ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0235.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: database; disaster prevention; disaster risk reduction (DRR); climate change adaptation (CCA); stakeholders; nature-based solutions (NBS); mountain; hydro-meteorological risks
Online: 9 December 2020 (16:48:34 CET)
In the context of global changes, Nature-Based Solutions (NBSs) increasingly draw attention as a possible way to reduce disaster risk associated with extreme hydro-meteorological events while providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits at the same time. The PHUSICOS platform is dedicated to gather and analyse relevant NBSs used to reduce disaster risk associated with extreme hydro-meteorological events in mountainous and hilly lands. To design the platform, an in-depth review of 11 existing platforms has been performed. The platform currently references 152 literature NBS cases and is continuously enriched with demonstrator sites through the contribution of NBS community. The platform also proposes a qualitative assessment of the NBSs collected according to 15 criteria related with five ambits: disaster risk reduction, technical and economical feasibility, environment, society and local economy. This paper presents the structure of the platform and a first analysis of its content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Disaster; Vulnerability; Women; Gender; Disaster Risk Reduction; Bangladesh
Online: 5 July 2021 (09:39:48 CEST)
This paper aims to delve into how gender dimensions observed before, during and after a disaster, have been addressed in two internationally recognised frameworks developed for reducing risks of disasters: Hyogo Framework Action (2005-2015) and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). Building on a systematic review, we evaluate 33 scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles, including book chapters and websites in areas of gender, disaster risk reduction and vulnerability. This study documents a comparative picture of these two frameworks and shows the practical implications of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) by addressing women’s empowerment in the light of their active participation in disaster risk reduction process. The findings of the study suggest that the frameworks have discussed the reduction of women’s socioeconomic vulnerabilities, as well as encouraged their empowerment. Comparing the two frameworks, it appears in the current study that there has been a significant gap in the existing literature that does not explicitly document comparing and contrasting features of a gender lens in the policy documents.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0157.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Disaster Risk Reduction; EO4SD; Official Development Assistance; Actionable Information; World Bank; International Financial Institutions
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:53:46 CET)
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is a high priority on the agenda of main stakeholders involved in sustainable development and Earth Observation (EO) can provide useful, timely and economical information in this context. This short communication outlines the European Space Agency’s (ESA) specific initiative to promote the use and uptake of satellite data in the global development community: ‘Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD)’. One activity area under EO4SD is devoted to Disaster Risk Reduction: EO4SD DRR. Within this project, a team of European companies and institutions are tasked to develop EO services for supporting the implementation of DRR in International Financial Institutions’ (IFI) projects. Integration of satellite-borne data and ancillary data to generate insight and actionable information is thereby considered a key factor for improved decision making. To understand and fully account for the essential user requirements (IFI & Client States), engagement with technical leaders is crucial. Fit-for-purpose use of data and comprehensive capacity building eventually ensure scalability and long-term transferability. Future perspectives of EO4SD and DRR regarding mainstreaming are also highlighted.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0105.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Climate change; disaster risk reduction; participatory scenario planning; pastoralism; Ethiopia
Online: 10 August 2016 (10:14:00 CEST)
Climate change is a major development challenge to Ethiopia. Unless adaptation measures are widely implemented, climate change can set back development efforts and achievements by years. Recognizing this, the Government of Ethiopia (GoE) and civil society organizations have since recently been making considerable efforts to tackle the climate change problem. This paper documents the experience of CARE International in Ethiopia in facilitating bottom-up approaches to promote community-led disaster risk management and climate change adaptation planning through a participator scenario planning (PSP) methodology. PSP is a coordinated approach which leverages a variety of stakeholders' skills and mandates to explore potential climate change risks and their impacts, and then develop locally relevant and shared adaptation action plans that support livelihoods, social capital and ecosystem resilience. The approach has facilitated timely access to and communication of seasonal climate advisories which in turn is empowering communities to take advantage of opportunities that climate presents, which is a key part of adapting to climate change. The institutionalization of the approach by district and regional disaster prevention and food security coordination offices in the southern pastoral regions of Ethiopia encouraged integration of PSP into community livelihood adaptation and local government development planning, hence continuity of the process. Sustainability is expected to be fully achieved when local government planning processes recognize the importance of and provides resources for the participation of meteorological services and community forecasting experts to help refine plans on a seasonal basis, and for systems for dissemination of advisories. Key words: Climate Change, Disaster Risk Reduction, Adaptation, Pastoralism, Ethiopia,
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0410.v1
Online: 31 December 2019 (11:14:44 CET)
In the Republic of Serbia, no comprehensive scientific multimethod research has been conducted to identify weaknesses and opportunities for improving the disaster risk management system. Regarding that, in the paper, author presents project description ,,Strengthening Integrated Disaster Risk Management System in Serbia - DISARIMES” which shall enable strengthening the disaster risk management system through research, development and innovative solutions implementation in the preparation, mitigation, response, remediation and post-disaster phases. The scientific importance of the projected research is reflected in the creation of assumptions for the advancement of theoretical and empirical knowledge in the scientific field of disaster risk management, bearing in mind that it is a relatively young scientific discipline in Serbia. The results of the project research will make it easier for decision makers in Serbia to understand the shortcomings of the system, but also provide innovative opportunities to improve their functioning in conditions of increasingly frequent and serious disasters. Establishing a scientific and professional society in the field of disaster risk management will create sustainable and necessary conditions for the transfer and improvement of knowledge and experience of importance for raising the level of operability of the system of protection and rescue of the Republic of Serbia in the event of disasters. A key contribution of the research findings will be to create a sustainable knowledge base that will be supported by the relevant amount of information regarding innovative capabilities and solutions identified as necessary to raise social resilience to a much higher level. In order to achieve the set goals, DISARIMES makes it possible, through a large number of SWOT analyses and other multimethod studies, to clearly identify and systematize the objective deficiencies and barriers encountered by the disaster risk management system in Serbia in all its stages before, during and after disasters, to identify and implement the appropriate solutions based on this. The objectives of the project are: to assess and identify strengths (advantages), weaknesses (disadvantages), opportunities (innovation potential) and threats for the disaster risk management system in Serbia; to develop and update RDI (research, development, innovation) Roadmap – knowledge databases with innovative solutions and other relevant information for improvement of the disaster risk management system; to fully deploy the DISARIMES scientific-professional network involving a broad range of the disaster risk management scientists and civil protection professions and organisations; to prepare the ground for the disaster risk management policy innovations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0184.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: flood disaster risk; vulnerability to flood disaster risk; arc-geographical information system (arcgis); geo-mapping
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:54:51 CET)
Flood is identified as one of the major disasters in the world; it destroys both human and properties across the world, where lives are lost, properties, public infrastructure, farmlands and agricultural produce with farm crops carted away as a result of flood disaster. Studies revealed that the flood in itself is not the danger, but the level of human vulnerability to flooding disaster risk, which enhances its destructive capabilities. However, based on the challenges poses by flood disaster risk, this research identifies Ala river in Akure as a potential cause of flood, considering its location and other human activities around the river. Therefore, the research used Ala-river a case study to identify and mapped out areas susceptible to flood disaster risk. The research made use of both literature review and conducted goe-data gathering with the application GIS-computer database to retrieve georeferencing relevant data from the fieldwork in the study area of Ala-river basin to mapped out locations vulnerable to achieve the research aim. The research adopted a Geo-mapping of the vulnerable area to Ala-River basin using arc-GIS tool in combination with other software such as IKONAS and OLI (Operation Land Imager) for the production of the study area imagery, ER-ITERIM was used for the collection of rainfall data and FAO was applied for digital soil mapping. These applications produced; the land use/land cover map, digital elevation map, buffer map using 30 meters setback, annual rainfall map, soil types map, vulnerability map and soil textural table for the study area. Analysis of the produced and generated maps shows 316 buildings vulnerability to flood disaster risk; the soil texture and types, and alternative use to which the soil types can be useful. The research recommends that demolition of the identified 316 buildings prone to flood disaster and compliance of building construction to 30 meters setback by developers. Others are the conversion of the future land setback for urban agricultural purposes and preservation of water retention areas for agricultural activities during the dry season among others. The study concludes that relevant government agencies in the State and in particular in Akure South Local Government should ensure prompt compliance and implementation of the recommendations to avoid potential flood disaster risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: UAS; UAV; Risk assessment; SORA; disaster management
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:28:27 CEST)
Worldwide, there is a significant increase in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by emergency services. They offer a lot of possibilities during the rescue operation. Such a wide application for various purposes and environments causes many threats related to their use. To minimize the risks associated with conducting air operations with UAVs, the SORA methodology will be important. Due to its level of detail, it is a methodology adapted to civilian use. In this article, the authors' team will try to develop guidelines and directions for adapting SORA to the requirements of the operational work of emergency services. Thus following article aims to present the most important risks related to conducting operations with the use of UAVs by First Responders (FRs) and to show the sample risk analysis performed for this type of operation on the example of the ASSISTANCE project. The paper describes, on the one hand, possibilities offered by UAVs in crisis or disaster management and step-by-step Specific Operations Risk Assessment (SORA) and on the other hand, presents possible threats, consequences and methods of their mitigation during FRs missions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0172.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Climate Change; Coastal Disasters; Vulnerability; Disaster Risk.
