ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: electric vehicles; public charging infrastructure; neighborhood charging; reservation system; urban; city; Hamburg
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:35:48 CEST)
Electric vehicles offer a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in passenger transport. The availability of reliable charging infrastructure is crucial for the successful uptake of electric vehicles in dense urban areas. In a pilot project in the city of Hamburg, Germany, public charging infrastructure is equipped with a reservation option providing exclusive access for local residents and businesses. The present paper combines quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of the newly introduced neighborhood charging concept. We use a methodology combining a quantitative questionnaire survey and qualitative focus group discussions as well as the analyses of charging infrastructure utilization data. Results show that inner-city charging and parking options are of key importance for (potential) users of electric vehicles. Hence, the neighborhood concept is rated very positively. Providing guaranteed charging and parking facilities are therefore likely to increase the stock of EVs. On the other hand, these could to a large extent be additional cars with consequential disadvantages. The study shows that openly accessible infrastructure is presently utilized much more intense than the exclusive option. Consequentially, the concept evaluated should be part of an integrated approach managing parking and supporting efficient concepts like car sharing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0691.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Electric bus; bus network; simulation; scheduling; charging infrastructure; depot charging; opportunity charging; optimisation; genetic algorithm; TCO
Online: 29 July 2020 (10:38:58 CEST)
Bus operators around the world are facing the transformation of their fleets from fossil-fuelled to electric buses. Two technologies prevail: Depot charging and opportunity charging at terminal stops. Total cost of ownership (TCO) is an important metric for the decision between the two technologies, however, most TCO studies for electric bus systems rely on generalised route data and simplifying assumptions that may not reflect local conditions. In particular, the need to re-schedule vehicle operations to satisfy electric buses’ range and charging time constraints is commonly disregarded. We present a simulation tool based on discrete-event simulation to determine the vehicle, charging infrastructure, energy and staff demand required to electrify real-world bus networks. These results are then passed to a TCO model. A greedy scheduling algorithm is developed to plan vehicle schedules suitable for electric buses. Scheduling and simulation are coupled with a genetic algorithm to determine cost-optimised charging locations for opportunity charging. A case study is carried out in which we analyse the electrification of a metropolitan bus network consisting of 39 lines with 4748 passenger trips per day. The results generally favour opportunity charging over depot charging in terms of TCO, however, under some circumstances, the technologies are on par. This emphasises the need for detailed analysis of the local bus network in order to make an informed procurement decision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: charging infrastructure; e-mobility; electric vehicle; optimization; private electric car; transport simulation; distribution of charging Infrastructure; battery electric; genetic optimization; high-power charging
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:15:14 CET)
To enable the deployment of battery-electric vehicles (BEV) as passenger cars in the private transport sector, a suitable charging infrastructure is crucial. In this paper a methodology for efficient spatial distribution of charging infrastructure is evaluated by investigating a scenario with a market penetration of BEVs of 100 percent (around 1.3 million vehicles). It aims towards the development of various charging infrastructure scenarios - including public and private charging - which are suitable to cover the charging demand. Therefore, these scenarios are investigated in detail with focus on number of public charging points, their spatial distribution, the available charging power and the necessary capital costs. For the creation of those charging infrastructure scenarios a placement model is developed. It uses the data of a MATSim (Multi-Agent Transport Simulation) traffic simulation of the metropolitan area of Berlin to evaluate and optimize different distributions of charging infrastructure. The model uses a genetic algorithm and the principle of multi-objective optimization. The capital cost of the charging points and the mean detour car drivers must cover additionally are used as optimization criteria. Using these criteria should lead to cost efficient infrastructure solutions which provide high usability at the same time. The main advantage of the method selected is that multiple optimal solutions with different characteristics can be found and suitable solutions can be selected by using other criteria subsequently. The optimized charging infrastructure solutions show capital costs between 624 and 2950 million euro. Users must cover an additionally mean detour of 254m to 590m per charging process to reach an available charging point. According to the results a suitable ratio between charging points and vehicles is between 11:1 and 5:1. A share of fast charging infrastructure (>50kW) of less than ten percent seems to be sufficient, if it is situated at main traffic routes and highly frequented places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: site identification; electric charging infrastructure; electromobility; spatial analysis; modal split; public transport
