REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0432.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: entrepreneurial programs; pedagogical interventions; educational interventions; entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial culture; effectiveness; globalization
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:33:48 CEST)
The number of entrepreneurship education programs (EEP) has increased exponentially over the past two decades. However, a systematic review has not yet been carried out to confirm the effectiveness of EEPs and their presence in the current global world. The main objective of this study was to provide a systematic synthesis of EEP, exploring their characteristics and effectiveness. The search was carried out in the following databases: Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and ERIC. Twenty-nine articles were included, with programs developed mainly in European (n=15), Asian (n=6) and American (n=5) countries. The programs were mainly aimed at higher education students (n=17), addressing the development of business plans and entrepreneurial skills. However, greater attention is paid to the entrepreneurial skills in both basic and secondary education. The development of the programs under analysis varied between one week and two years. The results of the studies showed the effectiveness of most of these programs in promoting entrepreneurial skills at all levels of education. In turn, there was not a verified increase in the intention to start a business, since this intention is determined by predisposition, namely socio-cultural and family aspects. This systematic review of the EEP points to the need for this type of program to be preferentially developed since the early school years, since it is at that time that predispositions are created for the development of entrepreneurial skills and intentions. This condition is corroborated by the global geography of the EEP, which demonstrates that, where there is currently an entrepreneurial culture, countries have made a long educational journey, with strategic options from the perspective of educational policies defending entrepreneurship among the younger generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0282.v1
Subject: Keywords: Twice-Exceptional, Interventions, Gifted, Disability
Online: 24 December 2018 (14:49:46 CET)
What began nearly a century ago with the contributions of Hollingworth and Asperger, among others, has developed into a field dedicated to the study of gifted individuals with a disability. These twice-exceptional (2e) people and their unique set of needs differ from those of their once-exceptional counterparts on either end of the spectrum and often remain unaddressed or are discovered very late in life resulting in longterm consequences. For those discovered, effective treatment options to improve their quality of life remain uncertain. The goal of the present paper was to determine whether effective interventions exist to improve domain-specific (i.e., social, emotional, or academic) outcomes for people exhibiting both signs of giftedness and disability. A query was performed using evidence databases TRIP and PDQ in addition to University at Buffalo Libraries holdings for "twice-exceptional," "Giftedness," "Disability," and "intervention." The hits were reduced to the four most relevant, freely available studies in English that were selected for critique. Despite the selected studies being found to share methodological similarities that were their strengths and conducive to comparison, they also had threats to validity that served as potential weakness. Not only can directly effective interventions improve specific domains for 2e individuals, but the effects of domain-specific interventions may carry over into another domain resulting in indirect effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0080.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: implementation; adoption; health interventions; community prevention; obesity prevention interventions; system dynamics; systems thinking; endogenous dynamics; qualitative modeling; case studies
Online: 27 July 2017 (17:54:29 CEST)
In this study, we present case studies to explore the dynamics of implementation and maintenance of health interventions. We analyze how specific interventions are built and eroded, how the building and erosion mechanisms are interconnected, and why we can see significantly different erosion rates across otherwise similar organizations. We use multiple comparative obesity prevention case studies to provide empirical information on the mechanisms of interest, and use qualitative systems modeling to integrate our evolving understanding into an internally consistent and transparent theory of the phenomenon. Our preliminary results identify reinforcing feedback mechanisms, including design of organizational processes, motivation of stakeholders, and communication among stakeholders, which influence implementation and maintenance of intervention components. Over time, these feedback mechanisms may drive a wedge between otherwise similar organizations, leading to distinct configurations of implementation and maintenance processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0551.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nudges; diet; healthy living; instant messaging; digital interventions
Online: 29 November 2021 (18:30:30 CET)
With roots beyond behavioural economics to psychology, nudges can be applied for influencing healthy behaviours such as food choice and portions to decrease obesity for better public health outcomes. However, the effectiveness of the type of nudges are contentious with conflicting literature. In this pilot study, we conducted a 23-day study surveying the food choices that included portion, locus of control, demographic data, and psychological measures of personality, perceived stress, narcissism, regulatory focus, food choice motive and dietary restraint, with the participants given four intervention conditions of 12 instant messaging sent every two days through WhatsApp. The messages were either factual (control), focused on consequences, through social comparison, or persuasive. Running over the COVID19 pandemic, 17 participants completed the full surveys showing significant effects between the experimental conditions with the psychological parameters except for diet confidence and extraversion and conscientiousness, as well as cognitive restraint. We found BMI and waistline measurements to be suitable measurements, with promising results from the fear and social comparison nudges for food-related behaviours and exercise. Our pilot findings have implications to the use of nudges upon which future studies investigating psychological factors can build on.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cancer; Cancer Prevention; Cancer Therapy; Immune Boosting Interventions
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:52:40 CEST)
Cancer risk is known to increase tremendously when the immune system is suppressed, e.g., as observed in young organ-transplant recipients and AIDS patients. Based on such data, it may be hypothesized that the main reason for the development of clinical cancer is the weakening or suppression of the immune system, and that uncontrolled multiplication of cancer cells occurs when some aspects of the immune system fall below certain critical levels. Therefore, cancer may be prevented and treated by boosting these critical aspects of the immune system so that they are maintained above the critical levels. If multiple immune system boosting interventions are utilized, more aspects of the immune system would be boosted, increasing the likelihood of enhancing the critical aspects of the immune system and generating a cancer preventive and/or therapeutic effect. Clinical trials are needed to validate this approach for cancer prevention and treatment. If validated, the proposed approach could result in a major reduction of the death and suffering caused by cancer in the world.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Precision diagnosis; Personalised interventions; Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)
Online: 13 November 2020 (14:15:57 CET)
