REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy; renewable energy; robotics; drones; automation; embedded systems; system on chip
Online: 14 November 2022 (04:55:39 CET)
Considering the actual world economical trends, one of the most important questions is now and in the future: how to reduce power consumption of electronic systems. Since the invention of computers, the electrical energy consumption step by step increased. Now when not only computers, but electric vehicles, robots, automation, and unmanned aerial vehicles play a very important role of our life, the main problem of system designers is how to reduce energy consumption in these systems. But also the existing already working systems must be revised in order to decrease their electric power consumption. The importance of this subject (energy control) shows that a huge number of research publications and survey papers deal with it. Just focusing on the last one or two years (2021 and 2022) the search hit 221000 titles (103000 hits only in 2022). Analyzing all the research areas is almost impossible, but focusing on some important research subjects, where one of the main topic is “energy saving methods” can give an overview about the subject. The paper focuses on the area of industrial robotic systems, electric vehicles, and embedded systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Hardware Security; Physical Unclonable Functions; Device Authentication; Key Generation; Reconfigurable Devices; Embedded Systems
Online: 9 September 2022 (04:16:24 CEST)
Generation of unique identifiers extracted from the physical characteristics of the underlying hardware ensures the protection of electronic devices against counterfeiting and provides security to the data they store and process. This work describes the design of an efficient Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) based on the differences in the frequency of Ring Oscillators (ROs) with identical layout due to variations in technological processes involved in the manufacture of the integrated circuit. The logic resources available in the Xilinx Series-7 programmable devices are exploited in the design to make it more compact and achieve an optimal bit-per-area rate. On the other hand, the design parameters can also be adjusted to provide a high bit-per-time rate for a particular target device. The PUF has been encapsulated as a configurable Intellectual Property (IP) module, providing it with an AXI4-Lite interface to ease its incorporation into embedded systems in combination with soft- or hard-core implementations of general-purpose processors. The capability of the proposed RO-PUF to generate implementation-dependent identifiers has been extensively tested, using a series of metrics to evaluate its reliability and robustness for different configuration options. Finally, in order to demonstrate its utility to improve system security, the identifiers provided by RO-PUFs implemented on different devices have been used in a Helper Data Algorithm (HDA) to obfuscate and retrieve a secret key.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0556.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wave energy converter; model predictive control; comparitive of robustness; embedded integrator; mathematical model; identification methodology; real time series
Online: 28 September 2018 (08:21:41 CEST)
This work is located in a growing sector within the field of renewable energies, wave energy converters (WECs). Specifically, it focuses on one of the point absorbers wave (PAWs) of the hybrid platform W2POWER. With the aim of maximising the mechanical power extracted from the waves by these WECs and reduce their mechanical fatigue, the design of five different model predictive controllers (MPCs) with hard and soft constraints has been carried out. As contribution of this paper, two of the MPCs have been designed with the addition of an embedded integrator. In order to validate the MPCs, an exhaustive study on performance and robustness is realized through simulations carried out in which uncertainties in the WEC dynamics are considered. Furthermore, looking for realistic in these simulations, an identification methodology for PAWs is proposed and validated by means of real time series of a scale prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0956.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: embedded system; FPGA; Z80; ZX Spectrum+
Online: 15 November 2023 (10:35:30 CET)
The ZX Spectrum was a popular 8-bit home computer by Sinclair Research in the 80s. Even though some of these computers may still work, the audio tapes, the TV with an analog tuner and the micro-switch joystick, used with the original ZX Spectrum, nowadays are outdated and hard to find in good working order or replicate. Since many other old closed systems are also very difficult to update to support modern peripherals, there is a necessity to provide a methodology to adapt such systems to support new peripherals while being compatible with existing software. The work proposed in this paper is focused on recreating a ZX Spectrum+/48k computer and interface it with modern peripherals on an FPGA. This is accomplished by adding a co-processor to assist with the control of the new peripherals which would either require to complex architectural changes to the original system and in the end it would perform poorly due to the low performance of the Z80 CPU. This work distances from previous ones on emulating a ZX Spectrum since it focuses on the use of different upgraded peripherals and the use of a NIOS II soft-processor as a co-processor to manage the SD Card accesses. A demonstration of the proposed modernized architecture was made by successfully running a diagnostics ROM and playing original ZX Spectrum games from an SD card for game with a PS/2 keyboard and a pair of joysticks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1989.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: embedded cooling; microchannel; heat dissipation; heat exchange
Online: 28 June 2023 (10:26:07 CEST)
High in reliability, multi in function, strong in tracking and detecting, active phased array antennas have been widely applied in radar system. Heat dissipation is a major technological barrier preventing the realization of next-generation high-performance phased array antennas. As a result of the advancement of miniaturization and the in-tegration of microelectronics technology, the study and development of embedded di-rect cooling or heat dissipation has significantly enhanced the heat dissipation effect. In this paper, a novel swept-back fishnet embedded microchannel topology (SBFEMCT) is designed, and various microchannel models with different fishnet runner mesh den-sity ratios and different fishnet runner layers are established to characterize the chip Tmax, runner Pmax, and Tmax and analyze the thermal effect of SBFEMCT under these two operating conditions. The Pmax is reduced to 72.37% and 57.12% of the original at mesh density ratios of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125, respectively. The maximum temperature reduction figures are average with little change in maximum velocity and a small increase in maximum pressure drop for the number of fishing mesh runner layers of 0-4. This paper provides a study of the latest embedded thermal dissipation from the dimension of a single chip to provide a certain degree of new ideas and ref-erences for solving the thermal technology bottleneck of next-generation high-performance phased array antennas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: phased array radar; embedded computing; serial RapidIO, MPAR
