductionist physical terms will we be able to solve those questions. To that end, this work proposes the phenomenon of life to be the product of two dissipative mechanisms. From them, one reinterprets extant biological life and deduces a testable scenario for its origin. The proposed theory of life allows its replication, reinterprets ecological evolution, creates new constraints on the search for life and lays the foundations for groundbreaking technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life cycle assessment; circular economy; multiple product life cycles; temporal variability; life cycle inventory; emission intensity
Online: 16 November 2020 (17:24:26 CET)
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used frequently as a decision support tool for evaluating different design choices of products based on their environmental impacts. A life cycle usually comprises several phases of varying timespan. The amount of emissions generated from different life cycle phases of a product could be significantly different from one another. In conventional LCA, the emissions generated from the life cycle phases of a product are aggregated at the inventory analysis stage, which is then used as an input for life cycle impact assessment. However, when the emissions are aggregated, the temporal variability of inventory data is ignored, which may result in inaccurate environmental impact assessment. Besides, the conventional LCA does not consider the environmental impact of circular products with multiple use cycles. It poses difficulties in identifying the hotspots of emission-intensive activities with the potential to mislead conclusions and implications for both practice and policy. To address this issue and to analyse the embedded temporal variations in inventory data in a CE context, the paper proposes to calculate the emission intensity for each life cycle phase. It is argued that calculating and comparing emission intensity, based on the timespan and amount of emissions for individual life cycle phases, at the inventory analysis stage of LCA offers a complementary approach to the traditional aggregate emission-based LCA approach. In a circular scenario, it helps to identify significant issues during different life cycle phases and the relevant environmental performance improvement opportunities through product, business model and supply chain design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; rehabilitation; fatigue; ability to work; symptom clusters
Online: 1 December 2023 (03:33:02 CET)
In colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, apart from fatigue, psychological and physical symptoms often converge, affecting their quality of life and ability to work. Our objective was to ascertain symptom clusters within a year following CRC treatment and their longitudinal association with persistent fatigue and reduced work ability at the 3-month follow-up. We used data from MIRANDA, a multicenter cohort study enrolling adult CRC patients who are starting a 3-week in-patient rehabilitation within a year post-curative CRC treatment. Participants completed questionnaires evaluating symptoms at the start of rehabilitation (baseline) and after three months. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to analyze the clustering of symptoms at baseline. Longitudinal analysis was performed using a multivariable linear regression model with dichotomized symptoms at baseline as independent variables, and the change of fatigue and ability to work from baseline to 3-month-follow-up as separate outcomes, adjusted for covariates. We identified six symptom clusters: fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, pain, psychosocial symptoms, urinary symptoms, and chemotherapy side effects. At least one symptom from each factor was associated with higher fatigue or reduced ability to work at the 3-month follow-up. This study highlights the interplay of multiple symptoms in influencing fatigue and work ability among CRC patients post rehabilitation.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social work; global issues; trends; challenges; practice; education; research
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:46:43 CEST)
This scholarly article provides an overview of the present and future issues and trends in social work on a global scale. Drawing upon recent bibliographic references and a review of the literature, this article explores the challenges faced by social workers in various regions and highlights emerging trends that are reshaping the field. The analysis incorporates insights from renowned authors and researchers to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state and anticipated future of social work practice, education, and research worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0176.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Early Intervention; Return to Work; Physiotherapists; Workers’ Compensation; Evaluation
Online: 4 July 2023 (09:43:06 CEST)
Purpose: This study evaluates the performance of the Early Intervention Physiotherapist Framework (EIPF) for injured workers. This study provides a proper follow-up period (3 years) to examine the impacts of the EIPF program on injury outcomes such as return to work (RTW) and time to RTW. This study also identifies the factors influencing the outcomes. Methods: The study was conducted on data collected from compensation claims of people who were injured at work in Victoria, Australia. Injured workers who commenced their compensation claims after the first of January 2010 and had their initial physiotherapy consultation after the first of August 2014 are included. To conduct the comparison, we divided the injured workers into two groups: physiotherapy services provided by EIPF-trained physiotherapists (EP) and regular physiotherapists (RP) over the three-year intervention period. We used three different statistical analysis methods to evaluate the performance of the EIPF program. We used descriptive statistics to compare two groups based on physiotherapy services and injury outcomes. We also completed survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves in terms of time to RTW. We developed univariate and multivariate regression models to investigate whether the difference in outcomes achieved after adjusting for significantly associated variables. Results: The results showed that physiotherapists in the EP group on average dealt with more claims (over twice as many) than those in the RP group. Time to RTW for the injured workers treated by the EP group was significantly lower than for those who were treated by the RP group, indicated by descriptive, survival and regression analyses. Earlier intervention by physiotherapists led to earlier RTW. Conclusion: This evaluation showed that the EIPF program achieved successful injury outcomes three years after implementation. Motivating physiotherapists to intervene earlier in the recovery process of injured workers by initial consultation helps to improve injury outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1579.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Work engagement; burnout; health professionals; private sector; healthcare unit