Online: 22 May 2018 (10:49:04 CEST)
The spread of charging infrastructure (CIS) for battery electric vehicles is crucial for coping with the increasing number of electric vehicles. Therefore, the selection of ideal (fast-) charging locations determines acceptance, utilization and, thus, the economic viability of a single site or the whole charging network. The methodology of the Integrated Model Approach STELLA for site identification of CIS uses proven methods of traffic modeling such as the classic four-step traffic modeling in a new context to enable statements regarding the positioning of CIS. Based on different spatial analyzes and characterizations of urban quarters, traffic generated by individuals is calculated using the FGSV approach of 2010. Because only (electric) motorized individual traffic is of importance for CIS, the share of trips is calculated by differentiating the modal split between various transport groups. One approach is to concretize the modal split share of public transport based on analyzes of different criteria and data sets, e.g. the accessibility of stops. The model approach STELLA, which also combines various extensive data (e.g. transport networks and traffic volumes, settlement structures, vehicle characteristics, power supply data and user requirements), is currently developed for a planning area covering the entire territory of the Federal Republic of Germany.  STELLA is the acronym for the German term "STandortfindungsmodell für ELektrische LAdeinfrastruktur”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical vehicle charging infrastructure; State of charge; stabilization method; ESS control strategy; coordination operation; violation of voltage; Energy Storage System
Online: 8 November 2019 (04:29:04 CET)
The introduction of electrical vehicle charging infrastructure including EV charger, renewable energy resource at secondary feeder in distribution system has been increased as one of countermeasure for global environmental issues. However, the Electric Vehicle Charging (EVC) infrastructure may act as the peak load in distribution system, which can adversely impact on the voltage stability when the electric vehicle is quickly charged. Therefore, to keep within the limit capacity of secondary feeder and allowable limit for feeder voltage, this paper proposes a stabilization method by the Energy Storage System (ESS) control strategy at secondary feeder in order to be not violated over than lower and upper limit. Also, this paper presents the estimation method to keep the proper standard value of State of Charge (SOC). From the simulation results, the voltage stabilization operation by ESS should make the feeder voltages of the distribution system(secondary feeder) introduced EVC Infra keep better voltage conditions, also estimation method to keep the proper standard value is confirmed that the SOC of ESS when is the standby condition could be exactly kept within the proper reference range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: EV; fast charging; real-time pricing; ordered charging; charging balance degree; Users’ satisfaction; behavior characteristics; navigation strategy
Online: 20 April 2017 (07:58:13 CEST)
Compared with the traditional slow charging loads, random integration of large scale fast charging loads will exert more serious impacts on the security of power network operation. Besides, to maximize social benefits, effective scheduling strategy guiding fast charging behaviors should be formulated rather than simply increasing infrastructure construction investments on the power grid. This paper has analyzed the charging users’ various responses to the elastic charging service fee, introduced the index of charging balance degree to a target region by considering the influence of fast charging loads on power grid. Then, a multi-objective optimization model of the fast charging service fee is constructed, whose service fee can be further optimized by employing fuzzy programming method. Therefore, both users’ satisfaction degree and the equilibrium of charging loads can be maintained simultaneously by guiding EVs to different fast charging stations reasonably. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed dynamic charging service pricing and the proposed fast charging load guidance strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: public sector; operating environment; electric bus; optimal charging type; charging infrastructure
Online: 22 June 2018 (06:13:55 CEST)
South Korea proposed reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 37% compared to the expected emissions by 2030 as the POST-2020 greenhouse gas reduction target. Electric vehicle distribution in the public sector is essential to achieve the carbon dioxide reduction target for transportation. In particular, when buses with internal combustion engines, which travel long distances and contribute substantially to greenhouse gas emissions, are replaced with electric buses, it is expected that greenhouse gas emissions will be significantly reduced. There are three types of electric buses with different power supply systems: a plug-in type in which power is supplied when a plug is inserted, a battery-swapping type in which a battery mounted on top of the vehicle is swapped at a swapping station, and a wireless type in which the battery is wirelessly charged through self-induction at a charging facility installed on the road. Vehicles of each charging type have different advantages and disadvantages. The performance, charging type, battery capacity, and operating environment of electric buses are mutually related parameters that must be considered when introducing such vehicles. Therefore, the optimal charging type must be selected according to the operating environment to enable the widespread use of electric buses. As such, this report proposes the optimal charging type according to the operating environment of public-sector electric vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0402.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Rechargeable Sensor Network; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; One-to-one Charging; Space-time Collaboration; Optimal Charging Trajectory