Online: 21 March 2017 (16:41:53 CET)
This study integrated coastal-watershed models and combined a risk assessment method to develop a methodology to investigate the impact resulting from coastal disasters under climate change. The mid-western coast of Taiwan suffering from land subsidence was selected as the demonstrative area for the vulnerability analysis based on prediction of sea level rise (SLR), wave run-up, overtopping, and coastal flooding under the scenarios of 2020 to 2039. Database from tidal gauges and satellite images were used to analyze sea level rise using EEMD (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition). Extreme wave condition and storm surge were estimated by numerical simulation using WWM (Wind Wave Model) and POM (Princeton Ocean Model). Coastal inundation was then simulated via WASH123D watershed model. The risk map of study areas based on the analyses of vulnerability and disaster were established using the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) technique. Predictions of sea level rise, the maximum wave condition and storm surge under the scenarios of 2020 to 2039 are presented. The results indicate that the sea level at the mid-western coast of Taiwan will rise in an average of 5.8 cm, equivalent to a rising velocity of 2.8 mm/year. The analysis indicates that Wuqi, Lukang, Mailiao, and Taixi townships are susceptive, low resistant and low resilient, and reaches the high risk level. The assessment provides that important information for making adaption policy in the mid-western coast of Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0176.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Disaster; Disability; Disaster Management; NCCD; UNCRPD; Disability & Disaster; Disaster Medicine
Online: 25 May 2022 (11:19:53 CEST)
Disabled children on the one hand have a wide range of impairments that translate into functional limitations but at the same time they possess various talents and capacities. These are manifested into the dynamics of society and the environment that they interact with. This article discusses disaster management with disabled children as a focus group. Disaster, disability and its management is discussed in the context of international practices in general and suited to India in particular. The research follows a review of the recommendations of the United States National Commission on Children and Disaster. In addition to this Disaster Medicine as one approach to Disaster Management concerning disabled children has been explored. The research concludes that the understanding of particular issues of Children with disabilities as one stakeholder, their capacity to engage and a shift in mindset and power relations in which they can contribute to disability inclusive disaster management are fundamental to disability-inclusive DRR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0700.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Community resilience; risk reduction; disaster response; preparedness; seasonality in emergency
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:11:05 CEST)
People living in areas of significant seismic risk seldom undertake sufficient preparations to safeguard their family. This is most problematic in remote communities such as those along the Dead Sea Fault, Israel, where self-reliance is a key factor in coping with disasters. To facilitate individual and familial involvement in earthquake preparedness in remote areas, we designed a tool for self-assessment of risk and preparedness. The personalized risk assessment is based on national hazard and building standards, and on personal input regarding structure characteristics. The risk and preparedness evaluations enhance awareness and provide immediate feedback to help users improve familial preparedness. Spatial analysis of the data collected is used to form high-resolution maps that expose specific challenges for emergency response. A study conducted in the town of Mitzpe Ramon exposed neighborhoods with relatively high risk of damage and low preparedness. Integrating these results with seasonal stress-factors such as peak tourism and extreme weather, provides new and important insights on the ability of the local community and emergency forces to cope with multi-hazard situations. Analysis of the heterogeneous distribution of expected hardship within a community should be implemented world-wide to improve risk mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0361.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: openstreetmap; disaster management; osm; disaster relief
Online: 28 November 2019 (11:10:33 CET)
Over the last few decades, many countries, especially Caribbean island ones, have been challenged by the devastating consequences of natural disasters, which pose a significant threat to human health and safety. Timely information related to the distribution of vulnerable population and critical infrastructure are key for an effective disaster relief. OpenStreetMap (OSM) has repeatedly been shown to be highly suitable for disaster mapping and management. However, large portions of the world, including countries exposed to natural disasters, remain unmapped. In this study, we propose a methodology that relies on remotely sensed measurements (e.g. VIIRS, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1) and derived classification schemes (e.g. forest and built-up land cover) to predict the completeness of OSM building footprints in three small island states (Haiti, Dominica and St. Lucia). We find that the combinatorial effects of these predictors explain up to 94% of the variation of the completeness of OSM building footprints. Our study extends the existing literature by demonstrating how remotely sensed measurements could be leveraged to evaluate the completeness of OSM database, especially in countries at high risk of natural disasters. Identifying areas that lack coverage of OSM features could help prioritize mapping efforts, especially in areas vulnerable to natural hazards and where current data gaps pose an obstacle to timely and evidence-based disaster risk management actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0109.v1
Online: 5 August 2020 (05:02:17 CEST)
With the increasing societal expectation that animals are afforded greater protection in emergencies, the legal process from entering a property to rescue a companion animal, through to how to dispose of such animals if they remain unclaimed has not been well examined in New Zealand. It is hypothesised that the legal framework for such response is flawed. In this study, each phase of animal disaster rescue is evaluated against four key statues that may apply in each phase, in that does any statute provide clear end to end provisions with clear legal authority to do so. The study found that all statutes evaluated contained flaws and that the current legal provisions are insufficient to provide clear authority for the sequential process of undertaking rescue of animals during emergencies. A major flaw was discovered in the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002 a key statute, that provided for the seizure of property and animals but omitted a procedure for the disposal of such seized things leaving them all in legal limbo. It is recommended that animal disaster laws are updated to be more animal inclusive. The method also may be applicable to assist evaluating animal disaster management legal frameworks in other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Disaster, Operational Strategies, UAV, Drones, Man Made & Natural Disaster, CBRNE
Online: 3 October 2018 (11:08:43 CEST)
The disaster response operational strategies requires tool that a may provide time bound clear picture of potential spots. Natural disaster sometimes comes slowly like increment of water level resulting flood or early warning of tsunami whereas in manmade disasters like 1CBRNE attack or chemical accident or industrial structure collapse or leakage through a pipeline of some toxic hazardous gas requires very accurate and quick response strategies. 2Unmanned Aerial System is commercially used tools present in the market and also used by military organization for various operations throughout the world. The accuracy and time bound pictorial representation of the spots by these tow tools makes them very useful for providing clear picture of potential disaster sites and enabling decision makers to take decision on these representation. Apart of these the potential to deliver important material faster than any other mode also makes these equipment and technology a very important asset for making disaster risk reduction strategies. This paper elaborates the efficacy and utility of Unmanned Aerial System or Drones in developing robust and time bound strategies for disaster risk reduction. This paper also evaluates some experiences and describes some initiatives using Unmanned Aerial System to support disaster risk reduction strategies and post disaster decision making efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0087.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: building damage; climate change scenarios; decision tree analysis; limit value; natural disaster; random forest; risk assessment process; South Korea
Online: 12 February 2018 (11:13:37 CET)
Changes in extreme weather patterns are expected under climate change. In this study, a risk assessment was conducted using 4 building damage history datasets and 33 weather datasets (precipitation, wind speed, snow, and temperature) from 230 regions in South Korea to quantitatively analyze and predict building damage caused by potential future natural disasters. Decision tree analysis was used to evaluate building damage risk in 230 regions. The decision tree model to determine the risk of flood, gale, and typhoon was generated, which excluded gales, with less damage. The weight (variable importance) and limit value (damage limit) of the weather variables ware derived using the decision tree model. Using these two factors, we assessed the building damage risk in 230 regions in South Korea until 2100. The number of regions at risk of flood damage increased by more than 30% in average. Conversely, regions at risk of snowfall damage decreased by more than 90%. The regions at risk of typhoons decreased by 57.5% on average, and the number of regions at high risk of typhoon damage increased by up to 62.5% in RCP 8.5. These results can be used as objective data to minimize future building damage throughout South Korea, representing the first step towards sustainable development in the region with respect to disaster response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; disaster preparedness; disaster response; natural disasters; community-based organizations
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:43:50 CET)