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:17:04 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the work engagement and burnout in healthcare professionals in a private health unit in Greece. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 151 professionals (doctors, nurses, administrative staff and professionals of other specialties). The questionnaire included demographic and work-related information and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Analysis was performed by SPSS v.26. With regard to the work engagement, the participants presented a medium score in absorption and a medium to high score in vigor and dedication. In addition, they presented low score in depersonalization, a medium score in emotional exhaustion and a high score in personal accomplishment. Those who had a working contract for an indefinite period had higher score in all the dimensions of burnout. Vigor, dedication and absorption were negatively correlated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and positively with personal accomplishment. Healthcare professionals in private health sector in Greece present moderate work engagement and experience moderate levels of burnout. Work engagement is associated with burnout and plays an important role in its prevention. There are some significant differences in work engagement and burnout based on several demographic and work-related characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1423.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Wind and current mission concept; Doppler scatterometer; wind work
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:05:19 CEST)
The kinetic energy transfer between the atmosphere and oceans, called wind work, affects ocean dynamics including near-inertial oscillations and internal gravity waves, mesoscale eddies, and large-scale zonal jets. For the most part, recent numerical estimates of global wind work amplitude are almost 5 times larger than those reported 10 years ago. This large increase is explained by the impact of the broad range of spatial and temporal scales covered by winds and currents, the smallest of which have only recently been uncovered by increasingly high resolution modeling efforts. However, existing satellite observations do not fully sample this broad range of scales. The present study assesses the capabilities of ODYSEA, a conceptual satellite mission to estimate the amplitude of wind work in the global ocean. To this end, we use an ODYSEA measurement simulator fed by the outputs of a km-scale coupled ocean-atmosphere model to estimate wind work globally. Results indicate that compared with numerical truth estimates, the ODYSEA instrument performs well globally, except for latitudes north of 40∘N during summer due to unresolved storm evolution. This performance is explained by the wide-swath properties of ODYSEA (a 1,700 km wide swath with 5 km posting for winds and surface currents), its twice-a-day (daily) coverage at mid-latitudes (low latitudes), and the insensitivity of the wind work to uncorrelated errors in estimated wind and current.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teacher motivation; work motivation; job satisfaction; COVID-19; Ghana
Online: 22 December 2022 (09:10:30 CET)
Teachers, particularly in developing contexts, were vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. As natural parental figures for students, they had to reconcile the dual role of ensuring the safety and health of students and their own and family well-being. The external crisis of COVID-19 heightened the negative experiences of teachers in their work environments during both online and physical instruction. The qualitative phenomenological study involving thirty (30) secondary school teachers in Ghana took a comprehensive and fresh look at how COVID-19 impacted the work motivation of teachers. It was found that teachers suffered a great deal of stress in the wake of the pandemic and had face-mounting concerns about their working conditions. The low morale of teachers precipitated by COVID-19 made them develop attrition intentions. However, intrinsic and altruistic traits such as passion, the feeling of responsibility, and the desire to contribute to society and foster student development made teachers resilient towards the deleterious effects of the pandemic to promote optimal teaching. Future studies should investigate the installation of support structures that strengthen the motivation of teachers in unforeseen crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0456.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Inclusive leadership; Job crafting; Innovative work behavior; Belongingness; Uniqueness
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:25:46 CET)
The study aims to examine the mediating role of job crafting between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The data were collected from 314 workers employed in China's small and medium-sized industries. The data collection was done through survey design. The data analysis was done through structural equation modeling using Spss 26 and Mplus 8. Inclusive leadership was found to be related to job crafting and innovative work behavior of the employees. Job crafting was found to be mediating between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The study delineated the link mechanism between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. Studying inclusive leadership in the context of Chinese culture is a powerful complement to inclusive leadership theory. This paper provides the managers of SMEs with significant managerial insights into how inclusive leadership can effectively motivate employees’ innovative work behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0075.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: COVID-19; Quality education; social work; students; implication level
Online: 15 February 2022 (20:45:19 CET)
Abstract The article discusses about the current situation of Novel Corona Virus also called as the COVID-19 that hinder for all human’s life including the education. Rapidly escalating COVID-19, has caused havoc in quality education and every educational institution are closed. As the UNESCO report it showed that 1.6 billion children being affected due to the close of institution across 191 countries. With the alternative method every education institution started blended learning virtual classes in order to continue learning environment in students. The articles investigate COVID-19 impact on student’s quality education in Nepal and social work implication. The findings of the study shows that the COVID-19 has seriously effects on the students learning environment. It showed the huge gap between getting the good education in Nepal. However, Nepal has also made some policies to provide equal quality education to all the children through the ICT and also encourage social work to actively participate on providing education to all the majority of group children in Nepal. Whereas social work applied the micro, messo, and macro level of implication in practice to provide the education for children in remote area of Nepal.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Metal oxide; doping; semiconductor; work function tuning; energy device
Online: 18 January 2021 (14:39:57 CET)
