ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0254.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular; schizophrenia; prospective cohort; hospital admissions
Online: 30 December 2021 (19:42:41 CET)
(1) Background: Patients with schizophrenia have higher mortality, with cardiovascular diseases being the first cause of mortality. This study aims to estimate the excess risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events in schizophrenic patients, adjusting for comorbidity and risk factors. (2) Methods: The APNA study is a dynamic prospective cohort of all residents in Navarra, Spain. 505889 people over 18 years were followed for five years. The endpoint was hospital admissions for a cardiovascular event. Direct Acyclic Graphs (DAG) and Cox regression were used. (3) Results: Schizophrenic patients had a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.414 (95% CI 1.031-1.938) of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, low income, obesity, antecedents of cardiovascular disease, and smoking. In non-adherent to antipsychotic treatment schizophrenia patients, the HR was 2.232 (95% CI 1.267-3.933). (4) Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events than persons with the same risk factors without schizophrenia. Primary care nursing interventions should monitor these patients and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; Cohort; Mortality; Mexico
Online: 24 January 2023 (13:21:09 CET)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the high prevalence of comorbidities in Mexico, as well as the disparities between public and private health subsystems, substantially contributed to the severe impact it had in the country. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare risk factors present at admission for mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. A 2-year retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 was conducted at a private tertiary care center. The study population consisted of 1,258 patients with a median age of 56 ± 16.5 years, of whom 1,093 recovered (86.8%) and 165 died (13.1%). In the univariate analysis, older age (p <0.001), comorbidities such as hypertension (p <0.001) and diabetes (p <0.001), signs and symptoms of respiratory distress, and markers of acute inflammatory response were significantly more frequent in non-survivors. The multivariate analysis showed that older age (p <0.001), the presence of cyanosis (p 0.005) and previous myocardial infarction (p 0.032) were independent predictors for mortality. In the studied cohort, risk factors present at admission associated with an increased risk of death were older age, cyanosis and a previous myocardial infarction, which can be used as valuable predictors for patients’ outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients attended on a private tertiary hospital in Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: cervical spondylosis; migraine; retrospective cohort study; population-based
Online: 7 February 2018 (06:40:48 CET)
Background: Few studies have investigated the longitudinal association between cervical spondylosis (CS) and migraine by using a nationwide population-based database. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2011 identifying 27,930 cases of cervical spondylosis and 111,720 control subjects (those without cervical spondylosis) from a single database. The subjects were frequency-matched on the basis of sex, age, and diagnosis date. The non- cervical spondylosis cohort was four times the size of the cervical spondylosis cohort. To quantify the effects of cervical spondylosis on the risk of migraine, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: After a 10-year follow-up controlling for potential confounding factors, overall migraine incidence was higher in the cervical spondylosis cohort than in the non- cervical spondylosis cohort (5.16 and 2.09 per 1,000 people per year, respectively; crude hazard ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval = 2.28–2.69) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.03 (95% confidence interval = 1.86–2.22) after accounting for sex, age, comorbidities, and medication. Individuals with myelopathy in the cervical spondylosis cohort had a 2.19 times (95% confidence interval = 1.80–2.66) higher incidence of migraine compared than did those in the non- cervical spondylosis cohort. Conclusion: Individuals with cervical spondylosis exhibited a higher risk of migraine than those without cervical spondylosis. The migraine incidence rate was even higher among individuals with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0162.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis; obstructive sleep apnea; population-based cohort study
Online: 17 January 2019 (04:52:29 CET)
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients in a nationwide population. Methods: We conducted a nationwide cohort study between 2003 and 2013 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The AS cohort included 2210 patients who were newly diagnosed between 2003 and 2013. Randomly selected non-AS controls were matched at a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex and index date. The endpoint of OSA was occurrence or the end of 2013. Cumulative incidences, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities and co-medications. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Due to violation of the proportionality assumption, landmark analysis was conducted to explore the risk of OSA during specific follow-up periods. Results: The adjusted HR (aHR) of OSA for the AS group was 2.826 (95% C.I. = 1.727–4.625) compared to the control group. On landmark analysis, aHR was 7.919 (95% C.I. = 3.169–19.792) for AS group 0–24 months from index date, and decreased to 1.816 (95% C.I. = 0.944–3.494) at ≥ 24 months from index date. On subgroup analyses increased risks of OSA in AS group compared to the control group were found for both males and females (aHRs were 4.533 (95% C.I. = 1.441–14.262) and 2.672 (95% C.I. = 1.522–4.692) for females and males, respectively). On age stratified analysis, there was significant risk only for the 40–59 age group with aHR of 3.913 (95% C.I. = 1.890–8.102). Conclusions: A higher risk of developing OSA was found among newly diagnosed AS cohort during the 12-year follow-up period, especially within 2 years after AS index date and in the 40–59 age group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0538.v1
