ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0058.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Document Image Classification; Corruption Robustness; Robustness to Distortions; Model Robustness
Online: 14 June 2022 (08:43:57 CEST)
Deep neural networks have been extensively researched in the field of document image classification to improve classification performance and have shown excellent results. However, there is little research in this area that addresses the question of how well these models would perform in a real-world environment, where the data the models are confronted with often exhibits various types of noise or distortion. In this work, we present two separate benchmark datasets, namely RVL-CDIP-D and Tobacco3482-D, to evaluate the robustness of existing state-of-the-art document image classifiers to different types of data distortions that are commonly encountered in the real world. The proposed benchmarks are generated by inserting 21 different types of data distortions with varying severity levels into the well-known document datasets RVL-CDIP and Tobacco3482, respectively, which are then used to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the different distortion types on the performance of latest document image classifiers. In doing so, we show that while the higher accuracy models also exhibit relatively higher robustness, they still severely underperform on some specific distortions, with their classification accuracies dropping from ~90% to as low as ~40% in some cases. We also show that some of these high accuracy models perform even worse than the baseline AlexNet model in the presence of distortions, with the relative decline in their accuracy sometimes reaching as high as 300-450% that of AlexNet. The proposed robustness benchmarks are made available to the community and may aid future research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0215.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: clustering; robustness; generic; workflow; algorithms
Online: 6 January 2023 (01:55:19 CET)
The exploration of heath data by clustering algorithms allows to better describe the populations of interest by seeking the sub-profiles that compose it. This therefore reinforces medical knowledge, whether it is about a disease or a targeted population in real life. Nevertheless, contrary to the so-called conventional biostatistical methods where numerous guidelines exist, the standardization of data science approaches in clinical research remains a little discussed subject. This results in a significant diversity in the execution of data science projects, whether in terms of algorithms used, reliability and credibility of the designed approach. Taking the path of parsimonious and judicious choice of both algorithms and implementations at each stage, this paper proposes Qluster, a practical workflow for performing clustering tasks. Indeed, this workflow makes a compromise between (1) genericity, as it is suitable regardless of the data volume (small/big) and regardless of the nature of the variables (continuous/qualitative/mixed), (2) ease of implementation, as it is based on few easy-to-use software packages, and (3) robustness, through the stability evaluation of the final clusters and through recognized algorithms and implementations. This workflow can be easily automated and/or routinely applied on a wide range of clustering projects. A synthesis of the literature on data clustering as well as the scientific rationale supporting the proposed workflow is also provided. Finally, a detailed application of the workflow on a concrete use case is provided, along with a practical discussion for data scientists. An implementation on the Dataiku platform is available upon request to the authors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0528.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Robust Optimization; Optimization Under Uncertainty; Robustness; Stochastic
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:04:54 CET)
A Robust Optimization framework with original concepts and fundamentals also admitting a fusion of ideals from relative regret models and static robust optimization, containing conservatism concepts is disclosed. The algorithm uses a fine-tune strategy to tune the model so the robustness and a target ideality can be mutually achieved with a specified risk. The framework comprises original concepts, a mathematical approach and an algorithm. The statistical treatment of the data with the original concepts from the framework make it able to make short, middle or long-term decision-making setting. The framework has high tractability since the algorithm forces the creation of a setting that makes a robust optimization with the specified risk. The framework can be applied in linear and nonlinear mathematical models since that the objective function is monotonic in the domain of the active convex region. Several examples are solved to best understand the framework and all results demonstrated high tractability and performance. There is a wide range of applications. Along all the text, there is a profound discussion about its philosophy, objective, original concepts, fields of application, statistical and probabilistic fundamentals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: internal mode control,PID control,robustness,simulation
Online: 20 June 2018 (12:10:30 CEST)