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:43:50 CEST)
This paper investigates the feasibility of a backend design for real-time, multiple-channel processing digital phased array system, particularly for high-performance embedded computing platforms constructed of using general purpose digital signal processors. Frist, we obtained the lab-scale backend performance benchmark from simulating beamforming, pulse compression, and Doppler filtering based on MicroTCA chassis using Serial RapidIO protocol in backplane communication. Next, a field-scale demonstrator of a multifunctional phased array radar is emulated by using the similar configuration. Interestingly, the performance of a barebone design is compared to that of emerging tools that systematically take advantage of parallelism and multicore capabilities, including Open Computing Language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0884.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: network security; packet sniffer; packet classification; FPGA; embedded systems
Online: 13 September 2023 (11:51:05 CEST)
In recent years web applications and on-line business transactions have grown many folds. Consequently, also cyberattacks have increased and represent a serious threat to the pervasive digital services upon which our society relies. To mitigate cyberattacks, many countermeasures are deployed on computing nodes (e.g., anti-malware software) as well as on network devices to detect and possibly block malicious packets in transit; these monitoring devices broadly go under the name of firewalls. Firewalls are designed according to two main architectural approaches: software running on a standard or embedded computer, or purposedly designed hardware, e.g., ASICs. Software-based solutions have the advantage of high flexibility and can be ported on easily upgradable hardware. However, hardware implementation represents the only viable solution for high data rates. On the market, very fast devices of the latter kind are available, but their cost is typically very high, especially considering that their ultra-optimized design makes updating them very difficult, with the consequence of a rather short lifespan. As a more balanced alternative, we wanted to investigate the use of an FPGA architecture, , which is significantly easier to update than custom-built chips, and features low-latency and high-throughput characteristics concurrently, making it preferrable to other programmable systems based on GPUs or microcontrollers. In this paper a packet sniffer that has been designed on FPGA with a 1 Gbit/s data transfer rate is presented. The system is implemented on the FPGA development board KC705 by Xilinx, can analyze Ethernet frames, checking the frame fields against a set of rules defined by the user and calculates statistics of the received Ethernet frames over time. The designed packet sniffer has been successfully tested both with Ethernet frames ad hoc generated using a packets generator, and with real web traffic by connecting the packet sniffer to the internet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0123.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: vacancies; diffusion; metals; density functional theory; embedded atom method
Online: 7 April 2023 (10:52:54 CEST)
Voids in face-centered cubic (fcc) metals are commonly assumed to form by the aggregation of vacancies; however, the mechanisms of vacancy clustering and diffusion are not fully understood. In this study, we use computational modeling to provide a detailed insight into the structures and formation energies of primary vacancy clusters, mechanisms and barriers for their migration in bulk copper, and how these properties are affected at simple grain boundaries. The calculations were carried out using Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potentials and Density Functional Theory (DFT) and employed the Site-Occupation Disorder code (SOD), the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn) and the Knowledge Led Master Code (KLMC). We investigate stable structures and migration paths and barriers for clusters of up to six vacancies. Migration of vacancy clusters occurs via hops of individual constituent vacancies with di-vacancies having a significantly smaller migration barrier than mono-vacancies and other clusters. This barrier is further reduced when di-vacancies interact with grain boundaries. This interaction leads to the formation of self-interstitial atoms and introduces significant changes into the boundary structure. Tetra-, penta-, and hexa-vacancy clusters exhibit increasingly complex migration paths and higher barriers than smaller clusters. Finally, the direct comparison with the DFT results shows that EAM can accurately describe the vacancy-induced relaxation effects in the Cu bulk and in grain boundaries. Significant discrepancies between the two methods were found in structures with a higher number of low-coordinated atoms, such as penta-vacancies and di-vacancy absortion by grain boundary. These results will be useful for modeling the mechanisms of diffusion of complex defect structures and provide further insights into the structural evolution of metal films under thermal and mechanical stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: micro segmented genetic algorithm; multicore embedded system; parallel processing
Online: 5 March 2020 (03:23:59 CET)
This paper presents a novel micro-segmented genetic algorithm (μsGA) to identify the best solution for the locomotion of a quadruped robot designed on a rectangular ABS plastic platform. We compare our algorithm with three similar algorithms found in the specialized literature: a standard genetic algorithm (GA), a micro-genetic algorithm (μGA), and a micro artificial immune system (μAIS). The quadruped robot prototype guarantees the same conditions for each test. The platform was developed using 3D printing for the structure and can accommodate the mechanisms, sensors, servomechanisms as actuators. It also has an internal battery and a multicore embedded system (mES) to process and control the robot locomotion. This research proposes a μsGA that segments the individual into specific bytes. μGA techniques are applied to each segment to reduce the processing time; the same benefits as the GA are obtained, while the use of a computer and the high computational resources characteristic of the GA are avoided. This is the reason why some research in robot locomotion is limited to simulation. The results show that the performance of μsGA is better than the three other algorithms (GA, μGA and AIS). The processing time was reduced using a mES architecture that enables parallel processing, meaning that the requirements for resources and memory were reduced. This research solves the problem of continuous locomotion of a quadruped robot, and gives a feasible solution with real performance parameters using a μsGA bio-micro algorithm and a mES architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0337.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: model checking; embedded assembly program; reduction of interrupt handler executions
Online: 6 October 2023 (10:00:30 CEST)