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:07:41 CEST)
Aiming at the problem of low charging efficiency caused by the scattered sensor nodes in traditional wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs), a UAV-assisted WRSN Online Charging Strategy Based on Dynamic Queue and Improved K-means (UOCS) is proposed. The scheme assumes that the energy consumption of nodes is unpredictable, and only generates charging requests when the energy is lower than a threshold, and performs on-demand responses to nodes that issue charging requests. The scheme combines the characteristics of one-to-one charging of UAVs, the selection and allocation timing of waiting queues and the number of UAVs, and the improved K-means partitioning based on space-time coordination(SPKM), which simplifies the problem of coordinated charging of multiple UAVs and maximizes energy. Using the efficiency and charging success rate, the optimal charging trajectory can be found under the constraint that the node will not starve to death due to power shortage. Finally, a simulation comparison experiment is carried out with the existing UAV charging scheduling strategy. UOCS achieves the optimal node survival rate with low algorithm complexity.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles charging navigation system; charging path; road transportation network; distribution network; real-time electricity price
Online: 30 November 2019 (09:39:27 CET)
Aiming at the current optimization problem of electric vehicle charging path planning, a charging path optimization strategy for electric vehicles under the "Traffic-Price-Distribution" mode is proposed. This strategy builds an electric vehicle charging and navigation system based on road traffic network model, real-time electricity price model and distribution network model. Based on Dijkstra shortest path algorithm and Monte Carlo time-space prediction method, the goal is to minimize the charging cost of electric vehicles. Optimal charging path. The simulation results of MATLAB and MATPOWER show that the electric vehicle charging path optimization strategy can better solve the local traffic congestion problem and improve the safety and stability of the distribution network on the basic of fully considering the convenience of electric vehicle charging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; optimization; renewable energy charging station
Online: 20 June 2018 (08:58:05 CEST)
In recent years, integration of electric vehicles (EVs) has increased dramatically due to their lower carbon emissions and reduced fossil fuel dependency. However, charging EVs could have significant impacts on the electrical grid. One promising method for mitigating these impacts is the use of renewable energy systems. Renewable energy systems can also be useful for charging EVs where there is no local grid. This paper proposes a new strategy for designing a renewable energy charging station consisting of wind turbines, a photovoltaic system, and an energy storage system to avoid the use of diesel generators in remote communities. The objective function is considered to be the minimization of the total net present cost, including energy production, components setup, and financial viability. The proposed approach, using stochastic modeling, can also guarantee profitable operation of EVs and reasonable effects on renewable energy sizing, narrowing the gap between real-life daily operation patterns and the design stage. The proposed strategy should enhance the efficiency of conventional EV charging stations. The key point of this study is the efficient use of excess electricity. The infrastructure of the charging station is optimized and modeled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart scheduling; Smart Reservations; Reinforcement Learning; Electric vehicle charging; Electric Vehicle Charging Management platform; DQN Reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:20:13 CET)
Abstract: As the policies and regulations currently in place concentrate on environmental protection and greenhouse gas reduction, we are steadily witnessing a shift in the transportation industry towards electromobility. There are, though, several issues that need to be addressed to encourage the adoption of EVs at a larger scale. To this end, we propose a solution capable of addressing multiple EV charging scheduling issues, such as congestion management, scheduling a charging station in advance, and allowing EV drivers to plan optimized long trips using their EVs. The smart charging scheduling system we propose considers a variety of factors such as battery charge level, trip distance, nearby charging stations, other appointments, and average speed. Given the scarcity of data sets required to train the Reinforcement Learning algorithms, the novelty of the recommended solution lies in the scenario simulator, which generates the labelled datasets needed to train the algorithm. Based on the generated scenarios, we created and trained a neural network that uses a history of previous situations to identify the optimal charging station and time interval for recharging. The results are promising and for future work we are planning to train the DQN model using real-world data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0567.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Silicone Rubber; Surface Resistance; Surface Resistivity; Surface Charging