Online: 22 June 2021 (10:22:56 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic put pregnant women in high risk, but behavioural changes has also led to lower rates of preterm births in high-income countries. The main goal in this article is to study the impact that COVID-19 pandemic is having on pregnancy control and outcomes. This is a joint analysis of two cohorts. A pre-pandemic one includes 969 pregnant women recruited in 2018. The pandemic cohort comprises 1168 pregnant women recruited in 2020. Information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics, reproductive history, characteristics of the current pregnancy and its outcome were obtained from medical records. Caesarean section was more frequent in the pre-pandemic cohort (24% vs. 18%, p = 0.004). Birth with less than 37 weeks of gestational age was more frequent in the pre-pandemic cohort (6% vs. 5%, p = 0.04). Weight at birth lower than 2500 grams occurred more frequently in the pre-pandemic cohort (9% vs. 6%, p = 0.001). Exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge was more frequent in the pandemic cohort than in the pre-pandemic one (60% vs. 54%, p = 0.005). We are reporting reductions in Caesarean section and preterm birth during the pandemic in a hospital located Northern of Spain. Further analysis would clarify if these lessening are related to changes in health-related behaviour or health-care functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: uterine cervical neoplasms; mortality; age-period-cohort analysis; forecasting; Brazil
Online: 16 February 2022 (05:03:16 CET)
Cervical cancer is a public health issue with high disease burden and mortality in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were analyzing age, period, and cohort effects on cervical cancer mortality in women 20 years old or older from 1980 to 2019 in the North, South, and Southeast Regions of Brazil; and evaluating whether the implementation of a national screening program and the expansion of access to public health services caused impacts over the examined period and reduced the risk of death over the past years and among younger cohorts. The effects were estimated by applying Poisson regression models with estimable functions. The highest mortality rate by 100,000 women was found in Amazonas (24.13), and the lowest in São Paulo (10.56). A positive gradient was obtained for death rates as women’s age increased. The states in the most developed regions (South and Southeast) showed a reduction in the risk of death in the period that followed the implementation of the screening program and in cohort from the 1960s onwards. The North Region showed a decreased risk of death only in Amapá (2000–2004) and Tocantins (1995–2004; 2010–2019). The findings indicated that health inequities remain in Brazil and suggested that the health system has limitations regarding decreasing mortality associated with this type of cancer in regions with lower socioeconomic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cohort studies; Epidemiology; Gray matter; Neuroimaging; Paediatrics; Psychiatric symptoms; QDECR; Vertex-wise analysis.
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:31:23 CEST)
Physical symptoms are defined as symptoms for which adequate examination does not reveal a sufficient underlying root cause, e.g., pain and fatigue. The extant literature of the neurobiological underpinnings of physical symptoms has been largely inconsistent and primarily consists of (clinical) case-control studies with relatively small samples sizes. Therefore, we studied the association of brain morphology with physical symptoms in pre-adolescents from two independent and population-based cohorts. This study included 2,683 individuals from the Generation R Study (51% girls, 10.1 ± 0.6 years old) and 10,567 pre-adolescents from the ABCD Study (48% girls, 9.9 ± 0.6 years old). High- resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was collected using 3-Tesla MRI systems. Physical symptoms were evaluated using the somatic complaints syndrome scale from the parent-reported school-age version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression models were fitted for global brain metrics (i.e., cortical and subcortical grey matter volume and total white matter volume) as well as surface-based vertex-wise measures (surface area and cortical thickness). Analyses were initially conducted separately in each cohort and later meta-analysed. No associations were observed in either cohort separately. In the combined vertex-wise meta-analysis of both cohorts; the right hemisphere surface area, most notably the rostral middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, were related to physical symptoms after correcting for multiple comparisons (cluster area = 1,882 mm2). The present study, which is the most representative and well-powered to date, suggests that surface area, but not other measures of brain morphology, are modestly related to physical symptoms in pre- adolescents. While these effects are subtle, future longitudinal research is warranted to elucidate whether such associations indicate a cause or a consequence of the physical symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: SDQ; bisphenol A; phthalates; prenatal exposure; birth cohort; behavioral problems
Online: 27 April 2018 (08:27:38 CEST)
Studies reported adverse behavioral development including internalizing and externalizing problems in association with prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, however, findings were not sufficient due to using different assessment tools and child ages among studies. This study aimed to examine associations between maternal serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites and behavioral problems at preschool age. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess behavioral problems at 5 years of age. BPA and phthalate metabolite levels in the 1st trimester maternal serum was determined by LC-MS/MS for 458 children. Variables used for adjustment were parental ages, maternal cotinine levels, family income during pregnancy, child sex, birth order and age at SDQ completed. The median concentrations of BPA, MnBP, MiBP, MEHP and MECPP were 0.062, 26.0, 7.0, 1.40, and 0.20 ng/ml, respectively. BPA level was associated with increased hyperactivity/inattention risk among girls (OR=1.66, 95% CI: 0.95-2.90) and∑DBPm (MnBP + MiBP) level was associated with decreased total difficulties risk overall and among girls (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.20-1.13, OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.06-1.03, respectively) without significance. MECPP level was associated with increase conduct problems risk (OR=2.78, 95% CI: 1.36-5.68). Our analyses found no significant association between BPA or summation of phthalate metabolite levels and any of the behavioral problems at 5 years of age, however, suggested possible association between MECPP levels and increased risk of conduct problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Gonorrhea; Outer membrane vesicle vaccine; Group B meningococcus; Cohort study; New Zealand
Online: 29 June 2018 (16:29:28 CEST)
