ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Regional Economic; Innovation-driven; Development; Spatial Characteristics
Online: 12 July 2021 (13:42:16 CEST)
This paper uses the spatial analysis software GeoDa as a tool, takes GRP (Gross regional product) of Sichuan Province in 2012 and 2018 as the dependent variable, and takes the city (autonomous prefecture) factor-driven, investment-driven and innovation-driven indicators as the dependent variable to explore the impact of innovation activities on regional economic development and the spatial distribution characteristics of regional economy. Through the comparison of the global correlation and local correlation, this paper explores the crux of the regional economic polarization and unbalanced development, and puts forward some measures to solve the existing economic development problems, such as cultivating and improving the regional industrial dependence, accelerating the regional transportation accessibility and convenience, and constructing the regional collaborative innovation system, So as to achieve the strategic goal of the construction of innovative Province in Sichuan Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0371.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: economic regions; regional classification; classification methodology; construction industry; cluster analysis; accidents in construction
Online: 28 April 2018 (12:14:29 CEST)
The article presents the methodology for classifying economic regions with regards to selected factors that characterize a region, such as: the economic structure of the region, and thus the share of individual sectors in the economy; employment; the dynamics of the development of individual sectors expressed as an increase or decrease in production value; the population density in the region and also the level of occupational safety. Cluster analysis, which is a method of multidimensional statistical analysis available in Statistica software, was used to solve the task. The proposed methodology was used to group Polish voivodships with regards to the speed of economic development and occupational safety in the construction industry. Data published by the Central Statistical Office was used for this purpose, such as the value of construction and assembly production, the number of people employed in the construction industry, the population of an individual region and the number of people injured in occupational accidents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainable regional development; knowledge economy; regional innovation policy
Online: 1 October 2017 (08:21:30 CEST)
The paper explores different models of innovation management at the regional level and reasons for the best model considering the specific features of St. Petersburg as the innovative region of Russia. The authors, on the base of their long-time experience in studies of innovative enterprises and elaborating the regional innovation policy in St. Petersburg, propose the tool of creation and measuring the results of the regional innovation policy that promotes the life quality improvement and regional sustainable development. The balanced scorecard is used as a method, based on the methodology of knowledge economy development and adjusted to the specific needs of St. Petersburg innovation eco-system. The authors pay special attention to the implementation of principles of green economy into the realization of the regional innovation policy and the proposed balanced scorecard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0159.v1
Online: 12 April 2018 (06:11:34 CEST)
This paper examines the regional changes of corn production and the relationship between ethanol production and corn production. The underlying hypothesis is that the rapid growth in ethanol production causes regional expansion of corn production outside the traditional regions. This paper introduces the information approach developed by entropy theory to describe these regional changes. The results support the hypothesis that ethanol production leads to expansion of corn production outside traditional corn producing regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Anesthesia; Anxiety; Regional anaesthesia; Music Therapy
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:15:16 CEST)
In this study, the effects of music therapy on anxiety for patients undergoing regional anaesthesia in an operating room was succinctly investigated. This investigation was largely based on the adapted Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), of patients undergoing regional anaesthesia in an operating room. A randomized control trial was performed on 90 patients due for surgery. The selected patients for regional anaesthesia were allocated to either the music therapy group who listened to music using headphones for the entire surgery or the no-treatment control group. Based on the findings, it has been conclusively demonstrated that music can decrease the patient's anxiety level. According to the socio-demographic evaluation, elderly patients have the highest stress hormones levels when compared to young patients. Although elderly patients are more likely to choose religious songs to help them relax, cortisol analysis revealed an increase in cortisol levels among the elderly compared with younger patients. As a result, music is especially important to be delivered to elderly patients. Nonetheless, there is no restriction against administering music to elderly patients because evidence from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) has shown that music helps to shift their attention away from pain and complications and makes them feel tranquil. Similarly, the HADS and modified Spielberger STAI (STAI-S) analyses demonstrate a substantial outcome for both groups, with respondents responding positively. The study found that listening to music during regional anaesthesia might help people feel less worried.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0533.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: regional modelling; spectral; coastal phenomena; stornms
Online: 27 July 2018 (04:39:23 CEST)
We review the state of dynamical downscaling with scale-constrained regional and global models. The methodology, in particular spectral nudging, has become a routine and well-researched tool for hindcasting climatologies of sub-synoptic atmospheric disturbances in coastal regions. At present, the spectrum of applications is expanding to other phenomena, but also to ocean dynamics and to extended forecasting. Also new diagnostic challenges are appearing such as spatial characteristics of small-scale phenomena such as Low Level Jets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0258.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: local activities, regional products, sustainability support
Online: 26 January 2018 (16:19:26 CET)
Regional product labeling can help develop regional business activities, especially with traditional regional products. Their general popularity is a significant source of income for the less developed regions. The Gemer-Malohont region belongs to economically underdeveloped areas with high unemployment rate. The subject of the survey was regional food products, which are made by small farmer. The analysis was carried out on a questionnaire survey in the period April-July 2017 in each of the region's districts. The results obtained by questionnaire survey have been statistically processed using the statistical method (two-step cluster analysis, radar chart, box-plots, regression analysis) using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software. Through cluster analysis and based on the preference of regional food, we divided consumers into two groups - knowledgeable regional food purchasers and priced oriented consumers. We have shown that the more developed regions (Rimavská Sobota, Rožňava) show a higher rate of purchase of regional foods. Less developed regions (Poltár, Revúca) are represented by lower-income consumers for whose the food price is the decisive criterion. Local residents of backward regions should pay attention to domestic food and local small farmers, who are the way to create local capital and local development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0402.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: anesthesia; anesthesiology; big data; registries; database research; acute pain; pain management; postoperative pain; regional anesthesia; regional analgesia.
Online: 15 March 2021 (17:45:39 CET)
The digital transformation of healthcare is advancing, leading to an increasing availability of clinical data for research. Perioperative big data initiatives were established to monitor treatment quality and benchmark outcomes. However, big data analyzes have long exceeded the status of pure quality surveillance instruments. Large retrospective studies nowadays often represent the first approach to new questions in clinical research and pave the way for more expensive and resource intensive prospective trials. As a consequence, utilization of big data in acute pain and regional anesthesia research considerably increased over the last decade. Multicentric clinical registries and administrative databases (e.g., healthcare claims databases) have collected millions of cases until today, on which basis several important research questions were approached. In acute pain research, big data was used to assess postoperative pain outcomes, opioid utilization, and the efficiency of multimodal pain management strategies. In regional anesthesia, adverse events and potential benefits of regional anesthesia on postoperative morbidity and mortality were evaluated. This article provides a narrative review on the growing importance of big data for research in acute postoperative pain and regional anesthesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0591.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: regional development; periphery; socioeconomic index; academy; university
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:45:08 CEST)
MIGAL – Galilee Research Institute is a regional R&D center in the northeast peripheral region of Israel. An internationally recognized applied research institute, MIGAL specializes in biotechnology and computational sciences, plant sciences, precision agriculture and environmental sciences, as well as food, nutrition and health. Most of MIGAL’s researchers serve as the core faculty at Tel Hai Academic College (TH). Despite the country’s small surface area, socioeconomic inequality in Israel is high by OECD standards, with wage differences between rich and poor regions reaching up to 400%. The aims of this study are to identify possible socioeconomic impacts of MIGAL–TH on the peripheral northeast’s development. We discuss the effects of academic research and institutions of higher education on mitigating differences between the center and periphery of the country. Data for MIGAL, TH and the northeastern peripheral region were collected from the yearly reports of the two institutions and the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. MIGAL was found to serve as a link between research, academic teaching and socioeconomic development in the northeast periphery. Several variables related to this link and describing MIGAL–TH and northeastern periphery development were analyzed over time: MIGAL’s budget, total number of employees and number of employees with PhDs; number of TH graduate students; socioeconomic index (SEI) of the northeastern periphery and its position on the Israeli list of regional SEIs. The signs and significance levels of their trends indicate a potential socioeconomic impact of academic research and higher education on peripheral development in the northeast of the country. Research budgets and the creation of jobs for academics living in the region are just a few examples of this impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0466.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: capital structure; leverage; SMEs; cross-regional variation