The wide interest in developing green energy technologies stimulates the scientific community to seek, for devices, new substitute material platforms with low environmental impact, ease of production and processing and long-term stability. The synthesis of metal oxide (MO) semiconductors fulfils these requirements and efforts are addressed at optimizing their functional properties, through improvement of charge mobility or energy level alignment. Two MOs have rising perspectives for application in light harvesting devices, mainly for the role of charge selective layers but also as light absorbers, namely MoO3 (an electron blocking layer) and Co3O4 (a small band gap semiconductor). The need to achieve better charge transport has prompted us to attempt doping strategies with vanadium (V) ions that, when combined with oxygen in V2O5, produce a high work function MO. We report on subcritical hydrothermal synthesis of V-doped mesostructures of MoO3 and of Co3O4, in which a tight control of the doping is exerted by tuning the relative amounts of reactants. We accomplished a full analytical characterization of these V-doped MOs that unambiguously demonstrates incorporation of the vanadium ions in the MO crystal lattice, as well as effects on the optical properties and work function. We foresee a promising future use of these materials as charge selective materials in energy devices based on multilayer structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; mental health; anxiety, work; stress; personality; loneliness
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:39:19 CET)
Background: COVID-19 crisis has changed the conditions of many throughout the globe. One negative consequence of the on-going pandemic is anxiety brought by uncertainty and the COVID-19 disease. Increased anxiety is a potential risk factor for wellbeing at work. This study investigated psychological, situational, and socio-demographic predictors of COVID-19 anxiety using longitudinal data. Methods: Nationally representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1308) was collected before and during the COVID-19 crisis. Eighty percent of the participants responded to the follow-up study (N=1044). COVID-19 anxiety was measured with a modified Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. Psychological and situational predictors included perceived loneliness, psychological distress, technostress, personality, social support received from work community, and remote working. Also, number of socio-demographic factors were investigated. Results: Perceived loneliness, psychological distress, technostress, and neuroticism were identified as robust psychological predictors of COVID-19 anxiety. Increase in psychological distress and technostress during the COVID-19 crisis predicted higher COVID-19 anxiety. Recent change in work field and decreased social support from work community predicted COVID-19 anxiety. Women and young people experienced higher anxiety. Conclusions: Different factors explain workers’ COVID-19 anxiety. Increased anxiety can disrupt wellbeing at work, emphasizing organizations’ role in maintaining an inclusive and caring work culture and providing technical and psychological support to workers during crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0157.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: innovative; inclusive leadership behaviour; work engagement; innovative workplace behaviour
Online: 7 September 2020 (05:16:55 CEST)
(1) Background: Work creativity, manifested in innovative workplace behaviour (IWB) and employee work engagement, is fundamental to maintain firms’ sustainability and competitiveness. In this regard, this study aims at investigating the supporting effect of innovative leadership on IWB and employee engagement through maximising employee vigour, dedication and absorption. (2) Methods: The study data were collected from questionnaires administered to 150 respondents working in mobile phone companies in southern and central Iraq. The statistical analyses were conducted through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Smart PLS. In analysing the measurement model and testing the proposed hypotheses, the study results revealed that inclusive leadership and work engagement were intimately connected to IWB; (3) Results: Work engagement played a mediating role between inclusive leadership and IWB. The questionnaire data indicated that inclusive leadership behaviours, such as openness, accessibility and availability, motivated the subordinates to be engaged in IWB.; and (4) Conclusions: To promote IWB, company leaders then need to effectively engage their followers by taking pride and satisfaction in employee output, which might aid employee workplace and IWB engagement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: metadata; documentation; data life-cycle; metadata life-cycle; hierarchical data
Online: 4 April 2018 (08:16:15 CEST)
The historic view of metadata as “data about data” is expanding to include data about other items that must be created, used and understood throughout the data and project life cycles. In this context, metadata might better be defined as the structured and standard part of documentation and the metadata life cycle can be described as the metadata content that is required for documentation in each phase of the project and data life cycles. This incremental approach to metadata creation is similar to the spiral model used in software development. Each phase also has distinct users and specific questions they need answers to. In many cases, the metadata life cycle involves hierarchies where latter phases have increased numbers of items. The relationships between metadata in different phases can be captured through structure in the metadata standard or through conventions for identifiers. Metadata creation and management can be streamlined and simplified by re-using metadata across many records. Many of these ideas are being used in metadata for documenting the life cycle of research projects in the Arctic.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: life extension; wind turbines; end-of-life issues; probabilistic modelling; economic optimization; fatigue; risk; remaining useful life
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:02:18 CET)
Reassessment of the fatigue life for wind turbines structural components is typically performed using deterministic methods with the same partial safety factors as used for the original design. However, in relation to life extension, the conditions are generally different from the assumptions used for calibration of partial safety factors; and using a deterministic assessment method with these partial safety factors might not lead to optimal decisions. In this paper, the deterministic assessment method is compared to probabilistic and risk-based approaches, and the economic feasibility is assessed for a case wind farm. Using the models also used for calibration of partial safety factors in IEC61400-1 ed. 4 it is found that the probabilistic assessment generally leads to longer additional fatigue life than the deterministic assessment method. The longer duration of the extended life can make life extension feasible in more situations. The risk-based model is applied to include the risk of failure directly in the economic feasibility assessment and it is found that the reliability can be much lower than the target for new turbines, without compromising the economic feasibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0388.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: career satisfaction; professional fulfilment; work-related stress; disillusion; burnout; work engagement; sustainable career; organizational well-being; healthcare workers; JD-R Theory; Covid-19
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:17:40 CET)