Background: This year has seen the emergence of two major crises, a significant increase in frequency and severity of hurricanes and the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known as to how each of these two events have impacted the other. A rapid qualitative assessment was conducted to determine the impact of the pandemic on preparedness and response to natural disasters and the impact of past experiences with natural disasters in responding to the pandemic. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 representatives of 24 different community-based programs in southern Louisiana. Data were analyzed using procedures embedded in the Rapid Assessment Procedure – Informed Community Ethnography methodology, using techniques of immersion and crystallization and focused thematic analysis. Results: The pandemic has impacted the form and function of disaster preparedness, making it harder to plan for evacuations in event of a hurricane. Specific concerns included being able to see people in-person, providing food and other resources to residents who shelter in place, finding volunteers to assist in food distribution and other forms of disaster response, competing for funds to support disaster-related activities, developing new support infrastructures, and focusing on equity in disaster preparedness. However, several strengths based on disaster preparedness experience and capabilities were identified, including providing a framework for how to respond and adapt to COVID and integration of COVID response with their normal disaster preparedness activities. Conclusions: Although prior experience has enabled community-based organizations to respond to the pandemic, the pandemic is also creating new challenges to preparing for and responding to natural disasters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0229.v1
Online: 6 November 2020 (09:00:28 CET)
Evidence-based canine decontamination protocols are underrepresented in the veterinary literature. Aerosolized microbiological and chemical contaminants can pose a risk in deployment environments highlighting the need for improved canine field decontamination strategies. Prior work has established the efficacy of traditional, water-intensive methods on contaminant removal from the coat of the working canine; however, it is not known if similar reductions can be achieved with simple field expedient methods when resources are limited. The objective of this study was to measure the reduction of aerosolized contamination via a practical “wipe-down” procedure performed on working canine coats contaminated with a fluorescent, non-toxic, water-based aerosol. Disposable, lint-free towels were saturated with one of three treatments: water, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (CHX), or 7.5% povidone-iodine scrub (PVD). Both CHX and PVD were diluted at a 1:4 ratio. Treatments were randomly assigned to one of three quadrants established across the shoulders and back of commonly utilized working dog breeds (Labrador retrievers, n = 16; German shepherds, n = 16). The fourth quadrant remained unwiped, serving as a control. Reduction in fluorescent marker contamination was measured and compared across all quadrants. PVD demonstrated greater marker reduction compared to CHX or water in both breeds (P < 0.0001). Reduction was similar between CHX or water in Labradors (P = 0.86) and shepherds (P = 0.06). Effective wipe-down strategies using common veterinary cleansers should be further investigated and incorporated into decontamination practices to safeguard working canine health and prevent cross-contamination of human personnel working with these animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0250.v1
Online: 21 February 2022 (10:09:18 CET)
Remote sensing technology, especially using satellite images, has become essential support in many aspects of decision-making, particularly in disaster risk management. It requires a shorter period of data updates and less cost compared to conventional field observations and surveys. Yet, the intensive processing and high-powered computing resources are necessary to analyze satellite imagery data through Geographic Information System (GIS). In this paper, we introduce the identification and mapping of natural disaster impact in Indonesia using the open-source collaborative tool of Google Earth Engine (GEE) application which analyzes the relative temporal difference of Earth surface from three major satellite images: Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, and Landsat-8. Taking the advantage of the geographical, geological, and demographic conditions of Indonesia's disaster-prone areas, we analyze relative difference from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) out of months before and after natural disaster occurrence to measure the impact of natural disaster in focus study areas. Given the high-vegetation nature of three main natural disaster impacted areas in Indonesia: Aceh, Palu, and Yogyakarta, we are able to simplify the analysis by highlighting areas with vegetative loss or gain after the event. Using an open-source GEE application, namely HazMapper, we identify and visualize the aftermath of the tsunami disaster in Aceh and Palu as well as the earthquake in Yogyakarta. Our study is potentially beneficial for government and decision-makers to utilize publicly available satellite images for disaster recovery and mitigation policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: children; resilience; disaster; behavior; school; factor
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:10:04 CET)
Annually, millions of people (including children) across the world face minor to severe impact from natural or human-induced disasters. Diverse models have been conceptualized and adopted at global scale to increase resiliency of children from disasters focusing on preparedness, response and recover. As children spend most of their lives at school or at home, this paper discusses on factors contributing towards improving or degrading resiliency of children from disasters. Giving low priority to institutional resilience, this paper highlights the behavioral aspects of children which becomes their strength on demonstrating appropriate practices to mitigate disaster risks on self at school, home and community. While doing so, attributes from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior has been linked with the components of resilience to explain the causative factors. Adopting desk review, this paper describes behavioral attributes of children and emphasizes on need of having multi-dimensional framework to enhance resiliency of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0072.v1
Online: 5 July 2020 (12:32:00 CEST)
Remote sensing has been used as an important tool for disaster monitoring and disaster scope extraction, especially for the analysis of temporal and spatial disasters patterns of large-scale long time series. In order to find out a rapid and effective method to monitor disaster in a wide range, based on the Google Earth Engine cloud platform, this study used MODIS vegetation index products of 250 meter spatial resolution synthesized in 16 days during the year 2005-2019 and three kinds of disaster monitoring and scope extraction models are proposed: normalized vegetation index median time standardization (RNDVI_TM(i)) model, the normalized vegetation index median phenology Standardization(RNDVI_AM(i)(j)) model, normalized vegetation index median spatiotemporal Standardization (RNDVI_ZM(i)(j)) model. The optimal threshold of disaster extraction for each model in different time phases was determined by Otsu method, and the extraction results were verified by Medium resolution image and ground measured data of the same or quasi-same period. Finally, the disaster scope of cultivated land in Heilongjiang province from 2010 to 2019 was extracted and the temporal and spatial pattern of disasters was analyzed based on the meteorological data. It shows that the three above-mentioned models have high disaster monitoring and range extraction capabilities with the verification accuracy of RNDVI_TM(i) 97.46%, RNDVI_AM(i)(j) 96.90%, and RNDVI_ZM(i)(j) 96.67% respectively. The spatial and temporal distribution of disasters is consistent with the disaster of the insured plots and meteorological data in the whole province. Meanwhile, it turns out that different monitoring and extraction methods are used in different disasters, among which wind hazard and insect disasters often need to be delayed for 16 days to observe. Each model also has various sensitivity and applicability to different disasters. Compared with other methods, this method is fast, and convenient, which allows it to be used for large-scale agricultural disaster monitoring and is easy to be applied into other research areas. The research provides a new idea for large-scale agricultural disaster monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0070.v2
Online: 25 June 2020 (15:51:30 CEST)
The 1783-1784 Laki eruption was one of the most severe natural catastrophes to occur in Iceland in historical times (since 1140 years). Vegetation damage by sulphate aerosol and fluorine poisoning caused a massive decimation of livestock. The impact of fluorine poisoning and sulphate aerosol on human mortality is uncertain, but the loss of animals caused a famine which took many lives. The vulnerability of the Icelandic society to famine is discussed. 18th Century Iceland was a Danish dependency and, despite the abundance of fish in the surrounding waters, a subsistence farming community and thus highly dependent on livestock. On the other hand, the farming community possessed coping strategies which mitigated the impact of livestock loss. During the famine, the Danish government was in principle willing to provide relief. However, local authorities in Iceland were slow to ask for help, and did not dare to exploit the means at their disposal (e.g. the right to ban the export of Icelandic foodstuff) without consent from Copenhagen. The Danish officials in turn were unwilling to act decisively upon incomplete information. These two factors prevented timely measures. While 4.4 × 10^5kg of grain were provided for famine relief in summer 1784, the merchants exported 1.2 × 10^6kg of fish, which greatly aggravated the hunger in the second winter. The effects of this ‘natural’ catastrophe could therefore have been significantly reduced by efficient government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0275.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: liquefaction; vulnerability; earthquake; disaster mitigation; Pariaman
Online: 29 March 2019 (08:18:36 CET)
Knowledge about the liquefaction vulnerability in Pariaman city which is prone to an earthquake is very much needed in disaster mitigation based spatial planning. The liquefaction is an event of loss of the strength of the sandy soil layer caused by the vibration of the earthquake, where the liquefaction occurs in the sandy soil layer which has loose material in the form of sand that is not compact or not solid. This research was conducted by analyzing the potential of liquefaction vulnerability based on the Conus penetration to produce Microzonation of the susceptibility of subsidence due to liquefaction at 4 locations in Pariaman city, i.e., Marunggi village, Taluak village, Pauh Timur village and Padang Birik-Birik village. The Conus penetration testing is carried out using the piezocone (CPTU) method and mechanical Cunos penetration, and approach using Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that the potential of liquefaction was found at the sandy soil layer of sand and a mixture of sand and silt, which is characterized by the value of Cunos resistance and local resistance each smaller than 15 MPa and 150 kPa at varying depths. Based on the results of the analysis using this method, the critical conditions of liquefaction found in the medium sandy soil to solid. The fine sand layer which has the potential for liquefaction is in sand units formed from coastal deposits, coastal ridges and riverbanks. This liquefaction vulnerability zones analysis is limited to a depth of 6.00 m due to the limitations of the equipment used. The results of the analysis show that the fine sand layer which has the potential for liquefaction occurs at a depth of> 1.00-6.00 m with the division of zones, i.e., 1) High liquefaction in the sandy soil layer which has a critical acceleration (a) <0.10 g with shallow groundwater surface; 2) Medium liquefaction in the sandy soil layer which has a critical acceleration (a) between 0.10–0.20 g with shallow groundwater surface; and 3) Low and very low liquefaction in the sandy soil layer which has a critical acceleration (a) between 0.20–0.30 g with an average groundwater deep enough surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0325.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Community disaster resilience; Lembang Fault; Indonesia; Japan
