COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0556.v1
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:41:43 CET)
Solid waste management is a global issue that affects every individual living in the world directly or indirectly. Failing to manage the waste properly will cause harm on public health, our natural environment, and even our happiness and prosperity. When asked about the reason behind the failure of third time plastic ban in Bhutan, one of the Bhutanese said it’s because of the lack of cooperation from public to support the move of government. Clean Bhutan, a non-governmental organization (NGO) that aims Zero Waste Bhutan by 2030, has collected around 5,900 metric tons of waste from December 2014 to February 2018. This project will create some awareness regarding the management of waste at individual level when people come in contact with the family of the researcher. It also talks abot how waste management and biodiversity conservation can go side by side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0458.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: GTR; Recycling; Reuse; Mechanical Properties; Composites
Online: 22 October 2020 (10:40:22 CEST)
Nowadays, the massive use of tires generates large stocks of waste material which is a serious environmental problem. The usual method used for processing wasted tires is mechanical crushing, in which fiber, steel, and rubber are separated. The aim of this research is the recycling of the obtained rubber, called also GTR (Ground Waste Tires). With this purpose, the paper analyses the mechanical properties of the composites produced by mixing GTR with several industrial polymers. These composites are characterized by the percentage of GTR in the composite and its particle size. These two variables along with seven industrial polymers define a set of composites from which the mechanical properties are analyzed and presented. From the results, it can be drawn that this proposal could be a way to enhance some polymer properties and to contribute in some way to reduce the environmental wasted tires problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0413.v1
Online: 23 April 2020 (11:36:29 CEST)
Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic a shortage of personal protective equipment, including surgical facemasks and Filtering Facepiece Particle Respirators has occurred. SARS-CoV-2 has a 79,5-82% homology to SARS-CoV. The SARS-CoV UVC sensitivity is described in literature. We have performed UVC transmission measurements of surgical facemasks and respirators. In addition, we performed UVC disinfection experiments of S. aureus with surgical facemasks and respirators. Results show that we can achieve an 8-log reduction of S. aureus in the inner layers of FFP1 respirators and the exterior of surgical facemasks. Furthermore, we showed a 7-log reduction of S. aureus in the inner layers of FFP2 respirators. We conclude that UVC disinfection is an effective, safe and scalable method for reuse of surgical facemask and respirators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0229.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: medical knowledge graphs; knowledge graphs reuse; ontology modularization
Online: 17 October 2022 (05:13:53 CEST)
During the creation and integration of a health care system based on medical knowledge graphs, it is necessary to review and select the vocabularies and definitions that best fit the information requirements of the system being developed. This implies the reuse of medical knowledge graphs; however, full importation of knowledge graphs is not a tractable solution in terms of memory requirements. In this paper we present a modularization-based method for knowledge graph reuse. A case study of graph reuse is presented by transforming the original model into a lighter one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0056.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water-reuse; governance capacity; water management; water scarcity
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:36:07 CEST)
The world will experience an estimated 40% freshwater supply shortage by 2030, converting water scarcity into one of the principal global challenges that modern society face. Urban water-reuse is recognized as a promising and necessary measure to alleviate the growing water stress in many regions. The transformation to widespread application of water-reuse systems requires major changes in the way water is governed, and countries such as Spain already find themselves involved in this process. Through the systematic assessment of the city of Sabadell (Spain), we aim to identify the main barriers, opportunities and transferable lessons that can enhance governance capacity to implement systems for non-potable reuse of treated wastewater in cities. It was found that continuous learning, the availability and quality of information and level of knowledge and strong agents of change are the main capacity-building priorities. On the other hand, awareness, multilevel network potential and implementing capacity are already well-established. It is concluded that in order to undertake a widespread application of water-reuse practices, criteria examining water quality according to its use need to be developed, independently of the water’s origin. The development and implementation of such a legislative frame should be based on the experience of local water-reuse practices and continuous evaluation. Finally, the need for public engagement and adequate pricing mechanisms are emphasized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0043.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: adsorption; GBV; heavy metals; secondary pollution; spent adsorbent reuse
Online: 2 December 2022 (08:43:18 CET)