A 12 year old boy was diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) along with mesial temporal sclerosis based on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) results. The diagnosis was further confirmed by genetic analysis. He also had minor psychiatric symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorders and mood swings. After 4 years of treatment with Sodium Valproate no change in symptoms was observed. Genetic testing along with deep phenotyping revealed altered glutamate pathway and metabolism. Post genetic testing the patient was put on a combination of Sodium Valproate and Valproic acid along with supplementation of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Cyanocobalamin, Pyridoxine and Cholecalciferol. Within three months of this combined therapy the patient experienced complete elimination of seizures and drastic improvement in mood and social behaviour. The case report highlights the importance of precision diagnosis in understanding the underlying perturbed pathways in structural epilepsy like TLE and demonstrates the importance of non-invasive targeted therapy in such cases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0143.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: coping strategies; children; imprisoned parents; interventions; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2017 (06:14:31 CEST)
Children of imprisoned parents have a two times greater risk for health problems, including difficulties in their environment, academic and behavioural problems as well as social stigma. Focusing on children who have parents in prison has not been a priority for research. This review aims to describe current knowledge on children who have imprisoned parents in a global context and highlight areas for additional research. This review highlights the coping strategies that children of imprisoned parents use and explore interventions that exist to support children of imprisoned parents. This review employed a qualitative narrative synthesis. The database search yielded 1989 articles, of which 11 met inclusion and quality criteria. Stigmatizing children due to parental imprisonment was a widespread problem. Children’s coping strategies included maintaining distance from the imprisoned parent, normalizing the parent’s situation and taking better control over their lives through distraction, sports, supportive people and therapy. Children received the best support in school-based interventions or mentoring programmes. The overall low quality of the included studies indicates a need for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0016.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: rural; mental health; adolescents; access; service user experience; interventions
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:04:32 CET)
Background: Mental health difficulties during teenage years e are common and are a risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. Rural young people are at greater risk for mental health difficulties and have less access to services than their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore young people and their carers’ experiences of mental health support provided by a rural mobile service, and to identify access enablers from the service users’ perspective. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyse twelve interviews with current service users and eight interviews with family members of young people who had accessed the service.Results: Three main themes were identified: (a) Access and flexibility, (b) Clinicians’ qualities and strategies, and (c) Experiences of change. The mobile service was perceived to be effective in producing positive change in mental health, relationships and attainment of life goals. Key enablers to access included the flexibility of the mobile service, the variety of service delivery modes and therapeutic methods offered, the ease of access facilitated by location in schools, and young people’s autonomy in how they chose to utilise the service. Conclusion: This study provides information about what is important to rural young people and their families in mental health service provision. The findings have implications for changing the way services are organized and operated. Healthcare policy and services could support user-led model design that incorporates the access and use enablers and removes the barriers to rural mental health support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer, losing weight, interventions, physical activity, dietary restrictions, hormones.
Online: 24 November 2022 (06:30:03 CET)
(1) Background: Loss of weight is one of the practices which have been identified as key in reducing the risk of various forms of cancer. Therefore, this study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies related to the topic of loss of weight and risk of cancer and addresses the question, ‘does losing weight reduce the risk of cancer?’ Its purpose is to identify current high-quality evidence on such a question and synthesize such evidence before summarizing it given specific data attributes to improve decision-making processes on cancer management. (2) Methods: Research studies were identified from four main databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar, and Medline. A systematic review and meta-analysis of such studies were then conducted to reveal the most current evidence on the research topic. (3) Results: The studies showed that losing weight reduces cancer risk. Nonetheless, such intervention is not necessarily effective, especially in cases where patients may be at risk of developing cancer due to other risk factors. (4) Conclusions: The current study concludes that there is a need to implement effective interventions such as physical exercise, dietary restrictions, or both that can be effective in reducing weight to reduce the risk of cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: response; dropout; older adults; physical activity interventions; OSM; GIS
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:47:38 CET)
Research is still lacking regarding the question as to how programs to promote healthy aging should be organized in order to increase acceptance and thus effectiveness. For older adults, ecological factors, such as physical distance to program sites, might predict participation and retention. Thus, the key aim of this analysis was to examine these factors in a physical activity intervention trial. Adults (N=8,299) aged 65 to 75 years were invited to participate and n=589 participants were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups with 10 weeks of physical activity home practice and exercise classes or a wait-list control group. Response, participation, and dropout data were compared regarding ecological, individual, and study-related variables. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to determine predictors of dropout. In total, 405 participants completed the study. Weekly class attendance rates were examined regarding significant weather conditions and holiday periods. The highest rates of nonresponse were observed in districts with very high neighborhood levels of socioeconomic status. In this study, ecological factors did not appear to be significant predictors of dropout, whereas certain individual and study-related variables were predictive. Future studies should consider these factors during program planning to mobilize and keep subjects in the program.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0136.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral interventions; prevention; workplace safety; safety protocols
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:54:54 CEST)
Practicing preventive etiquettes such as hand washing, hand disinfection, wearing a face mask, practicing physical distancing, disinfection of surfaces and objects can help curb the transmission of COVID-19 at the workplace. This paper focuses on interventions and behaviors required to curb the spread of COVID-19 at workplaces. We undertook a detailed multi-disciplinary literature search on the following topics: hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, physical distancing, quarantine and isolation, disinfection of objects and surfaces, behavior change, and health crisis communication. We identified interventions that are effective for preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at workplaces. These findings present very useful non-clinical interventions for preventing COVID-19 in the work environment.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Behaviours; Childhood; Infant feeding; Interventions; Obesity; Prevention; Physical activity.