Healthcare workers' stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction were exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, whose mid-term negative effects are still present. The aim of this study was to investigate in healthcare workers the effect of the dimensions of burnout (Psychophysical exhaustion, Relational deterioration, and Professional inefficacy) on Career satisfaction. These relationships were evaluated by considering the direct and mediated effects of Disillusion. For these purposes, the Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ) and the Career Satisfaction Scale (Occupational Stress Indicator - OSI) were administered to 295 healthcare professionals working at three Italian public hospitals in Cagliari, Italy. The analyses were conducted using the Partial Least Square Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) method. Findings highlight that healthcare workers were in a condition of work distress, high risk of burnout, and career dissatisfaction. Also recognized was the direct negative effect of burnout dimensions on career satisfaction. Finally, the mediated negative effect of Disillusion in the relationship between burnout and career satisfaction was identified. This study emphasizes the relevance of the dimension of Disillusion, and its “bright side” Fulfilment, in healthcare workers, specifically referring to the disregarded relationship between burnout and career satisfaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0231.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protolife; protocells; abiogenesis; life origin; origin of life; protometabolism; protocellular metabolomics
Online: 5 December 2023 (09:05:03 CET)
The latest life-origin literature is reviewed, along with grouping and classification of the most enduring models of abiogenesis. New trends are identified in origin-of-life thought. Astrobiology continues to deal mostly with inorganic and very elementary organic reactions in extreme environments. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics has received a great deal of attention. Attempts have been made to relate Bejan’s Constructal Law to life and abiogenesis. RNA World preclusions only seem to have grown, while ribozyme/peptide models have expanded. The biosemiotic movement and code biology is gaining influence in refining a more complete description of life. Prof James Tour at Rice University in a fourteen-lecture series lists a number of synthetic biochemical hurtles remaining that still need to be overcome. But the need for some sort of informational recipe, instruction, steering and control now seems to be the most prominent area of focus and concern. Even a protometabolism needed active selection and controls rather than mere constraints or law. The latest literature still does not elucidate how protometabolism was orchestrated in an inanimate, pre-evolutionary environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1797.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Sleep; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Quality of Life; Family Quality of Life
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:12:23 CEST)
Study Objectives: To (1) investigate the prevalence of sleep disorder symptoms in caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and (2) the relationships between caregiver sleep problems and their health-related quality of life and family quality of life. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of caregivers (N=62) of children ages 6 to 11 years old diagnosed with ASD receiving care at a regional autism research and resource center. Measurements and Results: Participants completed the Sleep Habits Questionnaire (SHQ), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-12, and the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale (FQOL). Caregivers with longer sleep duration reported better mental health and better family quality of life. Caregivers who reported insomnia symptoms, non-restorative sleep, and insufficient sleep were more likely to report poorer mental health than caregivers who did not report these sleep disorder symptoms. Caregivers with obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome experienced worse physical quality of life. Conclusions: The physical and mental health of the primary caregiver is essential to the support of the child with ASD and to the functioning of the family. The study findings point to the importance of future research and interventions to enhance sleep health in order to improve quality of life for caregivers of children with ASD.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.3390/sci2030073
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: emergence of life; game of life; inefficiency objection; simpson’s paradox; astrobiology
Online: 18 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
We address the need for a model by considering two competing theories regarding the origin of life: (i) the Metabolism First theory and (ii) the RNA World theory. We discuss two inter-related points. (I) Models are valuable tools in understanding both the processes and intricacies of the origin of life issues. (II) Insights from models also help us to evaluate the core objection to origin of life theories called “the inefficiency objection” commonly raised by proponents of both the Metabolism First theory and the RNA World theory against each other. We use Simpson’s paradox as a tool for challenging this objection. We will use models in various senses ranging from taking them as representations of reality to treating them as theories/accounts that provide heuristics for probing reality. In this paper, we will frequently use models and theories interchangeably. Additionally, we investigate Conway’s Game of Life and contrast it with our Simpson’s Paradox (SP)-based approach to emergence of life issues. Finally, we discuss some of the consequences of our view. A scientific model is testable in three senses: (i) a logical sense, (ii) a nomological sense, and (iii) a current technological sense. The SP-based model is testable in the logical sense. It is also testable nomologically. However, it is not currently feasible to test it.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0661.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: life definition; living being definition; robot definition; living viruses; extraterrestrial life
Online: 30 August 2020 (11:33:48 CEST)
What is life, what is the difference between something that is alive and something that is not, are viruses living beings, or what would life be like elsewhere in the universe, are questions that still do not have clear-cut answers fully accepted by the scientific community. Based on the fundamental attributes of all living things, I define life as a process that takes place in very ordered organic structures and is characterized by being automatic, interactive and evolutionary. I also define a living being as an organic, highly ordered, automatic, interacting and evolutionary system, and a robot as an ordered automatic and interacting system. Based on this definition and what we know about the biology of viruses, I maintain that they should be considered as living entities. Finally, I explain why if there were life elsewhere in the universe, it would be very similar to what we know on our planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0494.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: faith-informed advocacy; Christian social work; ethics; values; social justice
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:53:53 CEST)