In the development of automatic control, PID control is the oldest of the basic control mode, the control algorithm is the most widely used in engineering, especially the applied research of robustness has extensive engineering practical value. In this paper, based on the principle of the internal model PID parameter setting method was studied, through different approximate processing method, derived the three different formula of PID internal model setting and simulation verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. At the same time, the robustness of the controlled process under different parameter perturbation is theoretically analyzed and simulated.Finally, the paper summarizes the whole paper and looks forward to the future development trend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0404.v1
Online: 31 December 2019 (10:10:57 CET)
Motivated by Autonomous vehicle idea and driving safety issues, driver assistance system such as Active braking, Cruise Control, Lane departure warning lane keeping and etc. has become a very active research area. However, this paper presents the performance and robustness analysis of a model predictive control and proportional integral derivative control for lane keeping maneuvers of an autonomous vehicle using computer vision simulation studies. A simulation study was carried out where a vehicle model based on single tracked bicycle model was developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment together with a vision dynamic system. Both PID controller and MPC were simulated to maintain the desired reference trajectory of the vehicle by controlling steering angle. Further performance and robustness analysis were carried out and the simulation results show that the proposed control system for the PID control achieved its objective even though it was less robust in maintaining its performance under various conditions like vehicle load change, different longitudinal speed and different cornering stiffness. While in the case of MPC the optimizer made sure that the predicted future trajectory of the vehicle output tracks the desired reference trajectory and was more robust in maintaining its performance under same conditions as in PID.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0211.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy system modelling; uncertainties; robustness; penny switching effect
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:46:05 CEST)
Designing the future energy supply in accordance with ambitious climate change mitigation goals is a challenging issue. Common tools for planning and calculating future investments in renewable and sustainable technologies are often linear energy system models based on cost optimisation. However, input data and the underlying assumptions of future developments are subject to uncertainties that negatively affect the robustness of results. This paper introduces a quadratic programming approach to modifying linear, bottom-up energy system optimisation models in order to take cost uncertainties into account. This is accomplished by implementing specific investment costs as a function of the installed capacity of each technology. In contrast to established approaches like stochastic programming or Monte Carlo Simulation, the computation time of the quadratic programming approach is only slightly higher than that of linear programming. The model’s outcomes were found to show a wider range as well as a more robust allocation of the considered technologies than the linear model equivalent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0184.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Classification; Adversarial Machine Learning; Security; Robustness; Adversarial Risk Analysis
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:25:28 CEST)
Adversarial Classification (AC) is a major subfield within the increasingly important domain of adversarial machine learning (AML). Most approaches to AC so far have followed a classical game-theoretic framework. This requires unrealistic common knowledge conditions untenable in the security settings typical of the AML realm. After reviewing such approaches, we present alternative perspectives on AC based on Adversarial Risk Analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0200.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: uniqueness: regression depth; maximum depth estimator; regression median; robustness
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:51:15 CET)
Notion of median in one dimension is a foundational element in nonparametric statistics. It has been extended to multi-dimensional cases both in location and in regression via notions of data depth. Regression depth (RD) and projection regression depth (PRD) represent the two most promising notions in regression. Carrizosa depth DC is another depth notion in regression. Depth induced regression medians (maximum depth estimators) serve as robust alternatives to the classical least squares estimator. The uniqueness of regression medians is indispensable in the discussion of their properties and the asymptotics (consistency and limiting distribution) of sample regression medians. Are the regression medians induced from RD, PRD, and DC unique? Answering this question is the main goal of this article. It is found that only the regression median induced from PRD possesses the desired uniqueness property. The conventional remedy measure for non-uniqueness, taking average of all medians, might yield an estimator that no longer possesses the maximum depth in both RD and DC cases. These and other findings indicate that the PRD and its induced median are highly favorable among their leading competitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0015.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: wavelet transform; covariance matrix; spatial diversity; frequency diversity; robustness