Water contamination has intensified over the year as the world's population and industrial activities have grown. Heavy metals (HMs) are amongst the environmental contaminants commonly found in water and wastewater. These include Lead, Manganese, Chromium, Mercury, etc. Various techniques have been used to remediate this environmental challenge and adsorption has proven to be more effective because it is simple to use, excellent efficiency, low cost, possibility to operate in several experimental conditions. Regrettably, this method yields waste materials, which represents a scaling restriction. Furthermore, after the HM has been removed and loaded onto the adsorbent, there is still a question of the fate of the metal-loaded adsorbent. Most of the time these metal loaded adsorbents are discarded in the environment and constitute a secondary pollution. New applications for heavy metals laden have been investigated. This review article presents the various applications that had been investigated to reuse the loaded metal adsorbent. A case study on developing tools for combatting gender-based violence (GBV) has also been discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0349.v1
Online: 25 July 2022 (05:26:08 CEST)
To assess the efficacy of washing cloth masks, we simulated SARS-CoV-2 contamination in tricoline fabric and tested decontaminants to reduce viral particles. Viral suspensions using two variants (B.1.1.28 and P.1) were inoculated in these fabrics, and the inactivation kinetics were evaluated after washing with various household disinfection products (Soap powder, Lysoform®, Hypochlorite sodium and 70% Alcohol), rinse numbers, and exposure times. Afterward, the fabrics were washed in sterile water, viral RNA extracted and amplified using RT-qPCR. Finally, viral replication in cell cultures was examined. Our findings show that all biocidal treatments successfully disinfected the tissue tested. Some products showed less reduction in viral loads, Soap powder (1.60 x 104, 1.04 x 103), Soap powder and Lysoform® (1.60 x 104, 1.04 x 103) and Alcohol 70% (1.02 x 103, 5.91 x 101) respectively. However, when sodium hypochlorite was used, this reduction was significantly increased (viral inactivation in 100% of the washes). After the first wash, the reduction of viral particles was greater for the P.1 variant than for the B.1.1.28 variant (W = 51759, p 0.05). In conclusion the sodium hypochlorite role on cloth masks disinfection may also have implications for future health emergencies as well as recommended by WHO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: current-reuse; injection-locked frequency divider; radar sensor; wideband
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:33:22 CET)
An 18.8–33.9-GHz, 2.26-mW current-reuse (CR) injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for radar sensor applications is presented in this paper. A fourth-order resonator is designed using a transformer with a distributed inductor for wideband operating of the ILFD. The CR core is employed to reduce the power consumption compared to conventional cross-coupled pair ILFDs. The targeted input center frequency is 24 GHz for radar application. The self-oscillated frequency of the proposed CR-ILFD is 14.08 GHz. The input frequency locking range is from 18.8 to 33.8 GHz (57%) at an injection power of 0 dBm without a capacitor bank or varactors. The proposed CR-ILFD consumes 2.26 mW of power from a 1-V supply voltage. The entire die size is 0.75 mm ´ 0.45 mm. This CR-ILFD is implemented in a 65-nm CMOS technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reuse; soil; X-ray techniques; binder; cement; durability; microstructure
Online: 23 March 2020 (00:23:23 CET)
Marine clay deposits are commonly found worldwide. Considering the cost of dumping and the related environmental concerns, an alternative solution involving the reuse of soils that have poor conditions is crucial. In this research, the authors examined the durability of marine deposited clays and compiled a corresponding database. The use of slag alone as a binder, at any percentage, increased the accumulated mass loss (ALM) up to 2%. However, the use of lime as the third binder seemed to accelerate the chemical reactions associated with the hydration of clay and cementitious material and to enhance the chemical stability, i.e., samples that included both lime and slag experienced the same ALM as samples treated with cement only. Scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the durability improvements of these clays. The proposed unconfined compressive strength and accumulated mass loss relationship yielded practical approximation for the fine- and coarse-grained soils blended with up to three binders until 60 days of curing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0128.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: circular economy; education; reuse; sustainability; self-produced materials; waste
Online: 6 November 2018 (04:40:59 CET)
The article presents an experience based on the design of DIY materials (Do-It-Yourself) as a phenomenon that contributes to the circular economy, making use of household waste and organic binders. The development context is the southernmost Industrial Design School in Latin America, where students are educated through the transfer of knowledge emphasized on the experimentation and territory assessment. Methodology corresponds to the traditional industrial design process, inserting DIY design of materials in the strategic stage. Objective and subjective variables are determined applied in the definition of new materials, being able to determine a range of proposals based on household waste. Citrus × Sinensis, Peperomia caperata (Piperaceae), Radiata pine veneers, among them, which are conceived by students to be self-produced at the user level. The results are materials elaborated based on household waste, exemplified with three types based on organic husks. Beyond findings associated to technique, compatibilities between residual materials and results expressed in materials and catalogs, it is possible to educate future designers on the innovative theme, with the potential to improve life quality of people and their environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: life cycle assessment; circular economy; material efficiency; recycling; reuse
