ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0007.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: terpenoids; Vibrio fischeri; toxicity; QSAR; heuristic method
Online: 2 October 2019 (02:55:05 CEST)
Terpenoids, including monoterpenoids (C10), norisoprenoids (C13) and sesquiterpenoids (C15), constitute a large group of plant-derived naturally occurring secondary metabolites which chemical structure is highly diverse. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model to predict the terpenoids toxicity and to evaluate the influences of their chemical structure, was developed in this study, by assessing the toxicity of 27 terpenoid standards using Gram-negative bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri, in real time. Under the test conditions, at concentration of 1 µM, the terpenoids showed a toxicity level lower than five %, with exception of geraniol, citral, (S)-citronellal, geranic acid, (±)-α-terpinyl acetate and geranyl acetone. Moreover, the standards tested displayed a toxicity level higher than 30 % at concentration of 50 to 100 µM, with the exception of (+)-valencene, eucalyptol, (+)-borneol, guaiazulene, β-caryophellene and linalool oxide. Regarding the functional group, the terpenoids toxicity was observed in the following order: alcohol > aldehyde ~ ketone > ester > hydrocarbons. CODESSA software was employed to develop the QSAR models based on the correlation of terpenoids toxicity and a pool of descriptors related to each chemical structure. The QSAR models, based on t-test values, showed that terpenoids toxicity was mainly attributed to geometric (e.g., asphericity) and electronic (e.g., max partial charge for a C atom [Zefirov's PC]) descriptors. Statistically, the most significant overall correlation was the four-parameter equation with training and test coefficient correlation higher than 0.810 and 0.535, respectively, and square coefficient of cross-validation (Q2) higher than 0.689. According to the obtained data, the QSAR models are a suitable and a rapid tool to predict the terpenoids toxicity in a diversity of food products.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: heuristic model; system; complexity; method; intercultural communication studies; gregory bateson; anthropology; informational realism; Quebec
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:23:37 CEST)
This article focuses on methods for designing heuristic models within the paradigm of systems theory and in the disciplinary context of intercultural communication. The main question arises from the striking observation that the common language is insufficient to develop knowledge about human communication, especially when many factors of complexity (such as ambiguity, paradoxes, or uncertainty) are involved in the composition of an abstract research object. This epistemological, theoretical, and methodological problematic is one of the main challenges to the scientificity of anthropological theories and concepts on culture. Moreover, these questions lie at the heart of research in intercultural communication. Authors and theorists in the complexity sciences have already stressed the need, in such case, to think in terms of models or semiotic representations, since these tools of thought can mediate much more effectively than unformalized language between the heterogeneous set of perceptions arising from the field of experience, on the one hand, and the philosophical principles that organize speculative thought, on the other. This sets the scene for a reflection on the need to master the theory of heuristic models when it comes to developing scientific knowledge in the field of intercultural communication. In this essay, my first aim is to make explicit the conditions likely to ensure the heuristic value of a model, while my second aim is to clarify the operational function and required level of abstraction of certain terms such as concepts, categories, headings, models, systems, or theories that are among the most commonly used by academics in their descriptive accounts or explanatory hypotheses. To achieve this second objective, I propose to create cognitive meta-categories to identify the three (nominal, cardinal or ordinal) roles of words in the reference grids we use to classify our ideas, and to specify how to use these meta-categories in the construction of our heuristic models. Alongside the theoretical presentation, examples of application are provided, almost all of which are drawn from my own research into the increased cultural vigilance of the majority population in Quebec since the reasonable accommodation crisis in this French-speaking province of Canada. The typology I propose will perhaps help to avoid the confusions regularly committed by authors who attribute only cosmetic functions to words that nevertheless have a highly heuristic value, and who forget to consider the logical leaps of their theoretical thinking in the construction of heuristic models.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0391.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; risk analysis; heuristic; probability; ascertainment; vaccination
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:26:41 CET)
This paper provides a framework for the assessment of household-level risk, incorporating both a individual social risk perspective and a location-based perspective. We use this framework as a heuristic to explore the effect of social reintegration choices individuals face, which are not be addressed by current policies. For example, we explore how integrating extended family households during COVID-19 without social distancing may affect household and community risk. The goal is to aid individual decision makers, who are seeking to maintain quality-of-life while navigating local policy, with nuance relating to location-specific behavior and disease prevalence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0243.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Heuristic algorithm; connected vertex cover; GRASP
Online: 25 January 2018 (12:42:20 CET)