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:11:16 CEST)
There is tremendous interest, in the economic literature, for the determinants of firms’ capital structure decisions. A rich body of empirical works now exists that purports to identify firm- and country-level factors affecting firms’ financing patterns. In addition, more recently, a new stream of studies has emerged that investigates cross-regional variation in small firms’ capital structure. While small firms’ leverage does seem to vary across regions, at least in countries where significant regional differences in economic and financial development and in the quality of institutions exist, not much yet is known about variation in debt maturity, in debt in relation to equity, and between different types of small firms. The present paper aims to fill this gap through an empirical analysis of cross-regional variation in the capital structure of a sample of about 30,000 Italian small firms over a 13-year period, including the aftermath of the credit crunch that followed the 2007-8 global financial crisis. The findings confirm the view that small firms in underdeveloped regions are more financially constrained, but also amend some of the results shown in the literature, in particular by showing how small firms in Italy’s Southern regions have higher levels of equity and fixed assets than small firms in other regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0119.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Quantile Mapping Bias Correction (QMBC); Regional Climate Models (RCMs); Rossby Centre Regional Climate Models (RCA4); Drought; Flood; Kenya
Online: 12 January 2020 (14:18:56 CET)
Accurate assessment and projections of extreme climate events requires the use of climate datasets with no or minimal error. This study uses quantile mapping bias correction (QMBC) method to correct the bias of five Regional Climate Models (RCMs) from the latest output of Rossby Climate Model Center (RCA4) over Kenya, East Africa. The outputs were validated using various scalar metrics such as Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and mean Bias. The study found that the QMBC algorithm demonstrate varying performance among the models in the study domain. The results show that most of the models exhibit significant improvement after corrections at seasonal and annual timescales. Specifically, the European community Earth-System (EC-EARTH) and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) models depict exemplary improvement as compared to other models. On the contrary, the Institute Pierre Simon Laplace Model CM5A-MR (IPSL-CM5A-MR) model show little improvement across various timescales (i.e. March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND)). The projections forced with bias corrected historical simulations tallied observed values demonstrate satisfactory simulations as compared to the uncorrected RCMs output models. This study has demonstrated that using QMBC on outputs from RCA4 is an important intermediate step to improve climate data prior to performing any regional impact analysis. The corrected models can be used for projections of drought and flood extreme events over the study area. This study analysis is crucial from the sustainable planning for adaptation and mitigation of climate change and disaster risk reduction perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0325.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Rainfall; QPESUMS; Regional Frequency Analysis; L-moments; Taiwan
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:53:34 CEST)
This study proposed a spatially and temporally improving methodology adopting the Regional Frequency Analysis with L-moments approach to estimate rainfall quantiles from 22787 grids of radar rainfall in Taiwan for a 24-hour duration. Due to limited radar coverage in the eastern region, significant discordant grids were found in the coastal area of the eastern region. A K-means cluster analysis using scaled at-site characteristics was used to group the QPESUMS grids in Taiwan into 22 clusters/sub-regions based on their characteristics. Spatially, homogeneous subregions with QPESUMS data produce more detailed homogeneous subregions with clear and continuous boundaries, especially in the mountain range area where the number of rain stations is still very limited. According to the results of z-values and L-moment ratio diagrams, the Wakeby (WAK), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Generalized Pareto (GPA) distributions of rainfall extremes fitted well for the majority of subregions. The Wakeby distribution was the dominant best-fitted distribution, especially in the central and eastern regions. The east of the northern part and southern part of Taiwan had the highest extreme rainfall for each return period. Both areas were frequently struck by typhoons. By using grid-based (at-site) as the basis for assessing regional frequency analysis, the results show that the regional approach in determining extreme rainfall is very suitable for large-scale applications and even better for smaller scales such as watershed areas. The spatial investigation was performed by establishing regions of interest in small subregions across the northern part. It showed that regionalization was correct and consistent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0282.v1
Online: 10 June 2021 (09:05:00 CEST)
Pre-monsoon dust aerosols over Indian regions are closely linked to the monsoon dynamics and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Past observational studies have shown a decline in dust loading over the Indian landmass potentially caused by changing rainfall patterns over the desert regions. Such changes are expected to have far reaching impact on regional energy balance and monsoon rainfall. Using a regional climate-chemistry model, RegCM4.5 with an updated land module, we have simulated the long-term (2001-2015) changes in dust over the arid and semi-arid dust source regions of the North-Western part of the sub-continent. It is found that the area-averaged dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the arid and semi-arid desert regions has declined by 17% since the start of this millennium. The rainfall over these regions exhibits a positive trend of 0.1 mm day-1year-1 and a net increase of > 50%. The wet deposition is found to be dominant and ~5 fold larger in magnitude over dry deposition and exhibits total changes of ~ 79 % and 48% in the trends in atmospheric dust. As a response, significant change in the surface (11%), top of the atmosphere radiative forcing (7%), and widespread atmospheric cooling are observed in short wave domain of radiation spectrum, over the Northern part of the Indian landmass. Such quantification and long term change studies are necessary for understanding the regional climate change and the water cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0020.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Tropospheric ozone; pollution episode; satellite measurements; regional transport
Online: 4 October 2017 (11:23:38 CEST)
We use a regional scale photochemical transport model to investigate the surface concentrations and column integrated amounts of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during a pollution event that occurred in the St. Louis metropolitan region in 2012. These trace gases will be two of the primary constituents that will be measured by TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution), an instrument on a geostationary platform, which will result in a dataset that has hourly temporal resolution during the daytime and ~4 km spatial resolution. Although air quality managers are most concerned with surface concentrations, satellite measurements provide a quantity that reflects a column amount, which may or may not be directly relatable to what is measured at the surface. Our model results provide reasonably good agreement with observed surface O3 concentrations (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.87 at each of the nine monitoring stations in the St. Louis region), which is the only trace gas dataset that can be used for verification. The model shows that a plume of O3 extends downwind from St. Louis and contains an integrated amount of ozone of ~ 16 Dobson Units (DU; 1 DU = 2.69 x 1016 molecules cm-2), an amount lower than what was observed during two massive pollution episodes in the 1980s. Based on the smaller isolatable emissions coming from St. Louis, this quantity is not unreasonable, but may also reflect the reduction of photochemical ozone production due to the implementation of emission controls that have gone into effect since the 1980s.
COMMENT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Regional inequality; Multilevel regression; Markov chain; Guizhou Province
Online: 17 August 2016 (12:58:58 CEST)
This study analyses regional development in one of the poorest provinces in China, Guizhou Province, between 2000 and 2012 using a multiscale and multi-mechanism framework. In general, regional inequality has been declining since 2000. In addition, economic development in Guizhou Province presented spatial agglomeration and club convergence, which shows how the development pattern of one core area, two-wing areas and a contiguous area at the edge of the province have been developed between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that industrialization and investment level were the primary driving forces of regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province. The influences of marketization and decentralization on regional economic disparity were relatively weak. Investment level reinforced regional economic disparity and the development of core-periphery structure in the province. However, investment level actually weakened the regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province when the variable of time was considered. In addition, both the topography and urban–rural differentiation were the two main reasons for forming a core-periphery structure in Guizhou Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0055.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Aquifer, Ternate Island, Regional geology, Groundwater potential, Hydrogeochemistry zone.
