ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Public transportation; Automated vehicles; economic viability; business model
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:37:23 CEST)
During the past few years many projects and initiatives were undertaken deploying and testing automated vehicles for public transportation and logistics. However in spite of their ambition, all of these deployments stayed on the level of elaborated experimentation deploying no more than 4 maximum 5 AVs in rather small sites (few Kms of roads) and never really reached the level of large scale “commercial” deployment of transport services. The reasons for this are many, but the most important being the lack of economically viability and commercially realistic models, the lack of scalability of the business and operating models, and the lack of inclusive citizen/user centric services required for the large end-user acceptation and adoption of the solutions. In this paper, based on the experience gained in the H2020 AVENUE project, we present the missing pieces of the puzzle, ad which will be addressed in the Horizon Europe project ULTIMO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0085.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: antimicrobial coating; photodynamic inactivation; public transportation; AMC
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:26:24 CET)
Millions of people use public transportation daily worldwide and frequently touch surfaces, thereby producing a reservoir of microorganisms on surfaces increasing the risk of transmission. Constant occupation makes sufficient cleaning difficult to achieve. Thus, an autonomous, perma-nent antimicrobial coating (AMC) could keep down the microbial burden on such surfaces. A photodynamic AMC was applied to frequently touched surfaces in buses. The microbial burden (colony forming units, cfu) was determined weekly and compared to equivalent surfaces in buses without AMC (references). The microbial burden ranged from 0 – 209 cfu/cm² on references and from 0 – 54 cfu/cm² on AMC. The means were 13.4 ± 29.6 cfu/cm² on references and 4.5 ± 8.4 cfu/cm² on AMC (p<0.001). The difference of microbial burden on AMC and references was al-most constant throughout the study. Considering a hygiene benchmark of 5 cfu/cm², the data yield an absolute risk reduction of 22.6 % and a relative risk reduction of 50.7 %. In conclusion, photo-dynamic AMC kept down the microbial burden, reducing the risk of transmission of microor-ganisms. AMC permanently and autonomously contributes to hygienic conditions on surfaces in public transportation. Photodynamic AMC therefore are suitable for reducing the microbial load and closing hygiene gaps in public transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1634.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: transportation disasters; western Asia; accident frequency; road safety; data analysis; public awareness; infrastructure development
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:47:14 CEST)
Investigating transportation disasters in Western Asia over two decades (2003-2023), this study provides a meticulous examination of a comprehensive dataset, shedding light on the dynamics and nuances of these catastrophic events in terms of frequency, modality (air, rail, road, and water), and subsequent outcomes. The data reveals a concerning uptrend in mishaps from 2003 to 2010, which fortunately reverses into a notable decline in the subsequent years. Noteworthy is the predominance of road-related incidents, yet an alarming 73.8% of events are ambiguously categorized under "Unknown", hinting at potential gaps or inconsistencies in record-keeping. With Turkey being a significant epicenter, accounting for nearly 45% of all incidents, the regional distribution of these disasters becomes evident. Advanced ANOVA analyses discern marked variations in fatality rates over the years and between nations. However, the contrast in injury rates among different disaster categories did not achieve statistical significance. While the post-2010 era showcases a commendable reduction in calamities, the data punctuates the persistent necessity for robust safety measures, targeted public awareness campaigns, and infrastructural advancements. In synthesis, this study vehemently advocates for heightened regional collaboration and systematic knowledge dissemination as cornerstones for bolstering transportation safety across Western Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0006.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: urban public transportation infrastructure; utilization benefits; coupling coordination degree model; Gini coefficient
Online: 1 March 2017 (10:31:45 CET)
The economic, social and environmental benefits generated by the use of urban public transportation infrastructure constitute a complex dynamic urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit system. This paper evaluates the coupling coordination among these three benefits taking four Chinese autonomous municipalities as an example. These four cities have large-scale urban public transportation infrastructures but their utilization has many serious problems. The basic function of urban public transportation infrastructure has not been fully played in these cities. Whether the different benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure have been developed in harmony or not is unclear. We analyzed the coordinated development among three benefits by constructing coupling coordination degree model and used Gini coefficient to study the difference of coordinated development among three benefits of four cities. The result shows that the levels of coordinated development among three benefits of urban public transportation infrastructure were lower in these four cities and have positive correlation with it of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit. Raising the level of urban public transportation infrastructure utilization benefit is the most crucial solution of promoting the coordinated development among three benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0389.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: human mobility; residential mobility; smart card; public transportation; opportunity cost of travel time
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:46:51 CEST)
This study attempts to investigate a method for creating an index from mobility data that not only correlates with the number of people who relocate to a place but also has causal influence on the number of such individuals. By creating an index based on human mobility data, it becomes possible to predict the influence of urban development on future residential movements. In this paper, we propose a method called the travel cost method for multiple places (TCM4MP) by extending the conventional travel cost method (TCM). We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of a neighborhood. However, conventional TCM does not assume that the opportunity cost of travel time varies according to the departure place. In this paper, TCM4MP is proposed to estimate the opportunity cost of travel time with respect to the departure place. We consider such estimation to be possible due to the use of massive mobility data. We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of the neighborhood. Therefore, we consider that the opportunity cost of travel time has a causal influence on future residential mobility. In this paper, the validity of the proposed method is tested using the smart card data of public transportation in Western Japan. Our proposed method is beneficial for urban planners in estimating the effects of urban development and detecting the shrinkage and growth of a population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Public bus transportation; Battery-swapping e-bus; Battery charging; Construction costs; Particle swarm optimization (PSO); PSO-genetic algorithm (GA)
Online: 6 June 2017 (17:52:24 CEST)
The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. An electric-bus (e-bus) transportation system favors reducing pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), a genetic algorithm (GA), and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption) and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0284.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: public debt; government spending efficiency; public investment; public sector corruption
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:09:52 CEST)
This study examines whether government spending efficiency is associated with differential effects of public investment on debt-to-GDP ratio for a panel data consisting of 16 developing countries in Asia-Pacific region over the period 2007-2017. Public investment is central to implementing the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development — but high debt-to-GDP ratio poses a key risk. The empirical results indicate that public investment efficiency moderates debt-to-GDP ratio whereas public investment in the midst of public sector corruption accentuates debt-to-GDP ratio. The results have important policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0060.v1
Subject: Philosophy, Arts And Humanities Keywords: ethics; values; public officers; evaluation; public institution; stakeholders
Online: 1 December 2023 (09:23:17 CET)
Ethics values for public officers are important for enhancing cultural ethical levels and keeping society free from low-level barbarian ethical values. Barbarian ethics values are reflected in animal behavior, as in some countries security agencies, and a culture based on strength is dominant, especially in political and military parties. This study gave insight into the change in security agency duties from fighting criminal activities to managing criminal activities. Keeping high-level ethical values is essential for enhancing the behavior of public officers and stakeholders in any official institution at a standard level. This study provides stakeholders with a clear vision of the different defects in public institutions and how to improve and avoid negative ethical issues. By identifying all aspects of public officers and deviations from ideal ethical values for public officers,the negative ethical values in security agency officers have been noticed for a long time due to feelings of injustice or unfairness in native citizens of any country, generating mafia-based institutions instead of police departments or security agencies in any country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0432.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: European Union; public revenues; public expenditures; regression analysis
Online: 8 October 2023 (10:08:59 CEST)
Modern countries generally deal with significant budget deficits and public debt. These countries need to rationalize their expenditures and increase revenue without major interference to economic flows. The aim of this paper is to create a model for forecasting public revenue and expenditure based on data from previous years. In the paper we formulated two hypotheses related to the validity of the set models. After detailed analysis, both hypotheses were accepted. The analysis includes all EU Member States and public revenue and expenditure data for the last decade. The significance of the analysis is reflected on the practical foundation of the pre-set theoretical views, which will have their basis in statistically significant results. By analyzing the model, we formulated the regression formulas of revenues and expenditures, which can be efficiently used in predicting these variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: recycling; public participation; public perception; recycling behavior; environment
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:35:32 CEST)
Managing household solid waste is an urban problem in recent years. To tackle this problem, recycling is one of the most effective methods applicable in waste management. Recycling in the city of Laramie in Wyoming has a history that dates to 1983 with the establishment of Ark Recycling center. Laramie officially started its curbside recycling services in September 2011 and In April 2012, the city declared its long-term goal to achieve 40% diversion rate by 2030. The study involved a mail-back survey to understand public participation landscape and factors affecting recycling behaviors and attitudes of residents in Laramie. Quantitative result of the survey responses, civic engagement score, recycling importance score recycling satisfaction and recycling behavior scores were created to understand these attributes. In addition, three key informant interviews were conducted to explore efforts of the city, the University of Wyoming and the Ark Regional Services. Findings of the study show that more than 80% of the survey respondents indicated environmental concern was the major motivation to join recycling with high level of recycling importance and satisfaction. The Study further uncovered hints that Laramie needs to introduce an aggressive educational policy, incentive policies and a Master Plan to meet its 40% waste diversion rate by 2030 by maintaining stronger public participation in its planning process and community outreach programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0392.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Public Procurement; Public Procurement Efficiency; Medical Equipment; Patients’ Satisfaction; Public Procurement Efficiency Determinants; Savings.