The connected vertex cover (CVC) problem is a variant of the vertex cover problem, which has many important applications, such as wireless network design, routing and wavelength assignment problem, etc. A good algorithm for the problem can help us improve engineering efficiency, cost savings and resources in industrial applications. In this work, we present an efficient algorithm GRASP-CVC (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure for Connected Vertex Cover) for CVC in general graphs. The algorithm has two main phases, i.e., construction phase and local search phase. To construct a high quality feasible initial solution, we design a greedy function and a restricted candidate list in the construction phase. The configuration checking strategy is adopted to decrease the cycling problem in the local search phase. The experimental results demonstrate that GRASP-CVC is competitive with the other competitive algorithm, which validate the effectivity and efficiency of our GRASP-CVC solver.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0193.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: set covering; greedy; heuristic; real-time applications
Online: 2 June 2023 (11:45:25 CEST)
In this paper we exploit concepts from Information Theory to improve the classical Chvatal’s greedy algorithm for the Set Covering Problem. In particular, we develop a new greedy procedure, called Surprisal-Based Greedy Heuristic (SBH), incorporating the computation of a “surprisal” measure when selecting the solution columns. Computational experiments, performed on instances from the OR-Library, show that SBH yields a 2.5% improvement in terms of the objective function value over the Chvatal’s algorithm while retaining similar execution times, making it suitable for real-time applications. The new heuristic was also compared with Kordalewski’s greedy algorithm, obtaining similar solutions with much lower times on large instances, and Grossmann and Wool’s algorithm for unicost instances, where SBH obtained better solutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0135.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Global Alignment; Local Alignment; Heuristic Algorithm; Exhaustive Algorithm
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:30:03 CET)
Sequence analysis program is outlined that analyzes and investigates homology between various nucleic acid or protein sequence. The dot matrix technique compares the sequences and the consensus sequence is obtained by superimposing on each other all the dot matrices. Local Alignment and Global Alignment both sequence from start to end is the best possible alignment over the entire duration between the two sequences. This method is more important to align with two closely related sequences roughly the same length. This method may not able to generate optimal results for divergent sequences and variable length sequence because between the two sequences it does not recognize very similar local region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0487.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: location routing; unmanned aerial vehicle; border patrol; heuristic
Online: 16 January 2019 (10:04:50 CET)
The location routing problem of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in border patrol for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance is investigated, where the location of UAV base stations and the UAV flying routes for visiting the targets in border area are jointly optimized. The capacity of the base station and the endurance of the UAV are considered. A binary integer programming model is developed to formulate the problem, and two heuristic algorithms combined with local search strategies are designed for solving the problem. The experiment design for simulating the distribution of stations and targets in border is proposed for generating random test instances. Also, an example based on the Sino-Vietnamese border is presented to illustrate the problem and the solution approach. The performance of the two algorithms are analyzed and compared through randomly generated instances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Optimization; Smart Metering; IoT; Microgrid; Heuristic; Sensor Networks
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:49:59 CEST)
The unpredictable increase in electrical demand affects the quality of theenergy throughout the network. A solution to the problem is the increase of distributedgeneration units which burn fossil fuels.While this is an immediate solution to theproblem the ecosystem gets affected by the emission of CO2.A promising solutionis the integration of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) to the conventionalelectrical system, thus, introducing the concept of smart microgrids (SMG) that requirea safe, reliable and technically planned two-way communication system. This documentpresents a heuristic based on planning capable of providing a bidirectional communicationnear optimal route map, following the structure of an hybrid Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) with thepurpose of obtaining information of electrical parameters that help us to manage the useof energy by integrating conventional electrical system to SMG. A FiWi network is basedon the integration of wireless access and optical networks. This integration increases thecoverage and reliability at a lower cost. The optimization model is based on clusteringtechniques, through the construction of balanced conglomerates. The method is used forthe development of the clusters along with the Nearest-Neighbor Spanning Tree Algorithm(N-NST). Additionally, Optimal Delay Balancing (ODB) model will be used to minimizethe end to end delay of each grouping. In addition, the heuristic observes real designparameters such as: capacity and coverage. Using the Dijkstra algorithm, the routes arebuilt following the minimum shorter path. Therefore, this paper presents a heuristic able to plan the deployment of smart meters (SMs) through a tree-like hierarchical topology for theintegration of SMG at the lowest cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0220.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: metabolic strain design; heuristic optimization; constraint-based modeling
Online: 27 March 2018 (05:55:32 CEST)