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:43:52 CET)
Having experienced large-scale disasters between 2004 and 2006, the fatalities due to large-scale disasters in 2018 were still high. In contrast, disaster risk management (DRM) and CDR in Japan have been continuously improved. Thus, there is a need to develop CDR for supporting DRM in Indonesia by learning from the Japanese experience, particularly in a disaster-prone area without large-scale disaster experience. This research was a pilot project on the development of CDR in Indonesia. The case study was a geological hazard-prone Lembang Fault area. People’s perception was collected using structured interviews, while demographic and local economic data was acquired from official statistical publications. Satellite imageries were utilized to acquire natural and built environment and land use/land cover and their changes between 2019 and 2021. Although the degrees of social capital, risk knowledge including indigenous knowledge and past disaster experience were high, government interventions on DRM and land administration are required to develop CDR in Lembang Fault area. Organized community development is expected rather than to solely involve NGOs. Moreover, strategies to develop economic resilience are needed to allow the community to bounce back from future disaster. Finally, a detail baseline data should be collected to develop DRM strategy and CDR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis; nature; flood management; disaster
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:08:52 CEST)
A disaster wrecks those affected. It spares many in the affected areas, yet those spared may be indirectly impacted. Specific risks are often inherent within a social system or physical location, but they can also be created due to unavoidable natural or technological hazards. The consequences, however, can be similar in that they wreak havoc in communities and destroy economic systems. The analytical framework of deterrence and coping has ascertained beneficial in many circumstances, but a cost benefit calculation is a must to infer the feasibility of planning strategy and resource allocation. This study points to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) of flood management by District Disaster Management Kulgam. The assessment is established on secondary pooled data collected from administration offices, NGOs, published Journals, and local and national newspapers. It also characterised the strategy, the technique adopted, and the sources of flood damage cost information. The totalled benefits report for 78686.18 lakh of rupees, and that of total costs account for 2218.75lakh of rupees. The Benefit-Cost ratio greater than one (>1) indicates that Flood Management in District Kulgam was economically feasible and successfully governed. The State of Jammu and Kashmir put up with necessary prevention and administration measures to break the spell of devastation due to floods to significant status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: urban flooding; flood management; flood disaster; Samarinda;
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:46:35 CET)
Samarinda’s flooding issue is threatening future city development. As the most populated city in Kalimantan, Samarinda (the municipality of East Borneo) plays a role-model in disaster management for a neighboring city. This paper introduces current flood disaster handling in this city. History of disaster management in Indonesia is started from the earlier of Indonesian independence. Year 2008, after hit by severe Tsunami in Aceh and its surrounding, Government of Republic of Indonesia form special agency to manage disaster specifically, namely National Board for Disaster Management (in Bahasa called: Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Nasional [BNPB]) and follows by the regional and local government to form similar agency in provincial and local scale (including Samarinda), called Regional Board for Disaster Management (in Bahasa: Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah[BPBD]) which is formed in 2009 and 2011, respectively. The aim of this paper is to explain flood management in Samarinda where is flood hazard increase gradually and need to be a priority. Descriptive analysis is used in this study including secondary data and interviewed stakeholders. Finally, the finding of study obtains found five constraints related to Samarinda’s flood management including administrative and policy, social, economic, environment and technical and knowledge constraint. This study also promotes several schemes of non-structural approach to enlarge alternative perspective in flood management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0235.v1
Online: 10 August 2020 (04:45:36 CEST)
Background: Twitter is a major tool for communication in emergencies such as natural disasters. This online social network allows the user to produce content, and it is not designed exclusively for news releases, as opposed to other service providers. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate Twitter uses in natural disasters and pandemics. Methods: The included studies reported the role of Twitter in natural disasters. The studies that report in settings other than the natural disasters (such as man-made disasters) and other social media were excluded. Electronic databases for a comprehensive literature search including MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE were used to identify the records that match the mentioned inclusion criteria published till May 2020. The study characteristics were extracted from the qualified studies including year of publication, findings, and geographical location of the study conduct. A narrative synthesis for this literature review was used. Results: The search identified 822 articles of which 780 articles were removed, 256 were not available, 311 papers were not relevant, 16 were duplicated articles, and 197 were non-related to the emergencies. 45 articles met the selection criteria and were included in the review. eleven themes were found in the narrative synthesis including early warning, disseminating information and misinformation, advocacy, personal gains, assessment, various roles of organizations, public mood, geographical analysis, charity, using influencers, and trust. Conclusions: It is recommended that influential individuals be identified in each country and community before disasters occur so that the necessary information can be disseminated in response to disasters. Preventing the spread of misinformation is one of the most important issues in times of disaster, especially pandemics. Disseminating accurate, transparent, and prompt information from relief organizations and governments can help. Also, analyzing Twitter data can be a good source for understanding the mental state of the community, estimating the number of injured people, estimating the points affected by natural disasters, and modeling the prevalence of epidemics. Therefore, various groups such as politicians, the government, non-governmental organizations, aid workers, and the health system can use this information to plan and implement interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: disasters; social media; informing; public; disaster; risks; Serbia
Online: 24 January 2023 (10:29:14 CET)
Social media informs the public about the most important events and conveys important information. Before, during and after disasters, social media are used to disseminate information about disasters and to collect data relevant to the implementation of preparedness, response and recovery activities and measures. Social networks are effective in disseminating information and warnings, as well as in educating the public. The subject of the research is examining the influence of demographic factors on the effectiveness of social media in informing the public about the risks of disasters. Using an online survey questionnaire, and according to the snowball principle, a survey of 247 respondents was conducted in 2022. The research results show no statistically significant relationship between the level of education of the respondents and the assessment of the effectiveness of social media reporting on disasters. The use of social media can improve communication between stakeholders in disaster management and facilitate coordination of efforts, fostering communication and allocation of resources. To effectively use social media in disaster management, decision-makers in the disaster management system must be aware of new technologies, their disadvantages and advantages, as well as ways in which data from social networks can be collected and analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0395.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Waste Recycling System; Disaster Response; Network; Cognitive Accuracy
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:06:26 CEST)
Since the process of waste recycling generates dust and flammable gas during fragmentation, there is always a risk of fire resulting therefrom, and fire does, in fact, frequently occur. However, research on disaster management at recycling facilities deals only with the problem of processing systems from a technical point of view, but it does not suggest concrete alternatives from a management point of view. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the influence of the disaster response network of a waste recycling center at the organizational level based on the concept of the cognitive accuracy of a network when considering administrative aspects. Through this analysis, we confirmed that factors affecting the influence of the network exist, such that the entire network and the networks of different levels of position are different. We suggest that this can be improved by deploying members who perform formal tasks at the center of the network so that everyone can agree political approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0360.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Household Disaster Preparation; Natural Hazards Mitigation; Prediction Model
Online: 2 November 2021 (12:57:04 CET)
