DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0269.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: landslide; landslide inventory; chittagong hilly areas; attributes of landslides
Online: 24 November 2019 (04:57:43 CET)
Abstract: Landslide is a frequent natural hazard in Chittagong Hilly Areas (CHA), Bangladesh, which causes the loss of lives and damage to the economy. Despite that, an official landslide inventory is still lacking in this area. In this paper, we present a landslide inventory of this area prepared using the visual interpretation of Google Earth images (Google Earth Mapping), field mapping, and literature search. We mapped 730 landslides that occurred from 2001 to 2017. Different landslide attributes, including type, size, distribution, state, water content, future risk, and causes, are presented in the dataset. In this area, slide and flow were the two dominant types of landslides. Among five districts (Bandarban, Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Khagrachari and Rangamati), most (54.93%) of the landslides occurred in Chittagong and Rangamati districts. About 45.09% of the landslides were small (<100 m2) in size while the maximum size of the detected landslides was 85201.6 m2. This dataset will help to understand the characteristics of landslides in CHA and provide useful guidance for policy implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0224.v1
Online: 14 June 2018 (08:44:11 CEST)
Landslide is a sliding movement of rock mass, debris and soil along the slope under the action of gravity. Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) is an established method for the investigation and monitoring of landslide moments. This study focuses on monitoring the long-temporal displacement of mountainous terrain in Danba County, Sichuan Province via SBAS technique, based on 31 scenes of L-band ALOS/PALSAR data from Feb. 2007 to Oct. 2010.The results show that the largest velocity rates in LOS direction are ±120 mm/yr and maximum accumulated displacement is up to -300, which indicates fast movement of the mountainous terrain during the observation time. These results get good consistency against the results of previous study. This demonstrates the strong potential of SBAS technique for monitoring the landslides geohazard.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0027.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: landslide; rockfall; risk; stochastic; uncertainty; transportation corridors
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:17:48 CET)
Based on a previous risk calculation study along a road corridor, risk is recalculated using stochastic simulation by introducing variability for most of the parameters in the risk equation. This leads to an exceedance curve comparable to that of catastrophe models. This approach introduces uncertainty into the risk calculation in a simple way, which can be used for poorly documented cases to fulfil lack of data. This approach seems to tend to minimize risk or to question risk calculations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0089.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Deep Neural Network; Extreme Gradient Boosting; Random Forest; Landslide Susceptibility
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:13:02 CEST)
Landslides impact on human activities and socio-economic development especially in mountainous areas. This study focuses on the comparison of the prediction capability of advanced machine learning techniques for rainfall-induced shallow landslide susceptibility of Deokjeokri catchment and Karisanri catchment in South Korea. The influencing factors for landslides i.e. topographic, hydrologic, soil, forest, and geologic factors are prepared from various sources based on availability and a multicollinearity test is also performed to select relevant causative factors. The landslide inventory maps of both catchments are obtained from historical information, aerial photographs and performing field survey. In this study, Deokjeokri catchment is considered as a training area and Karisanri catchment as a testing area. The landslide inventories content 748 landslide points in training and 219 points in testing areas. Three landslide susceptibility maps using machine learning models i.e. Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and Deep Neural Network (DNN) are prepared and compared. The outcomes of the analyses are validated using the landslide inventory data. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) method is used to verify the results of the models. The results of this study show that the training accuracy of RF is 0.757 and the testing accuracy is 0.74. Similarly, training accuracy of XGBoost is 0.756 and testing accuracy is 0.703. The prediction of DNN revealed acceptable agreement between susceptibility map and the existing landslides with training and testing accuracy of 0.855 and 0.802, respectively. The results showed that, the DNN model achieved lower prediction error and higher accuracy results than other models for shallow landslide modeling in the study area
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0213.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: earthquake multi-hazard and risk; coseismic landslide; outcrop study; liquefaction
Online: 18 December 2018 (04:37:30 CET)
