ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0449.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pulsed power plasma discharge; electromagnetic; COMSOL; numerical simulation
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:32:36 CEST)
The scope of this work was part of our previous research on Pulsed Power Plasma Stimulation Technique. Electromagnetic fields generated during a pulsed power plasma discharge were simulated using a finite element method in the COMSOL RF module. The field distributions were calculated during and after the pulse. The current paper takes advantage of prior work measuring and modeling the current distribution in the plasma arc. Agreement with laboratory experimental measurements provides support for extension of the model to reservoir scale. The validated model was used to quantify the signal attenuation level in different medium environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0248.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: cryolithozone; geophysical monitoring; pulsed electromagnetic sounding; cross-well exploration; vector finite-element method; numerical simulation; high-performance computing
Online: 10 December 2020 (10:39:26 CET)
The paper is dedicated to the topical problem of examining permafrost state and the processes of its geocryological changes by means of geophysical methods. To monitor the cryolithozone, we propose and scientifically substantiate a new technique of pulsed electromagnetic cross-well sounding. Based on the vector finite-element method, we created a mathematical model of the cross-well sounding process with a pulsed source in a three-dimensional spatially heterogeneous medium. A high-performance parallel computing algorithm was developed and verified. Through realistic geoelectric models of permafrost with a talik under a highway, constructed following the results of electrotomography field data interpretation, we numerically simulated the pulsed sounding on the computing resources of the Siberian Supercomputer Center of SB RAS. The simulation results suggest the proposed system of pulsed electromagnetic cross-well monitoring to be characterized by a high sensitivity to the presence and dimensions of the talik. The devised approach can be oriented to addressing a wide range of issues related to monitoring permafrost rocks under civil and industrial facilities, buildings and constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0029.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: pulsed electrolyte cathode atmospheric pressure discharge (pulsed-ECAD); plasma temperatures; temperature characteristics; electron number density
Online: 3 April 2018 (03:58:35 CEST)
A novel plasma source of pulsed electrolyte cathode atmospheric pressure discharge (pulsed-ECAD) driven by an alternating current (AC) power supply coupled with a high voltage diode was generated, and the discharge was generated in the open-to-air atmosphere between a metal electrode and a small-sized flowing liquid cathode. The spatial distribution of plasma temperatures (excitation, vibrational and rotational) of the pulsed-ECAD were investigated. The electron excitation temperature of H Texc(H), vibrational temperature of N2 Tvib(N2), and rotational temperature of OH Trot(OH) were measured as 4900±36-6800±108 K, 4600±86-5800±100 K and 1050±20-1140±10 K, respectively. Meanwhile, the temperature characteristics of dc solution cathode glow discharge (dc-SCGD) were also studied for comparison with pulsed-ECAD. The effects of operating parameters, including discharge voltage and discharge frequency, on the plasma temperatures were investigated. The electron number density determined in the discharge system and dc-SCGD were within the range (3.8–18.9) ×1014 cm-3 and 2.6×1014-17.2×1014 cm-3, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0125.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: pulsed laser ablation in water; pulsed laser ablation in air; ZnO nanoparticles; biomedical materials; PLLA-scaffold; antibacterial properties
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:32:20 CET)
Here, we report on ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) generated by nanosecond pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm) through ablation of metallic Zn target in water and air and their comparative analysis as potential nanomaterials for biomedical applications. The prepared nanomaterials were carefully characterized in terms of their structure, composition, morphology and defects. It was found that in addition to the main wurtzite ZnO phase, which is conventionally prepared and reported by others, the sample laser-generated in air also contained some amount of monoclinic zinc hydroxynitrate. Both nanomaterials were then used to modify model wound dressings based on biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid. The as-prepared model dressings were tested as biomedical materials with bactericidal properties towards S. aureus and E. coli strains. The advantages of the NPs prepared in air over their counterparts generated in water found in this work are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: dry eye; intense pulsed light therapy; meibomian gland; tear
Online: 18 May 2022 (06:14:55 CEST)