This article presents the development of a Faith-Informed Advocacy Model that integrates faith-based principles and values into advocacy efforts within Christian social work. Drawing from the intersection of Christian ethics and social work principles, this model provides a framework for Christian social workers to engage in advocacy work that is grounded in their faith and guided by ethical principles. The article includes case studies that illustrate the application of the model in real-world scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0938.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ejector-expansion heat pump; expansion work recovery; two-phase ejector
Online: 13 June 2023 (12:29:56 CEST)
An experimental investigation on the heat pump performance improvement equipped with the two-phase ejector called “an ejector-expansion heat pump (EEHP)” is proposed. The system performance of the EEHP is compared with a vapour-compression heat pump (VCHP). The improvement potential is determined and discussed. The heat pump test system is constructed which is based on a water-to-water heat pump. It can be experimented with both EEHP and VCHP. The two-phase ejector with the cooling load up to 2500 W is installed for experiment. The results show that the EEHP always produces a higher heating rate and COP than the VCHP throughout the specified working conditions. The heating COP is increased by 5.7-12.2% depending on the working conditions. It is also that under the same heat sink and heat source temperature, the EEHP can produce lower compressor discharge temperature and lower compressor pressure ratio than the VCHP. This is evidence that the two-phase ejector can provide better compressor working characteristics which yields a longer compressor lifetime. It is demonstrated that a key to the performance of the EEHP is the expansion pressure ratio. A larger expansion pressure ratio yields a higher improvement potential when compared with the VCHP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0293.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Child protection, social work, participation, child abuse, inequalities, cultural capital
Online: 16 December 2022 (03:29:14 CET)
Children’s right to participation in child protection decision-making is supported by moral imperatives and international conventions. The fragmented implementation of this right reflects an already-conflicted discursive terrain that attempts to incorporate both children’s agency and their need for protection. This article uses two key theoretical lenses to further examine this terrain: child welfare inequalities and cultural capital. These theories draw attention to how social inequities and cultural capital relating to culture and class affect how participation plays out. An unintended consequence of constructing children within a traditional liberal account of rights, within neoliberal and ‘child focussed’ policy paradigms, is the reduction of an acknowledgment of the culturally contested nature of an individualistic construction of children, excising children from their social backgrounds and promoting the notion of a ‘universal child’. With a particular focus on class, culture and professional paradigms, I argue that the ways children’s views are elicited, the content of those views and how they are interpreted, become subject to a set of professional assumptions that tend to take little cognisance of the social backround of children, including norms relating to class, ethinicity and the oppressive structural relations relating to those two factors. This process is shored up with concepts such as attachment theory, the ‘adultification’ of children of colour, the diminishing of Indigenous concepts of children and childhood, and the pre-eminence of the ‘concerted cultivation’ middle class parenting style. The child’s cultural worldview and manner of expressing it may clash with professional cultures that emphasise an ability for verbal expression, independence, and entitlement when negotiating preferences with representatives of powerful social institutions such as child protection systems. Many children may not comply with this expectation due to both cultural and class socialisation processes, and the histories of the oppressive functions of child protection systems. The unspoken power of child protection organisations that must engage in constant translation of children’s cultural capital to ensure participation, may instead better serve children’s participation aims by devolving authority to affected communities. Communities reflecting children’s own, may be better able to offer recognition to children and enable their participation more effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Teachers; Mindfulness; Emotion regulation; COVID-19; Work engagement; Emotional distress
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:28:23 CET)
The COVID-19 has dramatically affected mental health and work environment of many labor sectors, including the educational sector. Our primary aim was to investigate preschool teachers’ psychological distress and work engagement during the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, while examining the possible protective role of participating in mindfulness-based intervention (C2C-IT) and emotion regulation. Emotional distress, work engagement and COVID-19 concerns’ prevalence were evaluated among 165 preschool teachers in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in Israel, using self-report questionnaires. Findings show that preschool teachers have experienced increased emotional distress. Teachers who had participated in the C2C-IT intervention six month before the pandemic outbreak (N=41) reported lower emotional distress, higher use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies and higher work engagement, compared to their counterparts that had not participated in the mindfulness training (N = 124). Emotion regulation strategies mediated the link between participating in the CTC-IT intervention and emotional distress and work engagement. Teaching is a highly demanding occupation, especially during a pandemic, therefore it is important to invest resources in empowering this population. According to the findings of the current study, implementation of mindfulness-based intervention during the school year, may benefit teachers’ well-being, even during stressful events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0781.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: white cube; exhibition space; space; work; architecture; site specific; interaction
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:53:59 CEST)
The aim of this article is to make a multi-criteria analysis of various exhibition spaces of an originally non-exhibition character and to determine how these spaces affect the selection of works and the exhibition concept. The analysis is based on the exhibitions of art objects at collective exhibitions in unconventional architectural spaces: commercial, i.e. the modern office building of PBG Gallery Skalar Office Centre in Poznań, post-industrial i.e. in the former Zakłady Przemysłu Ziemniaczanego Lubanta S.A. and in the historic interior of the "U Jezuitów" Gallery of the Cultural Integration Centre in Poznań. The multi-criteria comparative analysis shows a variety of features of the studied spaces as well as the relationship between architecture and art and their mutual interaction. The participatory role of the non-exhibition space in the process of creating an exhibition and selecting works has been proven. It has also been confirmed that the presentation of works of art in originally non-exhibition spaces creates a new quality of the artwork. Unconventional architectural space, when used for the exhibition of works of art, expands and strengthens the area of their influence through the interaction between the work and the architectural space. The specificity of the space adapted for exhibition needs, the presence and type of architectural details in the interior, the quantity and quality of light and its distribution in space, the volume and colour of the interior determine the exhibition space and influence the shape of the exhibitions organised and the reception of the artworks. The only condition for the change of the original function of an architectural space into that of an exhibition space is a coherent artistic vision of the creator. This should take into account the appropriate selection of the exhibited objects, where the process of searching for the relationship between architecture and art determines the features of the architectural space as integral components influencing the realisation of the exhibition .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0469.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Hi-Tech HR; Human resources management; Work Stress; Covid-19