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:35:46 CET)
Childhood overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Our objective was to describe planned, ongoing and completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed for the prevention of obesity in early childhood. Two databases (World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched to identify RCTs with the primary aim of preventing childhood obesity and at least one outcome related to child weight. Interventions needed to start in the first two years of childhood or earlier, continue for at least 6 months postnatally, include a component related to lifestyle or behaviors, and have a follow up time of at least 2 years. We identified 29 unique RCTs, implemented since 2008, with most being undertaken in high income countries. Interventions ranged from advice on diet, activity, sleep, emotion regulation and parenting education through individual home visits, clinic-based consultations or group education sessions. Eleven trials have published data on child weight related outcomes to date, though most were not sufficiently powered to detect significant effects. Many trials detected improvements in practices such as breastfeeding, screen time and physical activity in the intervention groups compared to the control groups. Further follow-up of ongoing trials is needed to assess longer-term effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0258.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; interventions; growth curve; recovery; mortality; protective immunity
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:33:56 CEST)
COVID-19 is fast spreading around the globe in a highly contagious manner. The results from our study showed that after intervention with successive Lockdowns, there was marked decrease in the rate of COVID-19 cases, though there was sporadic volatility in number of COVID-19 cases due to some extrinsic factors. Concomitant with reduction in rate of COVID-19 there was gradual increase in doubling time of COVID-19, steady increase in number of discharged/recovered patients from COVID-19 reaching to ≥ 58% taking the entire Indian population into consideration. Another important aspect was consistent low mortality rate was accompanied by gradual increase in recovery rate of COVID-19 in the population. The possible implication of these results in the development of protective immunity in the population has been discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0755.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: digital interventions; shop floor; evaluation framework; heuristics; smart factory
Online: 1 November 2018 (17:51:49 CET)
The introduction of innovative digital tools for supporting manufacturing processes has far-reaching effects on an organizational and an individual level due to the development of Industry 4.0. The FACTS4WORKERS project funded by H2020, i.e. Worker-Centric Workplaces in Smart Factories, aims to develop user-centered assistance systems in order to demonstrate their impact and applicability at the shop floor. To do so it is important to understand how to develop such tools and how to assess if advantages can be derived from the created ICT system. This study introduces the technology of a workplace solution that is linked to a specific industrial challenge. Subsequently, a 2-stepped approach to evaluate the presented system is discussed. Heuristics, which are an output of project “Heuristics for Industry 4.0”, are used to test if the developed solution covers critical aspects of socio-technical system design. Insights into the design, development and holistic evaluation of digital tools at the shop floor should be shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: time-restricted feeding; controlled feeding study; study design; nutrition interventions
Online: 22 August 2022 (19:16:58 CEST)
The efficacy of time-restricted feeding for weight loss has not been established as prior studies were limited by lack of controlled isocaloric designs. This study describes the design and implementation of a controlled feeding study evaluating time-restricted feeding. We designed a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm, feeding study comparing time restricted feeding (TRF) to a usual feeding pattern (UFP) for the primary outcome of weight change. Participants were aged 18-69 years with prediabetes and obesity. TRF consumed 80% of calories by 1300, and UFP consumed ≥50% of calories after 1700. Both arms consumed identical macro- and micro-nutrients, based on a healthy palatable diet. We calculated individual calorie requirements which were maintained throughout the intervention. We randomized 41 participants who all completed the study. The desired distribution of calories across feeding windows in both arms was achieved, as were weekly averages for macronutrients and micronutrients. All randomized participants completed the study. We actively monitored participants and adapted diets to facilitate adherence. We provide the first report, to our knowledge, on the design and implementation of a feeding study that isolated the effect of meal timing on weight, while maintaining constant caloric intake and identical diets during the study period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0267.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Gestalt therapy; dementia; depression; single-case experimental design; psychosocial interventions
Online: 19 January 2022 (09:32:12 CET)
Psychotherapy is one of the evidence-based clinical interventions for the treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. Randomized Controlled Trials are often the first methodological choice to gain evidence, yet they are not applicable to a wide range of humanistic psychotherapies. Amongst all, the efficacy of the Gestalt therapy (GT) is under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to present a research protocol aiming to assess the effects of a GT-based intervention on people with dementia (PWD) and the indirect influence on their family carers. The study implements the Single-Case Experimental Design with Time-Series Analysis that will be carried out in Italy and Mexico. Ten people in each country, who received a diagnosis of dementia and present depressive symptoms, will be recruited. Eight or more GT sessions will be provided whose fidelity will be assessed by the GT Fidelity Scale. Quantitative outcome measures are foreseen for monitoring participants’ depression, anxiety, quality of life, carers’ burden, and the caregiving dyad mutuality, at baseline and follow-up. The advantages and limitations of the research design are considered. If GT will result effective in the treatment of depression in PWD, it could enrich the range of evidence-based interventions provided by healthcare services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0211.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; horse owner compliance; non-pharmaceutical interventions
Online: 8 March 2021 (11:18:30 CET)