Dry eye disease (DED) most commonly caused by evaporative subtypes and mainly induced by meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Intense pulsed light (IPL) combined with meibomian gland expression (MGX) is noninvasive treatment for improvement of ocular discomfort symptoms and MGD. In this prospective study between November 2020 and May 2022, the patients met the criteria of both ocular surface disease index (OSDI) ≥13 scores and standardized patient evaluation of eye dryness (SPEED)≥ 8 scores were enrolled in Kaohsiung Veteran General Hospital. Three separate treatment sessions of IPL therapy combined with MGX administered to the lower lids with an interval of 28 days. Further tear film assessment included lipid layer thickness (LLT), tear meniscus height (TMH), non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), meibomian gland loss (MGL) either beforeor after 1st and 3rd IPL therapy combined with MGX. Besides, lissamine green staining and pain scores were also recorded. We totally enrolled 37 patients of 74 eyes. Men accounted for 18.92% (7/37). The mean age was 54.51 ± 11.72 years. The mean OSDI scores were 58.12 ± 22, while the SPEED scores were 17.03 ± 5.98. The mean Schirmer’s test was 3.66 ± 2.43 mm. After three sessions IPL treatment with MGX, the OSDI, SPEED, LLT, TMH, MGL, MGXS and pain scores were significantly improved. For the MGX scores (MGXS) ≤20 group, MGL and lissamine green scores showed significant improvements. For the MGXS >20 group, TMH and dry spot rate revealed statistically improvement. Noninvasive IPL therapy with MGX statistically improved not only dry eye symptoms but also tear film assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0258.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: pulsed electrochemical micromachining; current confinement; material removal rate; efficiency
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:31:35 CEST)
In this work a research on pulsed electrochemical micromachining of Stainless Steel is presented. A suitable equipment to study the process is described as well as a fitting procedure to machine and measure the variables involved. A tool of Tungsten with a tip of about 5 mm diameter sunk in an electrolyte of NaNO3 is used for the process. The pulse on-time must be maintained in the order of ns to achieve a good current confinement, since the tool is active. Some experiments were made to assess the most important variables of the process, as current confinement, surface roughness, material removal rate and efficiency. It is observed that the current confinement get worse when the pulse on-time increases, as well as surface roughness. The material removal rate and the efficiency increase with the voltage amplitude and the pulse on-time. The voltage amplitude must be higher than 12 V so that the phenomenon of passivation disappears. There is a compromise in the choice of the variables, so a suitable combination of parameters is determined so that a good material removal rate with an acceptable result is achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0358.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: on-state voltage; TSEP; junction temperature; model calibration; pulsed measurements
Online: 25 October 2021 (13:49:04 CEST)
The on-state voltage of MOSFETs is a convenient and powerful temperature-sensitive electric parameter (TSEP) to determine the junction temperature, thus enabling device monitoring, protection, diagnostics and prognostics. The main hurdle in the use of the on-state voltage as a TSEP is the per-device characterization procedure, to be carried out in a controlled environment, with high costs. In this paper we compare two novel techniques for MOSFET junction temperature estimation: controlled shoot-through and direct heating by resistive heaters embedded in two Kapton (polyimide) films. Both allow in-place characterization of the TSEP curve with the device mounted in its final circuit and assembly, including the working heat sink. The two methods are also validated against the conventional procedure in a thermal chamber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0091.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Robust PCA, RPCA, PCP, IALM, Noise Reduction, Pulsed Thermography, CFRP
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:26:47 CEST)
Pulsed thermography is a commonly used non-destructive testing method, and is increasingly studied for advanced materials such as carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) evaluation. Different processing approaches are proposed to detect and characterize anomalies that may be generated in structures during the manufacturing cycle or service period. In this study, we used a type of matrix decomposition using Robust-PCA via Inexact-ALM in our experiment. We investigate this method as a pre-and post-processing method on thermal data acquired by pulsed thermography. We employed state-of-the-art methods, i.e., PCT, PPT, and PLST, as the main process. The results indicate that pre-processing on thermal data can elevate the defect detectability while post-processing, in some cases, can deteriorate the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0585.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: NDT Methods; Defects depth estimation; Pulsed thermography; Gated Recurrent Units
Online: 26 August 2020 (12:29:30 CEST)
Infrared thermography has already been proven to be a significant method in non-destructive evaluation since it gives information with immediacy, rapidity and low cost. However, the thorniest issue for wider application of IRT is the quantification. In this work, we proposed a specific depth quantifying technique by employing the Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) in composite material samples via pulsed thermography (PT). Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer(CFRP) embedded with flat bottom holes were designed via Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling in order to precisely control the depth and geometrics of the defects. The GRU model automatically quantified the depth of defects presented in the CFRP material. The proposed method evaluated the accuracy and performance of synthetic CFRP data from FEM for defect depth predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0105.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: MAPLE; Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation; microemulsion; lipase; thin film