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:29:32 CEST)
Silicone rubber formulations in the form of thin discs have been studied under room ambient conditions for their surface characteristics. The samples were silicone rubber manufactured in laboratory and those industrially manufactured. The measurements were done using an electrometer high resistance meter, applying dc voltage under normal room ambient conditions. The results show that the silicone rubber samples show higher values of surface resistivity when the dc voltage was applied. Silicone rubber samples manufactured in laboratory seem to exhibit erratic behaviour unlike their corresponding silicone rubbers manufactured in industry; this could be due to manufacturing shortcomings in laboratory and the irregularities in the way the silicone rubber adhered to the concentric ring electrodes. The empirical current traversing the surface of the silicone rubbers does not decay exponentially but rather it decays as an exponential power of the energization time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart scheduling; smart reservations; reinforcement learning; electric vehicle charging; electric vehicle charging management platform; neural network; DQN reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 8 March 2022 (08:54:48 CET)
The widespread adoption of electromobility constitutes one of the measures designed to reduce air pollution caused by traditional fossil fuels. However, several factors are currently impending this process, ranging from insufficient charging infrastructure, battery capacity, long queueing and charging time, to psychological factors. On top of range anxiety, the frustration of the EV drivers is further fueled by the lack the uncertainty of finding an available charging point on their route. To address this issue, we propose a solution that comes to bypass the limitations of the Reserve now function of the OCPP standard, enabling drivers to make charging reservations for the upcoming days, especially when planning a longer trip. We created an algorithm that generates reservation intervals based on the charging station's reservation and transaction history. Subsequently, we ran a series of test cases that yielded promising results, with no overlapping reservations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC/DC Charger; circuit design; charging strategy; working loss
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:37:24 CET)
Based on the analysis of the working principle, circuit design and working loss of the common charger DC/DC converter, this paper designs a ZVS half-bridge three-level DC/DC converter based on non-phase-shift control mode, and proposes a multi-stage constant current and voltage limiting charging control strategy based on modulation wave selection control. The simulation results show that the proposed method and control strategy have faster voltage regulation ability and wider stability margin, and can achieve stable current sharing control in the charging process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0063.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: aggregator; coordinated charging; double auction; mixed-integer linear programming
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:22:37 CEST)
This paper answers the need to plan a cost-minimizing charging schedule for electric buses and proposes a three-stage procedure, which is oriented around the participation of electric buses aggregator in a day-ahead energy auction. First, optimization models are provided to determine charging availability expressed as minimum and maximum hourly energy requirements taking into account detailed, minutely characteristics and constraints of the charging equipment and the buses. Next, the auction model is formulated by considering aggregated bids submitted by the electric buses aggregator once the charging availability is determined. Hence, the day-ahead prices reflect the optimal schedules of auction participants, and the bus aggregator is safe against peak-hour charging. Finally, hourly auction-based schedules are disaggregated into optimal minutely charging schedules. Mixed-integer linear programming models are formulated for aggregation-disaggregation stages investigated in this paper, while the variables and constraints introduced into the auction model are linear. The proposed methodology has been verified on a recently published case study of a real-world bus service operated on The Ohio State University campus. We show that the auction-based charging of all 22 buses outperforms as-soon-as-possible schedules by 7% to even 28% of daily cost savings. Using the aggregated bids, buses can flexibly shift charges between high- and low-price periods while preserving constraints of the charging equipment and timetables.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fast-charging; electric vehicles; infrastructure; electrode materials; Li-ion batteries
Online: 30 September 2019 (03:29:10 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EVs) are being endorsed as the uppermost successor to fuel-powered cars, with timetables for banning the sale of petrol-fueled vehicles announced in many countries. However, the range and charging times of EVs are still considerable concerns. Fast charging could be a solution to consumers' range anxiety and the acceptance of EVs. Nevertheless, it is a complicated and systematized challenge to realize the fast charging of EVs because it includes the coordinated development of battery cells, including electrode materials, EV battery power systems, charging piles, electric grids, etc. This paper aims to serve as an analysis for the development of fast-charging technology, with a discussion of the current situation, constraints and development direction of EV fast-charging technologies from the macroscale and microscale perspectives of fast-charging challenges. It is emphasized that to essentially solve the problem of fast charging, the development of new battery materials, especially anode materials with improved lithium ion diffusion coefficients, is the key. It is highlighted that red phosphorus is the most promising anode that can simultaneously satisfy the double standards of high-energy density and fast-charging performance to a maximum degree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy storage systems; charging profile; capacity loss; data-driven modeling