Online: 2 November 2022 (11:02:30 CET)
Ternate Island is a volcanic island resulting from the activity of the Gamalama Volcano which is located in the northern Maluku archipelago, Indonesia. Ternate Island is famous as the only island that produces special spices and is the zero point of the world's spice route because the main producer of cloves is here. As a small island, Ternate Island has several limitations including the availability of water resources. Given the scarcity of surface water on the island of Ternate, groundwater in shallow aquifers and deep aquifers is the main source of fresh water which is important for irrigation activities, tourism, services and supporting urban and industrial infrastructure, as well as drinking water needs for people who live densely and are concentrated in the east. and the southern part of the island which is now the city of Ternate. The phenomenon of groundwater utilization in Ternate City is generally massively carried out to support economic activities in the city of Ternate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential and quality of groundwater resources which are an important part of water management on the island of Ternate by microzoning the quality of groundwater for the sustainability of the city which is famous as the world's spice city based on its groundwater potential. Determination of groundwater samples as many as 67 wells distributed on the island of Ternate, 58 well sample points were categorized as free aquifers (MA-SG) and 7 points of depressed aquifers (SB). Ternate island area of 102 km2 with volcanic geology in 3 rock categories. Geological distribution also affects the hydrogeological potential and groundwater quality on the island of Ternate. Piper's trilinear diagram and stiff diagram methods were adopted for the assessment of the main ion quality of groundwater and the distribution of groundwater potential was interpolated with cubic splines to obtain correlations between sample points based on basic parameters of volcanic hydrogeology. The total potential for groundwater recharge is 1,291 million m3/year, there are 5 groundwater quality zones spread among 67 sample points with 76% distribution of elements Calcium Bicarbonate (CaCO3), Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO₂), magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2 and widely distributed on the island of ternate, while 25% magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and potassium chloride (KCL) are scattered locally on the island of ternate. On an ongoing basis the bicarbonate facies micro-zonation is hydrogeochemical with local flow interactions in volcanic deposits, where infiltration tends to be close to the groundwater sample point, while the chloride facies is a groundwater zone that is correlated with flow patterns from upstream to downstream and has interacted with magma or was intruded. seawater is characterized by high Ca and TDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Holland-B Parameter; Philippine typhoons; Regional wind; Wind hazard
Online: 2 September 2022 (10:39:46 CEST)
For the Philippines, a country exposed to multiple natural hazards like severe wind, sustainable development includes resiliency. Severe wind hazard is brought by tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific, known as typhoons, that frequent the Philippines. Therefore, adequately evaluating the wind hazard and its impact is crucial for sustainable building design. Acknowledging the impacts of climate change on said hazards would require adaptation to its consequences which necessitate a deeper understanding on the changing behavior of typhoons in recent years. For this study, detailed wind information from the Japan Meteorological Agency from 1977-2021, the Holland-B parameter, and the radius of maximum wind speed for each typhoon, are determined for simulation of the regional cyclonic wind field. The analysis of the Holland-B parameters, which represent the steepness of the pressure gradient and tropical cyclone convection, suggest that the Holland-B parameters have been increasing since 2011. The regional wind fields caused by the typhoons also suggest an increasing trend in severe wind hazard. Seasonality for the location of severe wind hazard is also observed, with the Southern Philippines experiencing an increase (decrease) during the Northeast (Southwest) Monsoon season, and the Northern Philippines experiencing an increase (decrease) during the Southwest (Northeast) Monsoon season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Bioeconomy strategy; regional development; residues; policy; market; technology; commoditization
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:19:07 CET)
The European Bioeconomy Strategy aims to strengthen and boost biobased sectors, unlocking investments and markets while rapidly deploying local bioeconomies across Europe and improving compliance with environmental and social sustainability goals. Current biomass provision structures and infrastructure might not be able to tap the sustainable potential of forestry-, agricultural residues and biogenic waste envisaged forming the biogenic feedstock base of the Circular Bioeconomy of tomorrow. Therefore, for the present paper, we assess mobilization strategies, their current status, opportunities, and barriers for local low value and heterogenous biomass resources. Based on discussions with bioenergy supply chain experts, we cluster mobilization measures into three assessment levels; the legislative framework, market structures and technological innovation. Scientific literature research on the respective keywords is performed, the European policy landscape mapped, and the results are enriched with anecdotal evidence, especially for recent and running projects and market developments that lack in published track records. We can identify research needs on all three assessment levels. Still, technological development and legislative frameworks are providing support for heterogeneous biomass mobilization. Market creation, however, represents a bottleneck. We provide novel perspectives, how physical- and virtual bio-hubs and crediting stake- and shareholder variety could create added-value based on sustainable primary economic activities and their cascading activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Poverty alleviation; poverty analysis; depressed areas; welfare; regional policy
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:01:05 CEST)
Poverty alleviation is a hallmark of post-revolution Chinese policymaking. Since 1978, the Communist Party of China (CPC) has implemented successive waves of poverty alleviation policies whose effects have become the focus of an ever-increasing body of academic literature. This paper reviews this diverse but limited literature that evaluates the impact of the CPC’s poverty reduction programs through four major channels, namely fiscal investment programs, social safety nets, rural governance on the village-, county- and provincial level, and the relocation of rural populations from destitute regions. This paper aims to synthesize results and evaluate whether and how the abovementioned poverty alleviation programs have had distinct positive or negative impacts on regional development outcomes. Furthermore, I highlight contradictions in empirical findings to motivate the discussion about contextual importance when designing and implementing future poverty alleviation programs. Finally, I suggest that an exhaustive and critical appraisal of the empirical strategies used in this literature would further the development and application of more accurate and informative methodologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0058.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Albedo; Biomass; Land cover; Regional heat capacity; Surface Temperature
Online: 20 July 2017 (13:35:01 CEST)
Regional heat capacity change is calculated from the ratio between the addition or subtraction of heat (ΔQ) with the increase or decrease in temperature (ΔT) region. The purpose of this study is to calculate the regional heat capacity change due to the changes of land cover composition with forest, shrubs, oil palm plantation and bare soil using Landsat-5 TM satellite data on 1994, 2000 and 2010. Total area that used on this study is 12971 ha. In 1994-2000, 4 % of forest area and 2% shrubs were increased, followed by additional of biomass forest 4.01 tons/ha and 2.83 tons/ha for shrubs. The increased of forest area and biomass (tons/ha) caused by forest and shrubs growth processing towards climax that added the canopy volume. So that, the regional heat capacity in 1994 amounted 19384 MJCo-1 increased to 19929 MJCo-1 in 2000. Data observation for 2000-2010 showed that forest area decreased by 66% due to forest’s clearing into oil palm plantations (47%), shrubs (8%) and bare soil (11%). But, plant’s biomass continue to increased, i.e 1.48 ton/ha for forest, 2.73 tons/ha for shrubs and 4.63 tons/ha for bare soil. Before 2000, there was no land cover by oil palm plantations, so the increasing rate from this land was the biggest than the three other lands, amounting to 122.29 tons/ha. Decreasing in the percentage of forest area does not cause a decrease in the heat capacity of the region. Intensive maintenance on oil plam plantation such as water management, fertilizer and planting space made it biomass productivity and ability to save the heat is greater than the forest. As the result, in 2010 regional heat capacity increased to 22508 MJCo-1.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Dengue virus; complete genome; Cosmopolitan genotype; Senegal; 2018; Regional diversification
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:56:19 CET)
To assess the genetic diversity of circulating dengue virus 2 in Senegal in 2018 we performed molecular characterization by complete genome sequencing and performing phylogenetic analysis. Sequenced strains belong to Cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2 we observed intra-genotype variability leading to a divergence in two clades with differential geographic distribution. We report two variants namely; the “Northern variant” harbouring three nonsynonymous mutations (V1183M, R1405K, P2266T) located respectively on NS2A, NS2B and NS4A and the “Western variant” with two nonsynonymous mutations (V1185E, V3214E) located respectively in the NS2A gene and the NS5 gene. Findings calls for in depth in vitro and functional study to elucidate the impact of observed mutations on viral fitness, spread, epidemiology and disease outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0271.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: smart regions; social capital; ICT; neural network; regional performance; Italy
Online: 19 October 2021 (11:46:03 CEST)
The present study aims to examine the role the social and digital infrastructures might have during the building process of the Smart Regions in the Italian context. Within this framework, it is possible to identify some essential research questions, such as why the same regions are growing faster than the other and which type of effects could be generated from the different connectivity between the regions. Since the Smart Region concept is still composed of technical reports, pilot projects and experiences from a limited number of cities on the international stage, this work it is tried to use a new approach, applying either a neuronal model, the Self-Organizing Maps, and the multivariate regression approach, to extrapolate the existence of possible future conditions for the rising of Smart Regions in Italy, studying the evolution of the used database during the period 2005 – 2016. From the analysis what emerged is that the only bridging social capital dimension, empirically speaking, feed the regional innovation growth because the structure of social relationship facilitates interactions across social, political and economic agents; but there are institutional deficits, most pronounced in Italy and other European countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0376.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Regional climate model; wind energy; surface roughness; ERA5 reanalysis data
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:51:17 CET)
This study explores wind energy resources in different locations through the Gulf of Oman and also their future variability due climate change impacts. In this regard, EC-EARTH near-surface wind outputs obtained from CORDEX-MENA simulations are used for historical and future projection of the energy. The ERA5 wind data are employed to assess the suitability of the climate model. Moreover, the ERA5 wave data over the study area are applied to compute sea surface roughness as an important variable for converting near-surface wind speeds to those of wind speed at turbine hub height. Considering the power distribution, bathymetry and distance from the coats, some spots as tentative energy hotspots to provide a detailed assessment of directional and temporal variability and also to investigate climate change impact studies. RCP8.5 is a common climatic scenario is used to project and extract future variation of the energy in the selected sites. The results of this study demonstrate that the selected locations have a suitable potential for wind power turbine plans and constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Resource-based view, regional competitiveness, renewable energy, wind power, island