In verifying programs for embedded systems, it is essential to reduce the verification time because state explosion may occur in model checking. One solution is to reduce the number of interrupt handler execution. In particular, when periodic interrupts such as timer interrupts are incorporated, it is necessary to know the physical time. In this paper, we define a control flow automata (CFA) that can handle time and propose an algorithm based on interrupt handler execution reduction (IHER). The proposed method reduces the number of interrupt executions, including timer interrupts. A case study verifies the effectiveness of this algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0052.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Einstein equations; McVittie solution; black hole; dark energy; embedded spacetime
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:17:36 CEST)
One of the solutions of the Einstein equations, called McVittie solution, signifying a black hole embedded by the dynamic spacetime is studied. In the stationary spacetime the Mcvittie metric becomes the Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric (SdS). The geodesic of a freely falling test particle towards the black hole is examined in the SdS spacetime. It is found that unlike Schwarzschild case the potential of such particle becomes maximum at a point where it eventually stops to follow an unstable circular motion and then resumes its motion towards black hole center. It is shown that an observer or system of particles is spaghettified near the black hole singularity in the SdS spacetime. The dynamic of the universe in the framework of McVittie metric, being a generalized time dependent SdS solution, is represented in terms of that point, called stationary or turning point. The motion of the stationary point is studied in various regimes of the expanding universe and the possible outcomes are discussed in brief.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0044.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Scrap; waste; materials; trade; resource flows; embedded emissions; circular economy
Online: 2 October 2020 (13:56:05 CEST)
Growing evidence about the negative socio-environmental consequences of plastic pollution led to various initiatives for better plastic scrap governance and its trade. At the same time, an examination of recent data shows that plastic scrap represents only a fraction of recyclable materials which are traded internationally and are also subject to similar problems of cross-border environmental governance. A limited analysis comparing plastics, textiles, paper and ferrous metals suggests that ongoing momentum for improvement of plastic scrap governance and circularity should also be framed to consider other types of secondary materiais.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: shale gas; MRST; embedded discrete fracture model; open-source implementation
Online: 9 January 2020 (09:59:37 CET)
We present a generic and open-source framework for the numerical modeling of the expected transport and storage mechanisms in unconventional gas reservoirs. These unconventional reservoirs typically contain natural fractures at multiple scales. Considering the importance of these fractures in shale gas production, we perform a rigorous study on the accuracy of different fracture models. The framework is validated against an industrial simulator and is used to perform a history-matching study on the Barnett shale. This work presents an open-source code that leverages cutting-edge numerical modeling capabilities like automatic differentiation, stochastic fracture modeling, multi-continuum modeling and other explicit and discrete fracture models. We modified the conventional mass balance equation to account for the physical mechanisms that are unique to organic-rich source rocks. Some of these include the use of an adsorption isotherm, a dynamic permeability-correction function, and an embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) with fracture-well connectivity. We explore the accuracy of the EDFM for modeling hydraulically-fractured shale-gas wells, which could be connected to natural fractures of finite or infinite conductivity, and could deform during production. Simulation results indicates that although the EDFM provides a computationally efficient model for describing flow in natural and hydraulic fractures, it could be inaccurate under these three conditions: 1. when the fracture conductivity is very low. 2. when the fractures are not orthogonal to the underlying Cartesian grid blocks, and 3. when sharp pressure drops occur in large grid blocks with insufficient mesh refinement. Each of these results are very significant considering that most of the fluids in these ultra-low matrix permeability reservoirs get produced through the interconnected natural fractures, which are expected to have very low fracture conductivities. We also expect sharp pressure drops near the fractures in these shale gas reservoirs, and it is very unrealistic to expect the hydraulic fractures or complex fracture networks to be orthogonal to any structured grid. In conclusion, this paper presents an open-source numerical framework to facilitate the modeling of the expected physical mechanisms in shale-gas reservoirs. The code was validated against published results and a commercial simulator. We also performed a history-matching study on a naturally-fractured Barnett shale-gas well considering adsorption, gas slippage & diffusion and fracture closure as well as proppant embedment, using the framework presented. This work provides the first open-source code that can be used to facilitate the modeling and optimization of fractured shale-gas reservoirs. To provide the numerical flexibility to accurately model stochastic natural fractures that are connected to hydraulically-fractured wells, it is built atop other related open-source codes. We also present the first rigorous study on the accuracy of using EDFM to model both hydraulic fractures and natural fractures that may or may not be interconnected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1859.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RNA virus; negeviruses; SP24 protein; taxonomy; membrane-embedded protein; virus evolution
Online: 30 October 2023 (08:42:49 CET)
This paper describes new horizons in the diversity and taxonomy of negev-like viruses encoding the membrane-embedded SP24 protein. First, our data extend the known host range of SP24-encoding negev-like viruses to include brown algae, fungi, green plants, the phylum Entoprocta, the phylum Mollusca, and vertebrates. Second, our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the evolution of the SP24 gene family may have involved frequent events of inter-order virus genome shuffling. Third, the identification of 2-3 copies of SP24 protein genes in some virus RNAs shows that virus genomes may have acquired additional SP24 genes during the evolutionary process due to duplications or new acquisition steps. Forth, the broad host specificity of some SP24-encoded viruses may be related to an important adaptive role of SP24. Fifth, insect and nematode genomes may acquire viral SP24 genes by putative horizontal transfer from negev-like viruses known to infect species of both taxa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: power consumption; trapezoidal profile; parabolic profile; S-Curve; embedded systems; microcontroller
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:01:02 CEST)