Online: 1 August 2018 (10:10:13 CEST)
Crowd counting is of significant importance for numerous applications, e.g., urban security, intelligent surveillance and crowd management. Existing crowd counting methods typically require specialized hardware deployment and strict operating conditions, thereby hindering their widespread deployment. To acquire a more effective crowd counting approach, a device-free counting method based on Channel Status Information (CSI) is proposed, which could mitigate environment noise through wavelet transform and extract the amplitude or phase covariance matrix as the feature vector. Moreover, both the spatial diversity and frequency diversity are leveraged to improve detection robustness. The accuracy of the proposed CSI-based method is compared with a renowned crowd counting one, i.e., Electronic Frog Eye: Counting Crowd Using WiFi (FCC). The experimental results reveal an accuracy improvement of 30% over FCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0047.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Pump scheduling optimization; Bayesian optimization; Optimal sensor placement; Wasserstein distance; Robustness
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:26:55 CET)
The main goal of this paper is to show that Bayesian optimization could be regarded as a general framework for the data driven modelling and solution of problems arising in water distribution systems. Hydraulic simulation, both scenario based, and Monte Carlo is a key tool in modelling in water distribution systems. The related optimization problems fall in a simulation/optimization framework in which objectives and constraints are often black-box. Bayesian Optimization (BO) is characterized by a surrogate model, usually a Gaussian process, but also a random forest and increasingly neural networks and an acquisition function which drives the search for new evaluation points. These modelling options make BO nonparametric, robust, flexible and sample efficient particularly suitable for simulation/optimization problems. A defining characteristic of BO is its versatility and flexibility, given for instance by different probabilistic models, in particular different kernels, different acquisition functions. These characteristics of the Bayesian optimization approach are exemplified by the two problems: cost/energy optimization in pump scheduling and optimal sensor placement for early detection on contaminant intrusion. Different surrogate models have been used both in explicit and implicit control schemes. Showing that BO can drive the process of learning control rules directly from operational data. BO can also be extended to multi-objective optimization. Two algorithms have been proposed for multi-objective detection problem using two different acquisition functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0514.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Irrigation systems; common-pool resource management; environmental variability; collective action; institutional robustness
Online: 22 September 2020 (09:33:26 CEST)
Extreme environmental variations (EV), as a phenomenon deriving from climate change (CC), led to an exacerbated uncertainty on water availability and increased the likelihood of conflicts regarding water-dependent activities such as agriculture. In this paper, we investigate the role of conflict resolution mechanisms -one of Ostrom’s acclaimed Design Principles (DPs)- when social-ecological systems (SESs) are exposed to physical external disturbances. The theoretical propositions predict that SESs with conflict-resolution-mechanisms will perform better than those without them. We tested this proposition through a framed-field-experiment that mimicked an irrigation system. In this asymmetric setting, farmers were exposed to two (2) dilemmas: (i) how much to invest in the communal irrigation system’s (CIS) maintenance and (ii) how much water to extract. The setting added a layer of complexity: water availability did not only depend on the investment but also on the environmental variability. Our findings largely confirmed the theoretical proposition: groups with stronger institutional robustness are able to cope with EV better than those with weaker robustness. However, we also found that some groups, despite lacking conflict-resolution-mechanisms, were also able to address EV. We explored potential explanatory variables to these unexpected results. We found that subjects’ and groups’ attributes might address uncertainty and avert conflict. Thus, SESs’ capacity to respond to external disturbances, such as EV, might not only be a question of DPs. Instead, it might also be strongly related to group members' attributes and group dynamics. Our results pave the way for further research, hinting that some groups might be better equipped for mitigation measures, while others might be better equipped for adaptation measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Closed Loop Control; Cuk Converter; Sliding Mode Control; Robustness; Active Hysterisis Control
Online: 19 June 2017 (16:52:57 CEST)