Yogyakarta City is one of the big city which is located in Java Island, Indonesia. Yogyakarta City, including study area (Pleret Sub District), are very prone to earthquake hazards, because close to several active earthquake sources. For example, Sunda Megathrust which often generates a big earthquake which can affect the study area. The Sunda Megathrust extends from north to south and west to east along the Sumatra and Java Islands. Furthermore, an active normal fault called as Opak Fault pass through right in the middle of Study area and divides the study area into east and west zone. Recently, after the devastating earthquake in 2006, the population of the study area increases significantly. As a result, the housing demand is also increasing. However, due to the absence of earthquake building code in the study area, locals tend to build improper new houses. Furthermore, in some part of the mountainous area in the study area, there are some building found in unstable slopes area. Due to this condition, the multi-hazard and risk study needs to be done in Pleret. The increasing of population and improper houses in Pleret Sub-District can lead to amplify the impact. Thus, the main objective of this study is to assess the multi-hazards and risk of earthquake and other related secondary hazards such as ground amplification, liquefaction, and coseismic landslide. The method mainly utilised the geographic information system, remote sensing and was fit up by the outcrop study. The results show that the middle part of the study area has a complex geological structure. It was indicated by a lot of unchartered faults was found in the outcrops. Furthermore, the relatively prone areas to earthquake can be determined. In term of the coseismic landslide, the prone area to the coseismic landslide is located in the east part of the study area in the middle slope of Baturagung Escarpment. The highly potential area of liquefaction is dominated in the central part of the study area. In term of building collapsed probability, the result shows that the safest house based on statistical analysis is the residential house with the building attribute of wood structure, roof cast material, distance more than 15 km from the earthquake source, and located above the Nglanggran Formation. Finally, the multi-hazard and risk analysis show that the middle part of the study area is more vulnerable than the other part of Pleret Sub-District.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0035.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: landslide; classifier ensemble; instance based learning; Rotation Forest; GIS; Vietnam
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:25:12 CEST)
This study proposes a novel hybrid machine learning approach for modeling of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. The proposed approach is a combination of an instance-based learning algorithm (k-NN) and Rotation Forest (RF), state of the art machine techniques that have seldom explored for landslide modeling. The Lang Son city area (Vietnam) is selected as a case study. For this purpose, a spatial database for the study area was constructed, and then, was used to build and evaluate the hybrid model. Performance of the model was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), area under the ROC curve (AUC), success rate and prediction rate, and several statistical evaluation metrics. The results showed that the model has high performance with both the training data (AUC = 0.948) and the validation data (AUC = 0.848). The results were compared with those obtained from soft computing techniques i.e. Random Forest, J48 Decision Trees, and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks. Overall, the performance of the proposed model is better than those obtained from the above methods. Therefore, the proposed model is a promising tool for landslide modeling. The research result can be highly useful for land use planning and management in landslide prone areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0600.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: loess slope; shallow landslide; Slice method; Moore Coulomb theory; slope stability coefficient
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:04:08 CET)
The load on the top of a slope is an important cause of slope failure, and it is of great significance to study the relationship between the load and the stability of the slope. This paper uses elastic theory and Moore Coulomb's theory as transformation conditions to obtain the slope stability coefficient expression under slope top load based on the Swedish slice method. In view of the actual engineering, the corresponding slope model structure was established, and 5 sliding surfaces were set with the crack on the top of the slope as the shear outlet. According to the slope stability coefficient expression, the stability coefficient of the set sliding surface is solved. The result shows that the slope is unstable under the load. The judgment result is consistent with the GEO-STUDIO check calculation result. This method can provide reference for theory and engineering practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0083.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: landslide scars; canyon; fault escarpments; contourite deposits; digital elevation model; continental slope
Online: 5 November 2018 (04:06:37 CET)
The acquisition of high resolution morpho-bathymetric data on the Calabro Tyrrhenian continental margin (Southern Italy) enabled us to identify several mass-wasting processes, including shallow gullies, shelf-indenting canyons and landslides. In particular, we focus our attention on submarine landslides occurring from the coast down to -1700 m, with mobilized volumes ranging from some hundreds up to tens of millions of cubic meters. These landslides also show a large variability of geomorphic features in the headwall, translational and toe domain. Based on their morphology and distribution, four main classes of coastal/submarine landslides have been recognized: a) rocky coastal/shallow-water failures characterized by large hummocky deposits offshore; b) large-size and isolated scars with associated landslide deposits, mostly occurring on open slope environment and lower part of tectonically-controlled escarpments; c) a linear array of coalescent and nested landslide scars occurring in the upper part of tectonically-controlled escarpments and canyon flanks; d) a cauliflower array of small and coalescent scars occurring in canyon headwall. The latter two classes of landslides are also characterized by a marked retrogressive evolution and their landslide deposits are generally not recognizable on the morpho-bathymetric data. By integrating the morpho-bathymetric dataset with the results of previous studies, we also discuss the main factors controlling the variability in size and morphology of these submarine landslides to provide insights on their failure and post-failure behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: finite element method; earthquake induced landslide; static and dynamic analysis; deformation based failure