Online: 18 December 2020 (13:47:41 CET)
The increasingly rapid flow of technological development is now a tool to improve backwardness, renew the system, as well as a means of improvement in various aspects of life. For companies, the development of information and communication technology is a new innovation or breakthrough to improve service quality. Various benefits provided by technology and information. However, if not handled properly, technology and information will become a boomerang for an organization. HRIS is the application of HRM functions in the application of information and communication technology. The concept of HRIS as a digital form of HRM is increasing along with the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic which has caused a large loss impact on all lines of life. The limitation of social interaction in an effort to prevent the wider spread of covid-19 and the higher number of casualties causes business activities to stall. This research uses quantitative methods with a study sample of 100 randomly selected. This study aims to see how clarity of high-tech goals in human resources management, perceived benefits, perceived ease of use, company conditions that can influence attitudes towards HRIS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0593.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social work; families with children; child welfare services; social mobility
Online: 27 August 2020 (06:05:09 CEST)
Abstract The aim of our study is to analyse the perception of the families and concerned social workers. The research was conducted in an underprivileged and disadvantaged microregion in North Hungary. The main focus was the perception on the available health, educational, child welfare and social services and supports. The starting point was to enquire the target group’s knowledge of these services. The study examines the extent to which social work is able to provide support to disadvantaged, marginalized families with children, and the way how the dysfunctional operation of the system contributes to the perpetuation of the clients’ life conditions. Analysing the quality of these services and supports is crucial to understand the social mobility chance of the children living in this microregion. The results show that without capability and talent development for the children and given the lack of welfare services, the mobility chance and opportunities of these families are extremely low in Hungary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0103.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: geometallurgy; geometallurgical index; ore variability; bond work index; comminution; Sarcheshmeh
Online: 8 December 2019 (17:15:43 CET)
Geometallurgy has become an important toll to predict the process behavior of the ores, and to decrease the production risks cause by variability of geological settings. In this paper geometallurgical index for grinding properties of the ore has investigated. In a comprehensive research at Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine, geological features, what were supposed to affect the main process responses including product’s grade-recovery, and plant’s throughput, were subjected to investigate as the possible geometallurgical indexes. The rock breakage variability, in terms of a ball mill grinding circuit and its effects on the plant throughput and energy consumption are presented. Ninety samples were collected based on geological features including lithology, hydrothermal alteration, and geological structures. The samples were characterized using XRD, XRF, and electron and optical microscopy. A simulated test method for Bond ball mill work index (BWI) was used to perform the comminution test. The results showed BWI values vary from 5.67 kWh/t to 20.21 kWh/t. Examination of the possible correlations between BWI and the geological features showed that the key geological feature related to comminution variability is lithology. In addition, the hydrothermal alteration would be an effective parameter in the period that the plant is fed with a single lithology
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0431.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: authentic learning; work integrated learning; curriculum development; laboratory classes; proxemics
Online: 27 November 2018 (05:20:40 CET)
The traditional hands-on nature in science laboratory classes creates a sense of immediacy and a presence of authenticity in such learning experiences. The handling of physical objects in a laboratory class, and the immediate responses provided by these experiments, are certainly real-live observations, yet may be far from instilling an authentic learning experience in students. This paper explores the presence of authenticity in hands-on laboratory classes in introductory science laboratories. With our own laboratory program as a backdrop we introduce four general types of hands-on laboratory experiences and assign degrees of authenticity according the processes and student engagement associated with them. We present a newly developed type of hands-on experiment which takes a somewhat different view of the concept of hands-on in a laboratory class. A proxemics-based study of teacher-student interactions in the hands-on laboratory classes presents us with some insights into the design of the different types of laboratory classes and the pedagogical presumptions we made. A step-by-step guide on how to embed industry engagement in the curriculum and the design of an authentic laboratory program is presented to highlight some minimum requirement for the sustainability of such program and pitfalls to avoid.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0465.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: production system; simulation manufacturing process; simulation model; work in process
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:56:28 CEST)