Gonorrhea is a major global public health problem with emergence of multiple drug-resistant strains with no effective vaccine. This retrospective cohort study aimed to estimate the effectiveness of the New Zealand meningococcal B vaccine against gonorrhea associated hospitalization. The cohort consisted of individuals born 1984-1999 residing in New Zealand, therefore eligible for meningococcal B vaccination during 2004-2008. Administrative datasets of demographics, customs, hospitalization, education, income tax and immunization, were linked using the national Integrated Data Infrastructure. The primary outcome was hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of gonorrhea. Cox’s proportional hazards models were applied with a Firth correction for rare outcomes to generate estimates of hazard ratios. Vaccine effectiveness estimates were calculated as 1-Hazard Ratio expressed as percent. There were 1,143,897 eligible cohort members, with 135 missing information on gender, 16,245 missing ethnicity and/or 197,502 missing deprivation hence 935,496 were included in the analysis. After adjustment for gender, ethnicity and deprivation, vaccine effectiveness (MeNZB™) against hospitalization caused by gonorrhea was estimated to be 24% (95% CI 1-42%). In conclusion, vaccination with MeNZB™ significantly reduced the rate of hospitalization from gonorrhea. This supports prior research indicating possible cross protection of this vaccine against gonorrhea acquisition and disease in the outpatient setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Healthcare Disparities; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Vascular Diseases; Primary Health Care; Cohort
Online: 3 September 2021 (14:58:59 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, and hospital admissions. There is variability in clinical practice. The objectives are to analyze the variability in the control of Blood Pressure (BP), HbA1c, and LDL-C in T2D patients and its influence on admissions due to cardiovascular events (CVE) Methods: We analyzed the electronic records in Primary Care Health centers in Navarra (Spain) and hospital admission for CVE. We follow 480637 people from 2012 to 2016. We calculated indicators of control of patients with T2D for each year, percentage with: HbA1c < 7%; HbA1c >= 9%; BP <140/90 mmHg; LDL-C <100 mg/dl. We used logistic and Cox regression. Results: Patients in the best control GP practices cluster are 2.5 times more likely to have HbA1c <7% [OR: 2.46 (95% CI: 2.29-3.64)]. Poor HbA1c control ≥ 9% is more likely in the worst control cluster [OR: 1.73 (95% CI:1.63-1.83)]. The probability of admission for CVE increases with age, being male, low income, obesity, history of CVE, having HbA1c ≥ 9%, and belonging to a GP practice in the cluster of HbA1C ≥ 9% worst control. In contrast, it decreases in patients with HbA1c <7%, BP<140/90 mmHg and LDL <100 mg/dl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0530.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; antibodies; cohort; population-based; body mass index; ECLIA
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:10:54 CEST)
In March 2020, several mass gathering events were related to the Falles festival in Borriana (Spain), resulting in a 536 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases outbreak among participants. Our objective was to estimate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persistence six months after and factors associated with antibody response. A prospective population-based cohort study was carried out by the Public Health Center of Castellon and the Emergency and Clinical Analysis and Microbiology Services of Hospital de la Plana in Vila-real. In October 2020, sero-epidemiologic study to estimate the persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by a electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) was implemented. We enrolled 484 (90.2%) of the 536 members of the initial outbreak cohort and detected persistent antibodies in 479 (99%) without re-infection episodes. Five participants had a negative antibody test. Factors associated with a negative result were a lower body mass index (BMI), and less contact with other COVID-19 cases. Among the 469 participants with two ECLIA tests, 96 (20.5%) had an increase of antibodies and 373 (79.5%) a decline. Increased antibodies were associated with older age, higher BMI, more severe illness, and low current smokers. After a COVID-19 infection, a high proportion of cases maintained detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: epidemiology; prospective cohort study; n-6 fatty acids; n-3 fatty acids; linoleic acid; arachidonic acid
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:07:36 CET)
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of the n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined CV outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without prevalent CVD (mean age 66 years, 57% women) as a function of baseline levels of different length n-6 FAs (18 carbon, 20 carbon and 22 carbon) in the erythrocyte membranes. Clinical outcomes were monitored for up to 9.5 years (median follow up, 7.26 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for a variety of demographic characteristics, clinical status and RBC n-6 and long chain n-3 FA content. Results: There were 245 CV events, 119 CHD events, 105 ischemic strokes, 58 CVD deaths, and 350 deaths from all causes. Few associations between either mortality or CVD outcomes were observed for the n-6 FAs, with those that were observed becoming non-significant after adjusting for n-3 FA levels. Conclusions: Higher circulating levels of the marine n-3 FA levels are associated with reduced risk for incident CVD and ischemic stroke and for death from CHD and all-causes, however in the same sample, little evidence exists for association with n-6 FAs. Further work is needed to identify a full profile of FAs associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0256.v1
Online: 15 August 2022 (11:22:35 CEST)
Studies suggest that elevated postnatal blood lead levels (BLLs) are negatively associated with child growth. This study aimed to investigate associations of childhood BLLs at age one-year and growth outcomes at age six-years (n=661) in a cohort of children in Allada, Benin. The growth outcomes studied are weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) and BMI-for-age Z-score (BMIZ), head circumference (HC), underweight, stunting, and wasting. Multivariable regression models examined associations between blood lead levels, growth outcomes with adjustment for potential confounders. The geometric mean BLLs was 59.3 μg/L and 82% of children had BLLs >35 μg/L at one year. After adjusting for confounding factors, no association was found between BLLs quartiles and HAZ, WAZ, BMIZ, and height and weight growth velocities. However, boys in the highest quartile had 1.02 cm lower HC (95% CI: [-1.81, -0. 24]) as compared to those in the lowest quartile with a dose-response trend across quartiles (Ptrend =0.02). Furthermore, an increased risk of being stunted was observed in children in the highest quartile of exposure compared to the first (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: [1.11 – 5.33]) with a dose-response trend (Ptrend =0.03). Blood lead was found to be associated with an increased risk of childhood stunting and lower head circumference in a resource-limited setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: retrospective cohort; predictors; recovery; severe acute malnutrition; Jimma