Natural disasters are showing an increase in the magnitude, frequency, and geographic distribution. Studies have shown that individuals’ self-sufficiency, which largely depends on household preparedness, is very important for hazard mitigation in at least the first 72 hours following a disaster. However, for factors that influence a household’s disaster preparedness, though there are many studies trying to identify from different aspects, we still lack an integrative analysis on how these factors contribute to a household’s preparation. This paper aims to build a classification model to predict whether a household has prepared for a potential disaster based on their personal characteristics and the environment they located. We collect data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s National Household Survey in 2018 and train four classification models - logistic regression, decision trees, support vector machines, and multi-layer perceptron classifier models- to predict the impact of personal characteristics and the environment they located on household prepare for the potential natural disaster. Results show that the multi-layer perceptron classifier model outperforms others with the highest scoring on both recall (0.8531) and f1 measure (0.7386). In addition, feature selection results also show that among other factors, a household’s accessibility to disaster-related information is the most critical factor that impacts household disaster preparation. Though there is still room for further parameter optimization, the model gives a clue that we could support disaster management by gathering publicly accessible data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: nursing student; disaster preparedness; China; the modified Delphi
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:10:24 CEST)
Abstract: This study aims to set up a system to evaluate nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduates and influencing factors in China. The evaluation system was established by using the modified Delphi. There were 3 phases in this study: 1) an environmental scan; 2) setting framework; 3) adjusting indicators based on the modified Delphi. The questionnaire for these undergraduates lied in their basic information and assessment of nursing competencies in disaster preparedness. Based on the survey, the average score of nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduate nursing students surveyed was 3.10 (out of 5). In addition, gender, grade, inhabitation, and disaster drills of the students were four factors affecting nursing competencies of undergraduates. This study indicates that the present nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduates are weak, and it is essential to strengthen nursing education in disaster preparedness for undergraduates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: maternal death; marginalized community; flood; natural disaster; Bangladesh
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:23:48 CET)
The study explored the community perception of maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster, practice of maternal complications during natural disaster among the rural population in Bangladesh. It also explored the challenges faced by the community for providing health care and referring the complicated pregnant mothers during disaster. Three focus group discussions (FGDs) and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted in the marginalized rural communities in the flood-prone Khaliajhuri sub-district, Netrakona district, Bangladesh. Flood is one of the major risk factors for influencing maternal death. Pregnant mothers seriously suffer from maternal complication, lack of antenatal checkup and even any doctor during flood. During the time of delivery, it is difficult to find even a skilled attendant and referring the patient with delivery complications to the healthcare facility. Boat is the only mode of transport. Majority maternal deaths occur on the boats during transfer from the community to the hospital. The rural people feel that the maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster are the natural phenomena. It needs some pre-preparation to support pregnant women during the disaster. There is unawareness of maternal health, related care and complications during disaster among the local health service providers and volunteers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: gradual strengthening; existing masonry houses; earthquake disaster; ferrocement; bandaging
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:43:21 CET)
Approximately 85 million people's houses are scattered all over Indonesia, and almost all are in strong earthquake areas. In every earthquake, the houses are generally damaged or collapsed. Therefore, those houses must be strengthened to make them earthquake resistant. This paper discusses a gradual strengthening of existing houses using ferrocement bandaging. The gradual strengthening is introduced due to limited funding of the people. It also serves as an educational tool to educate people to be self-sufficient in building their earthquake-resistant houses. The first step, maybe the sleeping room shall be strengthened so that if there is an earthquake during night-time, people will be safe, and if there is an earthquake during the daytime, people can immediately run to that particular room. A global analysis is made of a sample house shaken by Palu, Central Sulawesi earthquake 2018, and West Sumatra earthquake 2009, with one room strengthened to show that the strengthened room can survive the earthquakes. Then the analysis is continued gradually to the other rooms until the masonry house is fully strengthened by ferrocement bandaging. The results show that the masonry house strengthened by ferrocement layers is earthquake resistant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0272.v1
Subject: Keywords: disaster; fire; preparedness; respond; employee; demographic; socio-economic; factors
Online: 9 March 2021 (14:49:26 CET)
This paper presents the results of quantitative research regarding the examination of the levels of efficiency of the fire protection system and the training of employees in Electrical power distribution of Serbia for fire protection, ie the analysis of the manner of implementation of fire protection measures, and determining whether these measures are adequately applied. Following the subject set in this way, the aim of the research was set, and that is the scientific analysis of the manner of application of fire protection measures. The results of this research showed that the employees of Electro distribution Belgrade perceive the preparedness of their company highly positively and certain socio-demographic characteristics also affect certain attitudes, especially those related to the experience with fire, the knowledge of employees to react in case of fire, and the choice of the appropriate response, assessment of the readiness of the company and the employees themselves. It was found that knowledge of how to react in case of fire is influenced by gender and level of education; the choice of one of the methods of action in case of fire is influenced by gender; the assessment of the readiness of the employees themselves is influenced by the marital status; the desire of employees to participate in training to increase their preparedness for fires is influenced by gender. The results of the research can be used to improve the preparedness of employees in various organizations to respond to disasters caused by fires.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainable tourism; tourism sensitivity; tourism vulnerability; natural disaster; earthquake
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:21:51 CET)
Despite increased global interest in the impacts of natural disasters on tourism, less study executes exploring how tourism sensitivity is addressed at the destination level. Generating a link between tourism and natural disaster management is vital in places that rely heavily on tourism and are prone to natural hazards. Ranau, Sabah (Malaysia) is one of the disaster-prone tourists' destination area. Hence, this paper applies the case study of Ranau earthquake 2015 to explore tourism sensitivity towards natural disasters. A qualitative of in-depth interview is applied to acquire information needed from the Ranau tourism entrepreneurs and operators. To analyse the qualitative data, a thematic analysis is conducted. Overall findings show that tourism activity in Ranau are identified to be sensitive towards the 2015 earthquake with a significant percentage of sensitivity level on two elements. These elements are known as Source and Power. The Source element includes tourism products, size of business, development, and natural disasters management with a significant sensitivity compared to the Power element (social capital). This provides insight to the need of specific tourism system adaptation as response to the earthquake and considering the integration of natural disaster management into tourism development to enhance long term sustainability.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Google Earth Engine; MODIS; disaster monitoring; remote sensing index
Online: 21 July 2020 (03:12:22 CEST)
Remote sensing has been used as an important tool for disaster monitoring and disaster scope extraction, especially for the analysis of spatial and temporal disaster patterns of large-scale and long-duration series. Based on the Google Earth Engine cloud platform, this study used MODIS vegetation index products with 250-m spatial resolution synthesized over 16 days from the period 2005–2019 to develop a rapid and effective method for monitoring disasters across a wide spatiotemporal range. Three types of disaster monitoring and scope extraction models are proposed: the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) median time standardization model (RNDVI_TM(i)), the NDVI median phenology standardization model (RNDVI_AM(i)(j)), and the NDVI median spatiotemporal standardization model (RNDVI_ZM(i)(j)). The optimal disaster extraction threshold for each model in different time phases was determined using Otsu’s method, and the extraction results were verified by medium-resolution images and ground-measured data of the same or quasi-same period. Finally, the disaster scope of cultivated land in Heilongjiang Province from 2010–2019 was extracted, and the spatial and temporal patterns of the disasters were analyzed based on meteorological data. This analysis revealed that the three aforementioned models exhibited high disaster monitoring and range extraction capabilities, with verification accuracies of 97.46%, 96.90%, and 96.67% for RNDVI_TM(i), RNDVI_AM(i), and (j)RNDVI_ZM(i)(j), respectively. The spatial and temporal disaster distributions were found to be consistent with the disasters of the insured plots and the meteorological data across the entire province. Moreover, different monitoring and extraction methods were used for different disasters, among which wind hazard and insect disasters often required a delay of 16 days prior to observation. Each model also displayed various sensitivities and were applicable to different disasters. Compared with other techniques, the proposed method is fast and easy to implement. This new approach can be applied to numerous types of disaster monitoring as well as large-scale agricultural disaster monitoring and can easily be applied to other research areas. This study presents a novel method for large-scale agricultural disaster monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0340.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: damaged area; direct economic loss; disaster; drought; extreme precipitation