Online: 20 February 2019 (10:59:22 CET)
This paper aims to propose a new approach of territorial competitiveness assessment revisited from the resource-based view, as the combination of location-specific resources and capabilities can improve the territorial socio-economic development. A territorial competitiveness index is calculated in order to assess the potential of renewable energy sources to improve the sustainable development in islands. Different sources of information and methodologies have been employed to measure the variables included in the model, thus ensuring a rigorous process in the index calculation. In order to quantify the basic resources, for example, a methodology based on a multicriteria analysis (MCA) with geographic information system (GIS) is suggested, with the objective of obtaining an indicator called index of available territorial resources. This index synthesizes the map information through a numerical value that allows integrating the territorial resource with other indicators of the model. The results of the study show that capability development is a key factor to better exploit the territorial resource endowment in order to achieve a competitive advantage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: foodshed archipelago; proximity food supply chains; spatial signature; city-region; food self-sufficiency; regional food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system; food policy
Online: 17 December 2021 (11:37:50 CET)
: Foodshed approaches allow the assessment of the theoretical food self-sufficiency capacity of a specific region based on biophysical conditions. Recent analyses show that the focus needs to be shifted from foodshed size portrayed as an isotropic circle to a commodity-group-specific spatial configuration of the foodshed that takes into account the socio-economic and biophysical conditions essential to the development of local food supply chains. We focus on a specific animal product (beef) and use an innovative modeling approach based on spatial analysis to detect the areas of the foodshed dedicated to beef feeding (forage, pasture, and grassland), considering the foodshed as a complex of complementary areas called an archipelago. We use available statistical data including a census to address the city-region of Avignon (France) covering a 100 km radius. Our results show that the factors driving the use of short supply chains for beef feeding areas are the foodshed archipelago’s number of patches, the connectivity between them, and the rugosity of the boundaries. In addition, our beef self-sufficiency assessment results differ depending on geographical context. For instance, being located within the perimeters of a nature park seems to help orient beef production towards short supply chains. We discuss possible leverage for public action to reconnect beef production areas to consumption areas (the city) via short supply chains (e.g. green, home-grown school food programs) so as to increase local food security through increased local food self-sufficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Decentralization; National Health Service; Regional Health Administration; Primary Health Care; Portugal
Online: 11 July 2022 (03:46:45 CEST)
The Portuguese health system has a universal, public, general National Health Service (NHS), tending towards free healthcare access. Created in 1979, this delivery model developed from the integration and complementarity between the different response levels (primary, hospital, continuing, and palliative care). However, over these 40 years, the initially centralized system underwent a decentralization process with the creation of Regional Health Administrations in the five mainland administrative regions. Since then, the entire NHS has settled around this new organization. The most recent step started in 2018 with decentralizing primary health care skills to 190 municipalities. This paper presents the various critical issues involved in the latest gradual decentralization process in health, intending to bring services closer to the citizens, and more focused on their needs. The article identifies and discusses the implications of this experience based on the steps foreseen in the already published legal texts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Nutrient patterns; Obesity; Sex differences; Total and regional adiposity; South Africa
Online: 20 October 2021 (10:17:40 CEST)
The study evaluated the association between nutrient patterns and body fat and regional adiposity in middle-aged black South African (SA) men and women and determined if this differed by sex. Body fat and regional adiposity (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and dietary intake (7-day quantified food frequency questionnaire) were measured in black SA men (n=414) and women (n=346). Using principal component analysis, nutrient patterns were computed from 25 nutrients in the combined sample. Four nutrient patterns were extracted, explaining 67% of the variance in nutrient intake. Animal and fat, as well as the vitamin C, sugar and potassium driven patterns, were positively associated with total adiposity. In contrast, the retinol and vitamin B12 pattern was associated with the centralisation of fat. Notably, the strength of the association between the animal-driven nutrient pattern and BMI was greater in men (1.14 kg/m2, 95%CI (0.63-1.66)) than women (0.81 kg/m2, 95%CI (0.25-1.36)) (Pint=0.017). In contrast, the plant driven pattern was associated with higher abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in women (44 cm2, 95%CI (22-67)) but not men (Pint =1.54 x 10-4). These interactions suggest that although men and women have similar nutrient patterns, the associations with the whole body and regional body fat are different.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0080.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: LCIA method; local government; statistical information; gross regional product; environmental accounting
Online: 12 June 2019 (05:54:02 CEST)
It is important for enterprises to decide their environmental policies after carefully examining their future paths based on the relationship between the environment and the economy. This study focused on Japanese minimum administrative divisions (municipalities) and attempted to quantify the annual environmental efficiency of production activities within each division according to the theory of life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA). This study leverages the assessment theory LIME2, which is an endpoint-type LCIA method developed in 2010 that integrates environmental loads for certain impact categories, such as global warming and land use into a simple indicator by monetary unit. First, annual environmental impact assessments were conducted for all Japanese municipalities based on statistical information that was reliable, verifiable, and comparable. Next, the environmental efficiency of productivity for each division was conceptualized by dividing the gross domestic product by the environmental damage amounts as calculated above. Assessment results for each municipality were placed on a map of Japan in order to visualize the regionality of each indicator. The findings revealed in this study will aid public administrators in their decision-making process with respect to environmental policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: IDF curves; urban drainage; regional climate model; bias correction; climate changes
Online: 4 April 2018 (08:26:21 CEST)
Drainage systems are usually dimensioned for design storms based on intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves of extreme precipitation. For each location, different IDF curves are established based on local hydrological conditions. Recent research shows that these curves also vary with time, and should be updated with recent data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate IDF curves obtained from precipitation simulations from the Eta RCM, comparing them with IDF curves obtained from data of a rainfall station. Climate models can be a useful tool for assessing the impacts of climate changes on drainage systems, referring precipitation forecasts. In this study, the Eta RCM was forced by two global climate models: HadGEM2-ES and MIROC5. The bias of the precipitation data, generated by RCM models, was corrected using a Gamma distribution. The Juqueriquerê River Basin, in the cities of Caraguatatuba and São Sebastião, São Paulo State, Brazil, was chosen as a case study. The results show a good correlation between the IDF curves of simulated and observed rainfall for the control period (1960-2005), indicating the strong possibility of using the Eta RCM precipitation forecasts for 2007 - 2099 to establish future IDFs thereby, taking into account climate changes in urban drainage design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0520.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Energy diplomacy; Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area; ASEAN Power Grid; Regional cooperation
Online: 28 January 2023 (07:51:01 CET)
From the standpoint of Neoliberal Institutionalism, this study explores Malaysia's participation in activities that make energy the topic and/or object of foreign policies, whether through bilateral or multilateral engagements. This research, which aims to evaluate the relevance of energy in Malaysia's economy and diplomacy and to explain Malaysia's reason for its involvement in these cooperations, is necessary because of Malaysia's growing involvement in the global energy market. Information for this study was gathered from a variety of government sources, interviews, published statistical data, and previous studies. The study demonstrates how vital energy is to Malaysia's economy. The Lao PDR-Thailand-Malaysia-Singapore Power Integration Project (LTMS-PIP) initiative, in which Malaysia is participating, is evidence of the viability of multilateral power commerce in the area. The Peninsula Gas Utilisation (PGU) pipeline in Peninsular Malaysia and the Four-Fuel Diversification Policy 1981 (4FDP 1981), which increases natural gas utilisation, are related to Malaysia's participation in the Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area (MT-JDA). Malaysia would want to think about streamlining its energy administration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0220.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: mountain forests; regional succession; palynology; paleoclimate; response lags; human impact; last centuries
Online: 15 March 2022 (15:34:19 CET)
Anticipating future successional forest trends in the face of ongoing global change is an essential conservation target. Mountain forests are especially sensitive to environmental shifts, and their past responses to climatic and anthropogenic (external) drivers may provide a basis for improving predictions of future developments. This paper uses independent high-resolution palynological and paleoclimatic reconstructions to statistically analyze the long-term effects of external drivers on regional forest succession in the central Iberian Pyrenees during the last 500 years. The dominant taxa of these forests (Quercus, Betula, Pinus) showed significant relationships with summer temperature, summer drought and autumn precipitation. Immediate and delayed (by two or more decades) responses of these trees to climatic drivers were identified. Regional succession showed a closed path, starting at the end points around the attraction domain of pine-dominated forests. This trajectory was determined by a trend toward anthropogenic forest clearing (16th to 18th centuries) and a reverse trend of natural forest recovery (18th to 20th centuries). Forest clearing was due to burning, facilitated by drought, and was followed by the expansion of cropping and grazing lands. Forest recovery was fostered by reduced human pressure and rising temperatures. The statistical approach used in this work has unraveled ecological relationships that remained unnoticed in previous works and would be important for predicting future successional trends under changing climates. The reported response lags of individual taxa to climatic drivers may complicate the establishment of reliable ecological relationships and should be addressed in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0534.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Industrial green technology innovation efficiency; Dagum Gini coefficient; spatial econometrics; Regional differences
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:34:49 CET)