Currently, a wide variety of velocity profiles are used in motion control. Thus, this paper compares the energy consumption of three parabolic, trapezoidal, and S-curve profiles. We studied the case of using embedded systems since they are a powerful solution to monitor and coordinate the movement of devices and machinery in various industries combined with motion control applications. These integrated systems allow precise and efficient control of motors and actuators through control and feedback algorithms. In addition, we propose an alternative methodology for implementing motion controllers using an Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) microcontroller, which computes the trajectory and the control action in real-time. We conducted an experiment using a linear plant composed of a direct current (DC) motor coupled to an endless screw where a carriage is mounted that can move mechanically along a rail a distance of 1.16m. In addition, a 4096 pulses per revolution (PPR) encoder is connected to the motor to measure position and angular velocity, which compute the distance the carriage has moved in meters. A current sensor is used to assess the energy consumption, and 40 tests for each profile were carried out to compare the energy consumption for the three-motion profiles considering cases with and without load on the carriage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0212.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge Graphs; Link Prediction; Semantic-Based Models; Translation Based Embedded Models
Online: 17 February 2022 (11:49:24 CET)
For disciplines like biological science, security, and the medical field, link prediction is a popular research area. To demonstrate the link prediction many methods have been proposed. Some of them that have been demonstrated through this review paper are TransE, Complex, DistMult, and DensE models. Each model defines link prediction with different perceptions. We argue that the practical performance potential of these methods, having similar parameter values, using the fine-tuning technique to evaluate their reliability and reproducibility of results. We describe those methods and experiments; provide theoretical proofs and experimental examples, demonstrating how current link prediction methods work in such settings. We use the standard evaluation metrics for testing the model's ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Road engineering; Optical-fiber-embedded beam; BOTDA technology; Subgrade settlement; Model test
Online: 6 July 2023 (05:45:27 CEST)
In this study, Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensing technology was utilized for monitoring settlement in a similarity model of a highway subgrade. As contact winding cannot be used for an optical fiber that is buried directly in soil, uncoupling between. the fiber and the soil can occur. Thus, an optical-fiber-embedded beam (OFEB) was developed, and a method for measuring and calculating the beam deformation was proposed. A calibration test and a test on a similarity model of a subgrade were carried out to investigate the applicability and monitoring accuracy of the OFEB. It was concluded that the OFEB can accurately measure beam deflection, where the maximum relative error between measurements by the optical fiber and a displacement transducer was approximately 5%. The OFEB was embedded directly into a similarity model of a subgrade to monitor settlement. The deflection deformation of the OFEB was found to be close to the subgrade settlement over a certain settlement range with a relative error below 8.1%. Thus, the OFEB can be used to realize measure large-range distributed settlement in a subgrade. A numerical simulation was performed to identify appropriate beam dimensions and material design parameters, thereby extending the measurement range before decoupling of the OFEB and soil occurs. The enhancement of the measurement range and accuracy of the OFEB based on the preliminary experiments carried out in this study enables further investigation of settlement monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Embedded Sensors; Sensing Technology; Smart Materials; Structural Health Monitoring; Non-Destructive Evaluation
Online: 26 October 2022 (12:19:56 CEST)
Sensing Technology (ST) plays a key role in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems. ST focuses on developing sensors, sensory systems or smart materials that monitor a wide variety of materials properties aiming to create smart structures and smart materials, using Embedded Sensors (ESs), and allowing continuous and permanent measurements of the structural integrity. The integration of ESs is limited to the processing technology to embed the sensor due to its high-temperature sensitivity and the possibility of damage during its insertion into the structure. In addition, the technological process selection is dependent on the base material composition, either metallic or composite parts. The selection of smart sensors or the technology underlying them is fundamental to the monitoring mode. This paper presents a critical review of the fundaments and applications of sensing technologies for SHM employing ESs, focusing on the actual developments and innovation of these, as well as analysing the challenges that these technologies present, to build a path that allows a connected world through distributed measurement systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0343.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep learning; sound event detection; convolutional neural networks; audio processing; embedded systems
Online: 9 November 2020 (14:21:39 CET)
For the Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) market to continue its current growth rate, cost-effective "Detect and Avoid" systems that enable safe beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) operations are critical. We propose an audio-based "Detect and Avoid" system, composed of microphones and an embedded computer, which performs real-time inferences using a sound event detection (SED) deep learning model. Two state-of-the-art SED models, YAMNet and VGGish, are fine-tuned using our dataset of aircraft sounds and their performances are compared for a wide range of configurations. YAMNet, whose MobileNet architecture is designed for embedded applications, outperformed VGGish both in terms of aircraft detection and computational performance. YAMNet's optimal configuration, with > 70% true positive rate and precision, results from combining data augmentation and undersampling with the highest available inference frequency (i.e. 10 Hz). While our proposed "Detect and Avoid" system already allows the detection of small aircraft from sound in real time, additional testing using multiple aircraft types is required. Finally, a larger training dataset, sensor fusion, or remote computations on cloud-based services could further improve system performance.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: printed electronics; Aerosol Jet® printing; direct-write technology; embedded PTF resistors
Online: 4 February 2020 (05:44:32 CET)
