Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Optimal Charging Schedule Planning for Electric Buses Using the Aggregated Day-Ahead Auction Bids

Version 1 : Received: 29 June 2021 / Approved: 2 July 2021 / Online: 2 July 2021 (14:22:37 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Zoltowska, I.; Lin, J. Optimal Charging Schedule Planning for Electric Buses Using Aggregated Day-Ahead Auction Bids. Energies 2021, 14, 4727. Zoltowska, I.; Lin, J. Optimal Charging Schedule Planning for Electric Buses Using Aggregated Day-Ahead Auction Bids. Energies 2021, 14, 4727.

Journal reference: Energies 2021, 14, 4727
DOI: 10.3390/en14164727

Abstract

This paper answers the need to plan a cost-minimizing charging schedule for electric buses and proposes a three-stage procedure, which is oriented around the participation of electric buses aggregator in a day-ahead energy auction. First, optimization models are provided to determine charging availability expressed as minimum and maximum hourly energy requirements taking into account detailed, minutely characteristics and constraints of the charging equipment and the buses. Next, the auction model is formulated by considering aggregated bids submitted by the electric buses aggregator once the charging availability is determined. Hence, the day-ahead prices reflect the optimal schedules of auction participants, and the bus aggregator is safe against peak-hour charging. Finally, hourly auction-based schedules are disaggregated into optimal minutely charging schedules. Mixed-integer linear programming models are formulated for aggregation-disaggregation stages investigated in this paper, while the variables and constraints introduced into the auction model are linear. The proposed methodology has been verified on a recently published case study of a real-world bus service operated on The Ohio State University campus. We show that the auction-based charging of all 22 buses outperforms as-soon-as-possible schedules by 7% to even 28% of daily cost savings. Using the aggregated bids, buses can flexibly shift charges between high- and low-price periods while preserving constraints of the charging equipment and timetables.

Keywords

aggregator; coordinated charging; double auction; mixed-integer linear programming

Subject

MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Numerical Analysis & Optimization

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