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:20:55 CET)
At present, the health systems of many countries face complex challenges even if their priority objectives remain the same - to provide sustainable health systems at the current and the prognostic demographic changes and requirements in a health system. The quality and the efficiency of healthcare delivery and their mutual conformity have been brought to public attention. Similarly, the quality and the efficiency of an entire process depends on the instrumentation and its procurement that represents a significant economic and procedural issue in the healthcare systems for a long time. Many reports of the public procurement processes and research studies declare this fact. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the public procurement efficiency in the health system by means of the valuation approach, or savings’ estimates that are achieved by the public procurement. The savings were defined as a percentage difference between the estimated and the final contract price. The secondary objective is to examine an influence of selected variables on a creation of savings in the public procurement process by means of a regression analysis. The researched variables are as follows: time, method, procurement, NUTS level of procurement, Common Procurement Vocabulary Code, number of offers. The analysis results showed interesting findings. The number of offers has a significantly positive impact on the savings. It means that if the number of offers increases by one unit, the savings will increase by 15.6%. Also, time variable (year) has a positive impact on the savings. Consequently, it may be assumed that the public procurement process is improving from a time perspective. It may be partially caused by the fact that a new public procurement legislative has been valid since 2015. The NUTS level has also an impact on the savings in relation to the public procurement. The public procurements which took place at the level of a state were more beneficial as the public procurements at the regional level. Also, the procurement method was statistically significant parameter of a regression analysis. The competition actions together with a negotiation process created higher savings in comparison to tenders. In case of the CPV codes, the most significant savings were achieved in the group of ‘various medicinal products’. The study’s results provide a valuable knowledge for the creators of policies and a realization of the national strategic plans within the health system. Also, these results support a creation of national and international benchmarks in this area and a networking of international partnerships in the area of a public procurement that focus on a development of methodologies and comparative platforms creation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Medical Education; Healthcare; Family Medicine; Medicine; Public Administration & Public Policy
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:03:35 CEST)
Little is known about family medicine academic staff in Taiwan, and basic data about this workforce may aid healthcare decision makers. We analysed data on Taiwan’s 13 medical schools collected by the Taiwan Association of Family Medicine from June to September 2019. Items included medical school names and total staff, and the gender, age, degree, working title (part-time/full-time), academic level, and sub-specialty of each current family medicine faculty member. A total of 116 family medicine faculty members were reported; most were male (n= 85, 73.3%). Ages ranged between 30 and 69 years, with a mean (SD) age of 43.3 (8.09). Faculty members with a master’s degree were the largest group (n= 49, 42.2%), and most were academic lecturers (n=49, 42.2%). Additionally, only about one-fourth (n=26, 22.4%) of family medicine faculty in medical schools were full-time, while the other three-fourths (n=90, 77.6%) were part-time faculty; most were located in northern Taiwan (n=79, 68.1%) and specialized in gerontology and geriatrics (n=55, 47.4%) and hospice palliative care (n=53, 45.7%). Our research provides the most complete census of family medicine academic physicians in medical schools in Taiwan. The results inform efforts to improve the establishment and development of family medicine departments in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0421.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: urban morphology; physical activities; health; public health; public space; urban health
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:02:59 CEST)
Along with environmental pollutions, urban planning has been connected to public health. The research indicates that the quality of built environments plays an important role in reducing mental disorders and overall health. The structure and shape of the city are considered as one of the factors influencing happiness and health in urban communities and the type of the daily activities of citizens. The aim of this study was to promote physical activity in the main structure of the city via urban design in a way that the main form and morphology of the city can encourage citizens to move around and have physical activity within the city. Functional, physical, cultural-social, and perceptual-visual features are regarded as the most important and effective criteria in increasing physical activities in urban spaces based on literature review. The environmental quality of urban spaces and their role in the physical activities of citizens in urban spaces were assessed by using the questionnaire tool and analytical network process (ANP) of structural equation modeling. Further, the space syntax method was utilized to evaluate the role of the spatial integration of urban spaces on improving physical activities. Based on the results, the consideration of functional diversity, spatial flexibility and integration, security, and the aesthetic and visual quality of urban spaces plays an important role in improving the physical health of citizens in urban spaces. Further, more physical activities, including motivation for walking and consequently, the sense of public health and happiness, were observed in the streets having higher linkage and space syntax indexes with their surrounding texture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0205.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Public Administration; electrification; concessions
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:29:12 CEST)
This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the More Light for Amazon (MLA) program, examining the roles played by each stakeholder involved in the concession process and identifying the limitations faced for program success. The research employs a content analysis methodology, analyzing a variety of documents, including the Program Operational Manual, Commitment Terms, news articles, and concessionaires' notes. The findings reveal the crucial role of the government as an inducer of actions, establishing objectives and guiding norms for the private sector. Conversely, concessionaires assume the role of program implementers but encounter specific limitations in remote locations, challenging the provision and maintenance of the electrical system in beneficiary communities. The implementation of microgrid systems through concessions enhances coordination and integration between generation and distribution services, allowing for increased government control and ensuring transparency, efficiency, and program effectiveness. These identified elements represent significant challenges for the implementation of public policies in remote regions of the Amazon. Overcoming these challenges take coordinated and strategic actions involving both the government and concessionaires to ensure the complete fulfillment of energy needs in MLA program beneficiary communities.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0585.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Accounting; Public sector; Nigeria
Online: 30 December 2022 (10:40:03 CET)
Accounting information is a crucial management tool for Nigerian national development services. In every state or country, accounting is crucial to maintaining social peace, political stability, and economic sustainability. The explanation for this clear truth about the development of Nigeria is not plausible given the massive multi-sectoral scope of Nigerian economic activities in both the public and private sectors. For government national progress, reliable accounting information is essential. This research aims to explore the role of accounting on public sector accountability in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0484.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: public finance; sustainable development
Online: 29 June 2018 (12:13:05 CEST)
The striving for sustainable development has become the goal of actions undertaken not only by representatives of public authorities and institutions representing this sector, but also representatives of private entities who are increasingly recognizing the benefits and sources of long-term development based on the principles and objectives of sustainable development. These are mainly based on the pursuit of synergy in the three basic areas of activities, i.e., in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions as well as in the maintenance of natural resources. The implementation of these activities is connected with the necessity of incurring financial expenditures, which the government (public sector) does not have in the required value. Therefore, in the process of sustainable development for which the government is responsible, the active participation of the financial sector (banks) is necessary. Achieving results within the alliance of the concept of sustainable development requires the setting of a kind of contract, the parties of which are the government, society, and financial institutions. The purpose of the conducted research is to indicate by which means the government can stimulate economic growth towards its sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: child; fruit; vegetables; school health services; public policy; environment and public health
Online: 29 August 2019 (17:03:20 CEST)
The School Fruit and Vegetables Scheme (SFVS) implemented by the European Union during 2009/10 aims to improve the diet of school children and to support agricultural markets and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to characterize the SFVS implementation in Spain (2009-2017). A descriptive, longitudinal, observational and retrospective study was carried out based on document analysis of annual strategies of the SFVS. We studied the average budget for the EU, the number of students enrolled, the cost of the SFVS by student and by day, the duration of the SFVS, the quantity of fruits and vegetables (FV) per student, the variety of FV, the inclusion of local, seasonal and organic foods, and the education activities (EA). The results were studied by autonomous community (AC). The budget increased from 7.4 million euros in 2009/10 to 14.4 in 2016/17. Since 2014/15, the increase came from EU funds, the number of students increased from 18% in 2009 to 20% in 2016. The quantity of FV went from 2,579 to 4,000 tons, duration increased from 9.8 to 19.6 days and the variety of fruits and vegetables increased from 20 to 21 and from 5 to 6 respectively. In AC there were important variations in EA, in the number of enrolled students (7.4% to 45.6%), in the cost per student (2.3€ to 28€) and in the duration in days (5.6 to 70 days). The inclusion of local, seasonal and organic foods was identified in 5 of the 8 years studied. The development and reach of the SFVS in Spain is still insufficient to influence dietary patterns and health in the school population. However, the SFVS has generated an economic market for agricultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0162.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: upstream social marketing; mobile government; marketing mix; public services; public administration; behavior
Online: 12 July 2019 (05:07:56 CEST)
The article analyses the main aspects of upstream social marketing for implementing of mobile government (MGov). The methodology of current research is based on the systematic literature review in the fields of MGov and social marketing. According to our findings, most researchers investigated MGov from the side of citizens (consumers) and emphasised the benefits to them while changing their attitudes and behaviours in employing mobile applications. However, as there is a lack of the researches from the side of governmental bodies, in this paper, we were contrary looking for new meanings, attitudes and values from their perspective. Limitations of employment of MGov occur due knowledge gap among decision makers and public policy formers (upstream audience). Therefore, we argue that upstream social marketing for the upstream audience would bring the success in faster MGov implementation. Specific social marketing would be mostly valuable on the municipal level that is the closest substance to the society. Thus, in our paper we emphasise the benefit of the MGov for the local upstream audience and propose possible external marketers as well as the motivating theses based on these 7P of marketing mix for the successful MGov on municipal level.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; Public AwareneSs; Public Practice; Social Distancing and Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:27:01 CEST)
Objectives: Social distancing measures are currently implemented to control COVID-19 pandemic in many countries, including Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the awareness and adherence of the Saudi population to these measures. Methods: A web-based questionnaire was designed with 16 questions (8 questions related to demographics, 3 in relation to awareness about social distancing and 5 related to overall practice of social distancing). Results: 5105 participants completed the survey [58.4% female, 66.3% young individuals (aged 18-37 years), 55.8% bachelor degree holders, and 51.0% from the western region]. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) was the main source of information about COVID-19 for most participants (78.2%). High awareness (81.3%) regarding social distancing was observed, associated mainly with female participants, those from the middle region and those with high education and income. Overall implementation of social distancing was satisfactory (score 3.13/5), with 37.8% never leaving home during the home-stay period. Better adherence to social distancing was observed for female participants, higher degree holders and those aged over 38 years. Conclusions: Organised plans by the Saudi MOH have been effective in raising awareness and improving practice of social distancing among public. However, the observed lower practice of social distancing by individuals with lower education and income indicates the need for targeted interventions to achieve better outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1298.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Spiritual Journalism; Spirituality; Public Discourse
Online: 19 June 2023 (05:23:25 CEST)
This research paper aims to critically review the state of spiritual journalism in India. Spiritual journalism is a niche form of journalism that focuses on exploring and reporting on spiritual and religious topics, practices, and perspectives. In India, a country with a rich spiritual heritage and diverse religious traditions, spiritual journalism plays a significant role in shaping public discourse and understanding of spirituality. This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of spiritual journalism in India, exploring its impact on society, its challenges, and the ethical considerations associated with its practice. By providing a critical analysis of the current state of spiritual journalism in India, this paper aims to shed light on its role, relevance, and potential for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0227.v1
Online: 12 January 2023 (10:51:17 CET)
The paper presents a theoretical and empirical assessment of this social phenomenon. The achieved scientific solution-result (Main Finding) is presented a theoretical model of the develop-ment of public citizenship in a sustainable environment has been created for the case of Lithuania. First of all, the paper discusses the conceptual issues of the expression of modernisation of civil society, highlighting and justifying the interaction of social changes and sustainable environment in economic, social, political, environmental and cultural aspects, presenting the case of Lithuania (The Case of Lithuania). On the other hand, following the United Nations Sustainable Development Strategy document, the field of progress and resilience of Lithuanian society in modern society is discussed, identifying and analysing various criteria that have been empirically tested. The authors noted that the democratic cube model was used to create a theoretical model of the development of public citizenship in a harmonious environment, and the HDI (human development index model) was also integrated. The model created by the authors systematically explains the analysis of the relationship between the expression of modernisation changes identified in the research and the formation of civil society; secondly, it substantiates the process of interaction between modernisation changes and public citizenship, discussing four fields of expression. Practical applicability of the model: it will help researchers to conceptually analyse and empirically study public citizenship; will help public policymakers and implementers to manage effectively, ensuring quality changes in society and managing new challenges, and it will also contribute to the conceptual formation of the country's long-term development strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0611.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Statistical Modelling; Education; Public Sector
Online: 25 May 2021 (13:22:59 CEST)
Academic failure, low attendance, financial difficulties, and mental illness are some of the major reasons most students drop out of high schools. We investigated how high school dropout risk is affected by socioeconomic, demographic, and institutional characteristics. Therefore, research design is composed of a literature review, Questionnaire surveys by interviewing each student. Besides, the analysis and statistical modelling, the Logistic Regression method was used. The results show that academic performance, job, lack of interest and low learning ability were the significant individual characteristics that affect the high school dropout. Moreover, parental characteristics, including financial condition, lack of awareness, and education, are significant factors associated with high school dropout rates. Some other related factors, such as adaptability and influence of the peer groups, abandoning school by siblings, and extra responsibility at home and a joint family system, are also some notable factors that significantly affect the dropout rate in schools Malakand District of KP province. This research study delivered the results that contribute to the literature in education to identify different factors like student's own, parental, institutional, and household characteristics, which affect a student being a dropout from high school in Malakand district Pakistan.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: pathogen genomics; public health; bioinformatics