Online: 21 September 2017 (17:10:01 CEST)
MAPLE (matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation) depositions of Candida Rugosa lipase were carried out from ice matrices whose composition is optimized in order to minimize conformational damage of the protein, which strongly influences its catalytic activity. To induce lid opening and to protect lipase during the MAPLE process, pentane and m-DOPA amino acid were added to the liquid matrix giving a target formed by a frozen water-lipase-pentane microemulsion. FTIR and AFM were used to investigate the structure of MAPLE deposited lipase films. The ability of MAPLE films to promote transesterification was determined by thin layer chromatography. It was shown that m-DOPA has influence on the aggregation but not on the unfolding of lipase induced by MAPLE, while the microemulsion formed by the addition of pentane to the target composition is effective in protecting lipase during the MAPLE process. MAPLE deposited lipases showed a modified specificity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0726.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: horizontal well; pulsed gravel packing; completion; solid-liquid two-phase flow
Online: 30 November 2020 (12:03:31 CET)
Gravel packing completion method for horizontal wells has the advantages of maintaining high oil production for a long time, maintaining wellbore stability and preventing sand production, so it has become the preferred completion method for horizontal wells. At present, this technology still faces the problems of high sand bed height and poor gravel migration. In order to improve the efficiency of gravel packing in horizontal wells, pulsed gravel packing technology for horizontal wells is proposed for the first time. Based on the mechanism of hydraulic pulse, the Eularian model, RNG K-ε model and CFD model are used to simulate the solid-liquid two-phase flow. By optimizing the parameters such as frequency and amplitude of pulse waveform, the optimal pulse waveform of pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells is determined. The effects of parameters such as sand-carrying fluid displacement, sand-carrying fluid viscosity, sand-carrying ratio, gravel particle size and string eccentricity on pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells are studied, and the distribution law of gravel migration velocity and volume fraction in horizontal wells is obtained. According to the results, it can be seen that with the increase of displacement and viscosity of carrier fluid, the volume fraction of fixed bed and moving bed decreases gradually, while that of suspension bed increases gradually. With the increase of sand-carrying ratio, gravel particle size and string eccentricity, the volume fraction of fixed bed and moving bed increases gradually, while that of suspended bed decreases gradually. Comparing the effects of conventional gravel packing and pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells, it can be concluded that the efficiency of pulsed gravel packing in horizontal wells is higher. The volume fraction of fixed bed and moving bed decreased by 30% and 40% respectively, while the volume fraction of suspended bed increased by 20%. The migration velocity of moving bed and suspended bed increased by 40% and 25% respectively. And the migration ability of gravel improved obviously.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: pulsed-laser deposition; in-situ x-ray diffraction; electron microscopy; multiferroics
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:28:04 CET)
Structure quality of LuFeO3 epitaxial layers grown by pulsed-laser deposition on sapphire substrates with and without platinum interlayers has been investigated by in-situ high-resolution x-ray diffraction (reciprocal-space mapping). The parameters of the structure such as size and misorientation of mosaic blocks have been determined as functions of the thickness of LuFeO3 during the PLD growth and for different platinum interlayers thicknesses up to 40 nm. The x-ray diffraction results combined with ex-situ scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the Pt interlayer significantly improves the structure of LuFeO3 by reducing the misfit of the LuFeO3 lattice with respect to the material underneath.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0457.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: saturable absorbers; Rhenium disulfide; pulsed lasers; mode-locking; Q-switching; 2D TMD
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:59:07 CEST)
Rhenium Disulfide (ReS2) has evolved as a novel 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) material which has promising applications in optoelectronics and photonics because of its distinctive anisotropic attributes. In this review, we emphasize on formulating saturable absorbers (SAs) based on ReS2 to produce Q-switched and mode-locked pulsed lasers of diverse operation wavelengths like 1 μm, 1.5 μm, 2 μm, and 3 μm. We outline ReS2 synthesis techniques and integration platforms concerning solid-state and fiber-type lasers. We discuss the laser performance based on SAs attributes. Lastly, we draw conclusions and outlook by recommending additional improvements for SA devices so as to advance the domain of ultrafast photonic technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0565.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: NDT methods; defects depth estimation; deep learning; pulsed thermography; gated recurrent unites