Electronic designers nowadays are facing two challenging demands for various applications: miniaturization and increased functionality. To satisfy these seemingly opposed requirements, reducing the number of mounted components—and thus solder joints—in PCB designs becomes an attractive approach by directly printing passive components such as embedded resistors into the circuit. This approach can also potentially increase the reliability, such as “mean time between failures” (MTBF), while reducing the circuit board size. With its unique capabilities for non-contact precision material deposition, the Aerosol Jet® direct-write technology has been enabling additive manufacturing of fine-feature electronics conformally onto flexible substrates of complicated shapes. The CAD/CAM controlled relative motions between substrate and print head allows convenient adjustment of the pattern and pile height of deposited material at a given ink volumetric deposition rate. To date in the printed electronics industry, additively printing embedded polymer-thick-film (PTF) resistors has mostly been done with screen printing using carbon-based paste inks. Here we demonstrate results of Aerosol Jet® printed PTF resistors of resistance values ranging from ~50 W to > 1 kW, adjustable (among several variable parameters) by the number of stacked layers (or print passes with each pass depositing a fixed amount of ink) between contact pads of around 1 mm apart with footprint line typically < 0.3 mm. In principle, any ink material that can be atomized into fine droplets of 1 to 5 microns can be printed with the Aerosol Jet® system. However, the print quality such as line edge cleanliness can significantly influenced by ink rheology which involves solvent volatility, solids loading, and so on. Our atomizable carbon ink was made by simply diluting a screen printing paste with a compatible solvent of reasonable volatility, which can be cured at temperatures below 200 oC. We show that Aerosol Jet® printed overlapping lines can be stacked to large pile height (to reduce the resistance value) without significant increase of line width, which enables fabricating embedded resistors with adjustable resistance values in a limited footprint space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Morphing Wings; Adaptive Structures; Control Systems; Embedded Kinematics; Distributed Actuator and Sensor Networks
Online: 7 December 2021 (14:39:02 CET)
In a previous paper, the authors dealt with the current showstoppers for morphing systems and with the reasons that have inhibited their commercial applicability. In this work, the authors ex-press a critical vision of the current status of the proposed architectures and the needs that should be accomplished to make them viable for installation onboard of commercial aircraft. The distinc-tion is essential because military and civil issues and necessities are very different, and both the solutions and difficulties to be overcome are widely diverse. Yet, still remaining in the civil seg-ment, there can be other differences, depending on the size of the aircraft, from large jets to com-muters or general aviation, in turn classifiable in tourism, acrobatic, ultralight and so on, each with their own peculiarities. Therefore, the paper wants to try to trace a common technology de-nominator, if possible, and envisage a future perspective of actual applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0603.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: secure boot; cyber-physical system security; embedded systems; FPGA; hardware primitives; IoT security
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:49:02 CEST)
Reconfigurable computing is becoming ubiquitous in the form of consumer-based Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Reconfigurable computing architectures have found their place in safety-critical infrastructures such as the automotive industry. As the target architecture evolves, it also needs to be updated remotely on the target platform. This process is susceptible to remote hijacking, where the attacker can maliciously update the reconfigurable hardware target with tainted hardware configuration. This paper proposes an architecture of establishing Root of Trust at the hardware level using cryptographic co-processors and Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) and enable over the air updates. The proposed framework implements secure boot protocol on Xilinx based FPGAs. The project demonstrates the configuration of the bitstream, boot process integration with TPM and secure over-the-air updates for the hardware reconfiguration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: embedded intelligence; body area networks; healthcare applications; remote elderly monitoring; smart ambulance system
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:04:43 CEST)
Technology advancements are evident in the healthcare field; numerous new opportunities and applications have emerged during the last years based on embedded intelligence and related to real-time diagnosis of medical issues, tele-care and telemedicine, remote monitoring of patients, computer-assisted “smart” transportation in case of emergencies, as well as new types of remotely controlled surgical operations. This paper aims to provide an overview of the application of embedded intelligence in the field of healthcare; it gathers the main critical requirements, related technologies and research advancements up to date, and it presents the most important challenges that are yet to be faced. The main focus is given in the development and optimization of Body Area Networks (BANs) based on advanced embedded sensing devices, the optimization of smart gateways in such networks, and the provision of holistic scalable and secure solutions in the healthcare domain. In addition, the paper presents two principal use cases that stem from the combination of novel information and communication technologies with classic healthcare practices, explaining the functional and non-functional requirements, as well as the mixed criticality characteristics of the associated systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0635.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Embedded spatial-temporal convolutional neural network (EST-CNN); aerosols classification; fire smokes; interferential aerosol
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:46:42 CET)
Photoelectric smoke detectors are the most cost-effective devices for very early fire alarms. However, due to different light intensity response values for different fire smoke and interference from interferential aerosols, they have a high false alarm rate, which limits their popularity in Chinese homes. To address these issues, an embedded spatial-temporal convolutional neural network (EST-CNN) model is proposed for real fire smokes identification and aerosols (fire smokes and interferential aerosol) classification. EST-CNN consists of three modules including information fusion, scattering feature extraction, and aerosol classification. Moreover, a two dimensional spatial-temporal scattering (2D-TS) matrix is designed to fuse the scattered light intensities in different channels and adjacent time slices, which is the output of the information fusion module and the input of the scattering feature extraction module. EST-CNN is trained and tested with experimental data measured on the established fire test platform using the developed dual-wavelength dual-angle photoelectric smoke detector. The optimal network parameters are selected through extensive experiments resulting in an average classification accuracy of 95.6% for different aerosols with only 66 kB network parameters. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the designed EST-CNN model to be directly installed in existing commercial photoelectric smoke detectors to realize aerosol classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Green Information Technology; Energy saving-font; Ink toner consumption; Hollow embedded font; Sustainable printing.