During the last decades, the production systems have developed different strategies to increase their competitiveness in the global market. In a manufacturing and services systems, Lean Manufacturing has been consolidated through the correct implementation of its tools. The present paper presents a case study developed in a Food Packer company where a Simulation Model was considered as an alternative to reduce the waste time generated by the poor distribution of operations and transportation areas for a product within the factory. As a matter of fact, the company has detected problems on the layout distribution that prevents to fulfill the market demand. In addition, the principal aim was to create a simulation model to test different hypothetical scenarios and alternative designs for the layout distribution without modifying its facilities. Moreover, the implemented methodology was based on classical models of simulation projects and a compendium of the manufacturing systems optimization by simulation process used during the last ten years. Also, a mathematic model supported by the Promodel ® simulation software was developed considering the company characteristics; along with the model development, it was possible to compare the production system performance from the percentage of used locations, the percentage of resources utilization, the number of finished products, and the level of Work in Process (WIP). Finally, the verification and validation stages were performed before running the scenarios in the real production area. The results generated by the implementation of the project represent an increase of 68% in the production capacity and a reduction of 5% in the WIP. In addition, both outcomes are associated with the resources management, which were reassigned to other production areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0330.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Thermodynamics; Fundamental Laws; Second Law of Thermodynamics; Carnot Equality; Carnot-Clausius Heat-Work Equivalency; Thermal Roughness; Irreversibility; Work Potential and Exergy; Perpetual Motion Machines
Online: 5 May 2023 (08:21:49 CEST)
This comprehensive treatise is written for the special occasion of the author’s 70th birthday. It presents his lifelong endeavors and reflections with original reasoning and re-interpretations of the most critical and misleading issues in thermodynamics; since now, we have the advantage to look at the historical developments more comprehensively and objectively than the pioneers. Starting from Carnot (grand-father of thermodynamics-to-be) to Kelvin and Clausius (fathers of thermodynamics), and other followers, the most relevant issues are critically examined and put in historical and contemporary perspective. From original reasoning of energy forcing and displacement to logical-proofs of the fundamental laws, to ubiquity of thermal motion and heat, and indestructibility of entropy, including new concept of “thermal roughness” and inevitability of dissipative irreversibility, to “dissecting Carnot true reversible-equivalency” and critical concept of “Carnot-Clausius heat-work equivalency (CCHWE)” regarding interchangeability of heat and work, and to demonstrating “no hope” for the “challengers” of the Second Law of thermodynamics, among others, are offered. It is hoped that the novel contributions presented will enhance comprehension and resolve some of the fundamental issues, as well as promote collaboration and future progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1107.v1
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:07:07 CEST)
Coral recruitment is an important factor to coral reefs in maintaining their health. Currently, numerous coral reefs are facing extreme degradation, which protection and therefore rehabilitation practices are required to reverse. The present study explores the potential role of coral recruitment assessment by citizen scientists about the impacts of human influences towards coral reefs through measurement of coral recruitment values. Only a very small number of studies use forms of pre-launch assessment prior to reef restoration. These methods are able to properly guide vital decision-making information for reef rehabilitation methods and locations. In this initial study we observe significant relationships between reefs with higher coral recruitment values and their health. As compared to other average coral reef values, the reef we measured had higher recruitment values on average. Two sections of the reef had noticeably higher mean corals per square meter compared to average values, while a third section of the reef had a lower frequency. This section has been brought to concern through the pre-launch assessment, and has potential for rehabilitation through coral transplantation and a reduction of anthropogenic actions within the area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: allergy; microbiome; early life
Online: 16 May 2022 (08:05:43 CEST)
Allergic diseases are becoming a major healthcare issue in many developed nations, where living environment and lifestyle are most predominantly distinct. Such differences include urbanized, industrialized living environments, overused hygiene products, antibiotics, stationary lifestyle, and fast-food based diets tend to reduce microbial diversity and lead to impared immune protection, which further increase the development of allergic diseases. In the same time, studies also showed that modulating microbiomes can ameliorate allergic symptoms. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to review recent findings on the potential role of the human microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract, surface of skin and respiratory tract for the development of allergic diseases. Furthermore, we addressed a potential therapeutic or even preventive strategy for such allergic diseases by modulating the human microbial composition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0428.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: quality of life; health-related quality of life; psychosocial factors; psycho-oncology
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:36:11 CEST)
The quality of life (QOL) is an important indicator of human satisfaction and wellbeing. QOL is significantly and persistently affected for patients after a cancer diagnosis. Despite some evidence suggesting that psycho-oncologic interventions can provide lasting benefits, the inclusion of such interventions in cancer therapy is not universal. This article overviews known approaches to the evaluation of QOL in cancer patients and various interventions for improving patients’ outcomes with a focus on the Eastern European regional and specific Romanian context. With a mortality rate above and cancer care performance below the EU average and unequally distributed, Roma-nia urgently needs a national coordination program which is discussed in our review highlighting the main psychological tools needed for the assessment and its challenges towards implementing the program. In the end, we suggest some directions for future development of the psycho-oncologic approach in the context of social, policy and unexpected financial challenges the nation provides
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1594.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Mozambique; Quality of life; Schooling; Meaning in life; Social support
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:28:51 CEST)
Increasing quality of life (QoL) is both an end in itself and a means to optimize the impact of treatment in HIV-infected persons. Possibly due to cultural and social influences, the predictors of QoL vary across studies, which highlights the importance of studying specific populations. In the present study, we wanted to determine the sociodemographic (age, sex, schooling) and psychosocial correlates (meaning in life, social support, positive and negative affect) of QoL in HIV-infected patients living in Mozambique, a country with high prevalence of HIV, but also with well-structured strategies to fight the disease. To that end, we made correlational analyses followed by regression models, and we examined potential mediation processes among predictors. All correlates were relevant except sex. Meaning in life was the strongest predictor, while social support was the weakest. Schooling was both directly and indirectly related with QoL - in the latter case, it was mediated by meaning in life, social support and positive affect. Our findings suggest that investments in education may be highly rewarding to Mozambicans, and that satisfying needs of self-actualization and purpose may be more urgent than improving social connections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0535.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Meaning of Life; Existential Vacuum; Antecedents; Meaning of Life Model; Psychological Wellbeing