Online: 22 March 2021 (16:04:13 CET)
Infrared thermography has already been proven to be a significant method in non-destructive evaluation since it gives information with immediacy, rapidity, and low cost. However, the thorniest issue for the wider application of IRT is quantification. In this work, we proposed a specific depth quantifying technique by employing the Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) in composite material samples via pulsed thermography (PT). Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling provides the economic examination of the response pulsed thermography. In this work, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) specimens embedded with flat bottom holes are stimulated by a FEM modeling (COMSOL) with precisely controlled depth and geometrics of the defects. The GRU model automatically quantified the depth of defects presented in the stimulated CFRP material. The proposed method evaluated the accuracy and performance of synthetic CFRP data from FEM for defect depth predictions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0351.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: Fiber lasers and amplifiers; pulsed lasers; continuous wave; power scaling; coherent beam combining
Online: 19 November 2021 (12:37:45 CET)
Fiber laser technology has been demonstrated as a versatile and reliable approach for laser source manufacturing with a wide range of applicability in various fields ranging from science to industry. The power/energy scaling of single fiber laser systems has faced several fundamental limitations. To overcome them and to boost the power/energy level even further, combining the output powers of multiple lasers has become the primary approach. Among various combining techniques, the coherent beam combining of fiber amplification channels is the most promising approach, instrumenting ultra-high power/energy lasers with near-diffraction-limited beam quality. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the progress of coherent beam combining for both continuous-wave and ultrafast fiber lasers. The concept of coherent beam combining from basic notions to specific details of methods, requirements, and challenges are discussed, along with reporting some practical architectures for both continuous and ultrafast fiber lasers.
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: electroplastic effect; pulsed current; duplex stainless steel; electropulsing traetment; residual stress; tensile test
Online: 25 March 2020 (09:00:25 CET)
Prestrained at 5% and 15% duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 specimens have been subjected to electropulsing treatments with current density of 100 A/mm2 and 200 A/mm2 and 100 and 500 pulses for each current density value. Corrosion tests, X-ray diffraction, microhardness and residual stresses were collected before and after the electropulsing treatments. Tensile tests were performed after the electropulsing treatments in order to compare the mechanical response to the reference tensile tests performed before the pulsing treatments. Increase in fracture strain was observed after the pulsing treatment in comparison to the reference tensile tests. A decrease in microhardness was also observed after the electropulsing treatments for both degrees of prestrain. Electropulsing treatment almost eliminates the work-hardened state in the 5% prestrained specimens while partially recovered the 15% prestrained material increasing both uniform and fracture strain. The bulk temperature of the samples remained the same for all the duration of the treatments. The effect are to be addressed to a combined effect of the increase in atomic flux due to the electrical current and local joule heating in correspondence of crystal defects. Electropulsing treatment applied to metallic alloys is a promising technique to reduce the work hardening state without the need of annealing treatments in a dedicated furnace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: electric propulsion; space propulsion systems; pulsed plasma thruster; liquid propellant; numerical modeling; ionized gas
Online: 20 December 2017 (09:18:20 CET)
Liquid propellants are fast becoming attractive for pulsed plasma thrusters due to their high efficiency and low contamination issues. However, the complete plasma interaction and acceleration processes are still not very clear. Present paper develops a multi-layer numerical model for liquid propellant PPTs. The model proposes a possible acceleration mechanism for liquid fed pulsed plasma thrusters and accurately predicts the propellant utilization capabilities and estimations for the fraction of propellant gas that is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities. Validation of the numerical model and the assumptions on which the model is based on is achieved by comparing the experimental results from two different liquid-fed thrusters developed at the University of Tokyo. Results show 50% of liquid propellant injected is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities (> 50Km/s), whereas, neutral gas contribute to only 7% of the total specific impulse and accelerated to low exit velocity (< 4Km/s). The model shows an accuracy up-to 92%. Optimization methods are briefly discussed to ensure efficient propellant utilization and performance. The model acts as a tool to understand the background physics and to optimize the performance for liquid-fed PPTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0141.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: TiNi; high-current pulsed electron beam; porous coating; surface modification; EIS in saline; cell growth.
