Preprint Article Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Treated Greywater Reuse for Hydroponic Lettuce Production in a Green Wall System – Quantitative Health Risk Assessment

Version 1 : Received: 7 May 2017 / Approved: 8 May 2017 / Online: 8 May 2017 (17:39:16 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Eregno, F.E.; Moges, M.E.; Heistad, A. Treated Greywater Reuse for Hydroponic Lettuce Production in a Green Wall System: Quantitative Health Risk Assessment. Water 2017, 9, 454. Eregno, F.E.; Moges, M.E.; Heistad, A. Treated Greywater Reuse for Hydroponic Lettuce Production in a Green Wall System: Quantitative Health Risk Assessment. Water 2017, 9, 454.

Journal reference: Water 2017, 9, 454
DOI: 10.3390/w9070454

Abstract

The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today and the expansion of water reuse have been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce production as a part of a green wall structure and to evaluate the health risk associated with the production and consumption of lettuce through quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and chemical health risk assessment. The study was conducted based on the unique configuration of source separation system; on-site greywater treatment system; green wall structure as a polishing step; and hydroponic lettuce production in the green wall structure. The final effluent from the system was used to grow three lettuce varieties by adding urine as a nutrient solution. Both water samples and plant biomass were collected and tested for E. coli and heavy metals contamination. The system has gained a cumulative 5.1 log10 reduction of E. coli in the final effluent and no E. coli found in the plant biomass. QMRA results indicated that the system attained the health-based targets, 10–6 DALYs per person per year. Similarly, health risk index (HRI) and targeted hazard quotient (THQ) results did not exceed the permissible level, thus the chemical health risk concern was insignificant.

Subject Areas

Source separation system; Greywater treatment; Water reuse; Hydroponic system; Green wall; Heavy metals bioaccumulation; QMRA; Health risk assessment

Readers' Comments and Ratings (0)

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Rate this article
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0
Leave a public comment

×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.