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:19:47 CET)
The utilization of eco-fonts for office printing is a sustainable, “green” printing concept, which has obvious economic benefits. As a result, it has a significant effect on environmental sustainability. This practice's fundamental problem is the decreased quality of text printed using eco-fonts compared to those printed with regular fonts. The aim of this research is eco-font efficiency estimation, i.e. determination of toner usage reduction level of inkjet-printed documents typed with this font type, as well as estimation of the extent humans perceive differences between text printed with eco-font and the one printed by its “non-eco“ equivalent. Combining the instrumental measuring method and digital image analysis, it was found that this simple principle (eco-font utilization) enables substantial toner usage reduction for an inkjet printing system. At the same time, a visual test showed that the visual experience of text printed using eco-font was sufficient. In addition, awareness of the benefits that eco-font utilization brings, change users’ attitude towards eco-font quality. The concept of removing the black pixel from this commonly used Thai font has a great potential for the sustainability printing process, and this simple solution could be applied to other languages as part of the GIT campaign.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0251.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: video microscopy, imaging, automated data acquisition, nanoparticle tracking, measurement embedded applications, open-source software
Online: 25 June 2019 (12:53:50 CEST)
We introduce PyNTA, a modular instrumentation software for live particle tracking. By using the multiprocessing library of Python and the distributed messaging library pyZMQ, PyNTA allows users to acquire images from a camera at close to maximum readout bandwidth while simultaneously performing computations on each image on a separate processing unit. This publisher/subscriber pattern generates a small overhead and leverages the multi-core capabilities of modern computers. We demonstrate capabilities of the PyNTA package on the featured application of nanoparticle tracking analysis. Real-time particle tracking on megapixel images at a rate of 50 Hz is presented. Reliable live tracking reduces the required storage capacity for particle tracking measurements by a factor of approximately 103, as compared with raw data storage, allowing for a virtually unlimited duration of measurements
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0077.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: γ-ray irradiation; surface plasmon resonance; fiber sensor; nano-particles; cladding embedded optical fiber
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:37:09 CET)
The effect of γ-ray irradiation on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing capability of refractive index (n = 1.418–1.448) of the silica glass optical fiber comprised of germano-silicate glass cladding embedded with Au nano-particles (NPs) was investigated. As the γ-ray irradiation increased from 1 hour to 3 hours with the dose rate of 1,190 Gy/h, the morphology of the Au NPs and the SPR spectrum were found to change. The average diameter of Au NPs increased with the aspect ratio from 1 to 2 and the nano-particles became grown to the clusters. The SPR peak wavelength shifted towards longer wavelength with the increase of total dose of γ-ray irradiation regardless of the corresponding refractive indices. The SPR sensitivities (wavelength/refractive index unit, nm/RIU) also increased from 407 nm/RIU to 3,553 nm/RIU, 1,483 nm/RIU, and 2,335 nm/RIU after the γ-ray irradiation at the total dose of 1,190 Gy, 2,380 Gy, and 3,570 Gy, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0324.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Logic Keywords: physical unclonable functions; true-random number generator; hardware security; key generation; reconfigurable devices; embedded systems
Online: 20 March 2023 (02:40:31 CET)
The proliferation of devices for the Internet of Things (IoT) and their implication in many activities of our lives have led to a considerable increase in concern about the security of these devices, posing a double challenge for designers and developers of products. On the one hand, the design of new security primitives, suitable for resource-limited devices, that can facilitate the inclusion of mechanisms and protocols to ensure the integrity and privacy of the data exchanged over the Internet. On the other hand, the development of techniques and tools to evaluate the quality of the proposed solutions as a step prior to their deployment, as well as to monitor their behavior once in operation against possible changes in operating conditions arising naturally or as a consequence of a stress situation forced by an attacker. To address these challenges, this paper first describes the design of a security primitive that plays an important role as a component of a hardware-based root of trust, as it can act as a source of entropy for true random number generation (TRNG) or as a physical unclonable function (PUF) to facilitate the generation of identifiers linked to the device on which it is implemented. The work also illustrates different software components that allow carrying out a self-assessment strategy to characterize and validate the performance of this primitive in its dual functionality, as well as to monitor possible changes in security levels that may occur during operation as a result of device aging and variations in power supply or operating temperature. The designed PUF/TRNG is provided as a configurable IP module, which takes advantage of the internal architecture of the Xilinx Series-7 and Zynq-7000 programmable devices and incorporates an AXI4-based standard interface to facilitate its interaction with soft- and hard-core processing systems. Several test systems that contain different instances of the IP have been implemented and subjected to an exhaustive set of on-line tests to obtain the metrics that determine its quality in terms of uniqueness, reliability, and entropy characteristics. The results obtained prove that the proposed module is a suitable candidate for various security applications. As an example, an implementation that uses less than 5% of the resources of a low-cost programmable device is capable of obfuscating and recovering 512-bit cryptographic keys with virtually zero error rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1587.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: single board computers; embedded systems; real-time; multithreading; performance metrics; time measurements; benchmarking; μClinux; TWR-K70F120M
Online: 24 July 2023 (09:53:02 CEST)