In December 2019, an unusual cluster of pneumonia cases were reported in Wuhan and promptly confirmed to be caused by a new virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of which the disease it caused would be known as COVID-19. In March 2020, in the absence of any vaccines, and in response to the global spread of SARS-CoV-2 the UK implemented non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) measures in the form of a national lockdown to decelerate the spread. Compliance with NPIs can have significant impact on reducing disease transmission however there are currently no studies measuring compliance within the horse ownership world which naturally brings groups of people together during everyday caregiving activities. This article describes the reported horse owner compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic from March 2020 to December 2020 as deduced from 1036 respondents which completed an anonymous online survey between December 30th, 2020 and January 11th, 2021. Where rules/guidance did exist, there was good compliance with 92.76% of respondents indicating that they were following them. The most common rule/guidance implemented was social distancing, which was also the most common rule/guidance to be breached. Riding with others whilst at the yard (hacking or in an arena) and meeting up with non-household members (family and friends) when off the yard were also common rules/guidelines breached. Respondents who kept their horses at either DIY livery, or on a private yard were most likely to breach rules/regulations whereas respondents who kept their horses at full livery were least likely to breach rules/regulations. The results indicate that compliance of horse owners with COVID-19 rules/guidance is high when rules/guidance exists. However, just under half of respondents indicated that there were no rules/guidelines on their yards indicating that there is room for an increased contribution from the horse owning community by encouraging more yards to impose control measures where they currently do not exist.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Breast cancer; self-management; non-pharmacological interventions; clinical practice guidelines; content analysis
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:21:21 CET)
Background: A growing number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) with regards to non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors are available. However, given the limitations in guideline development methodologies and inconsistency of recommendations, it remains uncertain how best to design and implement such non-pharmacological strategies to tailor interventions for breast cancer survivors with varied health conditions, healthcare needs, and preferences. Aim: To critically appraise and summarise available non-pharmacological interventions for symptom management and health promotion that can be self-managed by breast cancer survivors based on the recommendations of the CPGs. Methods: Clinical practice guidelines which were published between January 2016 and September 2021 and described non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors were systematically searched in six electronic databases, nine relevant guideline databases, and five cancer care society websites. The quality of the included CPGs was assessed by four evaluators using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation, second edition tool. Content analysis was conducted to synthesise the characteristics of the non-pharmacological interventions that were recommended by the included CPGs, such as the intervention’s form, duration and frequency, level of evidence, grade of recommendation, and source of evidence. Results: Fourteen CPGs were identified and analysed. Of the 14 CPGs appraised, only five were rated as high quality. The domain with the highest standardised percentage was “scope and purpose” (84.61%), while the “applicability” domain had the lowest standardised percentage (51.04%). Five guidelines were assessed as “recommended”, seven were rated as “recommended with modifications”, and the remaining two were considered “not recommended”. Regarding the content analysis, physical activity/exercise, meditation, hypnosis, yoga, music therapy, stress management, relaxation, massage, and acupressure were the common self-managed non-pharmacological interventions recommended by the 14 CPGs. Physical activity/exercise was the only self-managed non-pharmacological intervention that was mostly recommended for psychological and physical symptom management by the included CPGs. However, there were significant disparities in terms of level of evidence and grade of recommendation in the included CPGs. Conclusion: The recommendations for the self-managed non-pharmacological interventions were varied and limited among the 14 CPGs, and some were based on medium- and low-quality evidence. More rigorous methods are required to develop high-quality CPGs in order to guide clinicians in offering high-quality and tailored breast cancer survivorship care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0399.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: mental health; psychosomatic rehabilitation; internet delivered digital trainings; multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary interventions
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:32:39 CEST)
The need for new technologies into healthcare services has been stressed. However, little is known about the effectiveness of digital interventions integrated in psychosomatic rehabilitation processes. Data from 724 patients from psychosomatic rehabilitation clinics were analyzed for effectiveness of digital trainings examined by a change in symptoms related to depression, anxiety, stress and loneliness from pre- to post-rehabilitation. Rehabilitation satisfaction was examined in association with reaching rehabilitation goals and satisfaction with communication. Mixed repeated measures analysis of covariances, analysis of covariances, and hierarchical stepwise regression analyses were performed. Results indicated a superior effectiveness for the intervention group receiving all offered digital treatments in addition to the regular face-to-face rehabilitation program with regard to symptoms of depression, F(2,674)=3.93, p<.05, ηp2=.01), and anxiety, F(2,678)=3.68, p<.05, ηp2=.01), post-rehabilitation with large effect sizes for both depression (d=1.28) and anxiety (d=1.08). In addition, rehabilitation satisfaction was positively associated with reaching rehabilitation goals and perceived communication with healthcare workers. Digital interventions appeared effective in supporting mental health of psychosomatic rehabilitation patients post-rehabilitation. This finding supports the inclusion of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary digital and face-to-face treatment programs and call for more implementations of new technologies in a context of complexity to improve health and healthcare service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0484.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: nature exposure; nature deprivation; health disparities; wellbeing; built environment; urban health interventions
Online: 21 December 2020 (09:00:48 CET)
Shelter-in-place aimed at slowing COVID-19 transmission has altered nature accessibility patterns, creating quasi-experimental conditions to assess if retracted nature contact and perceived nature deprivation influences physical and emotional wellbeing. We measure through survey methods how pandemic mandates limiting personal movement and outdoor nature access effect self-assessed nature exposure, perceived nature deprivation, and subsequent flourishing as measured by the Harvard Flourishing Index. Results indicate that perceived nature deprivation strongly associates with neighborhood nature contact, time in nature and access to municipal nature during the pandemic, after controlling for shelter-in-place mandates, job status, household composition, and sociodemographic variables. Our hypothesis that individuals with strong perceived nature deprivation under COVID-19 leads to diminished wellbeing proved true. Interaction models of flourishing showed positive modification of nature affinity with age and qualitative modification of nature deprivation with race. Our results demonstrate the potential of local nature contact to support individual wellbeing in a background context of emotional distress and social isolation, important in guiding public health policies beyond pandemics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0470.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: non-pharmacological interventions; COVID 19; health policy; mortality; economic; intensive care unit
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:38:52 CEST)