Online: 11 January 2020 (11:30:10 CET)
Public health agencies are increasingly using pathogen whole genome sequencing (WGS) to support surveillance and epidemiologic investigations. As access to WGS has grown, greater amounts of molecular data have helped improve our ability to detect outbreaks, investigate transmission chains, and explore large-scale population dynamics, such as the spread of antibiotic resistance. However, the wide adoption of WGS also poses challenges due to the amount of data generated and the need to transform raw data prior to analysis. This complexity means that public health agencies may need more advanced computational infrastructure, a broader technical workforce, and new approaches to data management and stewardship. As both a guide for how this development could occur, and a place to initiate discussion, we describe ten proposals for developing and supporting an informatics infrastructure for public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0307.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: public sector; innovation strategies; optimality
Online: 25 December 2018 (14:03:10 CET)
For the time being, public sector innovation gains new and complex forms of expression: managerial, institutional, technological or communication. This fact is also due to national and international important bodies’ interest for using innovation as resource and tool for public sector development. Characterised by complexity and adaptation, the innovative processes in the public sector embrace the form of medium and long term innovation strategies, holding high key socio-economic impact on the social utility of public sector innovation. The optimality of innovation strategies becomes a tool for improved decisions in public sector management, providing the methodology for their evaluation related to the objectives of development in the public sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: eye, cataract, epidemiology, public health
Online: 19 February 2018 (16:37:16 CET)
Background: To assess the incidence and characteristic of cataract surgery in Poland from 2010 to 2015 and to interpret these findings. Patients and methods: Data from all patients who underwent cataract surgery alone or in combined procedures in Poland between January 2010 and December 2015 were evaluated. Patient data were from the national database of hospitalizations maintained by National Health Fund, data on the population of Poland were obtained from Central Statistical Office of Poland. Results: In total 1,218,777 cataract extractions (alone or combined with other procedures) were performed in 1,081,345 patients during 2010 -2015. Overall, the incidence of cataract surgery increased from 5.22/1000 person-years in year 2010 to 6.17/1000 person-years in year 2015. Phacoemulsification was performed in 97.46% of cataract extractions, and 3.02% of cataract extractions were combined procedures. The rate of one-day procedures increased from 28.3% in year 2010 to 43.1% in year 2015. The probability of second-eye surgery 12 months after the first-eye surgery increased from 44% in 2010 to 73% in 2015 (log-rank test p<0.0001). Conclusion: In Poland, from 2010 to 2015 the total incidence of cataract surgery, the number of people who underwent surgery, and the numbers of one-day and combined cataract surgeries, increased significantly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Public Health; Public Trust; Science Communication; Pedagogy; Citizen Science; Stakeholders; Informed Consent; Uncertainty Communication
Online: 7 February 2023 (02:39:30 CET)
Public trust in science was tested and relied on during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which has shaped global events since the WHO declaration in March 11, 2020. Public trust has been impacted through the government recommendations and mandates informed by public health guidance, including non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical interventions. The free-flow of ideas and in-formation so essential to the functioning of science has faced unprecedented challenge from widespread censorship in both the media and in scientific journals. This has created a poisoned environment for the building of trust between science and society. Scientific norms and ac-countability must be restored in order to rebuild the vital relationship between scientists and the public they serve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban governance; public participation; public comments; web-crawling data; qualitative content analysis; urban China
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:37:38 CEST)
Public participation is crucial in the process of urban governance in smart-city initiatives to enable urban planners and policy makers to take account of the real public needs. Our study aims to develop an analytical framework using citizen-centred qualitative data to analyse urban problems and identify the areas most needed for urban governance. Taking a Chinese megacity as the study area, we first utilise a web-crawling tool to retrieve public comments from an online comment board and employ the Baidu Application Programming Interfaces and a qualitative content analysis for data reclassification. We then analyse the urban problems reflected by negative comments in terms of their statistical and spatial distribution, and the associative factors to explain their formation. Our findings show that urban problems are dominantly related to construction and housing, and most frequently appear in industry-oriented areas and newly-developed economic development zones on the urban fringe, where the reconciling of government-centered governance and private governance by real estate developers and property management companies are most needed. Areas with higher land price and a higher proportion of aged population tend to have less urban problems, while various types of civil facilities affect the prevalence of urban problems differently.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Nutritional Surveillance; Public Health; Community Health Nursing; Public Health Nursing; Children’s health; Community Participation
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:36 CEST)
Effectively responding to children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique requires a community-based care approach grounded in sound nursing research that is evidence-based. The Community Assessment, Intervention, and Empowerment Model (MAIEC) is a nursing theoretical model that bases clinical decision-making for community health nurses using communities as a unit of care. We used the MAIEC to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis to address children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique. Objectives: (1) To conduct a descriptive study of children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in a school community in Mavalane, Mozambique, and (2) to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis using the MAIEC clinical decision-making matrix in the same school community. Method: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children using anthropometric data, including brachial perimeter and the tricipital skinfold, and standard deviation for the relation of weight-height, in a sample of 227 children. To assess community management of the problem and identify a community-based nursing diagnosis, we surveyed 176 parents/guardians and 49 education professionals, using a questionnaire based on the MAIEC clinical decision matrix as a reference. Results: Malnutrition was identified in more than half of the children (51.3%). We also identified a community-based nursing diagnosis of impaired community management related to the promotion of child health and healthy eating as evident by lack of community leadership, participation, and processing among more than 70% of the community members (parents/guardians and education professionals). Conclusion: A nursing diagnosis and diagnostic criteria for nutritional status and community management were identified. The need to intervene using a multidisciplinary public health approach is imperative, with the school community as the unit of care. In addition, reliable anthropometric data were used to complement the nursing diagnosis and guide future public health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0447.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Vaccine; Sentiment analysis; Public Sentiment Scenarios framework; COVID-19; Coronavirus; Twitter; Textual analytics; Public policy
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:51:57 CEST)
There exists a compelling need to better understand the temporal dynamics of public sentiment towards COVID-19 vaccines in the US on a national and state-wise level for facilitating appropriate public policy applications. Our analysis of social media data from early February of 2021 and late March of 2021 shows that in spite of overall strength of positive sentiment, and increasing numbers of Americans being fully vaccinated, negative sentiment about COVID-19 vaccines still persists among sections of people who are hesitant towards the vaccine. In this study, we performed sentiment analytics on vaccine tweets, studied changes in public sentiment over time, conducted vaccination sentiment validation using actual vaccination data from the US CDC and Household Pulse Survey (HPS), explored influence of maturity of Twitter user-accounts and generated geographic mapping of sentiments by location of Twitter users. Furthermore, we leverage the emotion polarity based Public Sentiment Scenarios (PSS) framework which was developed for COVID-19 sentiment analytics, to systematically analyze directions for public policy processes to potentially improve the administration of vaccines. Application of the PSS framework provides important time sensitive insights for state and federal government agencies and associated organizations to better implement public policy processes for healthcare management, communication, transparency, motivation and societal operational policies such as social distancing. These insights are expected to contribute to processes that can expedite the vaccination program and move closer to the cherished herd immunity goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1191.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hydrogen; H2-ICE; Decarbonization; Public transport
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:25:11 CET)
The H2-ICE project aims at developing, through numerical simulation, a new generation of hybrid powertrains featuring a hydrogen fueled Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) suitable for 12-meter urban buses, in order to provide a reliable and cost-effective solution for the abatement of both CO2 and criteria pollutant emissions. The full exploitation of the potential of such a traction system requires a substantial enhancement of the state of the art since several issues have to be addressed. In particular, the choice of the more suitable fuel injection system, as well as the control of the combustion process, are extremely challenging. Firstly, a high-fidelity 3D-CFD model will be exploited to analyze the in-cylinder H2 fuel injection through supersonic flows. Then, after the optimization of the injection and combustion process, a 1D model of the whole engine system will be built and calibrated allowing the identification of a “sweet spot”, in the ultra-lean combustion region, characterized by extremely low NOx emissions and, at the same time, high combustion efficiencies. Moreover, to further enhance the engine efficiency well above 40 %, different Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems will be carefully scrutinized, including both Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)-based recovery units as well as electric turbo-compounding. A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system will be developed to further reduce NOx emissions to near-zero levels. Finally, a dedicated torque-based control strategy for the ICE coupled with the Energy Management Systems (EMS) of the hybrid powertrain, both optimized by exploiting Vehicle-To-Everything (V2X) connection, allow targeting an H2 consumption of 0.1 kg/km. Technologies developed in the H2-ICE project will enhance the know-how necessary to design and build engines and after-treatment systems for the efficient exploitation of H2 as a fuel, as well as for their integration into hybrid powertrains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: blockchain; public services; governance approach; technology
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:13:56 CET)
Blockchain is considered a technological trend with a unique and unprecedented foundation of ways of working, and has the potential to fundamentally change society in conducting activities related to the public or private sector. Although the academic literature on blockchain is generally focused on cryptocurrencies, in recent years, literature with different perspectives has begun to emerge regarding the use of blockchain in the context of the public sector. The unique characteristics of how blockchain technology works make it an innovation that is expected to change many activities, structures, and processes related to the implementation of public sector activities, especially in public services such as administrative processes, welfare provision, and regulatory practices. This article discusses through a systematic literature review about the potential use of blockchain in public services. This literature review identifies the types of public services most likely affected by the introduction of blockchain. In addition, this article highlights the benefits, potentials, and challenges and risks of blockchain for governments and citizens/society in general. Governments, in general, can optimize efficiency and tracking through the use of blockchain, but regulatory uncertainty and scalability capabilities being major challenges, which are still poorly researched in the literature, can benefit from reduced bureaucracy and improved coordination through blockchain adoption, despite the lack of blockchain knowledge and skills being significant barriers to its implementation. For citizens or the public, security and transparency are key benefits, while the main risk lies in data security concerns. The article closes by noting a number of limitations in the existing literature and providing suggestions and recommendations for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1876.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: public health; social media; misinformation; addiction
Online: 28 September 2023 (17:56:59 CEST)
This article explores the significant parallels between big tobacco companies and major social networking sites regarding their influence on public health and society. While acknowledging the fundamental differences in their products and services, the paper scrutinises both industries through five primary lenses: addiction, misinformation, lack of regulation, harm to public health, and youth targeting. Both industries exhibit addictive characteristics, have faced criticism for the spread of misinformation, operate with limited regulation and transparency, and have raised concerns about targeting young demographics. Moreover, the potential harm to public health is a significant concern, with tobacco leading to well-established physical health issues. At the same time, excessive social media use has been linked to psychological harm, particularly among young users. The comparison underscores the necessity for greater regulation and oversight of social media companies, highlighting the urgent need for more comprehensive policies to mitigate potential harm and safeguard public health in the digital age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Monkeypox outbreak; Public health; emergency; Peru
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:11:23 CEST)
Monkeypox is a zoonotic illness caused by the Orthopoxvirus monkeypox virus (MPXV). Since 1970, outbreaks of MPXV have occurred in several Sub-Saharan African countries. However, from May 2022 to April 2023, recent outbreaks of MPXV occurred in several countries outside of Africa, and these cases quickly spread to over 100 non-endemic countries on all continents. Because of this, in July 2022, World Health Organization declared monkeypox a Public Health Emergency of International. MPXV disproportionately affects men who have sex with men and members of the HIV-infected population. The current strategy for control and pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis for people at high risk is vaccination. In this context, Peru has the fourth-highest number of MPXV cases in Latin America. Because of this, in this review, we describe public health indicators in Peru and reflect on the COVID-19 pandemic so that health authorities can join forces to identify and control MPXV transmission routes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0551.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; preschool education; inclusion; public policies
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:41:10 CEST)
In this study, we analyze the perspectives of Early Childhood Educators, working in various teaching sectors, on Inclusion in Preschool Education, following the publication of Decree-Law No. 54/2018, of July 6th, at a time when Learning and Inclusion Support Measures are being extended to all children, and when the SARS-CoV-19 (COVID-19) pandemic prevails in Portugal and worldwide. Based on a mixed-methodological approach and the application of a questionnaire survey to 250 Early Childhood Educators, we reflect on the implementation of the legal framework, the involvement of the Multidisciplinary Learning and Inclusion Support Team (EMAEI), teacher training, pedagogical/collaborative work, and support mobilized for Preschool Education children. The results obtained indicate quality and effectiveness in the pedagogical plan and collaborative work between teachers and specialist technicians, although higher education in the field of Inclusive Education does not seem to provide professionals with the necessary and in-depth knowledge on the subject. They also indicate that, alongside dissatisfaction with the insufficient support provided to Preschool Education children, the relevant Diploma is not fully applied, with doubts still remaining about its application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0137.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Government; Hospitalization; Pandemics; Public policy; Transportation.