This paper introduces a sliding mode control (SMC) based equivalent control method to a novel high output gain Cuk converter. An additional inductor and capacitor improves the efficiency and output gain of the classical Cuk converter. Classical PI controllers are widely used in DC-DC converters. However, it is a very challenging task to design a single PI controller operating in different load and disturbances. SMC based equivalent control method which achieves a robust operation in a wide operation range is also proposed. Switching frequency is kept constant in appropriate interval in different loading and disturbance conditions by implementing a dynamic hysteresis control method. Numerical simulations conducted on Matlab/Simulink confirm the accuracy of analytical analysis of high output gain modified Cuk converter. In addition, proposed equivalent control method is validated in different perturbations to demonstrate the robust operation in wide operation range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0356.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: cancer biomarker; DEGs; FC; β-divergence method; β-weight function; paired SAM; robustness
Online: 29 December 2018 (06:45:39 CET)
Background: Identification of cancer biomarkers that are differentially expressed (DE) under two biological conditions is an important task in many microarray studies. There exist several methods in the literature in this regards and most of these methods designed especially for unpaired samples, which does not satisfy the requirements of paired samples where the gene expressions are taken from the same patients before and after treatment. Furthermore, the traditional biomarker identification methods based on either p-values or fold change (FC) values. However, sometimes, p-value based results do not comply with FC based results due to the smaller variance of gene expressions. There are some methods that combine both p-values and FC values to solve this problem. But, these methods also show weak performance for small-sample case in presence of outlying expressions. To overcome this problem, in this paper an attempt is made to develop a hybrid robust SAM-FC approach by combining rank of FC values and rank of p-values based on SAM statistic using minimum β-divergence method, which is designed for paired samples. This method introduces a weight function known as β-weight function. This weight function produces larger weights corresponding to usual/normal expressions and smaller weights for unusual/outlying expressions. The β-weight function plays the significant role on the performance of the proposed method. Results: The proposed method uses β-weight function as a measure of outlier detection by setting β=0.2. We unify both classical and robust estimates using β-weight function such that maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are used in absence of outliers and minimum β-divergence estimators are used in presence of outliers to obtain reasonable p-values and FC values in the proposed method. We examined the performance of proposed method in a comparison of some popular methods (t-test, SAM, LIMMA, Wilcoxon, WAD, RP and FCROS) using both simulated and real gene expression profiles for both small-and large-sample cases. From the simulation and a real spike in data analysis results we observed that the proposed method outperforms other methods for small-sample case in presence of outliers and it keeps almost equal performance with other robust methods (Wilcoxon, RP and FCROS) otherwise. From a head-and-neck cancer (HNC) dataset the proposed method identified 2 genes (CYP3A4, NOVA1) that are significantly enriched in linoleic acid metabolism, drug metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolic pathways. The survival analysis through Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that combined effect of these 2 genes has prognostic capability and they might be promising biomarker of HNC. Moreover, we retrieved the 12 candidate drugs based on gene interaction from glad4u and drug bank databases. Conclusion The identified drugs showed statistical significance and critical role of the proteins indicate that these proteins might be therapeutic target in cancer. Thus, elucidating the associations between the drugs identified in the present study require further investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fuzzy systems; neural networks; fault diagnosis; data--driven approaces; robustness and reliability; wind turbine
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:39:44 CEST)
The fault diagnosis of safety critical systems such as wind turbine installations includes extremely challenging aspects that motivate the research issues considered in this paper. In fact, the prompt detection and the reliable diagnosis of faults in their earlier occurrence represent the key point especially for offshore installations. For these plants, operation and maintenance procedures in harsh environments would inevitably increase the cost of the energy production. Therefore, this work investigates fault diagnosis solutions that are considered in a viable way and used as advanced techniques for condition monitoring of dynamic processes. To this end, the work proposes the design of fault diagnosis strategies that exploit the estimation of the fault by means of data--driven approaches. This solution leads to the development of effective methods allowing the management of partially unknown information of the system dynamics, while coping with measurement errors, the model--reality mismatch and other disturbance effects. In mode detail, the proposed data--driven methodologies exploit fuzzy systems and neural networks in order to estimate the nonlinear dynamic relations between the input and output measurements of the considered process and the faults. To this end, the fuzzy and neural network structures are integrated with auto--regressive with exogenous input descriptions, thus making them able to approximate unknown nonlinear dynamic functions with arbitrary degree of accuracy. Once these models are estimated from the