Online: 17 October 2017 (04:29:19 CEST)
Energy storage systems (ESS) are penetrating into various sections of power system through different applications. ESS can be used either as a buffer for intermittent renewable energy sources or as a stand-alone distributed storage for load shifting. ESS use different types of storage devices such as lead-acid batteries, lithium ion batteries, flow batteries, and super-capacitors. Hybrid ESS consisting of few types of storage devices are also common in practice. Determining the load demand of such ESSs at various instances (charging profile) accurately is indispensable in most of the cases. Capacity loss is common phenomenon that occurs in all types of storage devices because of ageing. Capacity loss has to be accounted while determining the charging profile of storage devices for better accuracy. Data-driven modeling is an attractive approach for determining the load demand of ESS due to the availability of valuable data from smart grid technologies. In this paper, the application of different types of data-driven models to predict the current charging profile of the ESS based on previous charging profiles is examined. The proposed method can leverage on the existing data from smart grid and is a black box modeling approach.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0318.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: protein sequencing; nanopore; tRNA; RNA; codon; amino acid charging; optical tag
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:32:26 CET)
A method for sequencing a protein from a codon sequence is proposed. An unfolded protein molecule is threaded through a nano-sized pore in an electrolytic cell carboxyl end first and held with a voltage such that only the first residue is exposed in the trans chamber of the cell. A tRNA molecule in trans with matching anticodon for the residue binds itself to the latter in the presence of suitable catalysts. It is then cleaved and transferred to an extended electrolytic cell with N pores, 40 ≤ N ≤ 61, in N individual cis chambers and a single trans chamber. Each pore holds an RNA molecule ending in a unique codon that is held exposed in the trans chamber. In the presence of suitable catalysts the anticodon in the transferred tRNA binds with the codon of a matching RNA molecule. By reversing the voltages in the extended cell every RNA molecule except the one to which the transferred tRNA is bound retracts into its cis chamber, this identifies the residue unambiguously. The detected residue in the first cell is cleaved and the process repeated. Unlike in other nanopore-based methods, it suffices to detect the occurrence of a current blockade without having to measure the pore current precisely. A simplified but more time-consuming version that uses only the first cell is also described. In either case no a priori information about the protein is needed so de novo sequencing is possible. A feasibility analysis of the proposed scheme is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0625.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Electric vehicle charging station (EVCS), HOMER, MATLAB, CO2 emission, payback period
Online: 31 July 2018 (14:20:28 CEST)
The abrupt increase of the electric vehicles in Bangladesh needs huge amount of power. As a result, alternative energy sources are emphasized due to limited fossil fuels in order to develop a sustainable energy sector with environment friendly resources. Bangladesh has an enormous potential in the field of renewable resources like biogas and biomass. This paper presents 20 kW electric vehicle charging station (EVCS) utilizing biogas resources where maximum energy requirement is 100 kWh. In this paper, the biogas based EVCS is designed using MATLAB Simulink and HOMER software. Daily 15-20 electric vehicles can be recharged their batteries using the proposed charging station. The proposed system offers lower cost of energy compared to the grid electricity. Moreover, the proposed charging station shows 68.75% reduction in CO2 emission than grid based charging station. In addition, the proposed EVCS will save monthly $ 16.25 and $ 27.50 respectively for easy bike and auto rickshaw type electric vehicles in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0192.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Charging location; Discharging location; Time of Use(TOU); System Marginal Price(SMP)
Online: 10 November 2022 (05:59:59 CET)