To date, several independent methods and algorithms exist exploiting constraint-based stoichiometric models to find metabolic engineering strategies that optimize microbial production performance. Optimization procedures based on metaheuristics facilitate a straightforward adaption and expansion of engineering objectives as well as fitness functions, while being particularly suited for solving problems of high complexity. With the increasing interest in multi-scale models and a need for solving advanced engineering problems, we strive to advance genetic algorithms, which stand out due to their intuitive optimization principles and proven usefulness in this field of research. A drawback of genetic algorithms is that premature convergence to sub-optimal solutions easily occurs if the optimization parameters are not adapted to the specific problem. Here, we conducted comprehensive parameter sensitivity analyses to study their impact on finding optimal strain designs. We further demonstrate the capability of genetic algorithms to simultaneously handle (i) multiple, non-linear engineering objectives, (ii) the identification of gene target-sets according to logical gene-protein-reaction associations, (iii) minimization of the number of network perturbations, and (iv) the insertion of non-native reactions, while employing genome-scale metabolic models. This framework adds a level of sophistication in terms of strain design robustness, which is exemplarily tested on succinate overproduction in Escherichia coli.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0838.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Systematic review; Optimization; Heuristic algorithm; Multi-objective; Building façade
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:55:38 CEST)
Building facade design plays an essential role in enhancing energy efficiency and reducing environmental impact in high-performance building design. Balancing the conflicts among various building facade design parameters to satisfy different optimization objectives constitutes a highly complex optimization problem. The rapidly increasing number of studies demonstrates a significant interest in implementing multi-objective optimization methods to tackle building facade optimization problems. This study conducts a systematic review of optimization methods for building facade optimization (BFO). The optimization objectives and design variables are categorized based on their characteristics. The efficiency and effectiveness of optimization algorithms in addressing BFO problems are compared. Building optimization techniques and tools are showcased, along with their functions and limitations. Key findings highlight the robust feasibility and effectiveness of optimization algorithms, methods, and techniques in resolving a diverse range of BFO challenges. The limitations, challenges, and future potential of these methods are summarized and proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1142.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: WSN; DVHOP; Localization; Meta-heuristic algorithms; Simulated annealing; PSO
Online: 15 June 2023 (12:28:34 CEST)
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are mostly utilized in many applications. Indeed, WSN is composed of sensors to evaluate some physical phenomena. However, the information brought by the sensor still missed if we don't know the exact location of the event. Several localization algorithms have been proposed in order to locate the nodes in WSN. The localization algorithms are categorized into range-based and range-free techniques. The range-based techniques use either distance or time to calculate the coordinates of unknown nodes. Nevertheless, those kinds of techniques need some additional material in computation purpose. Therefore, range-based techniques present an expensive solution for positioning in WSN. Alternatively, range-free techniques may do the same task without involving additional material. But they don’t offer a high precision of localization in comparison with range-based techniques. DVHOP is the most popular range-free technique that uses the hop count method in the localization process. In this work, we propose an improvement of DVHOP localization algorithm to create three improved versions of this algorithm and we have achieved that by adopting two meta-heuristic (simulated annealing, particle swarm optimization) and FMINCON solver dedicated to the optimization in the field of WSN nodes localization. The experimental results obtained in this work show clearly the gain and the good impact of our proposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0242.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: capacitated lot-sizing problem, heuristic, simulation based optimization, remanufacturing
Online: 21 April 2023 (09:46:54 CEST)
We present a new model formulation for a class of capacitated lot-sizing problem considering setup costs, product returns, and remanufacturing (CLSP-RM). We investigate a broad class of instances that fall into two groups, in the first group we can reformulate the problem with a relaxation and test whether the original problem is solvable. The relaxation gives near optimal solutions and the solution of this class does not give any difficulty to known solvers such as Cplex, Gurobi or Xpress. The second group of instances are of category NP and will be solved with a simple period-by-period simulation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0301.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: combinatorial optimization; orienteering problem; meta-heuristic; iterated local search
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:51:36 CEST)