input and output data measurement acquired from the considered dynamic process, the capabilities of their fault diagnosis capabilities are validated by using a high--fidelity benchmark that simulates the healthy and the faulty behaviour of a wind turbine system. Moreover, at this stage the benchmark is also useful to analyse the robustness and the reliability characteristics of the developed tools in the presence of model--reality mismatch and modelling error effects featured by the wind turbine simulator. On the other hand, a hardware--in--the--loop tool is finally implemented for testing and comparing the performance of the developed fault diagnosis strategies in a more realistic environment and with respect to different fault diagnosis approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: water rights; robustness; water governance; water scarcity; water allocation; water accounting; water trading; water sharing
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:43:15 CET)
A framework for the review of existing water management systems and their transformation into robust water sharing systems is offered. The framework focuses on the need to develop efficient and equitable ways to manage water scarcity and plan to deal with the tensions scarcity imposes on any community. The framework identifies a way to bring together traditional community-managed systems with those typically used to allocate water to large water users and more commonly found in developed countries. So that use can be kept within sustainable limits while optimizing use, the framework includes mechanisms that enable the reallocation of water as demand and supply conditions change. Non-consumptive uses are recognized and environmental objectives can be delivered efficiently. Compliance with well-established accounting and hydro-logical concepts. Ways to increase the value of existing entitlements, encourage innovation and protect investments are included as options. It is recognized that the governance and legal arrangements necessary to underpin successful implantation are context specific.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: PID tuning; LQR; LQG; sensors data fusion; quadrotor mathematical model; Kalman filter; MARG; robustness analysis
Online: 3 January 2019 (11:14:05 CET)
In this work a new pre-tuning multivariable PID controllers method for quadrotors is put forward. A procedure based on LQR/LQG theory is proposed for attitude and altitude control. With the aim of analyzing performance and robustness of the proposed method, a non-linear mathematical model of the DJI-F450 quadrotor is employed, where rotors dynamics, togheter with sensors drift/bias properties and noise characteristics of low-cost comercial sensors typically used in this type of applications (such as MARG with MEMS technology and LIDAR) are considered. In order to estimate the state vector and compensate bias/drift effects on rate gyros of the MARG, a combination of filtering and data fusion algorithms (Kalman filter and Madgwick algorithm for attitude estimation) are proposed and implemented. Performance and robutsness analysis of the control system is carried out by means of numerical simulations, which take into account the presence of uncertainty in the plant model and external disturbances. The obtained results show that the proposed pre-tuning method for multivariable PID controller is robust with respect to: a) parametric uncertainty in the plant model, b) disturbances acting at the plant input, c) sensors measurement and estimation errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0221.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Speech enhancement; Kalman filter; Kalman gain; robustness metric; sensitivity metric; LPC, whitening filter; real-life noise
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:39:44 CET)
The inaccurate estimates of linear prediction coefficient (LPC) and noise variance introduce bias in Kalman filter (KF) gain and degrades speech enhancement performance. The existing methods proposed a tuning of the biased Kalman gain particularly in stationary noise condition. This paper introduces a tuning of the KF gain for speech enhancement in real-life noise conditions. First, we estimate noise from each noisy speech frame using a speech presence probability (SPP) method to compute the noise variance. Then construct a whitening filter (with its coefficients computed from the estimated noise) and employed to the noisy speech, yielding a pre-whitened speech, from where the speech LPC parameters are computed. Then construct KF with the estimated parameters, where the robustness metric offsets the bias in Kalman gain during speech absence to that of the sensitivity metric during speech presence to achieve better noise reduction. Where the noise variance and the speech model parameters are adopted as a speech activity detector. The reduced-biased Kalman gain enables the KF to minimize the noise effect significantly, yielding the enhanced speech. Objective and subjective scores on NOIZEUS corpus demonstrates that the enhanced speech produced by the proposed method exhibits higher quality and intelligibility than some benchmark methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Wind turbine simulator; data-driven and model-based approaches; fuzzy identification; on-line estimation; robustness and reliability
Online: 19 September 2017 (15:47:14 CEST)