Online: 18 December 2017 (06:36:56 CET)
Material efficiency is a key element of new thinking to address the challenges of reducing impacts on the environment and of resource scarcity, whilst at the same time meeting service and functionality demands on materials. Directly related to material efficiency is the concept of the Circular Economy, which is based on the principle of optimising the utility embodied in materials and products through the life cycle. Whilst steel, as a result of high recycling rates, is one of the most ‘circular’ of all manufactured materials, significant opportunities for greater material efficiency exist, which are yet to be widely implemented. In the field of Life Cycle Management, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is commonly used to assess the environmental benefits of recovering and recycling materials through the manufacturing supply chain and at end-of-life. As well as containing information to calculate environmental impacts, LCA models also provide the flows of materials through the product life cycle and can also be used to quantify material efficiency and the circularity of a product system. Using an example taken from renewable energy generation, this paper explores the correlation between product circularity and the environmental case for strategies designed to improve material efficiency. An LCA-based methodology for accounting for the recovery and re-use of materials from the supply chain, and at end-of-life, is used as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint benefits of five material efficiency scenarios. Resulting carbon footprints were then compared with a number of proposed material circularity indicators. Two conclusions from this exercise were that i) LCA methodologies based around end-of-life approaches are well placed for quantifying the environmental benefits of material efficiency and circular economy strategies and ii) when applying indicators relating to the circularity of materials these should also be supported by LCA studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0320.v4
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: data; reproducibility; FAIR; data reuse; public data; big data; analysis
Online: 2 November 2022 (02:55:49 CET)
With an increasing amount of biological data available publicly, there is a need for a guide on how to successfully download and use this data. The Ten simple rules for using public biological data are: 1) use public data purposefully in your research, 2) evaluate data for your use case, 3) check data reuse requirements and embargoes, 4) be aware of ethics for data reuse, 5) plan for data storage and compute requirements, 6) know what you are downloading, 7) download programmatically and verify integrity, 8) properly cite data, 9) make reprocessed data and models Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) and share, and 10) make pipelines and code FAIR and share. These rules are intended as a guide for researchers wanting to make use of available data and to increase data reuse and reproducibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Circular Economy; Built Environment; Reuse; Upcycling; Industrial Waste; Urban Waste
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:14:42 CET)
The growing concern about climate change and the recognition of the planet’s limits led society to look for alternatives that promote the balance between the natural and the built environment. The circular economy emerges as an alternative to the linear economic model, inspired by natural metabolisms, by circulating resources in continuous loops, where their intrinsic value is maintained and improved. This research proposes a closed-loop strategy in the built environment by studying innovative constructive solutions that aim to find use, value, and inspiration in what is considered waste. A literature review is conducted on the circular design strategies, re-use and recycle typologies, and waste transformation processes. Then, the development of a methodology for qualitative evaluation and selection of re-used and upcycled construction materials from post-consumer waste and by-products is presented and then applied to thirty-five cases of constructive solutions from plastic, wood, paper, steel, aluminium, and agricultural waste. The research reports that the developed framework is adequate. The analysed alternative materials have good environmental performance and can be used as building materials despite their functional limitations, reflecting the enormous potential of waste as a resource for the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0284.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: waste; ofmsw; inertization; valorization; urea formaldehyde resin; valorized products reuse
Online: 25 September 2019 (10:29:31 CEST)
This work is aimed at the development of innovative, easy and cheap methods for the stabilization, inertization and valorisation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). For the first time, two original processes for transforming the organic waste into an inert, odorless and sanitized material were here proposed. The first one, called dual step, starts with grinding of the OFMSW, by means of an industrial shredder. After being finely ground, the organic waste was exposed to a sterilization process by means of UV/ozone radiations or thermal treatment (stabilization phase) in order to obtain a complete removal of the OFMSW’s bacterial activity. By means of several microbiological analyses, the best sterilization method was chosen. The incorporation in a thermosetting matrix was, then, carried out through mixing the sterilized and finely ground organic waste into a water soluble urea