The capacitated team orienteering problem with time windows (CTOPTW) is a NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. In the CTOPTW, a set of customers is given each with a profit, a demand, a service time and a time window. A homogeneous fleet of vehicles is available for serving customers and collecting their associated profits. Each vehicle is constrained by a maximum tour duration and a limited capacity. The CTOPTW is concerned with the determination of a preset number of vehicle tours that begin and end at a depot, visit each customer no more than once while satisfying the time duration, time window and vehicle capacity constraints on each tour. The objective is to maximize the total profit collected. In this study we propose an iterated local search (ILS) algorithm to deal with the CTOPTW. ILS is a single solution based meta-heuristic that successively invokes a local search procedure to explore the solution space. A perturbation operator is used to modify the current local optimum solution in order to provide a starting solution for the local search procedure. As different problems and instances have different characteristics, the success of the ILS is highly dependent on the local search procedure, the perturbation operator(s) and the perturbation strength. The basic ILS uses a single perturbation operator and the perturbation strength remains the same during the optimization process. To address these issues, we use three different perturbation operators and a varying perturbation strength which changes as the algorithm progresses. The idea is to assign a larger perturbation strength in the early stages of the search in order to focus on exploring the search space. The perturbation strength is gradually decreased so that we focus more on exploitation. The computational results show that the proposed ILS algorithm is able to generate high quality solutions on the CTOPTW benchmark instances taken from the scientific literature, demonstrating its efficiency in terms of both the solution quality and computational time. Moreover, the proposed ILS produces 21 best known results and 5 new best solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0955.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Meta-heuristic; Dominating tree; Dual neighborhoods; Fast neighborhood evaluation; Optimization
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:13:05 CEST)
The minimum dominating tree (MDT) problem consists of finding a minimum weight sub-graph from an undirected graph, such that each vertex not in this sub-graph is adjacent to at least one of the vertices in it, and the sub-graph is connected without any ring structures. This paper presents a Dual Neighborhoods Search (DNS) algorithm for solving the MDT problem, which integrates several distinguishing features, such as two neighborhoods collaboratively working for optimizing the objective function, a fast neighborhood evaluation method to boost the searching effectiveness, and several diversification techniques to help the searching process jump out of the local optimum trap thus obtaining better solutions. DNS improves the previous best-known results for 4 public benchmark instances while providing competitive results for the remaining ones. Several ingredients of DNS are investigated to demonstrate the importance of the proposed ideas and techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0385.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: fuzzy theory; heuristic search; stochastic economic load dispatch; risk analysis
Online: 26 July 2022 (05:21:14 CEST)
A thermal load dispatch problem minimizes the number of objectives viz operating cost and emission of gaseous pollutants together while allocating the power demand among the committed generating units subject to physical and technological system constraints. A stochastic thermal load dispatch problem is undertaken while taking into consideration, the uncertainties, errors in data measurements and nature of load demand which is random. Owing to uncertain load demand, variance due to mismatch of power demand termed as risk, is considered as another conflicting objective to be minimized. Generally multiobjective problems generate a set of non-inferior solutions are generated and supplied to a decision maker to select the best solution from the set of non-inferior solutions. This paper proposes opposition-based greedy heuristic search (OGHS) method to generate a set of non-inferior solutions. Opposition-based learning is applied to generate initial population to select good candidates. Migration to maintain diversity in the set of feasible solutions is also based on opposition-based learning. Mutation strategy is implemented by perturbing the genes heuristically in parallel and better one solution is sought for each member. Feasible solutions are achieved heuristically by modifying the generation-schedules in such a manner that violation of operating generation limits are avoided. The OGHS method is simple to implement and provides global solutions derived from the randomness of the population generated without tuning of parameters. Decision maker exploits fuzzy membership functions to decide the final decision. Validity of the method has been demonstrated by analysing systems in different scenarios consisting of six generators and forty generators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0194.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: container terminal; simulation; simulation-based optimisation; meta-heuristic; horizontal transportation
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:59:50 CET)
At container terminals, many cargo handling processes are interconnected and take place in parallel. Within short time windows, many operational decisions need to be taken considering both time and equipment efficiency. During operation, many sources for disturbance exist. These are the reason why perfectly coordinated processes are possibly unraveled. An approach that considers disturbance factors while optimizing a given objective is simulation-based optimization. This study analyses simulation-based optimization as a procedure to simultaneously scale the number of utilized equipment and to adjust the choice and tuning of operational policies. The four meta-heuristics Tree-structured Parzen Estimator, Bayesian Optimization, Simulated Annealing, and Random Search guide the simulation-based optimization process. The results show that simulation-based optimization is suitable to identify the amount of required equipment and well-performing policies. Thereby, there is no clear ranking which of the meta-heuristics finds the best approximation of the optimum. The approximated optima suggest that pooling terminal trucks as well as a yard block assignment close to the quay crane is preferable. With an increasing number of quay cranes, the number of optimal terminal trucks for each quay crane decreases as well as the range of truck utilization within one experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: high-voltage powerline inspection; vehicle routing; arc routing; drone; heuristic