Online: 22 August 2019 (10:45:22 CEST)
Globally 30% of landslides occur in the northeastern part of India . One of the major earthquake events in Sikkim, India occurred on 18th September 2011 (Mw 6.9) led to over 300 landslides and 122 human deaths . These landslides not only controlled by natural disasters but initiated due to human activities. The present study considered Lungchok landslide occurred in south district of Sikkim due to 2011 seismic event. The study focused on the failure mechanism of the landslide based on finite element analysis by adopting eight different cases. The deformation characteristic was investigated for dry and saturated slope conditions under static and dynamic behavior considering vehicle loads using GeoStudio software. The FEM analysis has been carried out using load deformation and linear elastic. The analysis shows that the failure of the slope was not sudden due to the 2011 earthquake event, but progressive failure was observed with time and construction activity. The paper demonstrates that, an increase in infrastructure development including construction by hill cutting increased the initiation of landslide with soil erosion. The cracks developed after 2011 earthquake event led to further deformations during future disasters required effective stabilization measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0337.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: landslide susceptibility; stacking ensemble; machine learning; random forest; gradient boosting decision tree; extreme gradient boosting
Online: 25 March 2022 (03:43:32 CET)
The current study aims to apply and compare the performance of six machine learning algorithms, including three basic classifiers: random forest (RF), gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT), and extreme gradient boosting (XGB), as well as their hybrid classifiers, using the logistic regression (LR) method (RF+LR, GBDT+LR, and XGB+LR), in order to map the landslide susceptibility of Zhangjiajie City, Hunan Province, China. First, a landslide inventory map was created with 206 historical landslide points and 412 non-landslide points, which was randomly divided into two datasets for model training (80%) and model testing (20%). Second, 15 landslide conditioning factors (i.e., altitude, slope, aspect, plane curvature, profile curvature, relief, roughness, rainfall, topographic wetness index (TWI), normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI), distance to roads, distance to rivers, land use/land cover (LULC), soil texture, and lithology) were initially selected to establish a landslide factor database. Thereafter, the multicollinearity test and information gain ratio (IGR) technique were applied to rank the importance of the factors. Subsequently, we used a series of metrics (e.g., accuracy, precision, recall, f-measure, area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC), kappa index, mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE)) to evaluate the accuracy and performance of the six models. Based on the AUC values derived from the models, the GBDT+LR model with the highest AUC value (0.8168) was identified as the most efficient model for mapping landslide susceptibility, followed by the XGB+LR, XGB, RF+LR, GBDT, and RF models, which achieved AUC values of 0.8124, 0.8118, 0.8060, 0.7927, and 0.7883, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the stacking ensemble machine learning method is promising for use in landslide susceptibility mapping in the Zhangjiajie area and is capable of targeting the areas prone to landslides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0118.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: statistics-based estimation model (sem); different geological condition; permeability coefficient; shearing strength; landslide-triggering factor
Online: 10 October 2019 (14:53:30 CEST)
In South Korea, landslides are caused by localized heavy rainfall and typhoons, which often occur in the summer season at natural slopes in mountainous areas and artificial slopes in urban surroundings. Flow-type landslides frequently occur in mountainous areas. To evaluate flow-type landslides, it is essential to identify the physical characteristics of soil, giving focus to the soil on the top layers of various types of slope. This study conducts a survey and an analysis of the characteristics of landslides that occurred in the study area with different geological conditions of granite and gneiss. The characteristics of soil in the area and its surroundings that have or have not undergone landslides for every geological condition is also evaluated. Based on these characteristics and a statistics method, it extracts the triggering factors, permeability coefficients (k), and shearing strength with cohesion (c) and internal friction angel (φ) of soils that are highly related to landslides around weathered soil layers. As a result, the permeability coefficients show significant relevance with void ratio (e), the effective size of grains (D10), and uniformity coefficient (cu), while the shearing strength with the proportion of fine-grained soil (Fines), uniformity coefficient (cu), degree of saturation (S), dry weight density (rd), and void ratio (e). By obtaining this result, the study uses the regression analysis to suggest models to estimate the permeability coefficients and shearing strength. For the gneiss area, the statistics-based estimation model (SEM) is proposed as kgn = (1.488 × 10-02 × e) + (1.076 × D10) + (-1.629 × 10-04 × cu) - (1.893 × 10-02) for permeability coefficients; cgn = (-0.712 × Fines) + (-0.131 × cu) + 15.335 for cohesion; and φgn = (27.01 × rd) + (-12.594 × e) + 6.018 for internal frictional angle of soils. For the granite area, the statistics-based estimation model (SEM) is proposed as kgr = (8.281 × 10-03 × e) + (0.639 × D10) + (-2.766 × 10-05 × cu) - (9.907 × 10-03) for permeability coefficients; cgr = (-0.689 × Fines) + (-0.0744 × S) + 18.59 for cohesion; and φgr = (33.640 × rd) + (-0.875 × e) - 9.685 for internal frictional angle of soils. The use of statistics-based estimation models (SEMs) for landslide-triggering factors that trigger landslides will support the simple calculation of permeability coefficient and shearing strength (cohesion and internal frictional angle), only requiring information about the physical properties of soil at the natural slopes that have different geological features such as gneiss and granite areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); UAV-photogrammetry; Structure From Motion (SfM); cut slope; extreme topography; landslide