formaldehyde (UF) based resin, with a formaldehyde content less than 1% wt, followed by a thermal treatment for UF-resin crosslinking (inertization phase). An alternative cheaper and easier process, called one step, was also proposed and investigated, by combining the sterilization with the curing thermal process (at higher temperature) of the thermosetting matrix. The preliminary experimental results reported in this paper suggest that both the proposed methods could be considered suitable for the production of high valorized innovative OFMSW-derived panels or bricks, that could find application in several fields, such as building or constructions materials. Finally a brief description of the prototype machinery is reported properly designed for implementing OFMSW stabilization and valorisation processes developed in this research work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: residential house; deconstruction; resource harvesting; whole house reuse; circular economy
Online: 3 September 2018 (13:49:34 CEST)
This study analyses the case study of a deconstruction project called the ‘Whole House Reuse’ (WHR) which aimed, firstly, to harvest materials from a residential house, secondly, to produce new products using the recovered materials, and thirdly, to organize exhibition for the local public to promote awareness on resource conservation and sustainable deconstruction practices. The study applies characterization of recovered materials through deconstruction. In addition to the material recovery, the study assesses the embodied energy saving and greenhouse gas emission abatement of the deconstruction project. Around twelve tonnes of various construction materials were harvested through a systematic deconstruction approach, most which would otherwise be disposed to landfill in the traditional demolition approach. The study estimates that the recovered materials could potentially save around 502,158MJ of embodied energy and prevent carbon emission of around 27,029kg (CO2e). Deconstruction could eventually contribute to New Zealand’s national emission reduction targets. In addition, the project successfully engages local communities and designers to produce 400 new products using the recovered materials and exhibited to the local people. The study concludes that there is a huge prospect in regard to resource recovery, emission reduction, employment and small business opportunities using deconstruction of the old house. The socio-cultural importance of the WHR project is definitely immense; however, the greater benefits of such projects are often ignored and remain unreported to wider audiences as most of the external and environmental costs have not been considered in the traditional linear economy. It is acknowledged that under a favourable market condition and with appropriate support from local communities and authorities, deconstruction could contribute significantly to resource conservation and environmental protection despite its requirement of labour intensive efforts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0161.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway; trains; rolling stocks; recycling; reuse; life cycle; environmental benefit
Online: 23 December 2016 (10:45:48 CET)
This review paper highlights feasible and practicable approaches for managing end-of-life rolling stocks. It aims to promote and enable sustainable procurement policy for rolling stocks. Firstly, it demonstrates that modern rolling stocks can potentially gain the environmental benefits since almost all of their materials used in the rolling stock manufacturing can be recycled and reused. In this study, brief definition and concept of various train types are introduced and discussed, accompanied by some demonstrative illustrations. Then, component analyses, recovery rates and percent proportion of each material in various rolling stock assemblies have been evaluated. The estimation of material quantities that can potentially be recycled has been carried out using industry data sources. The suitable management procedures for end-of-life rail vehicles are then discussed, together with the life cycle of the key materials in which the recyclability criteria take into account the environmental risks and the best and safest approaches to deal with them. The aim of this study is to increase the awareness of the public, train manufacturers and rail industries on the benefits to the environments from rolling stock recycling, which could result in sustainable society and urban livings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0286.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: intrusion detection; vulnerability exploit; machine learning; code-reuse attack; malware detection
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:10:37 CEST)
Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth of code-reuse attacks in advance persistent threats and cyberspace crimes. Carefully crafted code-reuse exploits circumvent modern protection mechanisms and hijack the execution flow of a program to perform expected functionalities by chaining together existing codes. The sophistication and intrication of code-reuse exploits hinder the scrutinization and dissection on them. Although the previous literature has introduced some feasible approaches, effectiveness and reliability in practical applications remain severe challenges. To address this issue, we propose Horus, a data-driven framework for effective and reliable detection on code-reuse exploits. In order to raise the effectiveness against underlying noises, we comprehensively leverage the strengths of time-series and frequency-domain analysis, and propose a learning-based detector that synthesizes the contemporary twofold features. Then we employ a lightweight interpreter to speculatively and tentatively translate the suspicious bytes to open the black box and enhance the reliability and interpretability. Additionally, a functionality-preserving data augmentation is adopted to increase the diversity of limited training data and raise the generality for real-world deployment. Comparative experiments and ablation studies are conducted on a dataset composed of real-world instances to verify and prove the prevalence of Horus. The experimental results illustrate that Horus outperform existing methods on the identification of code-reuse exploits from data stream with an acceptable overhead. Horus does not rely on any dynamic executions and can be easily integrated into existing defense systems. Moreover, Horus is able to provide tentative interpretations about attack semantics irrespective of target program, which further improve system's effectiveness and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0369.