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:11:37 CEST)
A new approach to fabricate TiNi surfaces combining the advantages of both monolithic and porous materials for implants is used in this work. New materials were obtained by depositing a porous TiNi powder onto monolithic TiNi plates followed by sintering at 1200°C. Then, further modification of the material surface with a high-current-pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) was carried out. Three materials obtained (one after sintering and two after subsequent beam treatment by 20 and 30 pulses, respectively) were studied by XRD, SEM, EDX, EIS methods, profilometry and OCP measurements. Structural and compositional changes caused by HCPEB treatment were investigated. Surface properties of the samples during their storage in saline for 10 days were studied and a model experiment with cell growth (MCF-7) was carried out for the sample unmodified with electron beam to detect cell appearance on different surface locations.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC grid; Distortion; Electromagnetic compatibility; Inrush; Microgrid; Power Quality; Pulsed power loads; Resonance; Ripple; supraharmonics; Transients
Online: 2 August 2021 (16:11:02 CEST)
The work addresses the problem of Power Quality (PQ) metrics (or indexes) suitable for DC grids, encompassing Low and Medium Voltage applications, including electric transports, all-electric ships and aircrafts, electric vehicles, distributed generation and microgrids, modern data centers, etc. The two main pillars on which such PQ indexes are discussed and built are: i) the physical justification, so the electric phenomena affecting DC grids and components (PV panels, fuel cells, capacitors, batteries, etc.), causing e.g. stress of materials, ageing, distortion, grid instability; ii) the existing standardization framework, pointing out desirable coverage and extension, similarity with AC grids standards, but also inconsistencies. The first point is made more clear and usable by a graphical overview of the discussed phenomena. On this basis PQ is interpreted beyond the usual low-frequency range, including thus supraharmonics and common-mode disturbance, and filling the gap with the Electromagnetic Compatibility domain. However, phenomena typical of EMC and electrical safety (such as various types of overvoltages and fast transients) are excluded. Suitable PQ indexes are then reviewed, suggesting integrations and modifications, to cover the relevant phenomena and technological progress, and to better follow the normative exigencies.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: food processing; packaging; UHT; high-pressure; pulsed-electric fields; pasteurization; mi-cro-wave; consumer research; farm-to-fork
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:10:21 CEST)
Given the increasing public interest in how ingredients are processed and the growing demand for organic food products, it is critical to understand consumers’ expectations about the process-related quality of organic products. Consumers perceive organic food to be nutritious, healthy and either natural or less processed, as they are afraid of the loss of nutrients and other natural properties of the food products. However, emerging food processing technologies might generate healthy and safe food options with nutritional quality properties. Simplified communication schemes might help to overcome this barrier. The main objective of this paper is to propose a working definition of "careful processing" for organic products and test its consistency while being used in scoring different processing methods by consumers. Results show that the proposed definition allows to consistently rate alternative processing methods. Consumers tend to score novel processing methods such as pulsed electric fields and microwave as less careful, supporting the idea that organic consumers want the least man-made interference with their food products. Results show that a simple but effective definition of careful processing may help consumers to distinguish further organic food products from conventional ones, no matter which communication scheme is used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0403.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: electromagnetic stirring; forced convection; traveling magnetic field; liquid metal; solidification; numerical analysis; pulsed magnetic field; gallium
Online: 27 March 2020 (03:22:32 CET)
Non steady applied magnetic field impact on a liquid metals has good prospects for industry. For a better understanding of heat and mass transfer processes under these circumstances, numerical simulations are needed. A combination of finite elements and volumes methods was used to calculate the flow and solidification of liquid metal under electromagnetic influence. Validation of numerical results was carried out by means of measuring with ultrasound Doppler velocimetry technique, as well as with neutron radiography snapshots of the position and shape of the solid/liquid interface. As a result of the first part of the work, a numerical model of electromagnetic stirring and solidification was developed and validated. This model could be an effective tool for analyzing the electromagnetic stirring during the solidification process. In the second part, the dependences of the velocity pulsation amplitude and the melt velocity maximum value on the magnetic field pulsation frequency are obtained. It was found numerically the ability of the pulsating force action to develop higher values of the liquid metal velocity at a frequency close to the MHD resonance. Obtained characteristics give a more detailed description of the electrically conductive liquid behaviour under action of pulsating traveling magnetic field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0290.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Irreversible electroporation, microfluidics, microelectrodes, pulsed electric field electroporation, intracellular metabolites, enzymes, quenching, E. coli, S. cerevisiae