Online: 9 February 2022 (11:04:11 CET)
To effectively combat the COVID-19 pandemic, the state government of Bahia, Brazil, has distributed intensive and non-intensive care units along the nine regions that divide the state of Bahia, such that COVID-19 patients could be easily hospitalized in health care units located at the same regions where they live. However, the observed hospitalizations networks for COVID-19 patients shows that a considerable number of COVID-19 patients had to travel beyond their region of residence to be hospitalized. Hence, this study indicates that the current distribution of health care units in Bahia, Brazil, is not sufficient to effectively reduce the distances traveled by COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization. We believe that such unnecessary travels to distant hospitals may put the sick patients as well as healthy people involved in the transportation process in risk, further delaying the stabilization of the COVID-19 pandemic in each region of the state of Bahia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0608.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: co-production; knowledge production; public services
Online: 22 April 2021 (13:23:35 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore conceptual approaches in co-production studies and to examine current research trends of the study. The conceptual paper includes research articles related to co-production in public administration field. By thoroughly scrutinizing 32 research works of co-production, this study highlights major loopholes in the field of the study. The contributions of the study are: (1) identifying two common characteristics of co-production, (2) categorising three types of co-producing by end-users, and (3) finding that goals and success of co-production are more beneficial for service providers though its initial approach is citizen-centric approach. We suggest that future studies should be (1) to focus on reasons for co-production failures or success, (2) to discover further hindrances for co-production in service production, (3) to examine influencing factors on service providers as well as institutional impacts on co-production process, and (4) to include practical assessment in co-production study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0714.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Public Health, Sport policy, Sport access
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:22:47 CET)
It has been shown that assessing the capacity and quality of sports equipment is important to develop a better understanding of sport participation. Different organizations are involved in the provision of sports products and services. In this regard, policymakers need to design a framework to give people more access to sports facilities. It appears that geographical access to such facilities can affect differences in sport participation around the globe. In this study, Shiraz city districts and the Shiraz sports clubs list were collected. The list of sports clubs was matched with Shiraz districts in March 2020. The significance of the relationship between area, the population of each region, per capita construction budget, frequency of clubs, green area, number of parks, population to number of club’s ratio, and area to the number of club’s ratio indicators and the number of sports clubs were analyzed by SPSS version 22 Using the Spearman correlation coefficient test. There were statistically significant relationships between district and population of each region, District and sports club, District and Population to the number of clubs, area and green area, per capita construction budget and the number of parks, per capita construction budget and population of each region (p<0.05 for all). A significant correlation between the districts and the Population to the number of club’s ratio shows that there is no proper distribution of sports facilities in different urban areas. For this reason, in some areas, people may not have adequate access to sports facilities. Also, a significant correlation was observed between total area and green area, per capita construction budget and the number of parks and Per capita construction budget and the population of each region. So, the health level of the people who live in undeveloped districts is endangered and more attention should be paid to them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0358.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: healthcare sector; financial performance; public hospitals
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:27:46 CEST)
Hospital indebtedness is a complex and very diverse phenomenon. Thus, the goal of this study is the comparison of the financial performance of public hospitals in accordance with their ownership and size. The results of the research lead to the conclusion that the vast majority of public hospitals are indebted, and their ownership structure does not affect their financial condition. What is more, the statistical analysis depicted that large Marshall hospitals are less indebted than poviat-commune ones. In the group of medium-size hospitals, the situation was the opposite. Moreover, the study did not confirm the significant relationship between the size or ownership and the financial status of the hospital. The analysis conducted in the article is aimed at filling in the gap in studies comparing the indebtedness between different types of public hospitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0181.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Nigeria; disease drivers; public health; COVID19
Online: 9 July 2020 (10:49:11 CEST)
Given the pace of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and its relatively high mortality rate, COVID-19, has the potential to become the most severe pandemic in recent times. This virus’s spread across international borders has triggered different responses in countries around the globe with a spectrum of mild, moderate to severe outcomes. Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country with many densely populated cities, presents a unique situation for the explosive spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, at the point of this writing, the number of reported confirmed infection and mortality is comparatively lower to other countries with dense urban populations. The exact reasons for this are not clear but include societal, political and infrastructural factors that will influence the course of the outbreak in Nigeria. In this perspective, we have described the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak and its associated peculiarities. We identify critical steps that remain to be taken to contain and control the outbreak in Nigeria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: marine biotoxins; contaminated seafood; public health
Online: 29 December 2018 (02:31:01 CET)
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are natural events produced by massive concentration of toxic phytoplankton that can color red, ocher, brown or yellow large extensions of water, its intensity depends on the different species of phytoplankton involved in the proliferation. The spreading of these formations involves an interaction of biological, chemical, meteorological and anthropogenic factors. Several species with potential toxicity have been reported along Mexican coasts, such as Gymnodinium catenatum, Karenia brevis, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. The toxic bloom not only causes an impact during the event, it produces negative effects afterward, such as accumulating deposits of organic matter, alterations of benthic community structure and composition, species presence/absence, and bioaccumulation of toxins in organisms such as bivalve molluscs mainly. Poisoning may occur by consuming contaminated seafood or by direct exposure to aerosols of the toxins, which can provoke diarrhea or even death. Due to the impact of this type of event on the economy, environment and public health, strategies for monitoring, prevention, and systematic mitigation have been implemented for the evaluation of HAB effects. The aim of this review was to determine the state-of-the art of HAB, their reports and effects on the environment and public health in Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate risk; climate change; public perception
Online: 6 August 2016 (04:59:47 CEST)
Even though Greece is considered a vulnerable region in terms of climate hazards, public perception and attitude do not always identify climate change as an important environmental area of concern, especially when compared to socio-economic issues. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this paper analyses trends that exist, peoples’ opinion and awareness with regards to climate risk and how willing they are to change current lifestyle, to pay or to act to minimize or to prevent the risk. Conventional wisdom of this paper is to highlight factors that influence individual perception and point out drivers of behavior change that can support efficiently future adaptation plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1936.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Accountability; Essence; Financial Reporting; Effective Communication; Public
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:23:33 CET)
The concept of public financial accountability, often associated with account-rendering, lacks a clear and comprehensive definition in the realm of accounting literature. Disentanglement the true essence of a phenomenon is essential, as formal definitions can only provide a superficial understanding. This study seeks to delve into the core principles of public financial accountability and their implications for financial reporting in the public sector. Applying a qualitative approach, data was gathered through in-depth interviews with 25 Nigerian scholars, professionals, and public affairs experts. The analysis reveals that the essence of public financial accountability lies in upholding citisens' trust in public officials, ensuring the responsible management of public financial resources for the greater public good, and effectively communicating financial decisions, actions, and outcomes to the public through a transparent reporting mechanism. This study sheds light on the fundamental nature of financial accountability in the public sector, enhancing our understanding of its significance in governance and financial reporting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1844.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: climate change; public spending; agriculture sector; GMM
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:06:16 CET)
Climate change not only affects weather conditions, patterns, and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events but also changes how governments spend money. Agriculture is an important sector of the European Union (EU), and it is projected to decrease by 16% by 2050, therefore a third of the EU budget has been spent on agricultural funding, adaptation, and climate action. The effect of climate change on agriculture is mixed and dependent on the country and its location. The southern EU is adversely affected while the northern EU is positively affected by the changes in weather patterns. The main goal of this paper is to gain insight regarding the effect that climate change has on public spending in relation to the agricultural sector of the EU, by using the pooled OLS and GMM methods. The study concluded that agriculture has a significant impact on public spending in the southern countries of the EU, where it represents a significant portion of the GDP. Inflation influences public spending in the whole EU region, the northern and southern countries of the EU. Rain has a moderately significant impact on public spending in the whole EU region. It is advised that governments maintain a controllable level of inflation using fiscal and monetary policy that will implicitly control public spending.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Supercomputers; Pandemic; Drug Discovery; Public Health Preparedness
Online: 19 October 2023 (05:19:13 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has unveiled the critical role that supercomputers play in addressing global health crises. This perspective article explores the transformative impact of supercomputing in pandemic response, highlighting how these powerful machines have transitioned from crisis management tools to essential components of preparedness strategies. In this article, we examine the key contributions of supercomputers in combating the pandemic, including their ability to accelerate scientific research, facilitate data analysis, model complex scenarios, and optimize resource allocation. Furthermore, we delve into the role of supercomputing in strengthening public health infrastructure and preparedness. We analyze the lessons learned from the pandemic and emphasize the need for proactive investment in supercomputing capabilities, data infrastructure, and computational expertise as a crucial element of pandemic preparedness efforts. By harnessing the potential of supercomputers, countries can establish robust computational frameworks that enable real-time monitoring, early detection, and effective response to future outbreaks. Moreover, we address the challenges faced by supercomputing initiatives, including the need for enhanced international collaboration, equitable access to computing resources, and the ethical considerations associated with data privacy and security. We discuss potential strategies to overcome these challenges and foster a global network of interconnected supercomputing centers dedicated to pandemic preparedness and response. Finally, we highlight ongoing research and development efforts aimed at advancing supercomputing technologies, such as exascale computing and quantum computing, and their potential to revolutionize pandemic response. We emphasize the importance of sustained investment in research and development to ensure that supercomputing remains at the forefront of future pandemic preparedness strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0624.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: cemetery; waste management; legislation; public health; Brazil
Online: 11 September 2023 (05:29:17 CEST)
Cemeteries can be compared to landfills since their leachate, also known as necroleachate, can be transported and pollute groundwater, surface waters, and soils. In Brazil, the cemeteries management is the responsibility of states and municipalities, to ensure that they do not generate negative environmental impacts and risks to public health. This article aims to discuss Brazilian sanitary-environmental legislation relating to cemetery waste management. Among the Brazilian states, half have sanitary-environmental legislation for cemeteries, and between the municipalities, only 19 have specific legislation. The legislation is broad and has many gaps, leading to environmental vulnerability and risk of contamination for the people who live in the surrounding area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2071.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: marine pollution; public awareness; electronic platforms; webGIS
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:38:57 CEST)
The analysis of the 2002 Prestige tanker accident showed how public misinformation can worsen marine pollution incidents, rendering their management suboptimal as these evolve, raising thus the issue of appropriately informing and educating coastal and island populations at risk. Two decades later, developments in electronic platforms, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in Automatic Identification System (AIS) for ship signal transmission, and in social media, provide a set of means for public monitoring of such incidents, creating the possibility to antagonize effec-tively erroneous, or malevolent information which can hinder efficient actions for containing ma-rine pollution risks even without active training of populations concerned. The authors, in the framework of development of the Marine Coastal Observatory and Risk Management project “AEGIS+”, have developed E-S.A.V.E., an online platform which: a) meets the needs of different users as revealed by a survey run across groups of them, b) uses a suitable Geographic Infor-mation Systems (GIS) environment, c) cooperates with public authorities, for the reliable update of automated systems, and d) employs an artificial intelligence (AI) supported tool for social me-dia monitoring; the platform also provides educational and information national and interna-tional resources on marine environmental protection and sustainable maritime logistics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0237.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: radiation; radioactivity; child leukemia; Chernobyl; public health
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:32:37 CEST)
2003 it is shown that after the Chernobyl accident, childhood leukemia by single age and year of birth in the 0-4y cohort increased significantly in Wales and Scotland combined in the period 1986-1990 compared with controls born 1970-1985 and 1991-1994. Relative risk RR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.20<RR<1.65; p = 0.00004. These exposure periods were chosen because whole body Caesium-137 monitoring had demonstrated that internal exposures persisted for more than 4 years. The dose-response exhibits saturation and reversal, interpreted as biological censoring effects in the developing individual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0902.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: hand milking; inflammation; public health; udder health
Online: 25 April 2023 (08:35:22 CEST)