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:59:02 CEST)
Background: Treatment at stabilization center is an important intervention to avert the huge burden of mortality for children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Recent reviews indicated a wide range in recovery rate (34-88%) due to several context-specific factors. This study aimed to estimate time to recovery and to determine predictors of time to recovery among children aged 6-59 month with severe acute malnutrition. Method: Retrospective cohort study was used among 375 children aged 6-59 months admitted in Jimma university medical center, from September 2015 to September 2017. Kaplan Meir estimate and survival curve was used to compare the time to recovery using log-rank test among different characteristics. Cox Proportional Hazard Model was used to identify significant predictors of time to recovery. Results: Median time of recovery for cohort of SAM children’s was 19 days (95%CI: 17.95-20.05). Independent predictors of time to recovery were: Play stimulation, vaccination status, Tuberculosis, malaria, use of amoxicillin, deworming and shock. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the average length of stay on treatment and median time for recovery are within the sphere standard. Psychosocial stimulation, appropriate provision of routine medication and management of medical co-morbidity are needed to promote fast recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: behavioral problems; calcium; child; maternal intake; prebirth cohort
Online: 27 August 2018 (13:32:41 CEST)
In recent years, more attention has been paid to behavioral problems in children. However, for the most part, risk factors for these problems have yet to be determined. The current prebirth cohort study investigated the relationship between maternal calcium consumption during pregnancy and behavioral problems in five-year-old Japanese children. Subjects were 1199 mother-child pairs. Dietary intake was assessed using a diet history questionnaire. Emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, and peer problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for four behavioral problems under study according to the quartile of calcium intake, with the lowest quartile as the reference. Adjustment was made for maternal age, gestation at baseline, region of residence at baseline, number of children at baseline, maternal and paternal education, household income, maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, child's age, child's birth weight, postnatal secondhand smoke exposure at home during the first year of life, and breastfeeding duration. Higher maternal calcium intake during pregnancy was independently associated with a decreased risk of childhood emotional and hyperactivity problems; the adjusted ORs between extreme quartiles (95% CIs, P for trend) were 0.46 (0.27–0.79, 0.01) and 0.60 (0.37–0.97, 0.046). No such inverse associations were observed for childhood conduct problems or peer problems. Maternal calcium intake during pregnancy may decrease the risk of childhood emotional and hyperactivity problems.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Canephron, antibiotic, urinary tract infections, cohort study, herbal treatment
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:11:11 CEST)
Objective: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the treatment with Canephron® after the diagnosis of acute cystitis or urinary tract infection (UTI) with regards to the risk of a sporadic recurrent UTI, frequent recurrent UTIs, UTI associated sick leave, additional antibiotic prescriptions, and renal complications (pyelonephritis) compared to standard antibiotic treatment. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was based on data from the IMS® Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA), and included outpatients in Germany with at least one diagnosis of acute cystitis or UTI with a prescription of either Canephron® or standard antibiotics between January 2016 and June 2019 in general practitioner (GP), gynecologist, or urologist practices from which data were obtained. Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the association between Canephron® prescription and the amount of sporadic or frequent recurrent UTIs, as well as the duration of UTI associated sick leave, amount of additional antibiotic prescriptions, and cases of pyelonephritis. The effects of Canephron® were adjusted for age, sex, insurance status, and Charlson Comorbidity Score (CCI). Results: 2,320 Canephron® patients and 158,592 antibiotic patients were available for analysis. Compared to antibiotic prescription, Canephron® prescription was significantly associated with less sporadic recurrences of UTI infections 30-365 days after the index date (odds ratio [OR]: 0.66; 95% conﬁdence interval [CI]: 0.58–0.72), as well as with less frequent recurrences of UTI infections (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.88), and with minor additional antibiotic prescription within 31-365 days (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.52-0.63). No significant differences were observed between the Canephron® and antibiotic cohorts with regard to the likelihood of sick leave (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.86–1.14), new antibiotic prescription within 1-30 days (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.87-1.16) and occurrences of pyelonephritis (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.00; 95% CI: 0.67-1.48). Conclusion: These real world data show that Canephron® is an effective and safe symptomatic treatment for acute cystitis or UTI. It should be considered as an alternative treatment in particular also to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: psoriasis; osteoporosis; cohort studies; Case-Control Studies; risk factors
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:50:13 CEST)
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between psoriasis and osteoporosis using two different studies. Methods: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort of participants who were ≥ 40 years old were collected from 2002 to 2013. Psoriasis and osteoporosis were included using ICD-10 codes. In study I (a follow-up study), a total of 25,306 psoriasis participants were matched to 101,224 controls with respect to age group, sex, income group, and region of residence, and the occurrence of osteoporosis was analyzed. Crude (simple) and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were analyzed using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model. In study II (a nested case–control study), a total of 79,212 osteoporosis patients were matched to 79,212 controls, and a previous history of psoriasis was analyzed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age group and sex. Results: The adjusted HR of osteoporosis was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.15, P < 0.001) in study I. In the subgroup analysis according to age and sex, the results were consistent except for the ≥ 60-year-old women. The adjusted OR of psoriasis was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.16-1.28, P < 0.001) in study II. All subgroups demonstrated high adjusted ORs of osteoporosis for psoriasis. Conclusions: Psoriasis increased the risk of osteoporosis in the population of participants aged ≥ 40 years in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0706.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: food security; paediatrics; cohort study; New Zealand; developed country