Online: 7 February 2019 (12:59:30 CET)
A novel high-voltage powerline inspection system is investigated, which consists of the cooperated ground vehicle and drone. The ground vehicle acts as a mobile platform that can launch and recycle the drone, while the drone can fly over the powerline for inspection within limited endurance. This inspection system enables the drone to inspect powerline networks in a very large area. Both vehicle’ route in the road network and drone’s routes along the powerline network have to be optimized for improving the inspection efficiency, which generates a new two-layer point-arc routing problem. Two constructive heuristics are designed based on “Cluster First, Rank Second” and “Rank First, Split Second”. Then local search strategies are developed to further improve the quality of the solution. To test the performance of the proposed algorithms, practical cases with different-scale are designed based on the road network and powerline network of Ji’an, China. Sensitivity analysis on the parameters related with the drone’s inspection speed and battery capacity is conducted. Computational results indicate that technical improvement on the inspection sensor is more important for the cooperated ground vehicle and drone system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0074.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: vehicle routing problem; time window; parallel meta-heuristic; cooperative search; tabu search
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:08:33 CEST)
This paper presents a cooperative parallel tabu search meta-heuristic for the vehicle routing problem with time windows. It is based on the scheme in which several search threads cooperate by asynchronously exchanging information on the best solutions identified. The exchanges are performed through a mechanism called adaptive memory which holds and manages a pool of solutions. This enforces the asynchronous strategy of information exchanges and ensures the independence of the individual search threads. Each of these independent threads implements a tabu search meta-heuristic. Comprehensive computational experiments and comparisons to best known solutions show that the proposed cooperative parallel tabu search algorithm is able to achieve 48 new best solutions on VRPTW benchmark instances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: two-echelon routing; vehicle routing; truck and drone; heuristic; simulated annealing algorithm
Online: 19 February 2019 (15:17:33 CET)
A new variant of two-echelon routing problem is investigated, where the truck and the drone are used to cooperatively complete the deliveries of all parcels. The truck not only acts as a tool for parcel delivery, but also serves as a moving depot for the drone. The drone can carry several parcels and take off from the truck, while returning to the truck after completing the delivery. The energy consumption model for the routing process of the drone is analyzed, when it is utilized to deliver multiple parcels. A two-stage route-based modelling approach is proposed to optimize both the truck’s main route and the drone’s adjoint flying routes. A hybrid heuristic integrating nearest neighbor and cost saving strategies is developed to quickly construct a feasible solution. The simulated annealing algorithm is applied to improve the quality of the solution, where a Tabu list is employed to improve the search efficiency. Random instances at different scales are used to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. A case study based on the practical road network in Changsha, China, is presented, through which the sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to some critical factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0752.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: geospatial models; model integration framework; model servicized structure; prioritization-based orchestration; heuristic scheduling
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:03:34 CET)
With the rapid development of Earth observation and information technology, people are increasingly able to access geospatial models. Geospatial models, based on principles of geography, utilize mathematical, statistical, as well as computer science methods to interpret and predict geographic phenomena. These models can be applied in the fields such as urban planning, environmental protection, traffic management to help decision-makers solve geography-related problems. However, integrating different geospatial models to collaboratively solve complex geographic problems still faces significant obstacles due to heterogeneity in model structure, dependencies, and running modes. In this study, we propose a containerized service-based integration framework for heterogeneous geospatial models (GeoCSIF). GeoCSIF consists of three main components: (1) Model encapsulation. It breaks down complicated geospatial models into independently manageable model units, and builds as unified service packages with a templated constraint method. (2) Model orchestration. It achieves an optimal combination of large-scale models with complex dependencies using a prioritization-based orchestration method. (3) Model publication. It incorporates heuristics into the model scheduling process, which can provide adaptive deployment for different model runs. Finally, a prototype system was developed to validate the effectiveness and progressiveness of GeoCSIF by the integrating process of heterogeneous flood disaster models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0733.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Seed viability; spectrometry; variable selection method; machine learning; non-destructive diagnosis; meta-heuristic algorithm
Online: 13 November 2023 (09:25:39 CET)