Currently Single Board Computers (SBCs) are sufficiently powerful to run Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOSs) and applications with real-time attributes and requirements. SBCs serve as a foundation in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The NXP Semiconductors produces a series of SBCs based on ARM-processors for a variety of industrial applications. The continuous increase in real-time data generated by IoT devices adds further research issues about the efficiency of such systems and applications. The purpose of this research was to investigate the timing performance of an NXP TWR-K70F120M device with μClinux OS on running concurrently tasks with real-time features and constraints. A custom-built multithreaded application with specific compute-intensive sorting and matrix operations was developed and applied to obtain measurements in specific timing metrics, including task’s execution time, threads waiting time, and response time, under different threads variations. The performance of this device was additionally benchmarked and validated against favorite platforms, a Raspberry Pi4 and BeagleBone AI SBCs. The experimental results showed that this device stands well both in terms of timing and efficiency metrics. Execution times were quite lower than the others, by approximately 56% in the case of two threads, and by 29% in the case of thirty-two threads configurations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1495.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers; embedded positions; thick composites; finite element modelling (FEM)
Online: 21 July 2023 (11:32:47 CEST)
The main objective of the paper is to investigate the wave propagation behaviour in composites using numerical and experimental methods. Specifically, the study focuses on the actuation of waves by two PZT transducers placed on the surface and embedded at different positions within the composites, namely the quarter and middle positions. The numerical analysis provides simulated results, while the experimental analysis involves practical testing. The paper demonstrates that the numerical results are consistent with the experimental findings. It is observed that when the PZT transducers are placed at deeper positions within the composites, the peak amplitude of the first wave packet for the A0 mode decreases. Overall, the paper contributes to the understanding of wave propagation in composites by comparing the effects of different positions of PZT transducers, both on the surface and embedded within the material. The findings highlight the influence of transducer placement on wave characteristics, particularly the reduction in peak amplitude with deeper transducer positioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; metastasis; tumor heterogeneity; spatial proteomics; mass spectrometry imaging; MALDI imaging; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues
Online: 21 February 2023 (11:21:41 CET)
About 50% of colorectal cancer patients develop liver metastases. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have 5-year survival rates below 20% despite new therapeutic regimens. Tumor heterogeneity has been linked with poor treatment response and clinical outcome, but was so far mainly studied via bulk genomic analyses. In this study we performed spatial proteomics via MALDI mass spectrometry imaging on six patient-matched CRC primary tumor and liver metastases to characterize interpatient, intertumor and intratumor hetereogeneity. We found several peptide features that were enriched in vital tumor areas of primary tumors and liver metastasis and tentatively derived from tumor cell specific proteins such as annexin A4 and prelamin A/C. Liver metastases of colorectal cancer showed higher heterogeneity between patients than primary tumors while within patients both entities show similar intratumor heterogeneity sometimes organized in zonal pattern. Together our findings give new insights into the spatial proteomic heterogeneity of primary CRC and patient-matched liver metastases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0352.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Quality real-time systems; Automated Machine Learning; Real-time embedded control systems; Cyber-physical systems; Neural Networks
Online: 25 May 2022 (11:17:19 CEST)
A correct system design can be systematically obtained from a specification model of a real-time system that integrates hybrid measurements in a realistic industrial environment, this has been carried out through complete Matlab / Simulink / Stateflow models. However, there is a widespread interest in carrying out that modeling by resorting to Machine Learning models, which can be understood as Automated Machine Learning for Real-time systems that present some degree of hybridization. An induction motor controller which must be able to maintain a constant air flow through a filter is one of these systems and it is discussed in the paper as a study case of closed-loop control system. The article discusses a practical application of ML methods that demonstrates how to replace such closed loop in industrial control systems with a Simulink block generated from neural networks to show how the proposed procedure can be applied to derive complete hybrid system designs with artificial neural networks (ANN). In the proposed ANN-based method to design a real-time hybrid system with continuous and discrete components, we use a typical design of a neural network, in which we define the usual phases: training, validation, and testing. The generated output of the model is made up of reference variables values of the cyber-physical system, which represent the functional and dynamic aspects of model. They are used to feed Simulink/Stateflow blocks in the real target system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0177.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Electronic Voting Machine; biometric fingerprint authentication; embedded systems applications; electronic voting technology; user friendly environment; system oriented approach
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:51:17 CET)
A reliable Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) is proposed and implemented in this study, which is integrated with a biometric fingerprint scanner to ensure a secure election process. This biometric EVM includes features such as an interactive user interface, hack-free design and master lock. The EVM system has the capability of registering user data and storing them in a database through proper authentication. Moreover, the system proposed lowers the requirement for human resources. This paper provides a detailed description of the systematic development of the hardware and software used. The software part includes algorithm development and implementation. A thorough and in-depth understanding of the data and the communication protocols along with the pathways used for storage of data in the devices is provided. Additionally, the cost of the system is 62.82% less than the officially existing EVM machines of India. Furthermore, this study seeks to demonstrate the benefits of such an approach from a technological and a social standpoint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0229.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI); CLOs; educational tools; hybrid learning; integrated management system; learning management system; PLOs; technology-embedded teaching; web-based teaching
Online: 26 January 2022 (11:54:27 CET)