Online: 15 November 2018 (04:26:41 CET)
Understanding the distribution in drought and floods plays an important role in disaster risk management. The present study aims to explore the trends in the standardized precipitation index and extreme precipitation days in China, as well as to estimate the economic losses they cause. We found that in the Northeast China, northern of North China and northeast of Northwest China were severely affected by drought disasters (average damaged areas were 6.44 million hectares) and the most severe drought trend was located in West China. However, in the north of East China and Central China, the northeastern of the Southwest China was severely affected by flood disasters (average damaged areas were 3.97 million hectares) and the extreme precipitation trend is increasing in the northeastern of the Southwest China. In the Yangtze River basin, there were increasing trends in terms of drought and extreme precipitation, especially in the northeastern of the Southwest China, where accompanied by severe disaster losses. By combining the trends in drought and extreme precipitation days with the distribution of damaged areas, we found that the increasing trend in droughts shifted gradually from north to south, especially in the Southwest China, and the increasing trend in extreme precipitation gradually shifted from south to north.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: post-disaster community; sustainable development; social network; government management
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:04:53 CEST)
The current urban environment is faced with the potential threat of frequent natural disasters, and the sustainable development of post-disaster community has become a global issue. As an intrinsic motivation influencing the social interaction and capital operation of community, social network is an important mechanism promoting such sustainable development. However, the difference in social network caused by different member structure, spatial arrangement and management mechanism of post-disaster communities in different reconstruction modes has influenced such sustainable development process. Therefore, reasonable selection of reconstruction mode is crucial. This paper applied analytic hierarchy process to comprehensively measure and compare the social network strength in post-disaster communities in the four reconstruction modes adopted by the government of China, i.e. unified planning and unified construction, unified planning and independent construction, in situ reconstruction and relocation resettlement, with communities after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in Chengdu, China as study objects from the perspective of three social relations (the relations between residents and residents, residents and managers, and residents and servers). The results showed that strong connections are generally presented in the social network of post-disaster communities in unified planning modes, that the strength is significantly higher than that of those in non-unified planning modes, and that the strength of UPIC communities is the highest. Meanwhile, government intervention, residents’ free participation and market operation are positively correlated to government trust, community interaction and community service respectively. The positive impact of government intervention is the most significant, but it has a peak value. No government management and excessive government intervention will exert negative impacts. The coordination of government, society and market is the key contents of post-disaster community reconstruction. The reconstruction modes based on “government leadership, resident participation and market operation” may become a feasible path for such sustainable development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:05:44 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0609.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: resilience engineering; disaster management; assessment model; capacity diagnosis; infectious disease
Online: 30 September 2018 (11:17:41 CEST)
Safety management assessment systems for national level units’ in South Korea focus on responding capacity to cope with impending accident occurrence and danger occurrence. Since the four stage systems for prevention-preparation-response-recovery, which are core elements of national disaster management, assess the capacities by item such as those of individuals, disaster management departments, institutions, and management networks, there is no assessment function for the organic operation states of the entire systems. Therefore, for efficient disaster management, systematic evaluation indices that will enable active pre-checks in departments in organizations should be developed in place of the existing simply checking methods. In this study, an assessment model that will enable active disaster management centered on practice was developed using resilience engineering techniques. This model consists of disaster management items from the viewpoint of proactive responses instead of prevention. A total of 56 items that constitute four capacities; which are prediction (13 items), monitoring (14 items), proactive response (15 items), and safety learning (14 items) capacities were adopted in this model through Delphi analysis. Institutional capacities for infectious disease disaster management were evaluated based on this model and the resultant scores were prediction 4.41, monitoring 4.63, proactive response 4.69, safety learning 4.56 out of the full score of 5.0 points with an overall average of 4.51. This is an excellent capacity management score comparable to the score 4.57 of diagnosis of similar capacities by the WHO\_JEE (The Joint External Evaluation) in 2017. In fact, in 2015, when infectious disease capacity management was poor, in case of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) infectious disease spread in South Korea, 36 patients died and 6,729 patients were isolated. However, through capacity reinforcement, in the case of MERS occurrence in South Korea in September 2018, a management capacity that prevented spread was shown as one confirmed case was completely cured in 10 days and 21 contacts were isolated and tested negative. Therefore, this capacity management assessment model is judged to be usable in enhancing disaster response and management capacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0076.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: flood; disaster prevention; emergency response; decision making, Google earth engine
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:33:44 CEST)
This paper reports the efforts made and experiences gained in developing the Flood Prevention and Emergency Response System (FPERS) powered by Google Earth Engine, with focus on its applications at the three stages of floods. At the post-flood stage, FPERS integrates various remote sensing imageries, including Formosat-2 optical imagery, to detect and monitor barrier lakes, synthetic aperture radar imagery to derive an inundation map, and high-spatial-resolution photographs taken by unmanned aerial vehicles to evaluate damage to river channels and structures. At the pre-flood stage, a huge amount of geospatial data are integrated in FPERS and are categorized as typhoon forecast and archive, disaster prevention and warning, disaster events and analysis, or basic data and layers. At the during-flood stage, three strategies are implemented to facilitate the access of the real-time data: presenting the key information, making a sound recommendation, and supporting the decision-making. The example of Typhoon Soudelor in August of 2015 is used to demonstrate how FPERS was employed to support the work of flood prevention and emergency response from 2013 to 2016. The capability of switching among different topographic models and the flexibility of managing and searching data through a geospatial database are also explained, and suggestions are made for future works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0477.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Merapi Volcano; Indonesia; Natural Hazards; Disaster Risk and Point-cloud technology
Online: 29 August 2022 (08:34:39 CEST)
Spatial approach based on the deformation measurement of volcanic dome and crater rim is key to evaluate the activity of a volcano, such as Merapi volcano where associated disaster risk is regularly taking lives. Within this framework, this study aime to detect localized deformation and change in the summit area that has occurred concomitantly with the dome growth and explosion reported. The methodology was focused on two sets of data, one LiDAR-based dataset of 2012 and one UAV-dataset of 2014. The results show that during the period 2012-2014, the crater walls are 100 m to 120 m high above the crater floor at its maximum (North to East-South-East sector), while the West and North sector presents a topographic range of 40 to 80 m. During the period 2012 – 2014, the evolution of the crater rim around the dome is generally stable (no large collapse). The opening of a new vent on the surface of the dome has displaced an equivalent volume of 2.04 E+04 m3 corresponding to a maximum -9 m (+/- 0.9 m) vertically. This concludes that during the period 2012 – 2014 when the dome of Merapi experienced phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions, the topography around the dome rose. This rise does not seem to be related to large wall collapses, and it is likely that modification in the subsurface have triggered those changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0163.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: agro-input; commercialization index; disaster; fertilizer; resilience; markets; production; seeds system
Online: 9 April 2020 (16:32:39 CEST)
Market-orientation is widely applied to understand the expected interaction of smallholder farmers with input and output markets. Commonly used interchangeably with market participation, it is fast becoming a key milestone for attaining smallholder commercialization. This study introduces the term into the disaster resilience, seed systems and livelihoods context. Using a mixed methods approach, 120 smallholder farmers in a drought-affected district of South Africa were sampled, and information collected for analysis. The result shows that most of the farmers rely on purchased seeds and fertilizers for crop production, and on average sold 62% of their farm produce. A market orientation index (MOI) of 55% was estimated, showing that the farmers were market oriented. The farm size, quantities of seeds and fertilizer purchased, value of crop produced, amount received from crop sales, distance to markets and access to credit were found significant in determining their market orientation. Policy interventions were made to improve access to irrigation, seed varieties and extension delivery in the area. The finding has implications for development efforts at rebuilding after a natural disaster, as well as sourcing food aid from local smallholder farmers by humanitarian actors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0580.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: disaster telecommunication; rescue; UWB (ultra-wide band); enclosed space; wireless telecommunication