Peanuts, owing to their composition of complex carbohydrates, plant protein, unsaturated fatty acids, and essential minerals (magnesium, iron, zinc, and potassium), hold significant potential as a vital component of the human diet. Additionally, their low water requirements and nitrogen fixation capacity make them an appropriate choice for cultivation in adverse environmental conditions. The germination ability of seeds profoundly impacts the final yield of the crop, assessing seed viability of extreme importance. Conventional methods for assessing seed viability and germination are both time-consuming and costly. To address these challenges, this study investigated Visible-Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Vis/NIR) in the wavelength range of 500-1030 nm as a non-destructive and rapid method to determine the viability of two varieties of peanut seeds: North Carolina-2 (NC-2) and Spanish flower (Florispan). The study subjected the seeds to three levels of artificial aging through heat treatment, involving incubation in a controlled environment at a relative humidity of 85% and a temperature of 50°C over 24-hour intervals. The absorbance spectra noise was significantly mitigated and corrected to a large extent by combining the Savitzky-Golay (SG) and Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) methods. To identify the optimal wavelengths for seed viability assessment, a range of meta-heuristic algorithms were employed, including world competitive contest (WCC), league championship algorithm (LCA), Genetics (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA), learning automata (LA), heat transfer optimization (HTS), forest optimization (FOA), discrete symbiotic organisms search (DSOS), and cuckoo optimization (CUK). These algorithms offer powerful optimization capabilities for effectively extracting relevant wavelength information from spectral data. Results revealed that all the algorithms demonstrated remarkable accuracy in predicting the allometric coefficient of seeds, achieving correlation coefficients exceeding 0.985 and errors below 0.0036, respectively. In terms of execution time, the ICA (2.3635 seconds) and LCA (44.9389 seconds) algorithms exhibited the most and least efficient performance, respectively. Conversely, the FOA and the LCA algorithms excelled in identifying the least number of optimal wavelengths (10 wavelengths). Subsequently, the seeds were classified based on the wavelengths selected by the FOA (10 wavelengths) and (DSOS (16 wavelengths) methods, in conjunction with logistic regression (LR), decision tree (DT), Multilayer Perceptron (MP), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (K-NN), and NaiveBayes (NB) classifiers. The DSOS-DT and FOA-MP methods demonstrated the highest accuracy, yielding values of 0.993 and 0.983, respectively. Conversely, the DSOS-LR and DSOS-KNN methods obtained the lowest accuracy, with values of 0.958 and 0.961, respectively. Overall, our findings demonstrated that Vis/NIR spectroscopy, coupled with variable selection algorithms and learning methods, presents a suitable and non-destructive approach for detecting seed viability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1423.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid heuristic approach; distributed generation; renewable energy systems; voltage profile; power losses; simulation; modeling
Online: 21 September 2023 (05:35:05 CEST)
One of the rapidly developing research areas in the power system is the integration of distributed generation (DG) with the distribution system. The size and location of DG sources had a considerable impact on power system networks. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be used to address multidimensional problems relating to DG size and location in distribution systems. Heuristic optimization offers a reliable and effective method for solving complicated real-world problems. This work focuses on a hybrid approach that combines the two heuristic optimization methods i.e., Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for the optimal siting and sizing of DG in distribution systems. This hybrid approach combines ideas from GA and PSO and generates individuals in a new generation using both PSO mechanisms and the procedures found in GA. An extensive performance analysis of the IEEE 14 busbar standard test system is conducted to demonstrate the viability of the suggested methodologies. In the designated locations, DG is placed, and the outcomes have been verified. The results indicated that the right placement of DG injection enhances the voltage profile and lowers the distributed system’s power losses. These techniques offer unique methods for determining the location of the DG unit, demonstrating the potential of such a computational techniques to reduce computing time and complexity while simultaneously reducing human errors associated with hit-and-trail methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1375.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: complex system; key influencing factors; causal network; heuristic causal inference; causal pathway contribution degree
Online: 21 August 2023 (03:08:36 CEST)
In complex systems constrained by multiple factors, it is of great significance to accurately identify the key influencing factors for mastering the evolution and development law of the system and obtaining scientific decision-making suggestions or schemes. At present, the method based on experimental simulation is limited by the difficulty of system model construction; the method based on decision trial and Evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) involves a wide range of subjects and is greatly influenced by subjective factors. In view of this, we propose a novel model based on heuristic causal inference. The model uses the FCI algorithm with prior knowledge to learn the global causal network among multiple factors of the complex system. The causal effect among variables in the causal network is calculated by using heuristic causal inference method. Specifically, the causal path contribution degree of cause variable to target variable is calculated to replace the causal effect of each cause variable to target variable. The key influencing factors in the system are screened out according to the contribution degree of causal pathways. Based on the dataset generated in the production process of a semiconductor manufacturing system, we carried out simulation experiments, identified several factors that have a key impact on product quality, and proved the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0443.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Energy management; smart grid; sustainability; heuristic optimization algorithm; peak to average rations; user comfort