Wind turbine plants are complex dynamic and uncertain processes driven by stochastic inputs and disturbances, as well as different loads represented by gyroscopic, centrifugal, and gravitational forces. Moreover, as their aerodynamic models are nonlinear, both modelling and control become challenging problems. On one hand, high-fidelity simulators should contain different parameters and variables in order to accurately describe the main dynamic system behaviour. Therefore, the development of modelling and control for wind turbine systems should consider these complexity aspects. On the other hand, these control solutions have to include the main wind turbine dynamic characteristics without becoming too complicated. The main point of this paper is thus to provide two practical examples of development of robust control strategies when applied to a simulated wind turbine plant. Experiments with the wind turbine simulator and the Monte–Carlo tools represent the instruments for assessing the robustness and reliability aspects of the developed control methodologies when the model-reality mismatch and measurement errors are also considered. Advantages and drawbacks of these regulation methods are also highlighted with respect to different control strategies via proper performance metrics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbines; hydroelectric systems; nonlinear modelling; model--based control; data--driven approach; advanced control; robustness and reliability
Online: 9 August 2017 (04:42:58 CEST)
Increasingly, there is a focus on utilising renewable energy resources in a bid to fulfil increasing energy requirements and mitigate the climate change impacts of fossil fuels. While most renewable resources are free, the technology used to usefully convert such resources is not and there is an increasing focus on improving the conversion economy and efficiency. To this end, advanced control technologies can have a significant impact and is already a relatively mature technology for wind turbines. Though hydroelectric plants can use simple regulation systems, significant benefits have been shown to accrue from the appropriate use of the same control methods designed for wind turbine plants. This represents the key point of the paper. In fact, to date, the application communities connected with wind and hydraulic energies have had little communication, resulting in little cross fertilisation of control ideas and experience, particularly from the more mature wind area to hydrodynamic systems. Therefore, this paper examines the models and the application of control technology across both domains, both from a comparative and contrasting point of view, with the aim of identifying commonalities in models and control objectives, as well as potential solutions. Key comparative reference points include the articulation of the exployed models, specification of control objectives, development of high--fidelity simulators, and development of solution concepts. Not least, in terms of realistic system requirements are the set of physical and constraints under which such renewable energy systems must operate, and the need to provide reliable and robust control solutions, which respect the often remote and relatively inaccessible location of many onshore and offshore deployments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sliding mode control; constant power load; negative incremental impedance; robustness analysis; chattering reduction; microgrid stability; noise rejection
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:45:56 CEST)
To implement renewable energy resources, microgrid systems have been adopted and developed into the technology of choice to assure mass electrification in the next decade. Microgrid systems have a number of advantages over the conventional utility grid systems, however, it faces severe instability issues due to continually increasing constant power loads. To improve the stability of the entire system, load side compensation technique is chosen because of its robustness and cost effectiveness. In this particular occasion, a sliding mode controller is developed for microgrid system in the presence of CPL to assure certain control objective of keeping the output voltage constant at 480V. After that, the robustness analysis of the sliding mode controller against parametric uncertainties is presented. The sliding mode controller robustness against parametric uncertainties, frequency variations, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are illustrated in this paper. Later, the performance of the PID and sliding Mode controller is compared in case of nonlinearity, parameter uncertainties, and noise rejection to justify the selection of Sliding Mode controller over PID controller. All the necessary calculations are reckoned mathematically and results are verified in the virtual platform such as MATLAB/Simulink with the appreciable outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: adaptive constrained control; barrier lyapunov function; fault-tolerant control; nussbaum-type function; pitch actuator; power regulation; robustness evaluation
Online: 21 October 2019 (15:01:36 CEST)