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: carbamazepine; adsorption; clay minerals; organoclays; advanced oxidation processes; photocatalysis; water reuse
Online: 27 May 2022 (04:42:22 CEST)
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most common emerging contaminants released to the aquatic environment through domestic and pharmaceutical wastewater. Due to its high persistence through conventional degradation treatments, is considered a typical indicator for anthropogenic activities. This study tested the removal of CBZ through two different clay-based purification techniques: adsorption of relatively large concentrations (20-500 μmol L-1) and photocatalysis of lower concentrations (<20 μmol L-1). The sorption mechanism was examined by FTIR measurements, exchangeable cations released, and colloidal charge of the adsorbing clay materials. Photocatalysis was performed in batch experiments under various conditions. Despite the neutral charge of carbamazepine, the highest adsorption was observed on negatively charged montmorillonite-based clays. Desorption tests indicate that adsorbed CBZ is not released by washing. The adsorption/desorption processes were confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis of the clay-CBZ particles. A combination of synthetic montmorillonite or hectorite with low H2O2 concentrations under UVC irradiation exhibits efficient homo-heterogeneous photodegradation at μM CBZ levels. The two techniques presented in this study suggest solutions for both industrial and municipal wastewater, possibly enabling water reuse.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Facemask; community mask; medical mask; recycling; reuse; carbon footprint; COVID-19
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:04:46 CEST)
IntroductionThe use of protective masks, especially medical masks, increased dramatically during the COVID-19 crisis. Medical masks are made of synthetic materials, mainly polypropylene, and a majority of them are produced in China and imported to the European market. The urgency of the need has so far prevailed over environmental considerations.ObjectiveAssess the environmental impact of different strategies for the use of facemaskMethod Different strategies for the use of medical and community masks are being investigated for their environmental impact in this study. 8 scenarios, differentiating the typologies of masks and the modes of reuse are compared using several environmental impact indicators, mainly the Global Warming Potential (GWP100), and the plastic leakage (PL). This study attempts to provide clear recommendations that consider both the environmental impact and the protective effectiveness of face masks used in the community.Results The environmental impact of single-use masks is the most unfavorable, with a GWP of 0.4 -1.3 kgCO2 eq., depending on the transport scenario, and a PL of 1.8 g, for a one month protection against COVID-19. The use of home-made cotton masks and prolonged use of medical masks through wait-and-reuse are the scenarios with the lowest impact.ConclusionThe use of medical masks with a wait and reuse strategy seems to be the most appropriate when considering both environmental impact and effectiveness. Our results also highlight the need to develop procedures and the legal/operational framework to extend the use of protective equipment during a pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0709.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wastewater reuse; irrigation; sustainability; pond-in-pond; pond configuration; 2-D modeling
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:28:38 CEST)
Water reuse for irrigation is increasingly recognized as an essential and economical strategy in areas with water scarcity. A simple, low-cost, low-maintenance, and highly efficient Pond-In-Pond (PIP) treatment system can be used for wastewater reuse. PIP is a treatment technology in which two types of ponds -- anaerobic and aerobic -- are combined into a single pond and consist of a deeper inner section entirely submerged within the outer pond. Previous studies on PIPs and PIP-like systems have reinforced the potential for reuse through promising performance results with BOD removal over 80% and a reduction in land area requirements by approximately 40%. Yet, no prior efforts have been made to understand the performance mechanism of such systems. This study makes use of two, 2-D modeling tools in developing a fundamental understanding of PIP flow dynamics and the expected performance. The modeling results showed that the PIP configuration offers improved flow diversion along with reduced flow velocity. Additionally, the PIP retained approximately 17% more (p<0.05) particles than the traditional pond with most of the particles concentrated within the inner pond. Lower velocity and the higher solids retention in the PIP thus allowed for better treatment performance compared to traditional ponds. The findings from this study can be used as preliminary data for future in-depth investigations of the PIP system leading toward effective and optimal designs. This will help address the major societal concern of water scarcity with low-cost and effective wastewater treatment.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: data science; reuse; sequencing data; genomics; bioinformatics; databases; computational biology; open science