Non-pharmacological interventions in the fight against COVID 19 include: a) suppression, which facilitates its extinction; and b) mitigation, which reduces its speed of spread. Left unmitigated, the intensive care unit bed capacity (ICU) is exceeded over its maximum supply, resulting in increased deaths. Suppression has shown in simulation models the potential for decreasing ICU occupation below its surge limit, effectively decreasing mortality. However, for avoiding a rebound in transmission, suppression must be maintained intermittently until a vaccine is available (which may take up to 2 years). The objective of this paper was to describe the mortality patterns observed in Spain, Italy and South Korea for discussing a hypothetical combined public health policy and socioeconomic model that could potentially reduce mortality while reducing the economic impact of this pandemic in Spain. The plan is based on a progressive-voluntary reinstatement to work of the population exposed to the lowest risks (healthy non-immune family units <50 y/o and immune population) and it depends on having sufficiently available ICU beds for providing adequate support. This model, if proven correct for Spain, could eventually be followed by other countries facing a similar impact of the present pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: health equity; implementation; obesity; systematic review; CFIR; qualitative review; school-based interventions; children; facilitators
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:59:34 CET)
Background: Health inequity (HI) remains a major challenge in public health. Improving the health of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) can help to reduce overall HI in children. Childhood obesity is a global problem, entailing several adverse health effects. It is crucial to assess influencing factors for adoption, implementation and sustainment of interventions. This review aims to identify articles reporting about influencing factors for the implementation of school-based interventions promoting obesity prevention behaviors in children with low SES. It aims to critically appraise the articles’ quality, assess influencing factors, categorize and evaluate them, and to discuss possible implications. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 7 databases with the following main inclusion criteria: 1) school-based interventions and 2) target group aged 5–14 years. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, its five domains (intervention characteristics, inner setting, outer setting, characteristics of individuals, process) along with 39 constructs within these domains were used to deductively analyze the data. We grouped the articles with regard to the characteristics of the interventions in simple and complex interventions. For each domain, and for the groups of simple and complex interventions, the most commonly reported influencing factors are identified. Results: 6452 articles were screened, and 16 met all eligibility criteria. Included articles applied mixed methods (n=10), qualitative (n=5) and quantitative design (n=1). Of these, five were considered to report simple interventions and eleven were considered to report complex interventions. In total, 295 influencing factors were assessed. Aspects of the inner setting were reported in every study, aspects of the outer setting were the least reported domain, and in the group of simple interventions not reported at all. In the inner setting, most reported influencing factors were time (n=7), scheduling (n=6) and communication (n=6). Conclusion: This review found a wide range of influencing factors for implementation. Most important influencing factors need to be assessed for every setting. Including all stakeholders involved in the implementation process enhances the prioritization of the most important influencing factors for the specific setting. More empirical research and practical guidance are needed to promote obesity prevention behaviors among children with low SES.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; variant; sublineage; transmission; immunity; infection; vaccination; non-pharmaceutical interventions
Online: 14 March 2022 (11:19:04 CET)
The scientific, private and industrial sectors use a wide variety of technological platforms available to achieve protection against SARS-CoV-2, including vaccines. However, the virus evolves continually into new highly virulent variants, which might overcome the protection provided by vaccines and may re-expose the population to infections. Mass vaccinations should be continued in combination with more or less obligation mandatory non-pharmaceutical interventions. Therefore, the key questions to be answered are: (i) How to identify the primary and secondary infections of SARS-CoV-2? (ii) Why are neutralizing antibodies not long-lasting in both the cases of natural infections and post-vaccinations? (iii) Which are the factors responsible for this decay in neutralizing antibodies? (iv) What strategy could be adapted to develop long-term herd immunity? (v) Is the Spike the only vaccine candidate or a vaccine cocktail is better?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Safety Interventions; Fire Engine; Vehicle, Aerosol; Fine Dust Measurement
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:24:53 CEST)
Physical distancing and wearing a face mask are key interventions to prevent COVID-19. While this remains difficult to practice for millions of firefighters in fire engines responding to emergencies, the delayed forthcoming of evidence on the physical effectiveness of such safety interventions in this setting presents a major problem. In this field experimental study, we provided initial evidence to close this gap. We examined total aerosol burden in the cabin of a fire engine whilst manipulating crew size, natural ventilation, use of FFP2 respirators and use of SCBA full-face masks during 15-minute driving periods. At the same time, we controlled for crew activity and speaking, vehicle speed, cabin air temperature, pressure and humidity. Limiting the crew size, using FFP2 respirators and not donning SCBA full-face masks was associated with a reduction of the arithmetic mean of total aerosol burden of up to 49%. Natural ventilation as tested in this study was associated with both an increase and a decrease of total aerosol burden. This study provided initial evidence on the physical effectiveness of safety interventions in fire engines to reduce potential airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosols. More research about the physical and clinical effectiveness of such safety interventions is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0125.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; green space; planetary health; nature connectedness; public health; nature-based interventions
Online: 6 January 2021 (15:04:09 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about unprecedented changes to human lifestyles across the world. The virus and associated social restriction measures have been linked to an increase in mental health conditions. A considerable body of evidence shows that spending time in and engaging with nature can improve human health and wellbeing. Our study explores nature’s role in supporting health during the COVID-19 pandemic. We created web-based questionnaires with validated health instruments and conducted spatial analyses in a geographic information system (GIS). We collected data on people’s patterns of nature exposure, associated health and wellbeing responses, and potential socioecological drivers such as relative deprivation, access to greenspaces, and land-cover greenness. We applied a range of statistical analyses including bootstrap resampled correlations and binomial regression models, adjusting for several potential confounding factors. We found that respondents significantly changed their patterns of visiting nature as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. People spent more time in nature and visited nature more often during the pandemic. People generally visited nature for a health and wellbeing benefit and felt that nature helped them cope during the pandemic. Greater land-cover greenness within a 250 m radius around a respondent’s postcode was important in predicting higher levels of mental wellbeing. There were significantly more food-growing allotments within 100 m and 250 m of respondents with high mental wellbeing scores. The need for a mutually-advantageous relationship between humans and the wider biotic community has never been more important. We must conserve, restore and design nature-centric environments to maintain resilient societies and planetary health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0139.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: E. coli O157:H7; non-intact beef; mechanical tenderization; blade tenderization; antimicrobial interventions; translocation