The assessment of the prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) in dairy farms is essential to validate the health status of the mammary gland. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of SCM in dual purpose livestock systems in Arauca, Colombian Orinoquia, through the analysis of the values found by the field diagnostic tests California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Electric Conductivity (EC). Milk samples were taken from the individual mammary quarters of 481 cows. The general prevalence, per affected room and the total number of rooms was determined according to the values obtained for each test using two methods of analysis. An ANOVA was performed to determine the difference between prevalence’s, a correlation analysis, and an analysis of sensitivity and specificity. The general prevalence was similar between the tests (CMT = 31.4%; EC = 29.7%) (p > 0.05). The prevalence of the total quarters was lower with EC (11.3% vs 14.2%) (p < 0.05). The correlations between tests were significant, but with low values (rs = 0.20-0.25). CMT and EC test concordance showed a sensitivity between 0.35-0.45 and a specificity of 0.75-0.90. The two tests showed positive results in detecting the same animals with or without the presence of the infection, although some animals that were positive for one test were not positive for the other test. The test EC classified animals and their quarters as SCM positive or negative in a more similar way to that obtained with CMT. The two diagnostic tests showed a general low prevalence of SCM in the livestock systems evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0325.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Maternal satisfaction; Gondar public health facility; Ethiopia
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:37:22 CEST)
Background: Immunization prevents over 4-6 million deaths each year worldwide. Ensuring mother satisfaction is an important means of preventing the death of children caused by communicable diseases. However, in Ethiopia, there is paucity of evidence on maternal satisfaction with immunization services. Thus, this study is aimed at assessing the level of maternal satisfaction with childhood immunization services and associated factors among children’s caregivers. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 556 systematically selected children’s caregivers in public health facilities at Gondar Town from May through June, 2022. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. P≤ 0.25 during the bivariate binary logistic regression analysis was included in the multivariate analysis. From the multivariable analysis, variables with p ≤ 0.05 were declared statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of maternal satisfaction towards childhood immunization services was 69.3%(95%CI: 65.5, 73.1%). Of mothers, 45.3% had adequate knowledge, while 43.9% had favorable attitude. Mothers 19-24 years old [AOR = 5.29; 95%CI:2.58,10.86], mothers who waited less than one hour [AOR = 3.03; 95%CI: 1.92,4.77], mothers less than thirty minutes waiting in health facility[AOR=1.98;95%CI:1.24,3.15], mother feel happy during service[ AOR=4.00; 95%CI: 2.53,6.34], mothers adequate knowledge [AOR=2.91; 95%CI: 1.79, 4.73] and had favorable attitude [AOR=3.64; 95%CI: 2.25, 5.91] were significantly associated with maternal satisfaction during childhood immunization services.Conclusions: The overall level of mothers’ satisfaction with childhood immunization services was considerably lower as compared with other studies. Thus, the town health office and concerned stakeholders need more efforts to improve mothers’ satisfaction with childhood immunization services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0172.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Migrants; COVID-19 pandemic; Public Health; Islam
Online: 19 April 2022 (03:49:32 CEST)
This study explored the living situations, financial conditions, religious obligations, and social distancing of Muslims during the covid 19 pandemic. In total, 20 Muslim community members living in the Kanto region were recruited, 15 of them were included in the in-depth qualitative and five in the focus group interviews. The Snowball method was used, and the questionnaires were designed into four themes. The audio/video interviews were conducted via Zoom and NAVIO was used to analyse the data thematically. The major Muslim events were cancelled, and the recommended physical distancing was maintained during the prayers at home and in the mosques. The Japanese government's financial support to each person was a beneficial step towards social protection, which was highlighted and praised by every single participant. Regardless of religious obligations, the closer of all major mosques in Tokyo demonstrates to the Japanese community how serious they are about adhering to the public health guidelines during the pandemic. This study highlighted that the pandemic has affected the religious patterns and behaviour of Muslims from inclusive to exclusive in a community and narrated the significance of religious commitments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0540.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Intellectual Property Legislations; Public University Libraries; Jordan
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:46:19 CEST)
Despite the scientific and technological development, libraries of Jordanian universities suffer from an obvious lack of digital information resources, because for many reasons, the most important of these is the non-application of intellectual property legislation (IPL) related to these resources. This study investigated the reality of the application of intellectual property legislation related to digital information resources at the libraries of public universities in Jordan. The population study consisted of all employees of departments of digital information resources. The study sample was (74) employees. Texts of regulations for the intended libraries and the Jordanian copyright law No. (22) for the year (1992) were reviewed and analyzed. In addition, a questionnaire was developed regarding the actual application of intellectual property legislation relating to digital resources at the university libraries in Jordan. Results revealed that the application of IP legislation relating to digital resources at the libraries of public universities in Jordan was moderate and that the supervising to the libraries of universities from the National Library regarding the protection of intellectual property rights of digital resources was moderate. The study recommended the application of intellectual property legislation related to digital resources in the intended libraries, this could be achieved through including intellectual property legislation in the regulations of public services in the intended libraries, to provide for the terms of protecting IP rights for digital resources, improving the legislation, developing of the Jordanian copyright law to be compatible with digital information resources, providing the necessary support for these libraries, and emphasizing the role of the National Library.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0509.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Public Perception; Climate Change; Human Health; Bangladesh
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:50:37 CET)
The main purpose of this research is to analyze the perception of climate change impacts on human health in Bangladesh through data from nationality representative surveys conducted in some district of Bangladesh. In Bangladesh there have a few research has been conducted on public perceptions about the impact of climate change on human health. A structured questionnaire method was conducted, and data collected from 615 respondents. The findings of this study reveal that out of 615 respondents, 76.0% of the respondents replied positively while remaining 24.0%, almost one-fourth of total respondents, indicated that they have not heard the term climate change before. Knowledgeable in climate change, 92.5% of respondents agreed that climate change has an impact on human health while only 7.5% respondents disagreed with this statement. 90.5% of respondents argued that they are agreed with the opinion that climate change is a serious threat to human health.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: research; public health; innovation; decision making; review
Online: 21 October 2020 (11:26:17 CEST)
SIGNIFICANCE Putting worth on research and selection of studies by importance are crucial in medical innovation. Practical applications include choosing personal study topics, publication review, study grant selection, and decisions of spending or misspending billions in public health. Multiple studies raised alarm that current methods perform poorly in reproducibility, prediction of best research and objectivity. I propose using the metrics how much disease burden is reduced and calculating objective, numerical research value. The concept is that worth of medical research is not subjective but can be reproducible and numerically quantified. The method increases transparency by giving decision makers an externally accountable proof, and frees peer reviewers to check scientific integrity. Its numerical form can capture small differences important in competition between studies. ABSTRACT Finding value and selecting knowledge by importance are crucial in medical innovation. Applications include individuals designing research, funding organizations selecting grants, journals – publications, institutions – priorities in public health and health policy, and decision makers spending or misspending billions of research funds. Currently finding value of knowledge is done by peer review together with checking scientific integrity. Multiple studies raised alarm that it performs poorly in prediction of highest citations, bias, transparency and quality. The resulting problems include perception of slow medical progress and wasting funds and time. I introduce a standard, objective and numerical method for finding value of medical research. It measures disease burden prevented by new knowledge contained in a study or a publication. In its simple form, it is calculated by multiplying disease prevalence, disease burden, and efficacy of the therapy. It can be modified for risk of failure, multi-disease effect and for ethical considerations. The process is described step-by-step in terms common in medical practice. A quick estimate is often sufficient. The advantage is objectivity, since it is calculated from real world data. This gives transparency and externally accountability of decision making. The second advantage is a numerical form. This can measure small differences in research value which, in sharp competition, determine which studies are selected. A researcher can calculate the value of own future effort. Institutions might ask to provide it at submission. The method is also applicable to broad policy analysis, objective evaluation of scientific achievement and bibliometric studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: anxiety; psychological health; public health; COVID-19
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:21:47 CEST)
The epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) has brought many changes to people's life. This study aims to analysis Chinese people's psychological change and life after quarantining Wuhan and explore the influencing factors. Based on data from a web-survey after quarantining Wuhan (N=3268), the principal-component-analysis (PCA), multiple-linear-regression (MLR), propensity-score-matching (PSM) were used to explore the psychological change of people in China and the influencing factors. 83.3% of the respondents said that the impact of the epidemic on their life had increased after quarantining Wuhan. A considerable proportion of people's anxiety increased, being reflected in negative emotion, behavioral response and physiological response. The proportion of people who said their anxiety had increased in Wuhan was higher than that in other regions (p <0.05). The anxiety of people who were in medical isolation increased less than those who were not (p <0.05). All three aspects of people’s anxiety were positively related with time of medical isolation and degree of the attention on the epidemic (p＜0.05) except the effect of attention degree on the physiological response (p＝0.06). The measure of medical isolation at home should be advocated. Yet people should reduce the concern for the epidemic while paying attention to self-protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: public space; smart-city; children; affordance; Sardinia
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:41:08 CEST)
The global process of urbanization, and the modification of social interaction determined by the pandemic crisis poses the issue of the place of vulnerable users, and in particular children, within the contemporary city. This research aims to elaborate a theoretical and methodological framework, based on the concepts of affordance and capability, for analyzing the potential of public spaces to enable and support children’s independent activities. This potential, or meaningful usefulness, is expressed by the Index of Meaningful Usefulness of public Urban Spaces (IUIS). The latter is calculated via the tool ‘Opportunities for Children in Urban Spaces’ (OCUS). This methodology is applied to the analysis of significant public spaces within the historic center of the city of Iglesias in Sardinia, Italy. The results reveal adequate usefulness of the selected spaces, while underlining criticalities related to intrinsic spatial and physical attributes. The application to the case study confirms the validity of the theoretical and methodological framework embodied in the OCUS tool for supporting urban design and planning by orienting place-shaping processes towards the acknowledgement of children’s needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0242.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Frailty; Public Health; Global Burden of Disease
Online: 11 July 2020 (16:16:20 CEST)
Frailty is an important age-associated risk-state. Despite this, many countries lack population estimates and large heterogeneity exists amongst studies. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, provides comparable high-quality population-level data for 195 countries and territories. Frailty has never been measured in the GBD studies. This analysis applies the deficit accumulation model to construct a novel frailty index (FI) using the GBD 2017 dataset. Standard FI criteria were applied to all GBD categories such that selected items were health-related, age-correlated, sufficiently prevalent, did not saturate at an early age, had little redundancy/duplication, covered a range of systems, were plausible and were available serially for the same population. From all 554 GBD items, 36 were selected including 26 non-communicable diseases, 3 metabolic risks, 3 biological impairments, infectious diarrheal diseases, protein-energy malnutrition, injurious falls, and low physical activity. Variable face validity was displayed against a selection of established FIs. The mean GBD-FI score for the global population aged ≥70 years in 2017 was 0.16; scores were higher in females than males (0.16 vs 0.15, respectively). Deficits accumulated with age at an estimated rate of 0.026 per year. Adding the mean GBD-FI scores to a regression model including country-level variables for demographics (proportion ≥85 years, proportion female), healthcare quality (HAQ index), and development (SDI) increased the adjusted r2 value from 27.0% to 39.6% (p<0.001) for predicting country-level death rates from non-communicable diseases, suggesting that the GBD-FI is a useful predictor of mortality. Further analysis is required to compare the reliability and predictive validity of the GBD-FI with existing frailty tools
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0340.v1
Online: 28 June 2020 (19:20:58 CEST)
While it is not new that Nigeria is challenged by a huge infrastructure deficit, the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the country’s comatose healthcare system. Given the country’s dwindling revenue, massive debt profile and the inability of the public-sector to efficiently manage public facilities in the country, this paper examines how the public-private partnership model of infrastructure procurement can be deployed as a solution for Nigeria’s healthcare crisis. In addition to the above, this paper takes a look at how a partnership with the private sector can aid Nigeria’s quest towards achieving healthcare-related Sustainable Development Goals. The paper also considers two healthcare-based projects as case studies to serve as lessons for future projects in the country. Among others, the paper recommends a holistic long-term solution for the country’s healthcare needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0324.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: contagions; sanitary devices; public health; social sustainability
Online: 23 March 2020 (01:17:38 CET)
This article aims to understand the domains and conceptual uses of contagion, its modalities and its effects, in its different historical contexts and meanings, as an expression of the process of interdependence between the positions and the different points of view of different actors involved in multiple scientific, moral, social and political challenges. Another objective focuses on understanding the process of collective management of contagion, disease and health, where prevention is an essential element of its objectives and justifications, its discursive order, as well as its practical activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0235.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chronic wound; hospital cost; epidemiology; public health
Online: 20 May 2019 (09:53:44 CEST)