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:19:02 CEST)
The use of smart grids has enabled a number of planning methods to be developed to optimize energy costs, Peak to Average Ratios (PARs), and consumer satisfaction for load management in industrial, commercial, and domestic sectors. From a technical point of view, achieving optimal outcomes requires Demand Side Management (DSM). In smart grids, utility companies and electric users communicate two-way using digital technology to make a sustainable and economic system. This paper proposes a novel framework within which an Energy Management Controller (EMC) keeps track of each appliance, its operational time, and the costs associated with them. Customers of smart grids are motivated to shift their Off-Peak Hours (OPH) from Peak Hours by presenting incentives in OPH. The metering devices would also save customers costs by preventing load shifting between high- and low-cost periods. In addition, the study proposes the bacterial foraging algorithm and grasshopper optimization algorithm for lessening power price and PAR without compromising user comfort (UC) through appliance planning. The simulation results on a practical test system advocate the high effectiveness and reliable performance of the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1345.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: area studied; BLFR model; BI-LSTM-CRF; improved heuristic disambiguation method; feature template; random forest
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:43:30 CEST)
Geospatial knowledge in massive academic papers can provide knowledge services such as location-based research hotspot analysis, spatio-temporal data aggregation, research results recommendation, etc. However, geospatial knowledge often exists implicitly in literature resources in unstructured form, which is difficult to be directly accessed and mined and utilized for rapid production of massive thematic maps. In this paper, we take the geospatial knowledge of the area studied as an example and introduce its extraction method in detail. An integrated feature template matching and random forest classification algorithm is proposed for accurately identifying research areas from the abstract texts of academic papers and producing thematic maps. Firstly, the precise recognition of geographical names is achieved step by step based on BiLSTM-CRF algorithm and improved heuristic disambiguation method; then, the area studied is extracted by the designed integrated feature recognition template of area studied using random forest classification algorithm, and a fast thematic map is designed for the knowledge of area studied, topic and literature. The experimental results show that the area studied recognition accuracy can reach 97%, the F-value is 96%, and the recall rate reaches 96%, achieving high accuracy and high efficiency of area studied extraction in text. Based on the geospatial knowledge, the thematic map can achieve the effect of fast map formation and accurate expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: FACTS devices; FACTS optimization problem; conventional optimization techniques; Meta heuristic methods; sensitive index methods; mixed methods
Online: 28 April 2023 (05:32:12 CEST)
Using flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices in power systems while adhering to some equality and inequality constraints, researchers around the world sought to address this issue with the objectives of improving the voltage profile, reducing power losses in transmission lines, and increasing system reliability and safety. The recent development of FACTS controllers opens up new perspectives for safer and more efficient operation of electrical power networks by continuous and rapid action on power systems parameters, such as phase angle shifting, voltage injection and line impedance compensation. Thus, an improvement on voltage profile and enhancement of power transfer capability can be obtained. It is for that, the idea behind the FACTS concept is to enable the transmission system to be an active element in increasing the flexibility of power transfer requirements and in securing stability of integrated power system. It may also be effective in transient stability improvement, power oscillations damping and balancing power flow in parallel lines. The primary issue that has significantly piqued the interest of a number of researchers working in this field is the FACTS optimization problem, which involves determining the optimal type, location, and size of FACTS devices in electrical power systems. For solving this mixed integer, nonlinear and non-convex optimization problem, this paper provides an in-depth and comprehensive review of the various optimization techniques covered in published works in the field. In this review, a classification of optimization techniques in five main groups that are widely used, such as classical optimization techniques or conventional optimization approaches, Meta heuristic methods, analytic methods or sensitive index methods and mixed or hybrid methods, is summarized. In addition, a performance descriptions and comparison of these different optimization techniques are discussed in this study. Finally, some advice is offered for future research in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0481.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Meta-heuristic algorithm; Jellyfish search algorithm; Sine and cosine learning factors; Local escape operator; Opposition-based learning
Online: 26 December 2022 (09:06:46 CET)