Online: 29 September 2018 (05:29:26 CEST)
When an earthquake or a large fire has occurred, it is difficult to secure communication networks for rescue in the building due to the destruction of commercial communication networks. Although analog radio systems such as VHF (very high frequency) and UHF (ultra-high frequency) are used for rescue operation in general, communication failure occurs in closed spaces, causing difficulties in smooth rescue operations. When the communication infrastructures have been destroyed in a building in the disaster, an emergency wireless telecommunication environment should be constructed to secure a safer disaster response environment. In this study, along with comparison of the performances of diverse communication frequencies, UWB (Ultra-Wide Band) wireless telecommunication networks were evaluated under five building indoor environment conditions including open spaces. UWB communication modules were fabricated to satisfy the IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.15.4a standard performance to measure distances in which communications are possible according to the indoor environment for each of six channels with different UWB communication frequencies. The results indicated that the distances in which communications are possible for each the six channels were average 15.5 m, maximum 20 m in open spaces; average 17.33 m, maximum 20 m in corridors; average 15.3 m, maximum 20 m in indoor office environments with office fixtures; average 4.33 m, maximum 6 m in vertical spaces of stairs; and average 6.5 m, maximum 17 m in closed horizontal spaces with a fire door. In this case, the communication performance and distance performance were shown to be the most excellent at a frequency (Centre Frequency) of 6489.6 and a band of 5980.3 – 6998.9 MHz, which is UWB 7ch. In conclusion, it is judged that if UWB communication modules are installed in the disaster area at intervals of 20 m and multi-channels are used, communication environments can be constructed even in closed spaces
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: post disaster housing; rapid assembly systems; foam filled sandwiches; modular construction;
Online: 21 June 2018 (12:52:55 CEST)
In this paper the development process of a deployable modular sandwich panelized system for rapid assembly building construction is presented, and its structural performance under some different action effects is investigated. This system, which includes an innovative sandwich panel and its integrated connections, can be used as structural walls and floors in quickly assembled post-disaster housing, as well as load bearing panels for pre-fabricated modular construction and semi-permanent buildings. Panels and connections are composed of a pneumatic fabric formwork, and two 3-D high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets as the skins, filled with high-density rigid Polyurethane (PU) foam as the core. HDPE sheets manufactured with a studded surface considerably enhance the stress distribution, buckling performance and delamination strength of the sandwich panel under various loading conditions. The load-carrying behaviour of the system in accordance with some ASTM standards is presented here. The results show the system satisfies the codes criteria regarding semi-permanent housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0550.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: OpenStreetMap; MapSwipe; data completeness; disaster management; exposure, Volunteered Geographic Information; data quality
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:29:16 CET)
Natural hazards threaten millions of people all over the world. To address the risk, exposure and vulnerability models with high resolution data are essential. However, in many areas of the world, exposure models are rather coarse and aggregated over large areas. Although OpenStreetMap (OSM) offers great potential to assess risk at a detailed building-by-building level, completeness of OSM building footprints is still heterogeneous. We present an approach to close this gap by means of crowdsourcing based on the mobile App MapSwipe, where volunteers swipe through satellite images of a region collecting user feedback on classification tasks. For our application, MapSwipe was extended by a completeness feature that allows to classify a tile as “no building”, “complete” or “incomplete”. To assess the quality of the produced data, the completeness feature was applied at four regions. Our results show that the crowdsourced approach yields a reasonable classification performance of the completeness of OSM building footprints. Nevertheless, this study also revealed that volunteers tend to classify nearly completely mapped tiles as “complete”, especially in areas with a high OSM building density. Another factor that influenced the classification performance was the level of alignment of the OSM layer with the satellite imagery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Great East Japan Earthquake; disaster; cardiovascular disease; psychological factors; evacuation; prospective study
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:01:44 CEST)
Evidence regarding the effect of psychological factors and evacuation on cardiovascular disease occurrence after large-scale disasters is limited. This prospective study followed up a total of 37,810 Japanese men and women aged 30–89 years from the Fukushima Prefecture with no history of stroke or heart disease at baseline (2012), until 2017. This period included 3000 cardiovascular events recorded through questionnaires and death certificates. The participants’ psychological distress, trauma reaction, and evacuation status were defined, and divided into four groups based on combinations of psychological factors and evacuation status. We calculated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for only psychological, only evacuation, or both of them compared with neither using Cox proportional hazard models. Psychological factors along with evacuation resulted in approximately 5% to 25% higher magnitude of stroke and heart disease risk than psychological factors only among men. Compared to neither, the multivariable hazard ratios of those with both psychological distress and evacuation were 1.75 for stroke and 1.49 for heart disease, and those of both trauma reaction and evacuation were 2.01 and 1.57, respectively, among men. Evacuation combined with psychological factors increased the risk of stroke and heart disease risks especially in men after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0032.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: image segmentation; wireless sensor node deployment; plant growth simulation algorithm; disaster management
Online: 4 May 2017 (06:02:31 CEST)
The use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during emergency response of a disaster has been widespread in recent years and the terrain images captured by the cameras on board these vehicles are significant sources of information for such disaster monitoring operations. Thus, analyzing such images are important for assessing the terrain of interest during such emergency response operations. Further, these UAVs are mainly used in disaster monitoring systems for the automated deployment of sensor nodes in real time. Therefore, deploying and localizing the wireless sensor nodes optimally, only in the regions of interest that are identified by segmenting the images captured by UAVs, hold paramount significance thereby effecting their performance. In this paper, the highly effective nature-inspired Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) has been applied for the segmentation of such terrestrial images and also for the localization of the deployed sensor nodes. The problem is formulated as a multi-dimensional optimization problem and PGSA has been used to solve it. Furthermore, the proposed method has been compared to other existing evolutionary methods and simulation results show that PGSA gives better performance with respect to both speed and accuracy unlike other techniques in literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0461.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Digital Geological Survey; Mobile GIS; Relational database; Geopackage; Landslide Inventory; Post-disaster management
Online: 25 November 2022 (02:25:21 CET)
Over the last few decades, the approach to geological and geomorphological surveys has changed remarkably. The advent of digital tools has allowed significant advances in the acquisition and management of survey data. In this paper, we demonstrate the development and testing of a new and effective digital survey method that allows for the fast acquisition and collaborative storage and management of data and information. This method was tested in collaboration with five universities for the mapping and classification of landslides in 249 survey areas in Central Italy and, more precisely, in the municipalities affected by the 2016 Central Italy Earthquake. Geological and geomorphological surveys were carried out in the field with tablet PCs, GPS, and cameras. The survey project for collecting field data was based on the structure of the Italian Landslide Inventory (IFFI) and the Territorial Resilience Central Apennines Earthquake Reconstruction (ReSTART) projects. The structure of the database and input forms were implemented for these aims. Moreover, the data and information were retrieved and organised in detailed records useful to the administrative entities.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: disaster management; virtual operation support teams; privacy; data retention; hyperloglog; focus group discussion
Online: 1 October 2020 (13:58:16 CEST)
Social media data is heavily used to analyze and evaluate situations in times of disasters, and derive decisions for action from it. A cruicial part of the analysis is to avoid unnecessary data retention during that process, in order to prevent subsequent abuse, theft or public exposure of collected datasets and thus, protect the privacy of social media users. There are a number of technical approaches out to face the problem. One of them is using a cardinality estimation algorithm called HyperLogLog to store data in a privacy-aware structure, that can not be used for purposes other than the originally intended. In this case study, we developed and conducted a focus group discussion with teams of social media analysts, in which we identified challenges and opportunities of working with such a privacy-enhanced social media data structure in place of conventional techniques. Our findings show that, with the exception of training scenarios, deploying HyperLogLog in the data acquisiton process will not distract the data analysis process. Instead, it will improve working with huge datasets due to the improved characteristics of the resulting data structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0455.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Flying-fox, disaster management, heat events, heat stress, roost management, physiology, veterinary management.