Online: 25 July 2019 (11:44:33 CEST)
Exploring the dynamic behavior of cellular metabolism requires a standard laboratory method that guarantees rapid sampling and extraction of the cellular content. We propose a versatile sampling technique applicable to cells with different cell wall and cell membrane properties. The technique is based on irreversible electroporation with simultaneous quenching and extraction by using a microfluidic device. By application of electric pulses in the millisecond range, permanent lethal pores are formed in the cell membrane of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, facilitating the release of the cellular contents; here demonstrated by the measurement of glucose-6-phosphate and the activity of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The successful application of this device was demonstrated by pulsed electric field treatment in a flow-through configuration of the microfluidic chip in combination with sampling, inactivation, and extraction of the intracellular content in a few seconds. Minimum electric field strengths of 10 kV/cm for E. coli and 7.5 kV/cm for yeast S. cerevisiae were required for successful cell lysis. The results are discussed in the context of applications in industrial biotechnology, where metabolomics analyses are important.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0274.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: electricity; tumor treating fields; extremely low frequency; pulsed electric fields; new cancer treatment modalities; glioblastoma; electroporation; electrofusion; electrochemotherapy; gene electrotransference
Online: 26 August 2019 (16:04:26 CEST)
This paper is a mini literature review about electromagnetic field’s effects on cells, tissues and new treatment modalities. We have reviewed a papers which have been published in high quality journals in the last 5 years as two authors. This review’s aim is to be a resource for experimental studies about electricity’s effects on cell biology and pathophysiology. As a result of this literature review, we found that especially extremely low electric frequency and intermediate frequency fields have very important pathophysiological effects. We have mentioned four important expressions on this subject; electroporation, electrofusion, electrochemotherapy, gene electrotransference. Two different new treatment approaches have been developed by use of these two important electrical waves. First is tumor treating fields and the other is pulsed electric fields. Most studies in literature have been done with extremely low frequency and pulsed electric fields. In terms of diseases, most studies are about glioblastoma multiforme and malign melanoma.Most studies in literature have been done with extremely low frequency and pulsed electric fields. In terms of diseases, most studies are about glioblastoma and melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0366.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Magnesium nanoparticles; Laser scan speed, Wearables; Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid; Advanced manufacturing; Flexile sensors; Powder metallurgy; Surface science; Nanoparticle size distributions; Picosecond laser
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:46:16 CEST)
Magnesium nanoparticles of various mean diameters (53 – 239 nm) were synthesized herein via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAL) from millimeter sized magnesium powders within iso-propyl alcohol. It was observed via a 3x3 full factorial DOE that the processing parameters can control the nanoparticle distribution to produce three size-distribution types (bimodal, skewed and normal). Ablation times of 2, 5, and 25 minutes where investigated. An ablation time of 2 minutes produced a bimodal distribution with the other types seen at higher periods of processing. Mg nanoparticle UV-Vis absorbance at 204 nm increased linearly with increasing ablation time, indicating an increase in nanoparticle count. The colloidal density (mg/ml) generally increased with increasing nanoparticle mean diameter as noted via increasing UV-vis absorbance. High la-ser scan speeds (within the studied range of 3000 - 3500 mm/s) tend to increase the nanoparticle count/yield. For the first time, the effect of scan speed on colloidal density, UV-vis absorbance and nanoparticle diameter from metallic powder ablation was investigated and is reported herein. The nanoparticles formed dendritic structures after being drop cast on aluminum foil as observed via FESEM analysis. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the size of the nanoparticles. Magnesium nanoparticles have promising use in the fabrication of wearables, such as in conductive tracks or battery electrodes, owing to their low heat capacity, high melting point and bio-compatibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0515.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: efficient ultrasonic transceivers, broadband piezoelectric transducers, industrial NDE, medical imaging, pulsed high-power spikes, HV capacitive-discharge pulsers, high-current driving, high dynamic range.