This paper presents a novel adaptive fault-tolerant neural-based control design for wind turbines with unknown dynamic and unknown wind speed. By utilizing the barrier Lyapunov function in the analysis of the Lyapunov direct method, the constrained behavior of the system is provided in which the rotor speed, its variation and generated power remain in the desired bounds. In addition, input saturation is also considered in terms of smooth pitch actuator bounding. Furthermore, by utilizing a Nussbaum-type function in designing the control algorithm, the unpredictable wind speed variation is captured without requiring accurate wind speed measurement, observation or estimation. Moreover, with the proposed adaptive analytic algorithms, together with the use of radial basis function neural networks, a robust adaptive and fault-tolerant control scheme is developed without the need for precise information about the wind turbine model nor the pitch actuator faults. Additionally, the computational cost of the resultant control law is reduced by utilizing a dynamic surface control technique. The effectiveness of the developed design is verified using theoretical analysis tools and illustrated by numerical simulations on a high-fidelity wind turbine benchmark model with different fault scenarios. Comparison of the achieved results to the ones that can be obtained via an available industrial controller shows the advantages of the proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine system; hydroelectric plant simulator; model--based control; data–driven approach; self–tuning control; robustness and reliability
Online: 26 January 2019 (10:08:46 CET)
The interest on the use of renewable energy resources is increasing, especially towards wind and hydro powers, which should be efficiently converted into electric energy via suitable technology tools. To this aim, data--driven control techniques represent viable strategies that can be employed for this purpose, due to the features of these nonlinear dynamic processes working over a wide range of operating conditions, driven by stochastic inputs, excitations and disturbances. Some of the considered methods, such as fuzzy and adaptive self--tuning controllers, were already verified on wind turbine systems, and similar advantages may thus derive from their appropriate implementation and application to hydroelectric plants. These issues represent the key features of the work, which provides some guidelines on the design and the application of these control strategies to these energy conversion systems. The working conditions of these systems will be also taken into account in order to highlight the reliability and robustness characteristics of the developed control strategies, especially interesting for remote and relatively inaccessible location of many installations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0572.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbine system; hydroelectric plant simulator; model--based control; data--driven approach; self--tuning control; robustness and reliability
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:26:20 CEST)
The interest on the use of renewable energy resources is increasing, especially towards wind and hydro powers, which should be efficiently converted into electric energy via suitable technology tools. To this aim, self--tuning control techniques represent viable strategies that can be employed for this purpose, due to the features of these nonlinear dynamic processes working over a wide range of operating conditions, driven by stochastic inputs, excitations and disturbances. Some of the considered methods were already verified on wind turbine systems, and important advantages may thus derive from the appropriate implementation of the same control schemes for hydroelectric plants. This represents the key point of the work, which provides some guidelines on the design and the application of these control strategies to these energy conversion systems. In fact, it seems that investigations related with both wind and hydraulic energies present a reduced number of common aspects, thus leading to little exchange and share of possible common points. This consideration is particularly valid with reference to the more established wind area when compared to hydroelectric systems. In this way, this work recalls the models of wind turbine and hydroelectric system, and investigates the application of different control solutions. The scope is to analyse common points in the control objectives and the achievable results from the application of different solutions. Another important point of this investigation regards the analysis of the exploited benchmark models, their control objectives, and the development of the control solutions. The working conditions of these energy conversion systems will be also taken into account in order to highlight the reliability and robustness characteristics of the developed control strategies, especially interesting for remote and relatively inaccessible location of many installations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0556.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wave energy converter; model predictive control; comparitive of robustness; embedded integrator; mathematical model; identification methodology; real time series
Online: 28 September 2018 (08:21:41 CEST)
This work is located in a growing sector within the field of renewable energies, wave energy converters (WECs). Specifically, it focuses on one of the point absorbers wave (PAWs) of the hybrid platform W2POWER. With the aim of maximising the mechanical power extracted from the waves by these WECs and reduce their mechanical fatigue, the design of five different model predictive controllers (MPCs) with hard and soft constraints has been carried out. As contribution of this paper, two of the MPCs have been designed with the addition of an embedded integrator. In order to validate the MPCs, an exhaustive study on performance and robustness is realized through simulations carried out in which uncertainties in the WEC dynamics are considered. Furthermore, looking for realistic in these simulations, an identification methodology for PAWs is proposed and validated by means of real time series of a scale prototype.