Online: 24 September 2018 (12:28:19 CEST)
Flying-fox populations are increasingly threatened by heat events, starvation events and other stressors due to habitat clearing and human/flying-fox conflict.These factors are unlikely to resolve, meaning that a well-coordinated and timely approach to flying-fox disasters is imperative for the mitigation of further flying-fox population impacts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Sustainability; Postdevelopment; Degrowth; Disaster Risk Reduction; United Nations; Permacrisis; Metadisaster.
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:48:45 CEST)
This transdisciplinary review of research about international cooperation on social and environmental change builds the case for replacing Sustainable Development as the dominant framework for an era of increasing crises and disasters. The review is the output of an intentional exploration of recent studies in multiple subject areas, based on the authors’ decades of work in related fields since the Rio Earth Summit 30 years ago (rather than a keyword search of databases). It summarizes the research which documents failure to progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Consequently, the extensive scholarship critiquing the conceptual framework behind those ‘Global Goals’, and the economic ideology they arose from and support, is used to explain that failure. Although the pandemic set back the SDGs, it further revealed the inappropriate strategy behind those goals. This suggests the Global Goals constitute an ‘own-goal’ scored against people and nature. From this conclusion, alternative frameworks for organizing action on social and environmental issues become more important and are therefore briefly reviewed. It is argued that such a future framework must relate a new eco-social contract between citizen and state, and engage existing organizations and capabilities that are relevant to an increasingly disrupted world. Therefore, the case is made for considering an upgraded form of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) as an overarching framework. The proposed upgrades include detaching from economic ideologies, and recognizing that a wider metadisaster from climate chaos may reduce the future availability of external support. Therefore, self-reliant resilience and locally-led adaptation are identified as important to the future of DRM. Some options for professionals continuing to use the term sustainability, such as this journal, are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0102.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: epidemiology; disaster epidemiology; data matching; record linkage; probabilistic record linkage; interagency cooperation; 9/11 health
Online: 4 August 2020 (16:06:37 CEST)
Since its post-World War II inception, the science of record linkage has grown exponentially and is used across industrial, governmental, and academic agencies. The academic fields that rely on record linkage are diverse, ranging from history to public health to demography. In this paper, we introduce the different types of data linkage and give a historical context to their development. We then introduce the three types of underlying models for probabilistic record linkage: Fellegi-Sunter based methods, machine learning methods, and Bayesian methods. Practical considerations such as data standardization and privacy concerns are then discussed. Finally, recommendations are given for organizations developing or maintaining record linkage programs, with an emphasis on organizations measuring long-term complications of disasters such as 9/11.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: catastrophe border identification; sudden fire disaster; emergency management; cusp catastrophe theory; high-density urban area
Online: 9 April 2020 (14:41:43 CEST)
For traffic management under sudden disaster in high-density areas, the first and foremost step is to prevent traffic congestion in the disaster-affected area by traffic flow control, as to provide enough and flexible traffic capacity for emergency evacuation and emergency rescue. Catastrophe border identification is the foundation and the key to traffic congestion prediction under sudden disaster. This paper uses a mathematical model to study the regional traffic flow in the high-density area under sudden fire disaster based on the Cusp Catastrophe Theory (CCT). The catastrophe border is identified by fitting the CCT-based regional traffic flow model to explore the stable traffic flow changing to the instable state, as to provide a theoretical basis for traffic flow manage and control in disaster-affected areas, and to prevent the traffic flow being caught into disorder and congestion. Based on VISSIM simulator data by building simulation scenarios with and without sudden fire disaster in a Sudoku traffic network, the catastrophe border is identified as 439pcu/lane/h, 529pcu/lane/h, 377pcu/lane/h at 5s, 10s, 15s data collection interval respectively. The corresponding relative precision, which compares to the method of Capacity Assessment Approach (CAA), is 89.1%, 92.7% and 76.5% respectively. It means that 10s data collection interval would be the suitable data collection interval in catastrophe border identification and regional traffic flow control in high-density area under sudden fire disaster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0515.v1
Subject: Keywords: crashed aircraft; NDVI; albedo; MH370; remote sensing; Landsat 8; disaster; Boeing 777; panchromatic band; thermal band
Online: 21 November 2018 (05:09:14 CET)
Remote sensing data and techniques utilized for various purposes including natural disasters such as earthquake as well as flood. The research aims to consume liberates Landsat 8 images for investigating crashed airplanes such as MH370. Overall approximately 300 Landsat images with less than 10% clouds utilized in addition processed through Google Engine Platform. Due to the materials as well as the color of airplane body different from the area which is a plane crashed there, moreover, it should be the characteristics of the plane shapefile different in terms of albedo, temperature as well as vegetation index value. The research observed Landsat 8 data as well as methods utilized in this research, especially, NDVI, albedo in addition to band 4, capable to distinguish between the plane and its surrounding green area. Therefore, our result confirms during the research period, there was no plane on the location as well as MH370 not crashed in this site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0269.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: social sensing; supervised learning; statistical methods; social networks; twitter; tweets; natural disaster; random forest, kernel density estimation
Online: 15 August 2018 (11:34:43 CEST)
In recent years, online social networks have received important consideration in spatial modelling fields given the critical information that can be extracted from them for events in real time; one of the most latent issues is that regarding various natural disasters such as earthquakes. Although it is possible to retrieve data from these social networks with embedded geographic information provided by GPS, in many cases this is not possible. An alternative solution is to reconstruct specific locations using probabilistic language models, more specifically those based on Name Entity Recognition (NER), which extracts names from a user’s description about an event occurring in a specific place (e.g., a collapsed building on a specific avenue). In this work, we present a methodology to use twitter as a social sensor system for disasters. The methodology scores NER locations with a kernel density estimation function for different subtopics originating from a natural disaster and that maps them into a geographic space is proposed. The proposed methodology is evaluated with tweets related to the 2017 earthquake in Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0336.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; economic development; equity; socially-equitable development; resilient and sustainable infrastructure; resilient and sustainable communities; disaster management
Online: 19 April 2020 (07:09:12 CEST)
This paper aims to provoke fundamental thinking and action around the value and importance of socially-equitable development to the economic advancement, resilience, and prosperity of communities, as we contend with the 21st Century grand challenge of the changing climate and disasters. As local communities and the global community have experienced an increased frequency, intensity and duration of natural and man-made disasters over the past several decades, opportunities have also grown to identify and reap the benefits of socially-equitable economic development. Reflecting on the COVID-19 pandemic, we discuss the critical importance of socially-equitable economic development to the resilience and sustainability of communities and the infrastructure that supports them. To this end, we: (1) examine what constitutes socially-equitable economic development at different spatial scales of community; (2) explore whether socially-equitable development can occur at different scales of community; (3) explicate the importance of formally considering the inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes for socially-equitable development; (4) explain why the pursuit of equal distribution of the benefits and burdens of development is a necessary but not sufficient endeavor for socially-equitable economic development; (5) analyze the relationships between socially-equitable development, and resilient and sustainable infrastructure and communities; (6) explain why socially-equitable development should be a key component of infrastructure and community resilience strategies in the 21st Century; and, (7) explain why socially-equitable development can ultimately be viewed as a long-term strategy for prosperity.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Spatial Data Infrastructure; Social Determinants of Health; Healthcare; Health; Geospatial Data Analytics; Geocoding; GeoHealth; GIS; Open Standards; Population Health; Disaster Response; Emergency Response
Online: 23 October 2019 (10:27:16 CEST)
Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) support the harvesting, curating, storage, and sharing of data along with providing access to development, analytic, and visualization tools that enable the building of innovative applications to address broad or specific challenges. SDIs can be especially powerful in bringing together data and tools supporting a particular theme – and this paper discusses and demonstrates the value of an SDI focused on Health. Many potential benefits of a Health SDI are proposed, and the case of supporting emergency response efforts is developed in detail. Leveraging a Health SDI, a Health Risk Index was created that provides emergency response personnel (both Emergency Operations Managers and Emergency Medical Responders) key insights into the unique health risks the impacted population faces due to the disaster. In order to establish the Health Risk Index, datasets from multiple national and global sources representing health data and social data that influences health outcomes – typically called social determinants of health – are harvested, merged, and republished to support further efforts at advancing the Health Risk Index. Visualizations of the Health Risk Index at the global, national, and sub-national levels down to the address level are presented along with demonstrations of its use.