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:16:39 CET)
Ultrasonic imaging & NDE applications can greatly improve their signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) by driving each transducer (composing piezoelectric arrays) with a spike giving pulsed power of k-Watts, repetitively at a PRF = 5000 spikes/s, by using a HV capacitive-discharge generator. However very-high levels, of pulsed intensities (3-10 A) and voltages (300-700 V) must be considered for a rigorous spike modeling. Even though the consumed "average" power will be small, the intensity through each transducer achieves several amperes, so the pulsed powers delivered by each HV generator can attain levels higher than in CW high-power ultrasonic applications: e.g., up to 5 kW / spike. This is concluded here from a transient modeling of the loaded generator. Then, unforeseen phenomena rise: intense brief pulses of driving power & emitted force in transducers, and non-linearities in driver semiconductors, because their characteristic curves only include linear ranges. But fortunately, piezoelectric devices working in this intense regime do not show serious heating problems, because the average power remains being moderate. Intensity, power and voltage, driving a broadband transducer from a HV capacitive pulser, are calculated to drastically improve (in ≅ 40 dB) the ultrasonic net dynamic range available, with emitted forces ≅ 250 Newtons pp and E/R received pulses of 70 V pp.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0350.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials; sp1-hybridized bonds; carbon atomic wires; ion-assisted pulsed-plasma deposition; nanocavities; cluster-assembling; vibration-assisted growing; acoustic activation; vibrational patterns; electromagnetic activation; self-organizing of the nanostructures; nano-cymatics; controlled patterning; synergistic effect
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:07:52 CET)
Structural self-organizing and pattern formation are universal and key phenomena observed during growth and cluster-assembling of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials at the ion-assisted pulse-plasma deposition. Fine tuning these universal phenomena opens access to designing the properties of the growing carbyne-enriched nano-matrix. The structure of bonds in the grown carbyne-enriched nano-matrices can be programmed by the processes of self-organization and auto-synchronization of nanostructures. We propose the innovative concept, connected with application of the universal Cymatics phenomena during the predictive growth of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials. We also propose the self-organization approach for increase stability of the long linear carbon chains. The main idea of suggested concept is manipulating by the self-organized wave patterns excitation phenomenon and their distribution by the spatial structure and properties of the nanostructured metamaterial grows region through the new synergistic effect. Mentioned effect will be provided through the vibration-assisted self-organized wave patterns excitation along with simultaneous manipulating by their properties through the electric field. We propose to use acoustic activation of the plasma zone of nano-matrix growing. Interaction between the inhomogeneous electric field distribution generated on the vibrating layer and the plasma ions will serve as the additional energizing factor controlling the local pattern formation and self-organizing of the nano-structures. Suggested concept makes it possible to provide precise predictive designing the spatial structure and properties of the advanced carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0228.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: energetic materials; solid propulsion systems; extreme thrust control; reaction zones; functionalized carbon-based nanostructured metamaterials; nano-sized additives; carbon atomic wires, sp1-hybridized bonds; ion-assisted pulsed-plasma deposition; self-organizing of the nanostructures; universal phenomena of nano-cymatics; electrostatic field; synergistic effect
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:48:42 CET)
A new generation of nano-technologies is expanding solid propulsion capabilities and increasing their relevance for versatile and manoeuvrable micro-satellites with safe high-performance propulsion. We propose the innovative concept, connected with application of new synergistic effect of the energetic materials performance enhancement and reaction zones programming for the next generation small satellite multimode solid propulsion system. The main idea of suggested concept is manipulating by the self-organized wave patterns excitation phenomenon, by the properties of the energetic materials reaction zones and by localization of the energy release areas. This synergistic effect can be provided through application of the functionalized carbon-based nanostructured metamaterials as a nano-additives along with simultaneous manipulating by their properties through the electrostatic field. Mentioned effect will be controlled through predictive programming both by the spatial structure and physics-chemical properties of the functionalized carbon-based nano-additives and through the electromagnetic control of the self-organized wave pattern excitation and micro- and nano- scale oscillatory networks in the energetic material reaction zones. Suggested new concept makes it possible to increase the energetic material regression rate and increase the thrust of the solid propulsion system with minimal additional energy consumption.