This paper presented a method for calculating daily load curves by considering charging and discharging locations of electric vehicles to help to understand the impact of loads generated by charging and discharging of electric vehicles on the power grid. Based on the estimated PEVs’ share, the PEVs discharge power was calculated to reflect both the characteristics of the arriving vehicle in the morning and the SMP plan after establishing a assumption that the electric vehicle arrived at work in the morning and the electric vehicle arrived at home in the afternoon for each of the charging/discharging locations, that is, work and home, of electric vehicles in the city. After calculating the daily load curve for each charging/discharging power type for the PEVs charging strategy, which takes into account both the characteristics of the vehicle arriving at home in the afternoon and the TOU fare system and the characteristics of the vehicle arriving at work in the morning and the SMP fare system, it was analyzed by comparing the impact assessment on the grid by adding the existing load. The results of this paper provide an accurate understanding of the impact of PEVs charging and discharging loads on the power grid. The results should help to establish PEVs charging and discharging load management plans to prevent overloading the power grids with appropriate SMP and TOU tariffs while curbing the reinforcement and expansion of power grids as much as possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power control; battery charging; dual active bridge; energy storage system; hardware-in-loop
Online: 22 May 2017 (07:43:32 CEST)
Grid energy storage system for PV Applications is connected with three different power sources i.e. PV Array, Battery and the Grid. It is advisable to have Isolation between these three different sources to provide safety for the equipment. The configuration proposed in this paper provides the complete isolation between the three sources. A Power Balancing Control (PBC) for this configuration is proposed to operate the system in three different modes of operation. Control of a dual active bridge (DAB) based battery charger which provides a galvanic isolation between batteries and other sources is explained briefly. Various modes of operation of a Grid energy storage system are also presented in this paper. Hardware-In-Loop (HIL) Simulation is carried out to check the performance of the system and the PBC algorithm. Power circuit (comprises of inverter, dual active bridge based battery charger, grid, PV cell, batteries, contactors and switches) is simulated and the controller hardware and user interface panel are connected as HIL with the simulated power circuit through Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). HIL simulation results are presented to explain the control operation, steady state performance in different modes of operation and the dynamic response of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: open-source; photovoltaic; mechanical design; electric vehicle; solar energy; solar carport; electric vehicle charging station
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:41:43 CEST)
Solar powering the increasing fleet of electrical vehicles (EV) demands more surface area than may be available for photovoltaic (PV) powered buildings. Parking lot solar canopies can provide the needed area to charge EVs, but are substantially costlier than roof- or ground-mounted PV systems. To provide a lower-cost PV parking lot canopy to supply EV charging beneath them, this study provides a full mechanical and economic analysis on three novel PV canopy systems: (1) exclusively wood, single parking spot spanning system, (2) wood and aluminum double parking spot spanning system, and (3) wood and aluminum cantilevered system for curbside parking. All systems can be scalable to any amount of EV parking spots. The complete designs and bill of materials (BOM) of the canopies are provided along with basic instructions and are released with an open source license that will enable anyone to fabricate them. The results found single-span systems have cost savings of 82%-85%, double-span systems save 43%-50%, and cantilevered systems save 31%-40%. In the first operation year, the PV canopies can provide 157% of energy needed to charge the least efficient EV currently on the market if it is driven the average driving distance in London ON, Canada.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; sector coupling; energy system optimization; renewable energy integration; REMix; charging behavior; marginal values
Online: 20 January 2020 (10:08:13 CET)
Battery electric vehicles provide an opportunity to balance supply and demand in future power systems with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Compared to other storage systems such as pumped-storage hydroelectricity, electric vehicle energy demand is highly dependent on charging and connection choices of vehicle users. We present a model framework of a utility-based stock and flow model, a utility-based microsimulation of charging decisions, and an energy system model including respective interfaces to assess how the representation of battery electric vehicle charging affects energy system optimization results. We then apply the framework to a scenario study for controlled charging of nine million electric vehicles in Germany in 2030. Assuming a respective fleet power demand of 27 TWh, we analyze the difference between power-system-based and vehicle user-based charging decisions in two respective scenarios. Our results show that taking into account vehicle users’ charging and connection decisions significantly decreases the load shifting potential of controlled charging. The analysis of marginal values of equations and variables of the optimization problem yields valuable insights on the importance of specific constraints and optimization variables. In particular, state-of-charge assumptions and representing fast charging drive curtailment of renewable energy feed-in and required gas power plant flexibility. A detailed representation of fleet charge connection is less important. Peak load can be significantly reduced by 5% and 3% in both scenarios, respectively. Shifted load is very robust across sensitivity analyses while other model results such as curtailment are more sensitive to factors such as underlying data years. Analyzing the importance of increased BEV fleet battery availability for power systems with different weather and electricity demand characteristics should be further scrutinized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: control; current mode control; voltage control; transfer function; power converter; soft-switching converter; battery charging;