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:41:22 CET)
The debate about the meaning of life in the literature has been around for a while and portraits a fundamental human need to find a personal path of existence. The meaning of life phenomenon purpose lies in its impact on the psychological wellbeing. Knowing your purpose in life can make it more structured and in balance, therefore more meaningful and comprehensible. However, in the existing body of the academic literature meaning of life is discussed more from the philosophic perspective rather than a practical area, which is not helping to solve the global issues of increasing mental health problems. When social and emotional wellbeing is being affected, it is urgent to apply a practical approach to effectively overcome these states. Introduction of a new, holistic meaning of life model is an attempt to offer a practical solution for society to maintain their mental health through awareness of their life’s purpose. Previously in the pilot study (Dombrovskis, 2017) in a sample group of 100 citizens of Latvia who self-reported being in a crisis situation at the given moment, using qualitive analysis the first component for the model structure was identified – antecedent. In our research antecedent is defined as something that triggers certain action, so in crisis situation person can regain a structure and stability in life. We found 8 different antecedents that trigger behavior of those affected by crisis: achievements; power; success; development; freedom; uniqueness; interesting life and fleeing. To continue to explore other components for our model in the setting of Latvia, this study aims to investigate the demographic and personality related variables that may serve as antecedents and as such become one of component in our model structure. The study used a sample of residents of Latvia representing the total population of 1,110 respondents (633 women, 57%, and 477 men, 43%) who have completed the self-assessment questionnaire Meaning of life scale (MOLS) (online and frontally) designed by the authors on their satisfaction with different factors regarding the meaning of life. Average age of respondents (M=33.88; SD=8,527) varied from 18 to 67. The exploratory and confirmatory analysis confirms the data regarding existence of totally 16 factors: 8 antecedents identified in the pilot study and 8 new antecedents identified in the present study - family relations; level of income; relations with friends/acquaintances; state of health; organization of free time; career growth (achievements); sexual life quality and quality of education. Findings confirm a model’s structure to be complex phenomenon consisting of various components. However, findings suggest that more research should be done to fill the following gaps: 1) identify actions, which are triggered by 16 antecedents; 2) figure out F1, F2 and F3 factor role in the model structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0832.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: positive impact; needs satisfaction; prosocial motivation; benevolence; innovative work behavior; creativity
Online: 13 September 2023 (09:03:01 CEST)
In recent research, a growing body of empirical evidence, suggests that prosocial impact at work can play a significant role in enhancing creativity and innovativeness. Drawing from Self Determination Theory, we hypothesized that basic psychological needs and benevolence satisfaction could serve as a mediating factor in the relation between employees perceived social impact and innovative work behavior and creativity, thus illuminating the manner in which contentment of psychological needs fosters inventive proclivities within the organizational milieu. Results from a study in Greece and Canada (N=528) showed that both perceived social impact and prosocial motivation are positively associated with innovative work behavior and creativity while autonomy and competence satisfaction mediate the relation between perceived social impact and the work outcomes examined within this study. Moreover, prosocial motivation was found to moderate the relation between benevolence satisfaction and innovativeness. Findings extend prior research on the role of prosociality on creative behavior at work and provide supporting evidence for the organizations that encourage and support employees’ initiatives to make a positive difference in the lives of others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Hydrogen propulsion system; expansion work; expansion turbine; pressure reduction; energy efficiency
Online: 19 June 2023 (08:44:57 CEST)
Hydrogen powered vehicles use high-pressure reservoirs from which the gas is transferred to the low-pressure fuel-cell via a classical pressure reduction valve. In these systems no expansion work is recovered and the question is addressed of the potential to increase the global efficiency by using an expansion machine between the reservoir and the electrochemical reactor. This paper investigates the feasibility of such an expansion machine, evaluates the mechanical constraints in terms of forces, torques and produced power by numeric simulation. It further evaluates the energetic contribution to the whole conversion chain from the hydrogen reservoir to the common electrical network on board. A low energy contribution of the expansion system addresses the question of the real benefit of such an investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1852.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: diagnostic instrument; employee wellbeing; harm; Negative Work Behavior (NWB); bystander roles
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:41:39 CEST)
Negative work behavior (NWB) threatens employee well-being. There are numerous constructs that reflect NWBs, such as bullying, aggression, and discrimination and they are often examined in isolation of each other, limiting scientific integration of these studies. We aim to contribute to this research field by developing a diagnostic tool with content validity on the full spectrum of NWBs. First, we provide a full description of how we tapped and organized content from 44 existing NWB measurement instruments and 48 studies. Second, we discussed our results with experts (N = 3) in this research field to check for missing studies and to discuss our integration results. This two-stage process yielded a questionnaire measuring physical, material, psychological, sociocultural, and digital NWB. Furthermore, the questions include a range of potential actors of NWB, namely internal (employees, managers) and external actors (clients, customers, public, family members) at work and their roles (i.e., target, perpetrator, perpetrator's assistant, target's defender, outsider, and witness of NWBs). Finally, the questionnaire measures what type of harm is experienced (i.e., bodily, material, mental, and social harm).