Online: 3 April 2017 (18:34:22 CEST)
UAV photogrammetry development during the last decade has allowed to catch information at a very high spatial and temporal resolution from terrains with very difficult or impossible human access. This paper deals with the application of these techniques to study and produce information of very extreme topography which is useful to plan works on this terrain or monitoring it over the time to study its evolution. The methodology stars with the execution of UAV flights on the cut slope studied, one with the cam vertically oriented and other at 45º respect that orientation. Ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were measured for georeference and accuracy measurement purposes. Orthophoto was obtained projecting on a fitted plane to a studied surface. Moreover, since a digital surface model (DSM) is not able to represent faithfully that extreme morphology, information to project works or monitoring it has been derived from the point cloud generated during the photogrammetric process. An informatics program was developed to generate contour lines and cross sections derived from the point cloud, which was able to represent all terrain geometric characteristics, like several Z coordinates for a given planimetric (X, Y) point. Results yield a root mean square error (RMSE) in X, Y and Z directions of 0.053 m, 0.070 m and 0.061 m respectively. Furthermore, comparison between contour lines and cross sections generated from point cloud with the developed program on one hand and those generated from DSM on other hand, shown that the former are capable of representing terrain geometric characteristics that the latter cannot. The methodology proposed in this work has been shown as an adequate alternative to generate manageable information, as orthophoto, contour lines and cross sections, useful for the elaboration, for example, of projects for repairing or maintenance works of cut slopes with extreme topography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0380.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Ultra-Wide Band; wireless sensor networks; monitoring; warning system; ground instability; landslide; Time Of Flight, Two-way ranging.
Online: 20 July 2018 (11:56:07 CEST)
An innovative wireless sensor network (WSN) based on Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) technology for 3D accurate superficial monitoring of ground deformations, as landslides and subsidence, is proposed. The system has been designed and developed as part of an European Life+ project, called Wi-GIM (Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring). The details of the architecture, the localization via wireless technology and data processing protocols are described. The flexibility and accuracy achieved by the UWB two-way ranging technique is analysed and compared with the traditional systems, such as robotic total stations (RTSs), Ground-based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-InSAR), highlighting the pros and cons of the UWB solution to detect the surface movements. An extensive field trial campaign allows the validation of the system and the analysis of its sensitivity to different factors (e.g., sensor nodes inter-visibility, effects of the temperature, etc.). The Wi-GIM system represents a promising solution for landslide monitoring and it can be adopted in conjunction with traditional systems or as an alternative in areas where the available resources are inadequate. The versatility, easy/fast deployment and cost-effectiveness, together with the good accuracy, make the Wi-GIM system a possible solution for municipalities that cannot afford expensive/complex systems to monitor potential landslides in their territory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0298.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: coastal erosion; beach morphodynamics; beach erosion; flow slide; slope instability; bank erosion; bank collapse; flood risk; breaching; dredging; liquefaction; submarine landslide; turbidity current; dilatancy
Online: 28 August 2019 (15:17:30 CEST)
Retrogressive breach failures or coastal flow slides occur naturally in the shoreface in fine sands near dynamic tidal channels or rivers. They sometimes retrogress into beaches, shoal margins and river banks where they can threaten infrastructure and cause severe coastal erosion and flood risk. Ever since the first reports were published in the Netherlands over a century ago, attempts have been made to understand the geo-mechanical mechanism of flow slides. In this paper we have established that events, observed during the active phase, are characterized by a slow and steady retrogression into the shoreline, often continuing for many hours. This can be explained by the breaching mechanism, as elaborated in this paper. Recently, further evidence has become available in the form of video footage of active events in Australia and elsewhere, often publicly posted on the internet. All these observations justify the new term ‘retrogressive breach failure’ (RBF event). The mechanism has been confirmed in small-scale flume tests and in a large-scale field experiment. With a better understanding of the geo-mechanical mechanism, current protection methods can be better understood and new defense strategies can be envisaged. In writing this paper, we hope that the coastal science and engineering communities will better recognize and understand these intriguing natural events.