Background: Chronic lower limb ulcers (CLLU) have an important burden to the individual and the healthcare system. However, there is a lack of information about the cost of CLLU in Argentina.Objective: To determinate the number and cost of consultation and hospitalization associated to CLLU in a public hospital in Argentina. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Cost estimation were calculated based on days of stay, treatments and laboratory tests in a inpatient population and the number of consultations, treatments and laboratory tests, in a outpatient population. Results: In 2013 and 2014, the overall number of consultation with ICD-10 codes was 7,224 and the number of inpatient was 359. The mean age for male and female outpatient consultations was 59.53(±13.06) years and 59.04(±10.93), respectively. For CLLU male and female inpatient, the mean age was 63.9(±10.4) years and 54.5(±8.6) years, respectively. The length of stay was 22.88 days. There was a mean of 0.41 surgeries per patient where 25% were amputations. The mean annual cost in a single public hospital was US$4,053.65 per inpatient and US$3,589.24 per outpatient. Conclusion: Cost information allows new public health policies to reduce socioeconomic burden due to CLLU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0484.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Security; Education; Public Theology; Islam; Global Jihadism
Online: 25 July 2018 (12:58:28 CEST)
The article mounts an argument for public theology as an appropriate if not vital adjunct to contemporary education’s addressing of security issues in light of current world events with indisputable religious and arguably quasi-theological foundations. It will briefly expound on the history of thought that has marginalized theology as a public discipline and then move to justify the counter view that the discipline, at least in the form of public theology, has potential to address matters of such public concern in a unique and helpful way. The article will culminate with an exploration of Global Jihadism as a case study that illustrates the usefulness of public theology in understanding it better and so allowing for a response with potential to be more informed and security-assured than is commonly effected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: Security; Education; Public Theology; Islam; Global Jihadism
Online: 16 July 2018 (15:21:36 CEST)
The article mounts an argument for public theology as an appropriate if not vital adjunct to contemporary education’s addressing of security issues in light of current world events with indisputable religious and arguably quasi-theological foundations. It will briefly expound on the history of thought that has marginalized theology as a public discipline and then move to justify the counter view that the discipline, at least in the form of public theology, has potential to address matters of such public concern in a unique and helpful way. The article will culminate with an exploration of Global Jihadism as a case study that illustrates the usefulness of public theology in understanding it better and so allowing for a response with potential to be more informed and security-assured than is commonly effected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Nietzsche; ethics; herd morality; mediocrity; public life
Online: 14 March 2018 (07:50:44 CET)
Nietzsche is almost always regarded as one of the thinkers who advocate extreme individualism, totally indifferent to or exclusively polemical towards the public human dimension. While this is very difficult to contradict, if we read his texts carefully we can see how his constant celebration of the individual runs parallel to an acute awareness of living in a new era, which he defined as ‘the century of the multitude and the masses’. The herd, conformism, mediocrity, public opinion: a civilisation in which community attempts suffocate all individual inspiration, and which therefore seems to row in the opposite direction. Although Nietzsche often uses collective life merely as a negative pole for more effectively emphasising the individual, his provocative words—pushed to the limits of the inexorable victory of the herd and of the paradoxical impossibility of all that is ‘public’—offer us a direct testimony of the tragic way of life of the man of his time. This provides us with an extremely clear and interesting phenomenological cross-section of the social sphere, as well as a very finely tuned and valuable seismograph for the continual monitoring of our everyday coexistence with and perception of the constantly incumbent dangers of its degeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: foodborne diseases; outbreaks; surveillance; epidemiology; public health
Online: 21 December 2017 (05:00:55 CET)
Background: Foodborne disease is a major public health concern in both developed and developing countries. China has established a nationwide Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) for collection and periodic reporting of data on the occurrence and causes of foodborne disease outbreaks in China. Each provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducts the system working. Methods We reviewed foodborne disease outbreaks that occurred during 2011-2016 in Shandong Province from the FDOSS. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the median number of ill persons in outbreaks. All data analysis was performed using Epi Info 7. Results: During 2011-2016, Shandong CDC received reports of 1043 foodborne disease outbreaks, resulting in 8078 illnesses, 2442 hospitalizations, and 17 deaths. Hotels were the most common setting. Among the 744 (71.3%) outbreaks with an implicated food or contaminated ingredient reported, 704 (94.6%) could be assigned to one of 17 predefined commodity categories. Of the 280 outbreaks with a known aetiology, 117(41.8%) were caused by poisonous plants and animals and their toxins, 39(13.9) were caused by nitrite, and 27(9.6%) were caused by vibrio parahaemolyticus. Conclusion: Timely investigation, disposal and reporting of foodborne disease outbreaks provides information that might help FDOSS to make full use of efficiency and FDOSS should be continued and strengthened even more in Shandong Province, such as an increase in diagnostic laboratory capacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0109.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: bioavailability; toxicity; public health; pesticides; aquatic ecosystems
Online: 16 November 2017 (10:59:25 CET)
The objective of the research was to evaluate the concentration of organochlorine pesticides in sediment of the Alvarado Veracruz lagoon system, Mexico. To define the risk that causes to the public health the consumption of organisms that inhabit in sediments of this ecosystem. In 20 out of 41 stations analyzed, 11 prohibited organochlorine pesticides were identified, such as hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, among others. The highest concentrations were: aldrin 46.05; β-HCH 42.11; α-HCH 38.44; γ-HCH (lindane) 34.20; δ-HCH 31.61; methoxychlor 29.40; heptachlor epoxide 25.70; heptachlor 24.11; dieldrin 22.13; endrin 21.23; and endrin aldehyde 12.40 ng g-1. Concentrations reported are prohibited in international standards. In Mexico it is necessary to establish permissible limits in the environmental legislation for this matrix. There is a strong need to demonstrate, with scientific studies, the level of concentration reported by impact of compounds widely used in agricultural-livestock activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: public engagement on science, science engagement, science communication, public understanding of science, deficit model, informal STEM learning, active learning
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:09:31 CEST)
Publicly-funded scientists have a responsibility to engage with the public on scientific information, but are lacking a standardized framework and assessment strategy to do it well. The PEPS (Public Engagement Practices for Scientists) Method is an outcomes-centered framework employing standardized pedagogical methods with quantifiable outcomes. This approach reveals that scientists often have unrealistic expectations for achieving affective learning outcomes (i.e. changing views from anti- to pro-vaccine) by solely cognitive learning strategies (i.e. supplying data). The PEPS Method can serve as a roadmap for standardized science communication assessments, complementing existing science communication training programs for the next generation of scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1064.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: newborn screening; bioethics; genomic sequencing; qualitative; public views
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:29:57 CET)
Recent dramatic reductions in the timeframe in which genomic sequencing can deliver results means its application in time-sensitive screening programs such as newborn screening (NBS) is becoming a reality. As genomic NBS (gNBS) programs are developed around the world, there is an increasing need to address the ethical and social issues that such initiatives raise. This study therefore aimed to explore the Australian public’s perspectives and values regarding key gNBS characteristics and preferences for service delivery. We recruited English-speaking members of the Australian public over 18 years of age via social media; 75 people aged 23-72 participated in one of 15 focus groups. Participants were generally supportive of introducing genomic sequencing into newborn screening, with several stating that adoption of such revolutionary and beneficial technology was a moral obligation. Participants consistently highlighted receiving an early diagnosis as the leading benefit, which was frequently linked to the potential for early treatment and intervention, or access to other forms of assistance, such as peer support. Informing parents about the test during pregnancy was considered important. This study provides insights into the Australian public’s views and preferences to inform the delivery of a gNBS program in the Australian context.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Climate communication; storytelling; public engagement; climate action; sustainability
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:19:00 CEST)
For achieving climate targets, public engagement is key. Climate communication can play an important role here. Telling regional stories of successful climate action seems a promising form of climate communication: It may convey a feeling of ‘So this is what climate action looks like – and it is people like you and me who are starting to take action.’ This transformative research project (1) formulates hypotheses on what could make such local climate stories effective, (2) then identifies, produces and disseminates stories in the region of Konstanz, Germany, following a rapid prototyping approach, and (3) analyzes the effect of the stories by using focus groups. So far, two prototyping series of filmic story production have been completed in 2022/2023 and some initial insights were derived: Potential protagonists seem willing to tell their stories, and the stories have a potential to inspire people. Technical film quality is relevant. The stories must be selected and told carefully (who is portrayed, which actions are interpreted as success, through which channels are the stories shared), in order to create resonance with different target groups. Next steps are continuation of film production prototyping, a broader sharing of stories, and thorough impact research by focus groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1943.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Transparency; municipalities in Maranhão; public Management; explanatory factors
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:04:16 CEST)
The main objective of this research was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic and demographic indicators and the level of transparency of municipalities in the state of Maranhão. The transparency index was constructed based on the LRF and LAI and consisted of 32 items. Subsequently , for To identify which factors explain the level of transparency, a multiple linear regression was carried out, comparing the explanatory variables for the level of transparency adopted in this study. The sample consisted of municipalities in the State of Maranhão, totaling 211 municipalities, as 7 did not have a website. The results of the multiple linear regression model indicate that the IDHM, the log of total GDP, the GDP per capita and the variable log of POP explain the NT of the municipalities surveyed to the point of explain the level of transparency of the municipalities of Maranhão, only the IFDM did not show a relationship with the NT among the variables analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1899.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; bystander CPR; survey; willingness; public opinion
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:17:35 CEST)
Introduction: Bystander CPR rates have increase from 15% to 30% in many countries over the last 20 years. However, these gains are at risk of being lost in the face of fear of transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus given the global COVID-19 pandemic. This survey study was designed to examine the opinions and perceptions of the Canadian public on bystanderism as it relates to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the COVID-19 pandemic with a view to understanding the implications of those opinions on our expectations of bystanders during, and after the pandemic. Methods: In order to capture a pan-Canadian sample of the general public, we engaged with a well-established public opinion polling vendor, IPSOS (www.ipsos.com), to conduct a robust survey on public willingness to do bystander CPR in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of n=1,000 surveys were completed by Canadian adults using the IPSOS eNation Canadian Online Omnibus survey platform.In summary there were five key findings from this pan-Canadian survey: 1) the ability to recognize cardiac arrest remains a point of confusion for the lay public, 2) at the time of the survey only about half of respondents said they would respond to someone having cardiac arrest, 3) the majority of respondents said the pandemic has changed their willingness to respond to someone in cardiac arrest, 4) willingness to use an AED is low and the greatest barrier was reported as lack of experience, and lastly 5) most Canadians say it is important to be certified in CPR and are willing to take a CPR training course, however only half are willing to pay for it. Conclusion: Bystander CPR is an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victim’s best chance of survival and so our understanding of how we encourage more citizens to respond given the current realities is more crucial than ever. Wider dissemination of the growing evidence on the safety of CPR in the context of COVID-19 and resuscitation training courses implemented with specific CPR maneuvers to reduce the risk of infection should be implemented to continued uncertainty and erosion in bystander CPR culture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1906.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Creativity; Academic Achievement; Learning; Academic Skills; Public Education
Online: 27 July 2023 (12:08:59 CEST)
Academic performance and capabilities were greatly influenced by creativity. It has also contributed to comprehending academic skill development independent of motivation and intelligence. This study examines the relationship between student creativity and academic skills. This is the systematic literature review for 2016 to 2022. The main criteria for including an article in the research were that it was written in English, that it was pertinent to the topic of the study, that its sample consisted of students aged 5 to 16 with regular, typical development, that it was a descriptive, exploratory, or longitudinal study, and that it was accessible to the public. Seven articles were included in the study following a critical and systematic analysis and evaluation. As the results indicate, creativity and its characteristics correlate substantially with academic skills such as reading, comprehension, academics, word processing, and written assignments. Additionally, creativity contributed considerably to children’s academic performance, both currently and in the future. The present study concludes that creativity is essential for enhancing and promoting children’s academic performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1653.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Climate; livelihood; crop production; collective action; public good
Online: 23 June 2023 (10:18:59 CEST)
Climate change is a large and challenging collective action problem facing the world today. This seminar review impacts of climate change on r yield of major cereal crops. Literatures have indicated that climate change would likely have positive impact in the highland agro-ecology in the short run. However, in the long run climate change will have negative impact in all agro-ecology. Negative impacts will be high in low land agro-ecology. Failure to prepare for climate variability can seriously affect the livelihood of smallholder farmers. Ethiopia by enacting Climate-Resilient Green Economy strategy and National Adaptation Plan aims to minimize the impacts of CC. Despite the existing adaptation and mitigation strategies negative impacts of climate change on agriculture especially on cereal crop production is continued. Thus, both private and public investment on adaptation strategies should be expanded more. Studies regarding the impacts of climate change on labour productivity, labour market, its distributional (which section society mostly by climate change?) and why the existing adaptation strategies are not successful? are not well studied, as most literature are focused on impact of climate change on yield, its adaptation and mitigation strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1196.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: metabolomics; nutrimetabolomics; One Health; public health; personalized medicine.