Online: 14 January 2019 (12:15:28 CET)
The USDA-FSIS considers mechanically-tenderized beef as ‘non-intact’ and a food safety concern because of the potential for translocation of surface E. coli O157:H7 into the interior of the meat that may be cooked ‘rare or medium-rare’ and consumed. We evaluated 14 potential spray interventions on E. coli O157:H7-inoculated lean beef wafers (~106 CFU/cm2 , n=80) passing through a spray system (18 sec dwell time, ~40 PSI) integrated into the front end of a Ross TC-700MC tenderizer. Inoculated and processed beef wafers were stomached with D/E neutralizing broth and plated immediately, or were held in refrigerated storage for 1-, 7-, or 14 days prior to microbial plating. Seven antimicrobials that showed better performance in preliminary screening on beef wafers were selected for further testing on beef subprimals in conjunction with blade tenderization. Boneless top sirloin beef subprimals were inoculated at ~2 x 104 CFU/cm2 with a four-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and passed once, lean side up, through an integrated spray system and blade tenderizer. Core samples obtained from each subprimal were examined for the presence/absence of E. coli O157:H7. Absence of E coli O157:H7 translocated into core samples correlated with the ability of the antimicrobials to reduce bacterial levels on the surface of beef prior to blade tenderization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0656.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; non-pharmaceutical interventions; vaccinations; vaccine doses; pre-existing condition; high risk; low risk
Online: 26 April 2021 (11:00:59 CEST)
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was first reported in the U.S. on December 29, 2019 and has spread rapidly throughout the country, affecting individuals with varying severity due to their risk status. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is estimated that 45.4% of US adults are at higher risk for complications from coronavirus disease because of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease, hypertension, or cancer. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to assess the impact of a COVID-19 vaccine among low and high risk groups. Numerical simulations shows vaccinating both low and high risk groups simultaneously, rather than prioritizing the vaccine on high risk group only, further reduces the daily mortality. The result supports the need for an aggressive vaccination program, regardless of whether individuals are within the low or high risk population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; animal-assisted activities; animal-assisted therapy; oncology; cancer; human-animal bond; quantitative
Online: 19 December 2019 (06:41:38 CET)
Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) use human-animal interactions to positive effect in various contexts including cancer care. This systematic literature review is the first part of a two-part paper series focusing on the research methods and quantitative results of AAI studies in oncology. We find methodological consistency in the use of canines as therapy animals, in the types of high-risk patients excluded from studies, and in the infection precautions taken with therapy animals throughout cancer wards. The investigated patient endpoints are not significantly affected by AAI, with the exceptions of improvements in oxygen consumption, quality of life, depression, mood, and satisfaction with therapy. The AAI field in oncology has progressed significantly since its inception and has great potential to positively impact future patient outcomes. To advance the field, AAI research in oncology should consistently improve the methodological design of studies, report data more completely, and focus on the therapy animal’s well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: community care; integrated care; mental health; service users and relatives’ interventions; service users and relatives’ interaction
Online: 14 September 2022 (16:27:56 CEST)
Relatives play an important role in mental health service users’ care. Interventions directed either at service users or their relatives may influence the other person as well. The project Activa’t per la salut mental (Get active for mental health) consisted of a series of four interventions addressed at people diagnosed with mental disorders and their relatives to help them in their recovery process, increasing their agency and quality of life. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the interaction of the participation of service users on their relatives’ outcomes and vice versa. The impact of the project was evaluated within an RCT. The treatment group had access to all the circuit interventions while the control group received treatment as usual and could only access one of the interventions. All participants were evaluated at baseline, six months, and twelve months after the end of the first intervention. Service users were evaluated with the Stages of recovery questionnaire, and relatives with the Family Burden Interview Schedule II and the Duke-UNC-11 questionnaires. The interaction between service users and their relatives was analysed by means of correlational analyses within the intervention group. Service users baseline characteristics influenced in the level of participation of relatives and vice versa. The results also indicated an interaction between service users’ recovery score changes on the change of care burden of relatives. Service users’ participation levels interacted with the decrease of relatives’ burden. These results can be extremely helpful in fostering interactive benefits in future projects addressing the wellbeing of mental health service users and their relatives. Future studies could use specific designs to explore the directionality of the causality of these effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0202.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Inland saline wetland; lake; ecosystem; biodiversity; human interventions; Google Earth Engine; Normalized Difference Water Index; Restoration
Online: 13 October 2021 (13:09:59 CEST)
Globally, saline lakes occupying 23% by area 44% by volume among all the lakes might desiccate by 2025 due to agricultural diversion, illegal encroachment, pollution, and invasive species. India’s largest saline lake, Sambhar is currently shrinking at the rate of 4.23% due to illegal saltpan en-croachment. This research article aims to identify the trend of migratory birds and monthly wetland status. Birds survey was conducted for 2019, 2020 and 2021 and combined with literature data of 1994, 2003, and 2013 for visiting trend, feeding habit, migratory and resident ratio, and ecological diversity index analysis. Normalized Difference Water Index was scripted in Google Earth Engine. Results state that it has been suitable for 97 species. Highest NDWI values for the was whole study period was 0.71 in 2021 and lowest 0.008 in 2019 which is highly fluctuating. The decreasing trend of migratory birds coupled with decreasing water level indicates the dubious status for its existence. If the causal factors are not checked, it might completely desiccate by 2059 as per its future prediction. Certain steps are suggested that might help conservation. Least, the cost of restoration might exceed the revenue generation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; curfew; mask; social distancing; side-effects; heath policy; public health; non pharmaceutical interventions.