Industrial green technology innovation has become an important content in achieving high-quality economic growth and comprehensively practicing the new development concept in the new era. This paper measures the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation and regional differences based on Chinese provincial panel data from 2005 to 2018, using a combination of the super-efficient SBM model for considering undesirable outputs and the Dagum Gini coefficient method, and discusses and analyses the factors influencing of the industrial green technology innovation efficiency by constructing a spatial econometric model. The results show that: firstly, the industrial green technology innovation efficiency in China shows a relatively stable development trend, going through three stages: " stationary period", " recession period " and "growth period ". However, the efficiency gap between different regions is obvious, specifically in the eastern > central > western regions of China, and the industrial green technology efficiency innovation in the central and western regions is lower than the national average. Secondly, regional differences in the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation in China are evident but tend to narrow overall, with the main reason for the overall difference being regional differences. In terms of intra-regional variation, variation within the eastern region is relatively stable, variation within the central region is relatively low and shows an inverted 'U' shaped trend, and variation within the western region is high and shows a fluctuating downward trend. Thirdly, the firm size, government support, openness to the outside world, environmental regulations and education levels contribute to the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation. In addition, the industrial structure hinders the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation, and each influencing factor has different degrees of spatial spillover effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: just transition; energy transition; regional development; public policy; governance; OECD; European Union
Online: 16 May 2021 (21:55:33 CEST)
The concept of a ‘just transition’ encompasses political and policy imperatives to minimise the harmful impacts of industrial and economic transitions on workers, communities and society more generally, and to maximise their potential benefits. This imperative has gained heightened importance as governments commit to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A wide range of policies strategies and initiatives have been adopted by national and regional governments to facilitate and help manage a just transition. It is a concept that is increasingly being put into practice. This scoping study identifies and compares strategies, policies and practices that are presently being implemented in order to manage a just transition across 25 countries and 74 regions alongside European Union-level policies. This work develops a typology of policy instruments to manage just transitions and identifies implementation gaps and leading practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0044.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: semilinear systems; parabolic systems; enlarged observability; regional reconstruction; subdifferential method; HUM approach
Online: 4 December 2018 (03:29:41 CET)
The paper is devoted to the investigation of regional observability with constraints on the state of semilinear parabolic systems. The purpose is to reconstruct the initial state between two prescribed functions only on an internal subregion $\omega$ of the system evolution domain $\Omega$. The proofs use two approaches, the subdifferential and HUM approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to verify the effectiveness of our theory results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: skill accumulation; regional advantages; rural-urban migrant workers; global production networks; upgrading
Online: 1 December 2016 (09:42:02 CET)
Extant research pays little attention to migrant workers’ skill accumulation/upgrading from the perspective of the labor supply. This paper takes China as an example to explore the factors influencing skill accumulation of rural-urban migrant workers (RUMWs), with a purpose to discover how to sustain or reshape regional competitive advantage through improving RUMWs’ skill accumulation. Structured questionnaire surveys were adopted for data collection in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province and Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province located in the Yangtze River Delta in the east of China. 900 questionnaires were issued and 491 effective questionnaires were recovered totally. This paper takes a perspective of global production networks, and gets a broad viewpoint containing intra-firm coordination, inter-firm partnership and extra-firm bargaining with non-firm actors, beyond what the extant literature on laborers’ human capital focuses on. The ﬁnding indicates that firms’ skill-oriented preference, which concerns about employees’ skills and innovation ability and stimulates them to learn initiatively, have a significant influence on RUMWs’ skill accumulation. In terms of collective efficiency based on co-competitive relationship between local firms, the more intensive interactions are, the more opportunities of skill accumulation RUMWs get. The accessibility of local institutions and favorable policies benefit RUMWs’ skill accumulation. Besides, the place itself, as a synthesized space of labor-management relations inside a firm and inter-organization relations, exerts an influence on and cause the regional differences in RUMWs’ skill accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: climate proofing; spatial planning; climate change adaptation; framework; cross-regional; integral; co-benefits
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:21:27 CEST)
Spatial planning holds a key role in preventing or mitigating the impacts of climate change on both cities and rural areas, taking a forward-thinking and holistic approach to urban and regional development. As such, spatial planning deals with challenges occurring at different scales and across sectors. The international literature points out the need for horizontal and vertical cooperation to tackle climate change impacts. While there is abundant knowledge regarding the challenges related to climate change at different spatial levels, procedural integration into planning frameworks and practice is currently under-researched. This paper presents a novel theoretical framework that integrates various steps towards a holistic, integrative and adaptive climate proofing process. An iterative process was used for conceptual development, based on literature review followed by external feedback meetings and two workshops with the core team of planning experts responsible for exchange across federal states. By specifically addressing the challenges relating to cross-regional and cross-sectoral planning, this novel framework attempts to (i) facilitate a hierarchy of measures, (ii) maximise co-benefits for various adaptation purposes and climate change mitigation and (iii) foster the long-term institutionalisation of integrative processes across sectors, planning areas and policy levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: tourism geography; city connectivity; tourism services value; functional role; urban urbanhierarchy; regional pattern
Online: 17 July 2020 (09:09:52 CEST)
[Background] Previous research achievements of the service-oriented tourist city network have often focused on the analysis of its geographical distribution and service role of the important cities instead of the connections and hierarchical tendencies between the whole city in a large region.[Method]Using big data approaches on the regional connections of 38 tourism organizations including famous hotels, air passenger transport, tourism service agencies across 63 most important tourist cities in China. Fuzzy c-means clustering analysis is used to define 8 city arena clusters. [Results]According to the distributions of connectivity between 63 cities, these eight clusters play different service functional roles in the urban tourism network at four hierarchies. With their “center-edge” memberships, these arena clusters are formed by the interweaving process of regional and hierarchical tourism service connections. The results include the analysis of the various service-oriented tourist city in China and point out the geography “gap” faced by network. [Conclusion] Service-oriented tourist cities need to find their hierarchies and positioning in the network scientifically to avoid blind development, to make regional urban tourism sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0013.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: resilient urban design; smart planning; climate change; resilient regional laws; pleasant public space
Online: 2 January 2018 (12:03:30 CET)
The manuscript wants to investigate the debate on urban resilience and climate change linking theory and practice, describing the possible innovations that concern urban design, urban normative and regional laws developing in different countries. The approach pursued would encourage resilience and flood protection through smart planning and through the architectural and urban project; considering public space as strategic soil where developing the resilient city, using engineering technical climate defence as new space for citizens and communities. Resilience themes are included in all levels of government and in spatial and strategic development policies such as in some project concerning public and private space and in municipal plans; the urban defense structures has to become new pleasant space for the city; these actions will not only contribute to making cities more resilient but will contribute to the creation of a more pleasant and attractive urban environment. The Resilience is the main keyword of some strategic vision of the Netherlands and of Italian laws and the concept is tested in some best practice such as in Rotterdam, in Bordeaux, in London and in the research carried out by "Arquitectos de Cabecera" in Barcelona. Resilience is seen as a new paradigm of smart planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Cross-border travel; Immunity certificate; Regional collaboration; Vaccination certificate; Vaccination passport; Asia
Online: 24 August 2022 (13:54:00 CEST)
COVID-19 vaccination certificates (CVCs) have played a key role in safe reopening of borders for international travel and trade, so understanding key stakeholder perceptions of enablers and barriers for their effective use is critical. The COVID-19 Vaccination Policy Research and Deci-sion-Support Initiative in Asia (CORESIA) was established to address policy questions related to CVCs. We conducted two online surveys, i.e., one for the public and one for health and non-health sector experts, from June to October 2021 in nine Asian countries. Descriptive analysis identified participants, enablers, and barriers. Most participants (78% public, 89% experts) accepted the use of CVCs, primarily to resume international travel (76%). Most respondents in both surveys wanted the minimum vaccination coverage to be 60% before CVCs were implemented nation-wide. Most of the public (82%) agreed to maintain existing non-pharmaceutical interventions, while most experts wanted risk-based testing and quarantine policy for incoming travellers (51%) and both digital and paper format CVCs (64%). Support for CVCs for international travel remains high in Asia. Recognising key enablers and barriers for effective use of CVCs from COVID-19 pandemic may help policymakers draft effective border policies for future epidemics.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: village independence; village; building the village; sustainability; regional analysis; region; rural development; governance; government
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:38:18 CET)
Village has a vital role in the national development efforts. The concept of development considered village as an object instead of a subject of development. This study focused on determining the important points in enabling a village to be independent by shifting the paradigm of “building the village” into “the building village”. This study was an exploratory research of public policies with qualitative legal studies. This study was conducted in 3 villages in Bandung regency with different characteristics, namely Neglawangi with urban characteristics, Cibiru Wetan with sub-urban characteristics, and Rancamanyar with plural characteristics. The results of this study showed that the wise step in building an independent village is through “the building village” road maps. First, encourage the inception of critical and care community and community organizations who dynamically interact in the policy making processes of village development. Second, implement a participative, accountable, and transparent planning and budgeting system within the limits of their authorities. Third, empower inclusive village economic institutions. The three road maps can succeed if they are supported by good implementation of participative, systematic, effective and efficient planning and budgeting system, as well as good monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0037.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Rainfall; Trends analysis; Mann-Kendall test; CHIRPS; Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model (RCA4); Uganda.