Online: 30 October 2018 (05:29:12 CET)
Food security (FS) during infancy is associated with lifelong outcomes. New Zealand is a developed economy that reports poor childhood nutrition-related health statistics, particularly among minority children, yet has no measure of FS applicable to infancy. The objective was to develop a FS index for New Zealand infants and examine its association with demographic covariates and health outcomes. Within a large (n=6853) nationally representative cohort, variables describing infant food consumption, breastfeeding, and maternal food-related coping methods were collected from mothers during late infancy. A FS index was derived using confirmatory factor analysis. Associations were assessed by logistic regressions and described using odds ratios (OR) and ≥95% confidence intervals (CI). 15% of the cohort was highly FS, 43% tenuously food insecure (FIS), and 16% highly food insecure (FIS). Infants from minority ethnic groups had lower odds of being food secure, as did those born to the youngest mothers, mothers who smoked, or lived in low-income households. FIS infants had higher odds of morbidity. Interventions to improve infant FS should focus on improving dietary quality, and give particular consideration to minority infants. We identified that FIS shows wide ethnic and socioeconomic inequity, and is associated with poorer health. The most important driving factors of FIS included poor quality weaning diets, and poverty and its proxies. Any interventions to improve infant FS should focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption to recommended intake levels, and give particular consideration to minority infants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chemotherapy; Radiotherapy; Cognitive dysfunction; Big data; Cohort studies; Survival analysis
Online: 14 June 2021 (07:51:57 CEST)
Background: We aimed to assess the risk of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-related cognitive impairment in colorectal cancer patients. Methods: We randomly selected 40% of colorectal cancer patients from Korean National Health Insurance Database (NHID), 2004-2018 (N=148,848). Patients with one or more ICD-10 diagnostic codes for dementia or mild cognitive impairment was defined as cognitive impairment cases. Patients who were aged 18 or younger, diagnosed with cognitive impairment before colorectal cancer (N=8,225) and did not receive primary resection (N=45,320) were excluded. The effects of each chemotherapy agent on cognitive impairment were estimated. We additionally estimated the effect of radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients. Time-dependent competing risk Cox regression was conducted to estimate overall and age-specific hazard ratios (HR) separately for colon and rectal cancer. Results: In colon cancer, capecitabine and irinotecan was associated with higher cognitive im-pairment, while 5-fluorouracil was not. In rectal cancer, no chemotherapy agents increased the risk of cognitive impairment, nor did radiotherapy. Hazardous association of irinotecan was estimated larger in elderly patients compared with younger counterparts. Conclusion: Heterogeneous associations between various chemotherapy agents and cognitive impairment were observed. Elderly patients were more vulnerable to possible adverse cognitive effects. Radiotherapy did not increase the risk of cognitive impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: cohort study; critical care; enteral feeding; mechanical ventilation; nutritional status
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:17:05 CEST)
Background: Malnutrition is associated with a complication problem affecting critically ill patients throughout the trajectory of their illness and which may increase the duration of hospitalization and mechanical ventilation and mortality. To explore nutritional factors impact on the duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. Methods: In this single-center, prospective observational study in a critical care unit. The sample of the study consisting of a total of 100 critically ill patients who were included in the regression analyzed by purposive sampling, performed to address the research objectives. The data were collected for each patient who participated in the study for 2 consecutive days with SGA, Dyspnea assessment form, APACHE II, and time to initial EN on the 24 hours of hospital admitted and the daily calories target requirement on the seven days. Results: At the end of monitoring, the nutrition status, time to initial EN, and calories, target requirements were moderate positive statistically significant related to the duration of mechanical ventilation (R = 0.54, R = 0.30, R= 0.40, p < 0.05). However, age, the severity of illness, and dyspnea scales were not related to the duration of mechanical ventilation (p> 0.05). Therefore, nutrition status and calory target requirements could be a predictor of the duration of mechanical ventilation. The predictive power was 28.0 percent of variance (R2 = 0.28, p< 0.01). Conclusion: The finding supports which assessment of the nutritional status and calory target requirement within 7 days revealed with reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0620.v1
Subject: Keywords: Digital twin; Precision Livestock Farming; digitosome; Digital cohort; animal farming
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:48:12 CET)
Digital twin technology is already improving efficiencies and reducing costs across multiple industries and sectors. As the earliest adopters, space technology and manufacturing sectors have made the most sophisticated gains with automobile and natural resource extraction industries following close behind with recent investments in digital twin technology. The application of digital twins within the livestock farming sector is the next frontier. The possibilities that this technology may fuel are nearly endless as digital twins can be used to improve large-scale precision livestock farming practices, machinery and equipment usage, and the health and well-being of a wide variety of farm animals. Currently, many pioneers of digital twins in livestock farming are already applying sophisticated AI technology to monitor both animals and environment around the clock, which leads to a better understanding of animal behavior and distress, disease control and prevention, and smarter business decisions for the farmer. Mental and emotional states of animals can be monitored using recognition technology that examines facial features such as ear postures and eye white regions. Used with modeling, simulation and augmented reality technologies, digital twins can help farmers build more energy-efficient housing structures, predict heat cycles for breeding, discourage negative behaviors of livestock, and potentially much more. As with all disruptive technological advances, the implementation of digital twin technology will demand a thorough cost and benefit analysis by individual farms. Digital twin application will need to overcome challenges and accept limitations that arise. However, regardless of these issues, the potential of digital twins promises to revolutionize livestock farming in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: global DNA methylation; global DNA hydroxymethylation; cord blood DNA; lead; antimony; birth cohort