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:24:29 CET)
Let us all take a moment to talk, once again, about this new coronavirus pandemic that the world has been facing since November 2019 and about its global response. After a short period marked by the pandemic underestimation risk by most governments, the Western world went nuts and overreacted, most probably so as not to be accused of inaction. In many cases, the overall benefits of the chosen policies were not sufficiently questioned, which resulted in many side effects on global health .The medical motto “primum non nocere”, a moral principle everyone should at least consider following, was evidently not taken into account. It has been overlooked, and the virus has become an obsession, to the extent that nearly everything else, even the most valuable things in life, is still now under appreciated if not simply ignored. This review highlighted facts against this simplistic, one-dimensional view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0355.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: dispositional mindfulness; cognitive defusion; anxiety; mindfulness based on interventions; mental health; experiential avoidance; children and adolescents
Online: 30 October 2019 (10:11:48 CET)
Nowadays, mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have experimented a remarkable development of studies among childhood and adolescent interventions. For this reason, dispositional mindfulness (DM) measures for children and adolescents have been developed to determine the effectiveness of MBI at this age stage. However, little is known about how key elements of DM (f. e., cognitive de/fusion or experiential avoidance that both conform psychological inflexibility) are involved in the mechanisms of the children and adolescents’ mental health outcomes. This research examined the mediating effect of cognitive fusion between DM and anxiety and other negative emotional states in a sample of 318 Spanish primary-school students (aged between 8 and 16 years, M=11.24, SD=2.19, 50.8% males). Participants completed the AFQ-Y, which is a measure of psychological inflexibility that encompasses cognitive defusion and experiential avoidance; CAMM (DM for children and adolescents), PANAS-N (positive and negative affect measure for children, the Spanish version of PANASC), and STAIC (an anxiety measure for children). The study accomplished ethical standards. As MBI relevant literature has suggested, cognitive defusion was a significant mediator between DM and symptoms of both negative emotions and anxiety in children and adolescents. However, experiential avoidance did not show any significant mediating relationship. Probably, it is needed improvement of the assessment of experiential avoidance. MBI programs for children and adolescents may include more activities for reducing the effects of the cognitive defusion on their emotional distress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0052.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; child development; dog bites; dog-borne zoonoses; dog ownership; dog welfare; human-animal interactions
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:13:49 CEST)
Our wellbeing is greatly influenced by our childhood and adolescence, and the relationships that we form during those phases of our development. The human-dog bond started thousands of years ago. The higher prevalence of dog ownership around the world, especially in households including children along with the growing number of people studying dogs most likely explain the growing literature focusing on child-dog interactions. We review the potential effects of child-dog interactions on the physical, mental, and social wellbeing of both species. A scoping search of the SCOPUS database found several hundred documents meeting selection criteria. It allowed us to define the numerous ways in which children and dogs can interact, be it neutral (e.g., sharing a common area), positive (e.g., petting), or negative (e.g., biting). Then, we found evidence for an association between interacting with dogs during childhood and an array of health and mental benefits like stress relief and the development of empathy. Walking a dog and playing with one are perfect physical activity opportunities. Additionally, interacting with a dog can help lower stress and may have a role in the development of empathy. Nonetheless, a number of detrimental outcomes have also been identified in both humans and dogs. Children are the most at-risk population regarding dog bites and dog-borne zoonoses, which may lead to a subsequent fear of dogs or even death. Moreover, pet bereavement is generally inevitable when living with a canine companion and should not be trivialized. In terms of dogs, children sometimes take part in caretaking behaviors toward them which include going on walks. They are opportunities for dogs to relieve themselves outside, but also to exercise and socialize. In contrast, a lack of physical activity can lead to the onset of obesity. Dogs may present greater levels of stress when in the presence of children. Finally, the welfare of assistance, therapy, and free-roaming dogs remains underexplored. Overall, the study of the effects, positive as well as negative, on both species still requires further development. We call for more longitudinal studies and hope for cross-cultural research in the future in order to better understand the impact child-dog interactions might have.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0708.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Adolescent’s Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (ASRHR); interventions; outcomes; ASRHR services; condom use; teenage pregnancy; contraception
Online: 29 June 2021 (13:20:50 CEST)
Adolescent’s access to quality Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights interventions has been a major issue in most of the low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) across the globe. This systematic review aims to identify the relevant community and school-based interventions that can be implemented in -LMICs to promote adolescent’s sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes. We identified 54 studies and our review findings suggest that Adolescent’s Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (ASRHR) educational interventions, provision of financial incentives, and provision of comprehensive -post-abortion family planning services are effective in increasing adolescent’s knowledge on ASRHR, attitude towards ASRHR, uptake of ASRHR services, contraception and decreased unwanted pregnancy rates among young women. However, we found inconclusive and limited evidence on the effectiveness of the interventions to improve violence prevention and adolescent behaviors towards safe sexual practices. More rigorous studies with long-term follow-ups are needed to assess the effectiveness of such interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0327.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: test-tracking-quarantine; cost benefit analysis; economic analysis; COVID-19; asymptomatic screening; mass testing; non-pharmacological interventions
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:48:47 CEST)
The epidemiological situation generated by COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of applying non-pharmacological measures. Among these, mass screening of the asymptomatic general population has been established as a priority strategy by carrying out diagnostic tests to limit the spread of the virus. In this article, we aim to evaluate the economic impact of mass COVID-19 screenings of an asymptomatic population through a Cost-Benefit Analysis based on the estimated total costs of mass screening versus health gains and associated health costs avoided. Excluding the value of monetized health, the Benefit-Cost ratio was estimated at approximately 0.45. However, if monetized health is included in the calculation, the ratio is close to 1.20. The monetization of health is the critical element that tips the scales in favour of the desirability of screening. Screenings with the highest return are those that maximize the percentage of positives detected.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0319.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; respiratory illness; pneumonia; I4R approach; immune system; inflammation; immune boosting interventions
Online: 23 March 2020 (00:33:02 CET)
The current global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has already had a major adverse impact on the world due to the exponentially increasing deaths due to the disease and the extreme actions taken by the world community to prevent its spread. It is important to explore novel methods of reducing the illnesses and fatality rates of the coronavirus-infected patients. Since the weakness of the immune system is one of the major contributing factors for the illnesses caused by such viruses, and since inflammation is a major contributing factor for the mortality of COVID-19 patients, interventions that boost the immune system and/or are anti-inflammatory may reduce the COVID-19 incidence and the mortality due to the disease. A large variety of interventions are known to improve the immune response and/or reduce inflammation. However, all the interventions would not be applicable or acceptable to everyone and so the interventions would need to be individualized based on individual circumstances and preferences. This approach, known as “Individualized Interventions to Improve the Immune Response”, or the I4R approach, should be studied in pilot clinical trials urgently, in order to potentially reduce the harm caused by the current coronavirus pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; animal-assisted activities; animal-assisted therapy; oncology; cancer; human-animal bond; mechanisms; theoretical frameworks
Online: 19 December 2019 (06:45:23 CET)
Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) are a unique class of complementary medical treatments that can improve a patient’s quality of life, both physically and psychologically. Part I of this two-paper systematic literature review series focused on the study methods and quantitative results of researchers in this field. We continue this in-depth review here in Part II by discussing the common theories associated with AAI in the context of cancer. Of all the factors at work in human-animal interactions, researchers explicitly cite compatible animal personality, physical touch, physical movement, distraction/entertainment, and increased human interaction as the mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed in AAI. In various combinations, these mechanisms group under broader theoretical frameworks that attempt to fully explain the AAI context as it relates to cancer care. The social support hypothesis and the conception of a human-animal bond are the most referenced overarching frameworks. The cognitive activation theory of stress, the science of unitary human beings, and the self-object hypothesis are also referenced. We briefly consider other relevant theories commonly noted in the human-animal interactions literature that have the potential to clarify aspects of cancer-related AAI. We also discuss the neurobiological transduction mechanisms needed to connect theoretical frameworks and their mechanisms directly to the observed clinical outcomes. To advance the field, researchers should consider overarching theories with testable hypotheses when designing studies, and use consistent terminology when reporting results. This review lays a foundation for progress towards a unified theoretical framework and for effective treatment of the whole cancer patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: patient empowerment; patient education; patient information; intensive care unit discharge; intensive care unit transition; nursing interventions, systematic review.