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:43:03 CET)
The lack of reliable rainfall projection records remains a major challenge to Uganda. In the advent of extreme wetness or drought events, reliable rainfall estimates for local planning and adaptation are essential. The present study used two main datasets to conduct a historical analysis from 1981 to 2019, coupled with future projections under representative concentration pathway (RCP 8.5) for the period 2020-2050. Historical analysis revealed bimodal annual rainfall pattern for March-May (MAM) and September-November (SON) gradients representing heavier to lighter rainfall events respectively over the study area. Investigation of recent trends in rainfall patterns revealed an upward trend from 2010 onwards in annual and seasonal rainfall. Moreover, results for future projections show wet conditions are projected to occur over the study area between the months of April/May and October. Contrarily, March is likely to experience a reduction in wet conditions. Mann-Kendall test employed to make future projections of rainfall depicted decreasing patterns during MAM season whilst increasing tendencies with strong shift was highlighted for SON season over the study region. Meanwhile, annual projections indicate huge variations with linear trends showing a marginal increase as compared to historical trends. Findings would serve as baseline print to propel further studies that could delve into impact analysis of drought extreme events which pose significant threats to the agricultural sector which is heavily reliant on rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban resilience; regional resilience; sustainability; cities; multi-level approach; complex systems; panarchy; adaptive cycles
Online: 19 October 2018 (04:16:55 CEST)
This study aims to understand the current state of research in urban resilience and to open a discussion about multi-level perspectives for this concept. Starting with the history of the concept of resilience, we identify three main stages in resilience concept’s evolution: conceptualization, contextualization and operationalization. Confusion occurs between sustainability and resilience, therefore we clearly separate these two concepts by creating conceptual maps. Such maps also underline the specificities of urban and regional resilience discourses. We illustrate that urban resilience research, operating within intra-urban processes, is oriented towards natural disasters, while regional resilience research, operating mostly within inter-urban processes, is oriented towards economic shocks. We show that these two approaches to resilience – urban and regional – are complementary, and we propose to integrate them into a multi-level perspective. By combining these two discourses, we propose a multi-level approach to urban resilience that takes into account both top-down and bottom-up resistance processes. In the discussion section, we propose to take the panarchy perspective as a theoretical framework for multi-level urban resilience, that explains the interactions between different levels through adaptive cycles, relationships between which can help to explain urban resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0119.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network,Single Shot Detector, Regional Convolutional Neural Network, Machine Learning, Visualization-Localization
Online: 6 July 2018 (14:38:52 CEST)
The emerging use of visualization techniques in pathology and microbiol- ogy has been accelerated by machine learning (ML) approaches towards image preprocessing, classification, and feature extraction in an increasingly complex series of datasets. Modern Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures have developed into an umbrella of vast image reinforcement and recognition methods, including a combined classification-localization of single/multi-object featured images. As a subtype neural network, CNN cre- ates a rapid order of complexity by initially detecting borderlines, edges, and colours in images for dataset construction, eventually capable in mapping intricate objects and conformities. This paper investigates the disparities between Tensorflow object detection APIs, exclusively, Single Shot Detector (SSD) Mobilenet V1 and the Faster RCNN Inception V2 model, to sample computational drawbacks in accuracy-precision vs. real time visualization capabilities. The situation of rapid ML medical image analysis is theoretically framed in regions with limited access to pathology and disease prevention departments (e.g. 3rd world and impoverished countries). Dark field mi- croscopy datasets of an initial 62 XML-JPG annotated training files were processed under Malaria and Syphilis classes. Model trainings were halted as soon as loss values were regularized and converged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0239.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: Urban grey space; Space under bridge; Public Art; Micro-transformation; Regional culture; Art for all
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:55:46 CEST)
Since the 21st century, China's urbanization process has been rapid development, the concept and function of urban public space in the city has been gradually paid attention to. In order to guarantee life and water, most urban construction relies on rivers, and Bridges are the most important way to communicate between urban areas. The main functional part of the bridge is the span structure, that is, the bearing structure of the bridge, and the lower part of the "gray" space formed by the bridge structure. Considering the social level, with the economic growth and urbanization development, people have brought a better living environment and quality of life, and also improved the requirements for urban public environment. In the increasingly tense urban space, how to use and transform the space under the bridge is a problem that needs to be considered and solved. In view of this problem, in this study, we try to solve the micro-transformation of space under Bridges in cities through public art from the perspective of "regional culture" and "art for all". This paper analyzes the micro-transformation of space art under Bridges in two large cities of Shanghai and Foshan, namely, the space under Bridges under Songhong Road in Shanghai, the space under Bridges under Central Of Suzhou River and the space under Bridges under Pingsheng Bridge in Foshan. This paper discusses the cultural intervention of "regional culture" in the micro-transformation of the space under the bridge, and the influence and effect of "art for all" on the public art space under the bridge after the transformation to the community and the public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0063.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: regional group interaction; similar hotspot flow patterns; spatial interaction; visual analytics; Geo-Information-Tupo; GIS
Online: 4 July 2018 (09:26:18 CEST)
The interaction between different regions normally is reflected by the form of the stream. For example, the interaction of the flow of people and flow of information between different regions can reflect the structure of cities’ network, and also can reflect how the cities function and connect to each other. Since big data has become increasingly popular, it is much easier to acquire flow data for various types of individuals. Currently, it is a hot research topic to apply the regional interaction model, which is based on the summary level of individual flow data mining. So far, previous research on spatial interaction methods focused on point-to-point and area-to-area interaction patterns. However, there are a few scholars who study the hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups with some predefined neighborhood relationship by starting with two regions. In this paper, a method for identifying a similar hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups has been proposed, and the Geo-Information-Tupu methods are applied to visualize the interaction patterns. For an example of an empirical analysis, we discuss China’s air traffic flow data, so this method can be used to find and analyze any hotspot interaction patterns between regional groups with adjoining relationships across China. Our research results indicate that this method is efficient in identifying hotspot interaction flow patterns between regional groups. Moreover, it can be applied to any analysis of flow space that is used to excavate regional group hotspot interaction patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: endorheic; lake; Central Asia; evaporation; semi-arid; Kazakhstan; climate change; Landsat; regional climate model; Burabay
Online: 7 December 2017 (14:56:58 CET)
Both climate change and anthropogenic activities contribute to the deterioration of terrestrial water resources and ecosystems worldwide. Central Asian endorheic basins are among the most affected regions through both climate and human impacts. Here, we used a digital elevation model, digitized bathymetry maps and Landsat images to estimate the areal water cover extent and volumetric storage changes in small terminal lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), located in Northern Central Asia (CA), for the period of 1986 to 2016. Based on the analysis of long-term climatic data from meteorological stations, short-term hydrometeorological network observations, gridded climate datasets (CRU) and global atmospheric reanalysis (ERA Interim), we have evaluated the impacts of historical climatic conditions on the water balance of BNNP lake catchments. We also discuss the future based on regional climate model projections. We attribute the overall decline of BNNP lakes to long-term deficit of water balance with lake evaporation loss exceeding precipitation inputs. Direct anthropogenic water abstraction has a minor importance in water balance. However, the changes in watersheds caused by the expansion of human settlements and roads disrupting water drainage may play a more significant role in lake water storage decline. More precise water resources assessment at the local scale will be facilitated by further development of freely available higher spatial resolution remote sensing products. In addition, the results of this work can be used for the development of lake/reservoir evaporation models driven by remote sensing and atmospheric reanalysis data without the direct use of ground observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0383.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ombrian curves; intensity-duration-frequency curves; rainfall extremes; regionalization; regional frequency analysis; spatial rainfall; design rainfall
Online: 29 March 2022 (13:39:12 CEST)