Online: 3 March 2022 (15:04:56 CET)
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene expression modulation and can be used as a predictor of future disease risks. A prospective birth cohort study was performed to clarify the effects of neurotoxicants on child development, namely, the Tohoku Study of Child Development, in Japan. This study aimed to evaluate the association of prenatal exposure to five toxic metals—arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, N = 166)—with global DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood DNA. DNA methylation markers, 5-methyl-2’-deoxycytidine (mC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2’-deoxycytidine (hmC), were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mC content in cord blood DNA was positively correlated with Pb and Sb levels (r = 0.442 and 0.288, respectively) but not with cord blood PCBs. We also observed significant positive correlations among Pb levels, maternal age, and hmC content (r = 0.159 and 0.243, respectively). The multiple regression analysis among the potential predictors demonstrated consistent positive associations between Pb and Sb levels and mC and hmC content. Our results suggest that global DNA methylation is a promising biomarker for prenatal exposure to Pb and Sb.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV2; COVID-19; homeless people; public health; vulnerable population; Seroprevalence, cohort; residential mobility
Online: 11 January 2022 (17:20:14 CET)
Most vulnerable individuals are particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study takes place in a large city in France. The aim of this study is to describe the mobility of the homeless population at the begin-ning of the health crisis and to analyze its impact in terms of COVID-19 prevalence. From June to August 2020 and September to December 2020, 1272 homeless people were invited to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and virus in and completed questionnaires. Our data show that homeless populations are sociologically dif-ferent depending on where they live. We show that people living on the street were most likely to be relocated to emergency shelters than other inhabitants. Some neighborhoods are points of attraction for homeless peo-ple in the city while others emptied during the health crisis, which had consequences for virus circulation. People with a greater number of different dwellings reported became more infected. This first study of the mo-bility and epidemiology of homeless people in time of pandemic provides unique information about mobility mapping, sociological factors of this mobility, mobility at different scales and epidemiological consequences. We suggest that homeless policies need to be radically transformed since actual model exposes people to infection in emergency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0588.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: retrospective cohort study; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; health care workers; risk of infection
Online: 27 August 2020 (03:25:18 CEST)
Purpose: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the health care workers (HCWs) at the frontline have been largely exposed to infected patients, running an high risk of being infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study investigates the epidemiological, clinical and lifestyles characteristics that might play roles in the susceptibility of HCWs to COVID-19 in a hit Italian hospital. Methods:Demographic, lifestyle, work-related and comorbidities data of 1447 HCWs which underwent a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 were retrospectively collected. For the 164 HCWs positive for SARS-CoV-2, data about safety in the workplace, symptoms and clinical course of COVID-19 were also collected. Cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated. Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression. Results: The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the screened HCWs was 11.33 (9.72-13.21). Working in a COVID-19 ward, being a former smoker (vs being a person who never smoked) and BMI were positively associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas being a current smoker was negatively associated with this variable. Conclusions: Assuming an equal accessibility and proper use of PPE of all the HCWs of our Hospital, the great and more prolonged contact with COVID-19 patients remains the crucial risk factor for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, increased and particular care needs to be focused specifically on the most exposed HCWs groups, which should be safeguarded. Furthermore, in order to limit the risk of asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the HCWs mild symptoms of COVID-19 should be considered when evaluating the potential benefits of universal staff testing
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Human Capital; youth unemployment; Probit model; multinomial logit model; cohort study
Online: 2 December 2019 (04:42:18 CET)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) raise quality employability, gender equity in access to employment and increase coverage in education, however, in Colombia, high unemployment rates and informality of young people are risks of fulfilling these objectives. This is verified by a study with cohorts on access to employment, labor mobility and entry to quality occupations, through the use of probabilistic models. This study found that young people are less likely to be employed than adults, education has increased in the new generations and allowing them to enter a higher quality occupation, job segmentation and lack of experience of young people are the main cause of unemployment and Women are less likely to be employed than men and to do so in quality jobs. To comply with the SDGs, you must increase coverage in education, make a differential gender policy and expand programs as learners and insert dual education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0801.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: systematic review; meta-analysis; cohort; case-control; sugar sweetened beverages; artificial sweetened beverages; fruit juice; cancer.