Online: 16 July 2020 (12:39:43 CEST)
The 'big data revolution' has enabled novel types of analyses in the life sciences, facilitated by public sharing and reuse of datasets. Here, we review the prodigious potential of reusing publicly available datasets and the challenges, limitations and risks associated with it. Possible solutions to issues and research integrity considerations are also discussed. Due to the prominence, abundance and wide distribution of sequencing data, we focus on the reuse of publicly available sequence datasets. We define ‘successful reuse’ as the use of previously published data to enable novel scientific findings and use selected examples of such reuse from different disciplines to illustrate the enormous potential of the practice, while acknowledging their respective limitations and risks. A checklist to determine the reuse value and potential of a particular dataset is also provided. The open discussion of data reuse and the establishment of the practice as a norm has the potential to benefit all stakeholders in the life sciences.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: drain water treatment; Belbeis drain; compact units; reuse; sand filter; packing material
Online: 7 March 2020 (02:50:05 CET)
In an attempt to improve the quality of the agricultural drain in Egypt for its reuse again in the irrigation, low cost solution such as sand filter along with/ without other filtration media have been used in this research, As a result of that, pilot plant of sand filter mixed with other filtration media was tested for its ability to improve the sand performance in removing the suspended solids and organic matters from agricultural drain water of the Belbeis drain (in Sharkia governorate in Egypt). Only sand compared with sand with sponge and sand with Liyan Nanfang activated carbon (L.N.A.C) have been tested to find the optimum mixing sand/ medium ratio &optimum infiltration rate. The work has been done on four runs. It was found that sand mixed with sponge gave the best removal efficiency compared to that of the sand only and the sand mixed with L.N.A.C. The results presented that the concentration of CODt, CODsol and TSS was reduced from 125, 47 and 162 mg/l to 44, 34 and 28 mg/l respectively at optimum infiltration rate of 2 m3/m2/d for sand mixed with sponge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Waste Management, Sustainable Technology, Recycling, Reuse, Waste to wealth
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:44:57 CEST)
The practice of collecting, treating and management of solid waste prior to disposal has become a necessity in developing and modern societies. Over the years, it is known that most wastes that are disposed have a second hand value. However, the construction cost for conventional Material Recovery Facility(s) (MRFs) has been a major barrier for implementation. These technologies require considerable technical expertise, which is often not available in developing nations to successfully operate the MRFs. Covenant University; a private mission institution through her waste to wealth scheme is focused on managing and processing used materials to reusable products. These include Pet bottles, Paper wastes, Food wastes from cafeteria, plastic food packs, nylon, tin cans and others. Specific areas chosen for the Survey include the residential areas for staff and students and the two cafeterias. The waste generated was characterized based on the waste stream so as to quantify the amount of recyclable waste generated and most occurring. The survey involved the use of structured questionnaires, on-site observations and measurements. The study reveals an average amount of recyclable waste generated per day in the institution as 13.46% pet bottles, 4.03% paper, 55.56% food waste, 12.64% plastic, 9.63% nylon and 4.68% tin cans. The study established that adequate waste characterization is a requirement for effective integrated solid waste management which would boost resource recovery, reuse and recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0036.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Cultural Heritage; Adaptive Reuse; Urban Regeneration; Community-Based Approach; Decision-Making Process, Intrinsic Value
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:36:31 CET)
The international debate on the adaptive re-use of cultural heritage sites following the Sustainable Development Goals becomes more central than ever in the implementation of circular economy models for urban policies. The new values that characterise the cultural assets, considered as the result of a collaborative process, can enhance both the manufactured capital and the human capital, and to carry out the system of relationships that bind them. At the same time, the values of historical-artistic assets and produced by community-based regeneration processes are particularly relevant when they characterise abandoned commons and cult buildings, to which communities attribute an identity and symbolic value. Starting from the definition of the concept of Complex Social Value, we propose a methodological process that combines approaches and techniques typical of deliberative evaluations and collaborative decision-making processes. The aim is to identify the complex value chains generated by adaptive re-use, in which intrinsic values can play a driving role in the regeneration strategies of discarded cultural heritage. The experimentation, tested with the project “San Sebastiano del Monte dei Morti Living Lab” (SSMOLL), activates a creative and cultural Living Lab in the former church of “Morticelli”, in the historic centre of Salerno, in southern Italy. The re-use project is part of a more comprehensive process of social innovation and culture-led urban regeneration triggered in Salerno starting from SSMOLL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0287.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: membrane bio-reactor (mbr); ozone oxidation; paper and papermill; fluorescent whitening agents; water reuse