Ombrian curves, i.e. curves linking rainfall intensity to return period and time-scale, are well-established engineering tools, crucial to the design against storm waters and floods. Whereas at-site construction of such curves is considered a standard hydrological task, it is a rather challenging one when large regions are of interest. Regional modelling of ombrian curves is particularly complex due to the need to account for spatial dependence together with the increased variability of rainfall extremes in space. We develop a framework for the parsimonious modelling of the extreme rainfall properties at any point in a given area. This is achieved by assuming a common ombrian model structure except for a spatially varying scale parameter which is itself modelled by a spatial smoothing model for the 24 h average rainfall maxima that employs elevation as an additional explanatory variable. The fitting is performed on the pooled all-stations data using an advanced estimation procedure (K-moments) that allows both for reliable high-order moment estimation and simultaneous handling of space-dependence bias. The methodology is applied in the Thessaly region, a 13 700 km2 water district of Greece characterized by varying topography and hydrometeorological properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Flood hazard; CaMa-Flood; Flood Map Viewer; Floodplain mapping; Flood risk; North American Regional Reanalysis; Property exposure
Online: 11 April 2022 (03:35:28 CEST)
Flood events and their associated damages have escalated significantly in the last few decades. To add to the gruesome situation, many reports and studies warn that flood risk would aggravate significantly in future periods due to significant alterations in the climate patterns and socio-economic dynamics. Floodplain mapping is looked upon as a viable option to tackle this global issue as it provides both quantitative and qualitative information on flood dynamics. Moreover, with the increasing availability of global data and enhancement in computational simulations, it has become easier to simlate flooding patterns at large scales. This study deter-mines the usability of publicly available datasets in capturing flood hazards over Canada. Run-off data set from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), along with a few other rele-vant inputs are fed to CaMa-Flood, a robust global hydrodynamic model to generate flooding patterns for 1 in 100 and 1 in 200-yr return period events over Canada . The simulated maps are compared and validated with the existing maps of a few flood-prone regions in Canada, thereby establishing their performance over both regional and country-scale. Later, the simulated flood-plain maps are used in conjunction with property related information at 34 cities (within the top 100 populous cities in Canada) to determine the degree of exposure due to flooding in 1991, 2001, and 2011. The results indicate that around 80 percent of inundated spots belong to high and very-high hazard classes in a 200-yr event, which is roughly 4 percent more than simulated for 100-yr event. NARR derived floodplain maps perform very well while compared over the six flood-prone regions. While analyzing the exposure of properties to flooding, we notice an in-crease in the number during the last three decades, with the maximum rise observed in Toronto, followed by Montreal, and Edmonton. To disseminate the extensive flood-related information, a web-based public tool, Flood Map Viewer (http://www.floodmapviewer.com/) is developed. The development of the tool was motivated by the commitment of the Canadian government to provide $63 M over the next three years for the completion of flood maps for higher-risk areas. The study reaches out to demonstrate how publicly available datasets can be utilized with a lesser degree of uncertainty in representing flooding patterns over large regions. The flood re-lated information derived from the study can be used along with vulnerability for quantifying flood risk, which will help in developing appropriate pathways for resilience building for long-term sustainable benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: winglets; lift-induced drag; wing tip device; non-planar lifting surface; performance optimization; aircraft performance; regional aircraft
Online: 9 June 2019 (03:48:26 CEST)
An increasing number of aircraft is equipped with wing tip devices, which either are installed by the aircraft manufacturer at the production line or are retrofitted after the delivery of the aircraft to its operator. Installation of wing tip devices has not been a popular choice for regional turboprop aircraft and the novelty of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of retrofitting the British Aerospace (BAe) Jetstream 31 with an appropriate wing tip device (or winglet) to increase its cruise range performance, taking also into account the aerodynamic and structural impact of the implementation. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, no previous study exists which has attempted to assess the winglet retrofit of an existing aircraft type of similar size and operating profile. The optimal winglet design achieved a 2.38% increase of the maximum range by reducing the total drag by 1.19% at a mass penalty of 3.25%, as compared with the baseline aircraft configuration. Other designs were found to be more effective in reducing the total drag, but the structural reinforcement required for their implementation outweighed the achieved performance improvements. Since successful winglet retrofit programs for typical short to medium range narrow body aircraft report even more than 3% of block fuel improvements, undertaking the project of installing an optimal winglet design to the BAe Jetstream 31, should also consider a Direct Operating Cost (DOC) assessment on top of the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the retrofit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0603.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: regional flood frequency analysis; flood-related attribute; region of influence; flood region revision process; Canadian annual maximum flow
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:12:32 CEST)
The identification of homogeneous flood regions is essential for regional flood frequency analysis. Despite the type of regionalization framework considered (e.g., region of influence or hierarchical clustering), selecting flood-related attributes to reflect flood generating mechanisms is required to discriminate flood regimes among catchments. To understand how different attributes perform across Canada for identifying homogeneous regions, this study examines five distinctive attributes (i.e., geographical proximity, flood seasonality, physiographic variables, monthly precipitation pattern, and monthly temperature pattern) for their ability to identify homogeneous regions at 186 gauging sites. We add an automatic component to enhance identification of homogeneous regions is proposed as an addition to the region of influence framework. Results are presented spatially for Canada to assess patterning of homogeneous regions. Memberships of two selected regions are investigated to provide insight into membership characteristics. Sites in eastern Canada are highly likely to identify homogeneous flood regions, while the western prairie and mountainous regions are not. Overall, it is revealed that the success of identifying homogeneous region is relevant to local hydrological complexities, to whether considered attribute reflects primary flooding mechanism, and to whether catchment sites are clustered in small geographic region. Formation of effective pooling groups affords the extension of record lengths across the Canadian domain (where gauges typically have <50 years of record), facilitating more comprehensive analysis of higher return periods floods need for climate change assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0100.v1
Subject: Keywords: wind turbine; adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); dynamical downscaling; regional climate change model; renewable energy; machine learning
Online: 11 January 2020 (10:15:40 CET)
Climate change impacts and adaptations is subject to ongoing issues that attract the attention of many researchers. Insight into the wind power potential in an area and its probable variation due to climate change impacts can provide useful information for energy policymakers and strategists for sustainable development and management of the energy. In this study, spatial variation of wind power density at the turbine hub-height and its variability under future climatic scenarios are taken under consideration. An ANFIS based post-processing technique was employed to match the power outputs of the regional climate model with those obtained from the reference data. The near-surface wind data obtained from a regional climate model are employed to investigate climate change impacts on the wind power resources in the Caspian Sea. Subsequent to converting near-surface wind speed to turbine hub-height speed and computation of wind power density, the results have been investigated to reveal mean annual power, seasonal, and monthly variability for a 20-year period in the present (1981-2000) and in the future (2081-2100). The results of this study revealed that climate change does not affect the wind climate over the study area, remarkably. However, a small decrease was projected for future simulation revealing a slightly decrease in mean annual wind power in the future compared to historical simulations. Moreover, the results demonstrated strong variation in wind power in terms of temporal and spatial distribution when winter and summer have the highest values of power. The findings of this study indicated that the middle and northern parts of the Caspian Sea are placed with the highest values of wind power. However, the results of the post-processing technique using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model showed that the real potential of the wind power in the area is lower than those of projected from the regional climate model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0275.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forest biomass; aboveground biomass; airborne lidar; monitoring; regional forest inventory; variable selection; Bayesian model averaging; multiple linear regression
Online: 30 January 2018 (04:05:36 CET)
Historical forest management practices in the southwestern US have left forests prone to high intensity, stand-replacement fires. Effective management to reduce the cost and impact of forest-fire management and allow fires to burn freely without negative impact depends on detailed knowledge of stand composition, in particular, above-ground biomass (AGB). Lidar-based modeling techniques provide opportunities to reduce costs and increase ability of managers to monitor AGB and other forest metrics. Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), we develop a regionally applicable lidar-based statistical model for Ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forest systems of the southwestern USA, using previously collected field data. The selected regional model includes a mid and low canopy height metric, a canopy cover, and height distribution term. It explains 72% of the variability in field estimates of AGB, and the RMSE of the two independent validation data sets are 23.25 and 32.82 Mg/ha. The regional model developed is structured in accordance with previously described models fit to local data, and performs equivalently to models designed for smaller scale application. Developing regional models for broad scale application provides a cost-effective, robust approach for managers to monitor and plan adaptively at the landscape scale.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: foodshed; archipelago; city-region; food modelling; food self-sufficiency; self-reliance; food security; agricultural diversification; food planning; regional food system