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:41:25 CET)
The consumption of sweet beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juices (FJ) is associated with the risk of different cardiometabolic diseases and probably with some tumors as well. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies aimed at evaluating the association between sweet beverage intake and different types of cancer risk. Suitable papers published up to June 2020 were searched through PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS databases, using relevant keywords. Overall, 64 studies were identified for the systematic review, of which 27 were selected for the meta-analysis. This was performed by analyzing the multivariable-adjusted OR, RR or HR of the highest compared with the lowest sweet beverage intake categories. Random effects showed significant positive association between SSBs intake and breast (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.30) and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10 – 1.27), also between FJs and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.05). Associations between SSBs and colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk, FJs and breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk, ASBs and pancreatic cancer risk tended to be positive but did not reach the statistically significant threshold. This study supports the recommendation to limit the consumption of SSBs and FJs for cancer prevention and proposes to further investigate the potential harmful role of ASBs intake in cancer risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: systematic review; meta-analysis; dietary pattern; prospective cohort; randomized controlled trial; cancer prognosis; cancer survival; dietary intervention
Online: 16 December 2021 (15:06:33 CET)
Cancer survival continues to improve in high-income countries, partly explained by advances in screening and treatment. Previous studies have mainly examined the relationship between individual dietary components and cancer prognosis in tumours with good therapeutic response (breast, colon and prostate cancers). The aim of this review was to assess qualitatively (and quantitatively where appropriate) the associations of dietary patterns and cancer prognosis from published prospective cohort studies, as well as the effect of diet interventions by means of randomized controlled trials (RCT). A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, and a total of 35 prospective cohort studies and 14 RCT published between 2011 and 2021 were selected. Better overall diet quality was associated with improved survival among breast and colorectal cancer survivors; adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to lower risk of mortality in colorectal and prostate cancer survivors. A meta-analysis using a random-effects model showed that higher versus lower diet quality was associated with a 23% reduction in overall mortality in breast cancer survivors. There was evidence that dietary interventions, generally combined with physical activity, improved overall quality of life, though most studies were in breast cancer survivors. Further cohort and intervention studies in other cancers are needed to make more specific recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Long COVID; data acquisition source; post-infectious; longitudinal cohort study; patient-powered
Online: 25 November 2021 (13:51:54 CET)
ME/CFS (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) is a chronic, complex, heterogeneous disease that affects millions and lacks both diagnostics and treatments. Big data, or the collection of vast quantities of data that can be mined for information, has transformed the understanding of many complex illnesses like cancer (1,2) and multiple sclerosis (3,4), by dissecting heterogeneity, identifying subtypes, and enabling the development of personalized treatments. It is possible that big data can reveal the same for ME/CFS. Solve M.E. developed and launched the You + ME Registry to collect longitudinal health data from people with ME/CFS, people with Long COVID (LC) and control volunteers using rigorous protocols designed to harmonize with other groups collecting data from similar groups of people. The Registry is an invaluable resource because it integrates with a symptom tracking app, as well as a biorepository, to provide a robust and rich dataset that is available to qualified researchers. Accordingly, it facilitates collaboration that may ultimately uncover causes and help accelerate the development of therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0710.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gut microbiota; Mycobiota; Bacteria; Fungi; Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; 16S metagenomics; ITS metagenomics; Children; Cohort; Mali; Dogon country
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:25:57 CEST)
The gut microbiota has recently been associated with susceptibility/resistance to malaria in animal models and humans, yet the impact of the gut microbiota on the risk of a malaria attack remains to be assessed. This study aims at assessing the influence of the gut microbiota on malaria attacks and Plasmodium parasitæmia in children living in a malaria-endemic area in Mali. Three hundred healthy children were included in a 16-months cohort study in Bandiagara. Their gut bacteria and fungi community structures were characterised via 16S and ITS metabarcoding from stool samples collected at inclusion. Clinician team monitored the occurrence of malaria attacks. Asymptomatic carriage of Plasmodium was assessed by qPCR. Over the 16-month period, 107 (36%) children experienced at least one occurrence of malaria attacks, and 82 (27%) at least one asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitæmia episode. A higher gut bacteria richness was independently associated with susceptibility to asymptomatic parasitæmia episodes and malaria attacks; while the Shannon H diversity and Chao-1 richness index of gut fungi community structure was relatively homogeneous in children who were and were not infected with P. falciparum. Using a linear discriminant