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:34:11 CEST)
In this study, effluent water was produced through Submerged Membrane Bio-Reactor (SMBR) process, which is a simple system and decomposes organic matter contained in wastewater with biological treatment process and performs solid-liquid separation, Especially, ozone oxidation treatment process is applied to effluent water containing fluorescent whitening agent, which is a trace pollutant which is not removed by biological treatment, and influences the quality of reused water. The concentration of COD in the SMBR was 449.3 mg/ℓ-COD, and the concentration of permeate water was 100.3 mg/ℓ-COD. The removal efficiency was about 70.1%. The amount of ozone re- quired for the removal of the fluorescent whitening agent in the permeated water in SMBR was 6.67 g-O3/min, and the amount of ozone required to remove COD relative to the permeate water was calculated to remove 0.997 mg-COD for 1 mg of O3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0157.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Viminacium; natural brick; Roman mortar; historical landscape; the Danube; Roman construction; building material; recycling; reuse; sustainability
Online: 9 January 2023 (09:12:48 CET)
During the MoDeCo2000 scientific and research project on mortars used in the territory of the Roman Danube Limes in Serbia, the biggest challenge was the quest for the provenance of used raw materials. The area where the largest city in the province of Moesia Superior developed, with millennial continuity of land use and settlement, was selected as a case study for deeper research. The material and immaterial values of Roman Viminacium have survived in the later life of the landscape, through the preserved building remains and artifacts, secondary use of building materials, but also toponyms, customs, and stories. Recycling of materials is commonly recognised in the modern age as the industrial processing of existing products in order to obtain raw materials and later prepare new products, representing one of the basic elements of sustainability. However, people throughout history have always used what they had at hand and the building remains were reused, but also recycled for new constructions. In this study we follow the presence of the specific material we call natural brick in the historical Viminacium landscape, focusing on Roman construction and specifically its potential use in lime mortars, connecting humanistic and natural sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Collaborative consumption; Data sharing and reuse; Data recycling; Digital assets; United nations SDGs; Sustainability; Sustainable Development; Sustainable scholarship
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:15:23 CEST)
In order to meet the needs of an increasingly complex research landscape, researchers engage in “collaborative prosumption” through open data sharing and reuse. Although significant gains have been achieved in this regards because of growing requirements from funding agencies, governments and journals, the question of how reuse of openly available data for new research contribute to sustainability is yet to be appropriately addressed in the literature. Therefore, relying on a three stage stratified clustered random sampling of the Journal of Applied Econometrics data archive (JAEDA), the present research provides a case study of the value of research data recycling for sustainable research and economic development. More specifically our analysis show that reformatting from wide to long format, openly shared equity price index data on eleven European countries’ extracted from JAEDA, and augmented with country level geospatial Meta data, provides a new basis for interesting descriptive analytics and spatio-temporal econometric modeling and inference. Given the ever-increasing volume of openly available research data, our study provides a first-hand insight on open data reuse, which should benefit all stakeholders in the research community, as they seek sustainable solutions for scientific productivity and progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0068.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Source separation system; Greywater treatment; Water reuse; Hydroponic system; Green wall; Heavy metals bioaccumulation; QMRA; Health risk assessment
Online: 8 May 2017 (17:39:16 CEST)
The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today and the expansion of water reuse have been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce production as a part of a green wall structure and to evaluate the health risk associated with the production and consumption of lettuce through quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and chemical health risk assessment. The study was conducted based on the unique configuration of source separation system; on-site greywater treatment system; green wall structure as a polishing step; and hydroponic lettuce production in the green wall structure. The final effluent from the system was used to grow three lettuce varieties by adding urine as a nutrient solution. Both water samples and plant biomass were collected and tested for E. coli and heavy metals contamination. The system has gained a cumulative 5.1 log10 reduction of E. coli in the final effluent and no E. coli found in the plant biomass. QMRA results indicated that the system attained the health-based targets, 10–6 DALYs per person per year. Similarly, health risk index (HRI) and targeted hazard quotient (THQ) results did not exceed the permissible level, thus the chemical health risk concern was insignificant.