Jellyfish search (JS) algorithm impersonates the foraging behavior of jellyfish in the ocean. It is a new developed meta-heuristic algorithm that solves complex and real world optimization problems. The global explore capability and robustness of JS are strong, but JS still has great development space in solving complex optimization problems with high dimensions and multiple local optima. Therefore, an enhanced jellyfish search (EJS) algorithm is developed in this study, and three improvements are made: (i) By adding sine and cosine learning factors, the jellyfish can learn from both random individual and best individual during Type B motion in swarm to enhance the optimization capability and convergence speed; (ii) Adding local escape operator can skip local optimal trap and boost the exploitation ability of JS; (iii) Opposition-based learning operator and quasi-opposition learning operator can increase and strengthen the population distribution more diversified, and better individuals are selected from present and new opposition-solution to participates in the next iteration, which can boost the solution’s quality, meanwhile convergence speed is fasted and its precision is increased. In addition, the performance contrast of the developed EJS and some previous outstanding and advanced methods are evaluated on CEC2017, CEC2019 test suite and six real engineering example of case. It is demonstrated that EJS algorithm escaped the trap of local optimum, enhanced the solution’s quality and the calculation speed. What’s more, the practical engineering applications of EJS algorithm also verify its superiority and effectiveness in solving both constrained and unconstrained optimization problems, and it stretched one’s mind for solving such optimization problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0221.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: seagrass; remote sensing; machine learning; species distribution model (SDM); hybrid model; habitat suitability; niches; meta-heuristic optimization
Online: 15 September 2022 (07:32:27 CEST)
Globally, seagrass meadows provide critical ecosystem services. However, seagrasses are globally degraded at an accelerated rate. The lack of information on seagrass spatial distribution and seagrass health status seriously hinders seagrass conservation and management. Therefore, this study proposes to combine remote sensing big data with a new hybrid machine learning model (RF-SWOA) to predict potential seagrass habitats. The multivariate remote sensing data is used to train the machine learning model, which can improve the prediction accuracy of the model. This study shows that a hybrid machine learning model (RF-SWOA) can predict potential seagrass habitats more accurately and effectively than traditional models. At the same time, it has been shown that the most important factors influencing the potential habitat of seagrass in the Hainan region were the distance from land (38.2%) and the depth of the ocean (25.9%). This paper provides a more accurate machine learning model approach for predicting the distribution of marine species, which can help develop seagrass conservation strategies to restore healthy seagrass ecosystems.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: harmony search; meta-heuristic; parameter optimization; software defect prediction; just-in-time prediction; software quality assurance; maintenance; maritime transportation
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:27:46 CET)
Software is playing the most important role in recent vehicle innovation, and consequently the amount of software has been rapidly growing last decades. Safety-critical nature of ships, one sort of vehicles, makes Software Quality Assurance (SQA) has gotten to be a fundamental prerequisite. Just-In-Time Software Defect Prediction (JIT-SDP) aims to conduct software defect prediction (SDP) on commit-level code changes to achieve effective SQA resource allocation. The first case study of SDP in maritime domain reported feasible prediction performance. However, we still consider that the prediction model has still rooms for improvement since the parameters of the model are not optimized yet. Harmony Search (HS) is a widely used music-inspired meta-heuristic optimization algorithm. In this article, we demonstrated that JIT-SDP can produce the better performance of prediction by applying HS-based parameter optimization with balanced fitness value. Using two real-world datasets from the maritime software project, we obtained an optimized model that meets the performance criterion beyond baseline of previous case study throughout various defect to non-defect class imbalance ratio of datasets. Experiments with open source software also showed better recall for all datasets despite we considered balance as performance index. HS-based parameter optimized JIT-SDP can be applied to the maritime domain software with high class imbalance ratio. Finally, we expect that our research can be extended to improve performance of JIT-SDP not only in maritime domain software but also in open source software.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0007.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization; Swarm Intelligence; Evolutionary Computation; Intelligent Agents; Optimization; Hybrid Algorithms; Heuristic Search; Approximate Algorithms; Robotics and Autonomous Systems; Applications of PSO
Online: 2 September 2018 (15:29:55 CEST)
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a metaheuristic global optimization paradigm that has gained prominence in the last two decades due to its ease of application in unsupervised, complex multidimensional problems which cannot be solved using traditional deterministic algorithms. The canonical particle swarm optimizer is based on the flocking behavior and social co-operation of birds and fish schools and draws heavily from the evolutionary behavior of these organisms. This paper serves to provide a thorough survey of the PSO algorithm with special emphasis on the development, deployment and improvements of its most basic as well as some of the very recent state–of-the-art implementations. Concepts and directions on choosing the inertia weight, constriction factor, cognition and social weights and perspectives on convergence, parallelization, elitism, niching and discrete optimization as well as neighborhood topologies are outlined. Hybridization attempts with other evolutionary and swarm paradigms in selected applications are covered and an up-to-date review is put forward for the interested reader.