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:29:36 CEST)
Metabolomics is an advanced technology, still under development, with multiple research applications, especially in the field of health. Individual metabolic profiles, the functionality of the body, as well as its interaction with the environment can be established using this technology. The body's response to various external factors, including the food consumed and the nutrients it contains, has increased researchers' interest in nutrimetabolomics. Establishing correlations between diet and the occurrence of various diseases or even the development of personalized nutrition plans, could contribute to advances in precision medicine. The interdependence between humans, animals and the environment are of particular importance today, with the dramatic emergence and spread of zoonotic diseases, food, water and soil contamination, and the degradation of resources and habitats. All these events have led to an increase of risk factors for functional diseases, burdening global health. Thus, this study aimed to highlight the importance of metabolomics, in particular of nutrimetabolomics, as a technical solution for a holistic, collaborative, and precise approach for the advancement of the One Health strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0805.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Public Health; Quality of Life; Adolescents; Physical Activity
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:29:56 CEST)
Health related quality of life’s (HRQoL) different domains of functioning can serve as a good prognosticator of later life’s outcomes for children and adolescents. Understanding associated factors is crucial for promoting better health and life satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the impact of socio-economic status (SES), physical activity (PA) and cardio-fitness on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in 224 Italian early adolescents attending secondary school in the Emilia-Romagna region located in northern Italy. The present cross-sectional study included measures of SES, demographic factors, cardio-fitness measures and self-reported PA levels. In a multivariate model, younger students and females reported higher HRQoL (β=-0.139, P<.05, 95% CI: -0.254 – -0.023 and β=0.142, P<.05, 95% CI: 0.011 – 0.273 respectively). Having both parents employed and having higher familiar educational status resulted in higher HRQoL. Greater engagement in routine PA was positively associated with HRQoL (β=0.429, P<.001, 95% CI: 0.304 – 0.554). Endurance (speed) was positively associated with HRQoL (β=0.221, P<.01, 95% CI: 0.087 – 0.355) and students with longer times on the shuttle run reported less HRQoL (β=-0.207, P<.01, 95% CI: -0.337 – -0.077). Findings reinforced the importance of promoting regular PA among students and addressing SES disparities to improve HRQoL. The study suggests a focus on expanding research measures and evaluating targeted PA interventions for a more comprehensive understanding of children’s well-being. These findings highlight the crucial roles of demographic, PA and cardio-fitness measures in child’s HRQoL, thus providing relevant information for stakeholders who work in the education, public health, and health policy sectors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0494.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Radicalisation; Social Media; Public Mental Health; Online Radicalisation
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:36:22 CEST)
This systematic review seeks to position online radicalisation within whole system frameworks incorporating individual, family, community and wider structural influences, whilst reporting evidence of public mental health approaches for individuals engaging in radical online content. Methods: Authors searched Medline (via Ovid), PsycInfo (via Ebscohost) and Web of Science (Core Collection), with the use of Boolean operators across ‘extremism’, ‘online content’, and ‘intervention’. Results: Following assessment of full text, all retrieved papers had to be excluded. Results from six excluded articles which did not fit inclusion criteria but identified theoretical relationships between all three elements of online extremism, psychological outcomes, and intervention strategy, were discussed. Authors found no articles outlining public mental health approaches to specifically online radicalisation. Conclusions: There is an immediate need for further research in this field given the increase in different factions of radicalised beliefs resulting from online, particularly social media, usage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0136.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: PM2.5; health vulnerability; air quality; map; public source
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:47:37 CEST)
PM2.5 levels affect human health. However, its relationship with other health vulnerability determinants has not been sufficiently explored. Furthermore, public access to PM2.5 datasets, linkable to health statistics, is not available. We built a georeferenced database and map of annual mean PM2.5 emissions and air concentrations values in Argentina in 2010 and explored their correlations with other health vulnerability determinants. We obtained data for montlhy PM2.5 values emissions and air concentrations in Argentina from public sources. We evaluated health vulnerability by the “Sanitary Vulnerability Index (SVI)”. Non-parametric correlations between variables below 0.22, corresponding to a R2=5%, were deemed meaningless. PM2.5 emissions concentrated in urban and intensive agricultural areas of Argentina. PM2.5 air concentrations were acceptable (≤10 microg/m3) in only 15% of the Argentinean territory, respectively. The correlation between air concentration of PM2.5 and human emission was meaningless. Emissions, but not air concentrations correlated >0.22 with indicators of human activity. SVI correlated meaninglessly with PM2.5 air concentration. In conclusion, PM2.5 levels were above acceptable levels in 85% of the Argentinian territory in 2010. The lack of meaningful correlations between PM2.5 and SVI suggest that these coefficients might be used in combination to assess health vulnerability. Further research is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0787.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: irregular migrant women,; metasynthesis; qualitative data; public health
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:41:00 CEST)
Migratory movements are a political, social and public health issue on a global scale. Access to sexual and reproductive health services for irregular migrant women (IMW) is a public health issue. The aim of this study is to identify qualitative evidence on IMW's experiences of sexual and reproductive health care in emergency and primary care settings. Methods: meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. Synthesis includes assembling and categorising findings based on the simili-arty in meaning. The search was conducted between January 2010 and June 2022 using PubMed, WOS and CINAHL databases. Results: of 131 articles found in the initial search, only 9 articles met the criteria and were included in the review. Four main themes were established: (1) The need to focus emergency care on sexual and reproductive health, (2) Unsatisfactory clinical experiences, (3) Forced reproduction, (4) Alternating between formal and informal healthcare services. Con-clusions: IMW’s attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health are influenced by culture, ed-ucational level, fear, barriers and the attitude of healthcare providers. Healthcare institutions need to be aware of the IMW’s experiences to understand the specific difficulties they face. IMW call for socially and culturally sensitive health care, cultural mediators, improved communication and safe environments that ensure confidentiality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: arbovirus; viral isolation; cell culture; neurotropic; public health
Online: 13 February 2023 (03:30:39 CET)
Viruses with encephalitogenic potential can cause neurological conditions of clinical and epidemiological importance, such as Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, Mayaro virus and West Nile virus. The objective of the present study was to determine the number of arboviruses with neuroinvasive potential isolated in Brazil that corresponds to the collection of viral samples belonging to the Section of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers (SAARB/IEC) of the Laboratory Network of National Reference for Arbovirus Diagnosis from 1954 to 2022. A total of 1,090 arbovirus samples with encephalitogenic potential were isolated from mice. From a total of 7,054 samples intended for cell culture. The isolates from mosquitoes totaled 659 viruses. The emergence of new arboviruses may be responsible for diseases still unknown to humans, making the Amazon region a hotspot for infectious diseases due to its fauna and flora species characteristics. The detection of circulating arboviruses with the potential to cause neuroinvasive diseases is constant, which justifies the continuation of active epidemiological surveillance work that offers adequate support to the public health system regarding the virological diagnosis of circulating arboviruses in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: disasters; social media; informing; public; disaster; risks; Serbia
Online: 24 January 2023 (10:29:14 CET)
Social media informs the public about the most important events and conveys important information. Before, during and after disasters, social media are used to disseminate information about disasters and to collect data relevant to the implementation of preparedness, response and recovery activities and measures. Social networks are effective in disseminating information and warnings, as well as in educating the public. The subject of the research is examining the influence of demographic factors on the effectiveness of social media in informing the public about the risks of disasters. Using an online survey questionnaire, and according to the snowball principle, a survey of 247 respondents was conducted in 2022. The research results show no statistically significant relationship between the level of education of the respondents and the assessment of the effectiveness of social media reporting on disasters. The use of social media can improve communication between stakeholders in disaster management and facilitate coordination of efforts, fostering communication and allocation of resources. To effectively use social media in disaster management, decision-makers in the disaster management system must be aware of new technologies, their disadvantages and advantages, as well as ways in which data from social networks can be collected and analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0457.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ethical; legal; artificial intelligence; health; equity; public health
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:59:55 CET)
Background: The potential of Artificial intelligent (AI) models to process and interpret large health datasets at scale could revolutionize public health and epidemiology, providing a foundation for public health. Ethics has been recognized as a priority concern in the development and deployment of AI. Because AI technology can jeopardize patient safety, privacy, and posing a new set of ethical problems that must be addressed. Objectives: We aim to provide a holistic view on what are the different ethical and legal principles that was addressed in the included studies regarding the use of AI in public health and what are the ethical challenges that can arise.Methods: Following PRISMA guideline, five bibliographic databases were used in our search: PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar from 2015 to February 2022. Four reviewers carried out study selection and data extraction, and the data extracted was synthesized by a narrative approach. Results: This review included 23 unique publications out of a total of 1123 items that were initially identified. Different ethical principles regarding the uses of AI in public health and community health were identified and discussed distinctly in the current review. The common ethical and legal themes that this review focused on are equity, bias, privacy and security, safety, transparency, confidentiality, accountability, social justice, and autonomy. In addition, five ethical challenges were mentioned. Conclusion: Research regarding ethical and legal principles and challenges about using AI in public health specifically consider a new filed, because all previous themes are concerning the physical and patients’ area where it focuses only on the clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: oveweight; obesity; public policy; nutrition education; malnutrition; school
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:26:50 CEST)
Being overweight or obese is a public health problem. This work evaluated a food and nutrition education (EAN) intervention against overweight schoolchildren in four schools in the West Panama Province. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study that implemented a 34-week EAN intervention through workshops with didactic material to 403 children between 8 and 13 years old. The knowledge and attitude survey was used as an evaluation tool before and after the educational intervention. The prevalence of excess weight (40%) did not report differences after the intervention. No differences were reported in the median level of attitude, although higher levels of knowledge were reported in students of both sexes. EAN in schoolchildren can be effective in acquiring knowledge and maintaining a positive attitude towards food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; children; pediatrics; public health
Online: 1 September 2022 (02:25:22 CEST)
Background: This study describes the attitudes and practices of Brazilian adults regarding the mandatory vaccination for COVID-19 and the hesitancy to children´s vaccination. Methods: The participants answered an online questionnaire disseminated on social networks. An adaptation of the SAGE-WG questionnaire was used to measure the children's vaccination hesitancy. Results: Among 1,007 participants, 677 (67.4%) believed that vaccination for COVID-19 among adults should be mandatory. Just over half of the participants (51.5%) believe that parents and guardians should be free to decide whether their children should be vaccinated against COVID-19, and 9.1% were unsure about this. Younger, non-religious people who have higher self-perceptions of risk for COVID-19, and who evaluate the federal government's performance in combating the disease as bad or very bad, have a higher agreement with mandatory vaccination, a lower agreement that parents and guardians should be free to vaccinate their children, and lower child vaccination hesitancy scores. Conclusion: In Brazil, mandatory COVID-19 vaccination for adults is far from a consensus, and an expressive part of the population believes that parents and guardians should be free to choose whether or not to vaccinate their children. These perceptions and vaccine hesitancy for children are associated with religious and political inclinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0093.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: tobacco control; tobacco farming; FCTC; Indonesia; public health
Online: 6 July 2022 (09:00:28 CEST)
The Indonesia’s Tobacco Excise Sharing Fund (DBHCHT) policy mandates that part of the fund should be allocated for tobacco crop diversification – reducing the farmers’ reliance on tobacco industry as well as implementing Article 17 of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, very little is known on practical implication of this fund on tobacco farmers livelihood. We collected primary data from key stakeholders in four main tobacco producing municipalities. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with NVivo 12. Numbers of challenges on DBHCHT utilization remained at sub-national levels. The sub-optimal use of DBHCHT could partly be explained by: (i) constantly changing central government regulation; (ii) farmers’ unawareness of DBHCHT regulation; (iii) the delay in DBHCHT allocation; and (iv) supply and demand mismatch. Although Indonesia has not been a part of the FCTC ratification, the DBHCHT mandate is in line with the FCTC article 17, i.e., promoting economically viable alternatives for tobacco farmers. This study concluded that DBHCHT utilization needs to go a long way to void this mandate given the challenges at sub-national level. Therefore, this study recommends more technical and practical regulations involving multisectoral stakeholders and the use of DBHCHT to facilitate financial needs of crop diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0016.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: public institutions; transformations; professional training; pandemic; reform; model
Online: 1 July 2022 (15:57:13 CEST)
This article analyzes the perspectives of professional training of the public administration staff, from the viewpoint of the sustainability criteria, starting from the experiences of the online courses run in the last two years. In order to understand the nature, type and magnitude of the changes caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in the field of professional training for public administration, we performed a survey among public institution employees, by applying a questionnaire. The instrument included qualitative elements, to allow the framing of statistical results. The article is grounded on the hypothesis that the professional training activities in the last two years were organized preponderantly online and it aims to analyze the sustainability of the new teaching systems/methods. The limitations of the study are given by the fact that each administrative system has structure particularities and its own legal framework regarding the professional training of public administration staff, what makes that the model proposed cannot be applied in all countries. The study provides a model of online professional training for public administration staff, sustainable, based on the experience accumulated in the last two years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0233.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: AI; disease surveillance; pandemics; global public health; ethics
Online: 18 February 2022 (10:36:04 CET)
Infectious diseases, as COVID-19 is proving, pose a global health threat in an interconnected world. In the last 20 years, resistant infectious diseases such as SARS, MERS, H1N1, Ebola, Zika and now COVID-19 have been impacting global health defences, and aggressively flourishing within the rise of global travel, urbanization, climate change and ecological degradation. In parallel, this extraordinary episode in global human health highlights the potential for artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled disease surveillance to collect and analyse vast amounts of unstructured and real-time data to inform epidemiological and public health emergency responses. The uses of AI in these dynamic environments are increasingly complex, challenging the potential for human autonomous decisions. In this context, our study of qualitative perspectives will consider a responsible AI framework to explore its potential application to disease surveillance in a global health context. Thus far, there is a gap in the literature in considering these multiple and interconnected levels of disease surveillance and emergency health management through the lens of a responsible AI framework.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0444.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: serology; biomarkers; serosurveillance; sero-epidemiology; precision public health
Online: 28 October 2021 (15:51:43 CEST)
The use of biomarkers to measure immune responses in serum is crucial for understanding population-level exposure and susceptibility to human pathogens. Advances in sample collection, multiplex testing, and computational modeling are transforming serosurveillance into a powerful tool for public health program design and response to infectious threats. In July 2018, 70 scientists from 20 countries met to perform a landscape analysis of approaches that support an integrated serosurveillance platform, including the consideration of issues for successful implementation. Here, we summarize the group’s insights and proposed roadmap for implementation, including objectives, technical requirements, ethical issues, logistical considerations, and monitoring and evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0539.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: disasters; risk; public perception; mythically-based human behavior