effect size analysis of operational taxonomic units assigned to the species level, 17 bacteria, including Clostridiaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Senegalimassilia sp., Atopobiaceae and Lachnosipraceae, and seven fungi, including Dioszegia fristigensis, Ogataea polymorpha and Cutaneotrichosporon cyanovorans, were associated with susceptibility; whereas eight bacteria, including, Bifidobacterium spp., Weissela confusa and Peptostreptococcacea, and 3 fungi, Malassezia sp., Niesslia exosporoides, and Didymocrea leucaenae, were associated with resistance to malaria. Moreover, 15 bacteria, including Coproccus eutactus, Terrisporobacter petrolearius, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Ruminococcaceae, and 13 fungi, including Wallemia mellicola, were associated with susceptibility, whereas 19 bacteria, including Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcacea, and Lactobacillus ruminis, and three fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans, were associated with resistance to asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitæmia episodes. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings that point the way towards strategies aiming to reduce the risk of malaria by modulating gut microbiota components in at-risk populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Periodontal Disease; Electronic Dental Record; Longitudinal Data; Data Quality; Dental Infor-matics; Clinical Course of Periodontal Disease; Periodontal Cohort Generation
Online: 19 January 2023 (13:01:27 CET)
Objective: Determine the feasibility of utilizing longitudinal electronic dental record (EDR) data to track change over time in patient periodontal disease (PD) and to generate three patient cohorts: 1) patients whose disease did not change over time, 2) patients whose PD progressed, and 3) patients whose disease improved over time using informatics approaches. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 28,908 patients who received a comprehensive oral evaluation between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, at the Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) clinics. We developed and tested three automated computer applications to: 1) diagnose periodontitis cases from periodontal charting, 2) retrieve clinician-documented diagnoses from clinical notes, and 3) track disease change over time. We also evaluated the density of longi-tudinal EDR data for the following follow-up times: 1) none, 2) up to 5 years, 3) >5 and <=10 years, and 4) >10 and <=15 years Results: Thirty-four percent (n=9,954) of the study cohort had up to five years of follow-up visits with an average of 2.78 visits with periodontal charting information. An average of three patient visits per year that contained periodontal charts (63,552) were utilized to obtain a diagnosis, which is considered excellent. For clinician-documented diagnoses from clinical notes, 42% of patients (n=5,562) had at least two PD diagnoses to determine their disease change. In this cohort with cli-nician-documented diagnoses, 72% percent of patients (n=3,919) did not have a disease status change between their first and last visits, 669 (13%) patients' disease status progressed, and 589 (11%) patients’ disease improved. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing longitudinal EDR data to track disease changes over 15 years during the observation study period. We found excellent longitudinal data when diagnoses generated from periodontal charting were considered (three visits per pa-tient). This information can be now utilized for studying the clinical course of periodontitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0317.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Cohort-Component Method; Multivariate Methods; Time Series Analysis; Monte Carlo Methods; Stochastic Forecasting; Demography; Statistical Epidemiology; Labor Market Research; Health Economics
Online: 21 January 2022 (10:32:54 CET)
Demographic change is leading to the aging of German society. As long as the baby boom co-horts are still of working age, the working population will also age - and decline as soon as this baby boom generation gradually reaches retirement age. At the same time, there has been a trend towards increasing absenteeism (times of inability to work) in companies since the zero years, with the number of days of absence increasing with age. We present a novel stochastic forecast approach that combines population forecasting with forecasts of labor force participation trends, considering epidemiological aspects. For this, we combine a stochastic Monte Carlo-based cohort-component forecast of the population with projections of labor force participation rates and morbidity rates. This article examines the purely demographic effect on the economic costs associated with such absenteeism due to the inability to work. Under expected future employment patterns and constant morbidity patterns, absenteeism is expected by close to 5 percent by 2050 relative to 2020, associated with increasing economic costs of almost 3 percent. Our results illustrate how strongly the pronounced baby boom/ baby bust phenomenon determines demographic development in Germany in the midterm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; outpatient cohort; seroprevalence; mild infections; asymptomatic cases; COVID-19 contacts; PCR-positivity and symptoms; first year of the pandemic; Hungary
Online: 22 September 2022 (02:08:09 CEST)
We aimed to estimate the proportion of the population infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the first year of the pandemic. The study population consisted of outpatient adults with mild or no COVID-19 symptoms, and was divided into subpopulations with different levels of exposures. Of the subpopulation without known previous COVID-19 contacts 4143, of the subpopulation with known COVID-19 contacts 594 persons were investigated. IgG- and IgA-seroprevalence and RT-PCR positivity were determined in context with COVID-19 symptoms. We hope to have contributed to the understanding of the significance of the asymptomatic and mild infections in the long persistence of the pandemic.