Online: 23 May 2019 (12:58:27 CEST)
This paper presents a control algorithm for soft-switching series LC converters. The conventional voltage-to-voltage controller is split into a master and a slave controller. The master controller implements constant-current-constant-voltage (CCCV) control, required for demanding applications, i.e. lithium battery charging or laboratory power supplies. It defines the set-current for the open-loop current slave controller, which generates the PWM parameters. The power supply achieves fast large-signal responses, e.g. from 5 V to 24 V, where 95% of the target value is reached in less than 400 µs. The design is evaluated extensively in simulation and on a prototype. A consensus between simulation and measurement is achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: battery charger; photovoltaic module array; LiFePO4 battery; Buck converter; maximum power point tracker; smart two-stage charging strategy
Online: 18 June 2018 (15:55:50 CEST)
This paper aims to present a smart high speed battery charger, powered by a photovoltaic module array, for a LiFePO4 battery as a solar energy storage device. With a battery charging strategy, the presented battery charger involves a Buck converter as the core equipped with a simple maximum power point (MPP) tracker. Considering complexity reduction and easy hardware implementation, a constant voltage MPP tracking approach is adopted such that the maximum amount of output power can be delivered to the load in response to an arbitrary change in the solar radiation. A smart two-stage charging strategy, with a constant current mode followed by a constant voltage mode, is employed in such a way that the battery charge process can be accelerated largely, while the damage caused by overcharging can be prevented. In the end, the performance of this proposal is validated experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle (EV); charging station (CS); state of charge (SOC); structured query language (SQL); personal home page (PHP)
Online: 16 March 2017 (06:36:11 CET)
The enormous growth in the penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), has laid the path to advancements in the charging infrastructure. Connectivity between charging stations is an essential prerequisite for future EV adoption to alleviate users’ “range anxiety”. The existing charging stations fail to adopt power provision allocation and scheduling management. To improve the existing charging infrastructure data based on real-time information and availability of reserves at charging stations could be uploaded to the users to help them locate the nearest charging station for an EV. This research article focuses on an a interactive user application developed through SQL and PHP platform to allocate the charging slots based on estimated battery parameters, which uses data communication with charging stations to receive the slot availability information. The proposed server-based real-time forecast charging infrastructure avoids waiting times and its scheduling management efficiently prevents the EV from halting on road due to battery drain out. The proposed model is implemented using a low-cost microcontroller and the system etiquette tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Public bus transportation; Battery-swapping e-bus; Battery charging; Construction costs; Particle swarm optimization (PSO); PSO-genetic algorithm (GA)
Online: 6 June 2017 (17:52:24 CEST)
The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. An electric-bus (e-bus) transportation system favors reducing pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), a genetic algorithm (GA), and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption) and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Decarbonization Methodology; Urban Traffic; Agent-Based Transport Simulation; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainability; Total Cost of Ownership; Charging Concepts; Conceptual Vehicle Design; Battery Electric Vehicles; Vehicle Routing Problem
Online: 6 December 2020 (18:16:16 CET)
This paper presents a new methodology to derive and analyze strategies for a fully decarbonized urban transport system which combines conceptual vehicle design, a large-scale agent-based transport simulation, operational cost analysis, and life cycle assessment for a complete urban region. The holistic approach evaluates technical feasibility, system cost, energy demand, transportation time and sustainability-related impacts of various decarbonization strategies. In contrast to previous work, the consequences of a transformation to fully decarbonized transport system scenarios are quantified across all traffic segments, considering procurement, operation and disposal. The methodology can be applied to arbitrary regions and transport systems. Here, the metropolitan region of Berlin is chosen as a demonstration case. First results are shown for a complete conversion of all traffic segments from conventional propulsion technology to battery electric vehicles. The transition of private individual traffic is analyzed regarding technical feasibility, energy demand and environmental impact. Commercial goods, municipal traffic and public transport are analyzed with respect to system cost and environmental impacts. We can show a feasible transition path for all cases with substantially lower greenhouse gas emissions. Based on current technologies and today’s cost structures our simulation shows a moderate increase in total systems cost of 13-18%.