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:01:59 CET)
Starting from the importance of risk perception for taking certain preventive measures to protect people and their property from disasters, the subject of the research is to examine the factors influencing public perception of mythically-based human behavior in disaster conditions. Using the random sampling method, 250 adult respondents were surveyed in the city of Belgrade, using a specially created and adapted survey questionnaire. The results of the research show that there is no statistically significant influence of gender, age, educational and economic factors on the public perception of human behavior in disaster conditions. The results of the research can be used to improve strategies and campaigns based on risk assessment, aimed at improving the safety of people in disasters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0191.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: CODAS; Pythagorean Fuzzy Sets; Public Transportation; COVID-Criteria
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:53:01 CET)
The purpose of this research article is to provide a comprehensive method that allows the evaluation of the public transportation in their different transport lines that offer in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. This study presents a description of the public transport system as part of the literature review that describes an appropriate model based on the more outstanding publications about urban mobility and public transportation for passengers’ as well as success cases published which serves as a starting point to check the actual state of the public transportation system based on the Pythagorean Fuzzy CODAS to analyze and evaluate the alternatives through criteria that defines the general performance. The integration of these methods provides an adequate methodology for decision-making concerning urban planning and mobility to detect and improve the performance of criteria not considered within sustainable urban mobility plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0309.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: electronic communication; serving documents; public authority; administrative proceedings
Online: 10 November 2020 (12:18:20 CET)
On 14 March 2020 the state of epidemic threat was introduced in Poland applicable until 20 March 2020 when the state of epidemic was introduced in the territory of the Republic of Poland. The situation associated with the growing number of SARS-CoV-2 infections forced ongoing monitoring of the epidemic situation, which entailed an introduction of a number of restrictions and solutions intended to isolate the infected persons on the one hand, and to minimize the risk of development of an epidemic in Poland on the other. Activity of the Polish legislator is also essential, which tried to introduce solutions that would correspond with current expectations and needs. In this paper, the author points to the issues of communication with a public authority by specific reflections on the principles of serving documents on beneficiaries of EU programs under which they were awarded funding for their implementation. The author points to the dynamics of the legislator’s work in this respect by analyzing the rules for serving documents by a public authority on beneficiaries who are public entities and those who are not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: GIS; urban design; Dubai; public health; sport management
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:01:36 CET)
The aim of this paper is to analyze the five grand parks in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and provide a geoprocessing approach to different aspects such as sport, health, leisure, recreation, and public wellbeing. The study uses a hybrid of qualitative and quantitative approach as methodology. Sustainability offerings, accessibility for people of determination and special needs, typology and the geolocations of the grand parks plays crucial role in residents’ wellbeing. The paper concludes with recommendations for Dubai government to design new and innovative approaches to manage wellbeing of urban public places into the leisure environment for residents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0330.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Public Health; Lockdowns; Cost-benefit analysis; Groupthink
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:14:33 CET)
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic in 2020. In response, most countries in the world implemented lockdowns, restricting their population’s movements, work, education, gatherings, and general activities in attempt to ‘flatten the curve’ of COVID-19 cases. The public health goal of lockdowns was to save the population from COVID-19 cases and deaths, and to prevent overwhelming health care systems with COVID-19 patients. In this narrative review I explain why I changed my mind about supporting lockdowns. First, I explain how the initial modeling predictions induced fear and crowd-effects [i.e., groupthink]. Second, I summarize important information that has emerged relevant to the modeling, including about infection fatality rate, high-risk groups, herd immunity thresholds, and exit strategies. Third, I describe how reality started sinking in, with information on significant collateral damage due to the response to the pandemic, and information placing the number of deaths in context and perspective. Fourth, I present a cost-benefit analysis of the response to COVID-19 that finds lockdowns are far more harmful to public health than COVID-19 can be. Controversies and objections about the main points made are considered and addressed. I close with some suggestions for moving forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0329.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Geospatial Regression; Health Disparities; Public Health
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:48:57 CEST)
COVID-19 is a potentially fatal viral infection. This study investigates geography, demography, socioeconomics, health conditions, hospital characteristics, and politics as potential explanatory variables for death rates at the state and county levels. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Census Bureau, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, Definitive Healthcare, and USAfacts.org were used to evaluate regression models. Yearly pneumonia and flu death rates (state level, 2014-2018) were evaluated as a function of the governors’ political party using repeated measures analysis. At the state and county level, spatial regression models were evaluated. At the county level, we discovered a statistically significant model that included geography, population density, racial and ethnic status, three health status variables along with a political factor. State level analysis identified health status, minority status, and the interaction between governors’ parties and health status as important variables. The political factor, however, did not appear in a subsequent analysis of 2014-2018 pneumonia and flu death rates. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 has greater and disproportionate effect within racial and ethnic minority groups, and the political influence on the reporting of COVID-19 mortality was statistically relevant at the county level and as an interaction term only at the state level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0315.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: retail center; public space; shopping; leisure; outdoor activities
Online: 28 July 2019 (14:45:40 CEST)
The rapid process of urbanization is affecting residents’ living patterns. Concurrently, shopping and consumption patterns are changing at what seems to be a constant rate. Recently, a look at retail centers would leave one to understand that these centers are by no means exempted from these changes. Retail centers, which initially held a more commercial role, are now considered to be places of leisure as well as. In this research, the new role of these retail centers as a new part of public spaces and area for leisure activities is being examined. In order to survey this new concept of retail centers, two retail centers that were almost similar to each other in terms of function and characteristics in Iran and Spain respectively, considered as a developing country and developed country were studied. The results of the research show that retail centers, due to their new nature, have shown similar behavior in both. In general, nowadays retail centers have more of a recreational role, so that more than 65% of the people in Tehran and Madrid are spending their time in recreational activities. Nevertheless, in developing countries, the process of these changes has been imitative and to say anything of cross-sectoral policies it will require more research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0525.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: socioeconomic inequality; public health management; medicaid; citizen survey
Online: 30 August 2018 (11:06:41 CEST)
Much has been explored in the individual health issue, and most of them adopt the objective data such as laboratory tests or health services utilization to analyze individual health assessment. However, the factors influencing individuals in self‐assessed health is still unclean. The study considers that self‐assessed health is viewed as catalyst in health management and explores various dimensions associated with self‐assessed health. Totally, 800 participants who were randomly sampled from the citizen of Porter County, Indiana completed the Needs Assessment Citizen Survey in 2007.After adjustment for age, gender, education, income, and health coverage, life quality (β=1.5538, sdandard erro of β=0.8404), and Medicaid assistance (β= -0.7715, sdandard erro of β= 0.3958) are the main determinants of individuals’ self‐assessed health. The results suggest that public health officials should consider improving citizens’ self-assessed health by providing good living and socio-economic environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0461.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: fiscal sustainability; public finance; fiscal consolidation; fiscal responsibility
Online: 24 July 2018 (15:54:14 CEST)
Given the contradiction between the current demands for sustainability and the way the financial system works, this paper explores in a retrospective and a prospective view the Romanian Public Finance Sustainability, highlighting the major challenges and vulnerabilities. For the retrospective part, we concentrate mainly on empirical tests on Romanian government solvency between the period 1986- 2016, by applying unit root and co-integration tests. To gain a better, general understanding of the behavior of policy-makers, in the second part we use a scenario analysis of budgetary adjustment in the short and medium run under alternative hypotheses. The results provide a formal proof that policy makers decisions face critical and complex questions and the way in which they manage fiscal stimuli have a direct implication on the sustainability of the country and on the lax implementation of fiscal policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: proportion; near-misses; morbidity; mortality; public health institution
Online: 28 April 2018 (11:56:04 CEST)
Background: Maternal near-miss refers to a situation where a woman who nearly died but survived from severe life-threatening obstetric complications that occurred during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy. It has been estimated that up to 9 million women survive obstetric complications every year. According to studies done around the world most mothers suffer from Near Miss due to the factors which includes, low socioeconomic status, patient related, health provider related, and health related and health institution related issues. Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the proportion of maternal near misses and its associated factors in Selected Public Health Institutions of Keffa, Bench-Maji and Sheka Zones of South Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional state, South West Ethiopia, 2017. Methodology: Hospital based cross-sectional study design was employed and simple random sampling techniques (Lottery Method) was used to select the study institution and Systematic sampling technique was used to select 845 study participants every 5th interval. Information was collected by using pre-tested and structured interviewer administered questioner. Using SPSS version 21 software, descriptive statistics and bivariate logistic regression analysis was done and variables with p-value <0.2 were transferred to multivariate analysis and during Multivariate logistic regression analysis Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant and AOR with 95% CI were used to control for possible confounders and to interpret the result. The results were summarized by tables, graphs and charts. Result: There were 5530 Live Births, 227 Sever Acute Maternal Morbidity cases of this 210 were Maternal Near-Misses cases and 17 were maternal deaths, 364 Maternal Near-Misses Events. The overall Maternal Near-Misses Proportion is 24.85%. The maternal Near-Misses outcome ratio was 41 cases/1,000 live births (LB); mortality ratio was 12.35cases/1 maternal death and 74.8/1000LB of mortality index. Parity, residence, distance of living place from hospital, ANC Follow up, duration of labor, and administrative related problems were found to have statistically significant associations. Conclusion: The proportion of Maternal Near-Misses is relatively high when compared to other regional studies and efforts should be done to lower the near-misses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0207.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: appraisal; urban trees; public opinion; photography; summer-winter
Online: 22 January 2018 (18:47:11 CET)
Urban trees are generally considered to be a public asset and are an important part of a city's heritage. The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of season on the economic appraisal of various trees in Madrid. Photographs were taken of 43 individual tree specimens in summer and winter. The survey was designed to compare differences of opinion in the economic assessment of trees. The trees were assessed by five valuation methods used worldwide. 78 agroforestry engineering students answered a written survey, and the variables considered were: percentage of students who always evaluated the tree equally (%0), percentage of students who assigned more value to the summer photograph (%S), and percentage of students who assigned more value to the winter photograph (%W). The results were analysed by the statistical test of equal proportions and ANOVA to detect differences according to tree type (evergreen or deciduous), species and other groupings made by the authors in previous works. W and S percentages are similar. The ANOVA analysis rejects the equality of percentages of S and W between groups. The Welch test rejects the equality of percentage of S, W and O between species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0038.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: migrant; public health; health education; health records; China
Online: 15 July 2017 (00:36:36 CEST)
Background: Internal migrants had obstacles in accessing local public health services in China. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Methods: Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Results: Internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The broader and shorter they migrated, the less they used public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces is negatively associated with health records (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on NCDs (OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through Internet channel (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). Conclusion: Public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsides. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0122.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: state budget; fiscal policy; public expenditure; Islamic economic
Online: 27 June 2017 (07:09:12 CEST)
This paper discusses the management of public expenditures in Indonesia in State Budget 2017. The data collected from fiscal policy documents, especially about government spending plans in 2017, and then be reviewed by policy analysis, the theory of public expenditures, and the theory of public goods, and compared with the theory of public expenditure in Islamic economics. Public expenditure management in Indonesia has implemented a distribution system that divided public expenditure for central government expenditures, transfers to the regions, and the village fund. In terms of fiscal policy, public expenditure priorities to support the achievement of sustainable economic growth, job creation, poverty reduction, and the reduction of gaps in the welfare of the whole community. In Islamic economics, public expenditure is used to meet the needs of the community based on the principles of general interest derived from the shari'a. Public expenditure on Indonesia's government as an effective tool to divert economic resources and increase the income of society as a whole, and focused on the embodiment of the people's welfare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0016.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: initial public offering; underpricing; private equity; brand value
Online: 9 July 2016 (11:02:46 CEST)
The present study aims at investigating the relationship between Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) variables mainly underpricing on one hand, and the brand value measures on the other. Our final data set is 104 international brand companies. We implement empirical approach using hierarchical OLS regression and descriptive statistics. We show that underpricing is positively related to brand value which emphasizes the marketing role of going public and underpricing in enhancing brand equity through the product market, which additionally confirms some information asymmetry models. We also find that on average brand companies had not been recognized as brands at the IPO time. Moreover, we show the positive role of private equity in enhancing brand value, additionally, the non-linear association between underpricing and brand value is not evident. Finally, we draw some policy implication and suggestions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1478.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Public health; health service delivery; human resources; vulnerability; sustainability
Online: 24 October 2023 (08:11:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected the entire world, has not only created a number of emerging issues for each country, especially in the field of public health, but has also provided a number of opportunities for risk management, alternative strategies and completely new ways of looking at challenges. This paper examines the COVID-19 pandemic response in Türkiye and the possible implications of the experience for future responses to other health emergencies and disaster risk management, based on the lessons learned. This study uses publicly available literature from government, private sector, and academic sources to analyse the conflicts, changes and lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic, which are components of the World Health Organization (WHO) Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health EDRM) framework. The COVID-19 experience in Türkiye has several aspects, including the significant role of healthcare workers, the existence of an effective health system accustomed to emergencies, applications based on information technologies, partial transparency of public authorities in providing information, and socio-cultural environment related to cooperation on prevention strategies, including wearing masks and vaccination. Challenges in Türkiye include distance learning in schools, lockdowns that particularly affect the elderly, ensuring environmental sustainability, hesitation about the effectiveness of social/financial support programmes, socio-cultural trivialisation of pandemics after a while, and relaxation of prevention strategies. Lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic include the value of transparency in public health/healthcare information, the strengthening of all aspects of the health system in terms of health workers, and the importance of a balanced economy prepared for foreseeable risks.