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:05:11 CEST)
Intensive care unit discharge is an important transition which impacts on patient wellbeing. Nurses can play an essential role in this scenario, potentiating patient empowerment. A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement. Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were evaluated in May 2021. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Quality of the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of the 273 articles initially identified, eight randomized controlled trials reported nursing interventions mainly focused on patients’ ICU discharge preparation through information and education. The creation of ICU Nurse-Led and nurses’ involvement in critical care multidisciplinary teams also aimed to support patients during ICU discharge. This systematic review provides an update on clinical practice aimed at improving the patient experience during ICU discharge. The main nursing interventions were based on information and education, as well as the development of new nursing roles. Understanding transitional needs and patient empowerment are key to making the transition easier.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: community health; complex interventions; hierarchy of evidence; health inequalities; community engagement; community organizing; PACT; Citizens UK; evaluation; methodology
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:36:11 CET)
It is widely recognized that public health interventions benefit from community engagement and leadership, yet there are challenges to evaluating complex, community-led interventions assuming hierarchies of evidence derived from laboratory experimentation and clinical trials. Particular challenges include, first, inconsistency of the intervention across sites; and second, absence of researcher control over the sampling frame and methodology. This report highlights these challenges as they played out in the evaluation of a community-organized health project in South London. The project aimed to benefit maternal mental health, health literacy and social capital, and especially to engage local populations known to have reduced contact with statutory services. We evaluated the project using two studies with different designs, sampling frames and methodologies. In one the sampling frame and methodology were under community control, permitting comparison of change in outcomes from before to after participation in the project. In the other, the sampling frame and methodology were under researcher control, permitting a case-control design. The two evaluations led to different results however: participants in the community-controlled study showed benefits, while participants in the researcher-controlled study did not. The principal conclusions are that while there are severe challenges to evaluating a community-led health intervention using a controlled design, measurement of pre-/post-participation changes in well-defined health outcomes should typically be a minimum evaluation requirement, and confidence in attributing causation of any positive changes to participation can be increased by use of interventions in the project and in the engagement process itself that have a credible theoretical and empirical basis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: pediatric pharmacy; complementary alternative medicine; dietary interventions; oral manifestations; chronic pediatric conditions; ketogenic diet; gluten free casein free diet
Online: 8 November 2018 (03:55:15 CET)
Complementary and alternative treatment approaches are becoming more common among children with chronic conditions. The pravelance of CAM use among US adults was estimated to be around 42% in 2015, and around 44% to 50% among adults with neurologic disorders. Studies report children with chronic illnesses such as cancer, asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), genetic disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders are treated with complementary and alternative treatments at higher rates. Dietary therapies are gaining increasing popularity in the mainstream population, due to the heavy media involvement. Although, majority of “fad” diets do not have enough supporting evidence, some dietary therapies have been utilized for decades and have numerous published studies. The objective of this review is to describe the dietary interventions used in children with the specific chronic conditions, to evaluate their efficacy based on published data, and to encourage pharmacist involvement in the management and care of such patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral analysis; COVID-19; governmental intervention; mask adoption; movement change; vaccine participation; non-pharmaceutical interventions; policy recommendations; social physics; social behavior
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:41:27 CEST)
Since its emergence, COVID-19 has caused a great impact in health and social terms. Governments and health authorities have attempted to minimize this impact by enforcing different mandates. Recent studies have addressed the relationship between various socioeconomic variables and compliance level to these interventions. However, little attention has been paid to what constitutes people's response and whether people behave differently when faced with different interventions. Data collected from different sources show very significant regional differences across the United States. In this paper, we attempted to shed light on the fact that a response may be different depending on the health system capacity and each individuals’ social status. For that, we analyzed the correlation between different societal variables (i.e. education, income levels, population density, etc.) along with healthcare capacity related variables (i.e. hospital occupancy rates, percentage of essential workers, etc.) with regards to people's level of compliance with three main governmental mandates in the United States: mobility restrictions, mask adoption, and vaccine participation. Our aim was to isolate the most influential variables impacting behavior in response to these policies. We found that there was a strong relationship between individuals' educational levels and political preferences with respect to compliance with each of these mandates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0548.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nest-building; social behavior; behavioral monitoring, animal welfare, 3xTg-AD mice; Alzheimer's disease; gender medicine; early-life events; early-life interventions; long-term effects
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:46:24 CET)
The assessment of welfare and disease progression in animal models is critical. Most tools rely on evaluating individual subjects, whereas social behaviors, also sensitive to acute illness, chronic diseases, or mental health, are scarcely monitored because of their complexity, are invasive, and time-consuming. We propose the evaluation of social nesting, a species-typical behavior naturally occurring in standard housing conditions, for such behavioral monitoring. We provide an example of its use to evaluate social deficits and the long-term effects of neonatal sensorial stimulation in male and female adult 3xTg-AD mice for Alzheimer's disease compared to sex- and age-matched NTg counterparts with normal aging. Social nesting was sensitive to genotype (worse in 3xTg-AD mice), sex (worse in males), profile, and treatment (distinct temporal patterns, time to observe the maximum score and incidence of the perfect nest). Since social nesting can be easily included in housing routines, this neuroethological approach can be useful for animal's welfare, monitoring the disease's progress, and evaluating potential risk factors and effects of preventive/therapeutical strategies. Finally, the non-invasive, painless, simple, short time and low-cost features of this home-cage monitoring are advantages that make social nesting feasible to be successfully implemented in most animal department settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.