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:36:05 CET)
Regionalization of food systems for shortening supply chains and developing local agriculture to feed city-regions presents particular challenges for food planning and policy. Existing foodshed approaches enable to assess the theoretical capacity of food self-sufficiency of a specific region, but they struggle to consider the diversity of existing crops in a way that could be usable for informing decisions and support urban food strategies. Most studies are based on the definition of the area required to meet local consumption, obtaining a map represented as an isotropic circle around the city, without considering the site-specific pedoclimatic, geographical and socio-economic conditions, which are essential for the development of local food supply chains. In this study we propose a first stage to fill this gap by combining the Metropolitan Foodshed and Self-sufficiency Scenario (MFSS) model, which already considers regional yields and specific land use covers, with spatially explicit data on cropping pattern, soil and topography. We use European-wide available data and apply the methodology in the city-region of Avignon (France), initially considering a foodshed with a radius of 30 Km. Our results show that even though a theoretical high potential self-sufficiency could be achieved for the whole food commodities consumed (>80%), when considering the specific pedological conditions of the area, this could be suitable only for domestic plant-based products, whereas for animal products an expansion of the initial foodshed to a radius of 100Km was required to provide >70% of self-sufficiency. We conclude that it is necessary to shift the analysis from the size assessment to the commodity-group specific spatial configuration of the foodshed based on biophysical and socio-economic features, and discuss avenues for further researches enabling to develop a foodshed assessment as a complex of complementary pieces: the foodshed archipelago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0356.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Component Structure Coherence Point Drift; parenchyma change induced by radiotherapy; computed tomography; feature point sampling; regional vascular point matching; longitudinal registration
Online: 20 December 2022 (07:28:27 CET)
Longitudinal image registration of pulmonary computed tomography (PCT) images may serve as an essential tool for investigating the relationship between radiation dose distribution and the occurrence and phenotype of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD). Although numerous longitudinal registration algorithms have been developed for PCT, most similarity-based approaches are not suitable for PCT involving RILD due to the complex tissue variation between two PCT images. Moreover, conventional feature-based approaches might fail to find a sufficient number of matched pairs of feature points due to the disparate lung deformation caused by breathing and RILD. To overcome the challenges resulting from RILD, component structure coherence point drift (CSCPD) was proposed to establish a deformation model by decomposing the chest into several components and matching them with individual parameters based on coherence point drift (CPD). Moreover, a regional vascular point matching (RVPM) algorithm was proposed to generate a vascular subtree and to substantially increase the number of corresponding pairs between two images. Eventually, the components were recomposed and aligned by a thin plate spline algorithm. A performance assessment on 15 pairs of PCT images of patients with RILD yielded recall and precision values of 0.85 and 0.89 for RVPM, respectively. Moreover, the target registration error of CSCPD with RVPM (2.3 ± 1.79) was significantly better than that of conventional CPD with RVPM (2.95 ± 1.89) and conventional CPD (5.04 ± 2.87). Therefore, the proposed registration system is robust enough to address the disparate deformation of lungs with RILD, and it improves registration accuracy within the parenchyma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: French regional airports; technical efficiency; data envelopment and principle component analysis; Malmquist Productivity Index; low-cost carrier terminals; high-speed train
Online: 5 September 2019 (03:42:32 CEST)
In France, the regional airport’s demand for services is facing challenges due to the continuous expansion of the high-speed train, high-speed line, and highway networks. This study focuses on the viability of regional airports in France through technical efficiency using data envelopment, principle component analysis, Malmquist productivity index, and regression analysis using bootstrapping. To face the current competitive environment, the regional airports in France adopted strategies, such as the construction of low-cost carrier (LCC) dedicated terminals (LCCTs) with lower expenses to attract more LCCs, increasing non-aeronautical revenue, and hosting regional hubs of LCCs. This is the first study that analyzes all of the French regional airports. The findings indicate that the existence of LCCTs positively affects technical efficiency on the airport’s performance, and share of LCCs at a regional airport leads to neither the efficiency nor the profit level.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0250.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: regional sea level; satellite altimetry; tide gauge; validation; mission bias; North Sea; Sentinel-3A; Jason-1; Jason-2; Jason-3; Envisat; Saral
Online: 15 December 2021 (09:25:54 CET)
Consistent calibration and monitoring is a basic prerequisite for providing reliable time series of global and regional sea level variations from altimetry. The precision of sea level measurements and regional biases for six altimeter missions (Jason-1/2/3, Envisat, Saral, Sentinel-3A) is assessed at eleven GNSS-controlled tide gauge stations in the German Bight (SE North Sea) for the period 2002 to 2019. The gauges are partly located at the open water, partly at the coast close to mudflats. The altimetry is extracted at virtual stations with distances from 2 to 24 km from the gauges. The processing is optimized for the region and adjusted for the comparison with instantaneous tide gauges readings. An empirical correction is developed to account for mean height gradients and slight differences of the tidal dynamics between gauge and altimetry which improves the agreement between the two data sets by 15-75%. The precision of the altimeters is depending on location and mission and is shown to be at least 1.8 to 3.7 cm based on an assumed precision of 2 cm for the gauges. The accuracy of the regional mission biases is strongly dependent on the mean sea surface heights near the stations. The most consistent biases are obtained based on the CLS2011 model with mission dependent accuracies from 1.3 to 3.4 cm. Hence, the GNSS-controlled tide gauges operated operationally by WSV might complement the calibration and monitoring activities at dedicated CalVal stations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioeconomy 1; footprint analysis 2; land use modelling 3; Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) model 4; land conversion 5; biodiversity 6; ecosystem functions 7
Online: 1 December 2021 (18:08:00 CET)
Footprints are powerful indicators for evaluating the impact of the bioeconomy of a country on environmental goods, domestically and abroad. In this study, we apply a hybrid approach combining a Multi-Regional Input-Output model and land use modelling to compute the agricultural land footprint (aLF). Furthermore, we added information on land-use change to the analysis and allocated land conversion to specific commodities. The German case study shows that the aLF abroad is larger by a factor of 2.5 to 3 than the aLF in Germany. In 2005 and 2010, conversion of natural and semi-natural land-cover types abroad allocated to Germany due to import increases was 2.5 times higher than the global average. Import increases to Germany slowed down in 2015 and 2020, reducing land conversion attributed to the German bioeconomy to the global average. The case study shows that the applied land footprint provides clear and meaningful information for policymakers and other stakeholders. The presented methodological approach can be applied to other countries and regions covered in the underlying database EXIOBASE. It can be adapted, also for an assessment of other ecosystem functions, such as water or soil fertility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: oradea; romania; intelligence; regional geopolitical axis; geopolitical configuration; revolution; nato; eastern europe; golea daniela georgiana; daniela georgiana golea; golea daniela; nato humint; nato centre of excellence
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:35:07 CEST)
The East European region has always created a space of interaction between the great powers of the Eastern and Western Europe of the different epochs in European history. Not just a contact and an interaction region between Europe, Asia and the Middle East (Africa), but also a pivot of the European security environment, most often forming a real axis on which this scene of confrontation between powers can bend into one or the other part. We can say that the Eastern European region has formed hundreds of years ago (with the emergence of Ottoman power and its pressure on the Western powers, the emergence of the Tsarist and later Soviet power) a pivotal axis which determined the geopolitical configuration of the world and led successively to the advancement or decay of an empire or another. Indeed, the balance between Western powers and the Ottoman Empire, and later between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Eastern Powers, such as the Ottoman Empire and the Tsarist Empire, has been established for several hundred years right in this pivotal axis of Eastern Europe. For this reason, the political and military situation of the territories covered by the pivotal axis have always been a special one. This pivotal axis of Europe started from the Baltic Sea and was generally disposed over the continental strip where today are countries like Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, a part of Poland (Pomerania and a part of Silesia), the Czech Republic, the western part of today Romania and a part of Serbia. This geographical positioning of the pivotal axis has led to a permanent political turmoil and change of borders in the mentioned regions. Referring exclusively to the manner in which this pivot axis intersected the current territory of Romania, we observe that in its passage from north to south it included Satu Mare, Oradea, Arad, Timişoara and Reşita. Oradea has always played an important role in Central-Eastern Europe, NATO recognizing the NATO HUMINT Centre of Excellence (HCOE) as a strategical organization with a remarkable contribution to the development of the Human Intelligence capability within the Alliance.