With the rapid surge in technological advancements, an equal amount of investment in technology-embedded teaching has become vital to pace up with the ongoing educational needs. Distance education has evolved from the era of postal services to the use of ICT tools in current times. With the aid of globally updated content across the board, technology usage ensures all students receive equal attention without any discrimination. Importantly, web-based teaching allows all kind of students to learn at their own pace, without the fear of being judged, including professionals who can learn remotely without disturbing their job schedules. Having web-based content allows low-cost and robust implementation of the content upgradation. An improved, yet effective, version of the education using such tools is Hybrid Learning (HL). This learning mode aims to provide luxurious reinforcement to its legitimate candidates while maintaining the quality standards of various elements. Incorporated with both traditional and distance learning methods, along with exploiting social media tools for increased comfort level and peer-to-peer collaboration, HL ultimately facilitates the end user and educational setup. The structure of such a hybrid model is realized by delivering the study material via a learning management system (LMS) designed in compliance with quality standards, which is one of the fundamental tackling techniques for controlling quality constraints. In this paper, we present the recently piloted project by COMSATS University Islamabad (previously known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) which is driven by technology-embedded teaching model. This model is an amalgam of the traditional class room model with the aid of state-of-the-art online learning technologies. The students are enrolled as full-time students, with all the courses in traditional classroom mode, except one course offered as hybrid course. This globally adapted model helps the students to benefit from both face-to-face learning as well as gaining hands-on experience on technology-enriched education model providing flexibility of timings, learning pace, and boundaries. Our HL model is equipped with two major synchronous and asynchronous blocks. The synchronous block delivers real-time live interaction scenarios using discussion boards, thereby providing a face-to-face environment. Interactions via social network has witnessed equally surging improvement in the output performance. The asynchronous block refers to the lecture videos, slides and handouts, prepared by imminent professors, available 24/7 for students. To ensure quality output, our HL model follows the course learning outcomes (CLOs), and program learning outcomes (PLOs) as per international standards. As a proof of concept, we have deployed a mechanism at the end of each semester to verify the effectiveness of our model. This mechanism fundamentally surveys the satisfaction levels of all the students enrolled in the HL courses. With the surveys already conducted, a significant level of satisfaction has been noted. Extensive results from these surveys are presented in the paper to further validate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed HL model.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Multi-Target Detection and Tracking; Multi-copter Drone; Aerial Imagery, Image Sensor, Deep Learning, GPU-based Embedded Module, Neural Computing Stick; Image Processing
Online: 18 July 2019 (10:09:05 CEST)
In recent years, demand has been increasing for target detection and tracking from aerial imagery via drones using onboard powered sensors and devices. We propose a very effective method for this application based on a deep learning framework. A state-of-art embedded hardware system empowers small flying robots to carry out the real-time onboard computation necessary for object tracking. Two types of embedded modules were developed: one is designed using a Jetson TX or AGX Xavier, and the other is based on an Intel Neural Compute Stick. These are suitable for real-time onboard computing power on small flying drones with limited space. A comparative analysis of current state-of-art deep-learning-based multi-object detection algorithms was carried out utilizing the designated GPU-based embedded computing modules to obtain detailed metric data about frame rates as well as the computation power. We also introduce an effective target tracking approach for moving objects. The algorithm for tracking moving objects is based on the extension of simple online and real-time tracking. It was developed by integrating a deep-learning-based association metric approach (Deep SORT), which uses a hypothesis tracking methodology with Kalman filtering and a deep-learning-based association metric. In addition, a guidance system that tracks the target position using a GPU-based algorithm is introduced. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms by real-time experiments with a small multi-rotor drone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0049.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Chronoamperometry, Potential Sweep Methods, Reconfigurable Embedded Potentiostat, Portable Potentiostat, Programmable-System-on-a-Chip, Wireless electronics, Smart Instrumentation, Electrochemical low current detection, slave-master setup
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:03:40 CEST)
Under the main features required on portable devices in electrochemical instrumentation is to have a small size, low power consumption, economically affordable, and precision in the measurements. This paper describes the development of a programmable Embedded Potentiostat System (EPS) capable of performing electrochemical sensing over system-on-a-chip platforms. Furthermore, the study explains a circuit design and develops some validation of the entire system. The hardware validation is performed by electrochemical experiments such as Double Step Chronoamperometry (DSC), Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV); moreover, a comparison of the experimental signals between a commercial potentiostat and the EPS was done by analysis of errors on the response signal. Results illustrate that the EPS is capable of handling currents in the range of absolute values of 86.44 to 3000 nA, and having control voltages in the range of ± 2 V. The device can support from 50 to 2000 samples per second. The EPS capabilities were compared with other compact potentiostats. The programmable EPS is an original approach which hugely reduces the hardware complexity and leads the way to create new applications for Point-of-Care or industrial developments with a reusable full electronics module.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNA; piRNA; mRNA; CA125; progesterone receptor (PGR); new-generation sequencing (NGS); quantitative RT-PCR; serous ovarian carcinoma; borderline cystadenoma; benign cystadenoma; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks; blood plasma; cytoreduction
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:58:12 CEST)
Progesterone receptor (PGR) expression level determines biological characteristics of the serous ovarian carcinoma, and low PGR expression appears to be associated with chemoresistance and worse outcome. In this study, we aimed to find relationships between tumor progesterone receptor level and RNA-profile (miRNAs, piwiRNAs, and mRNAs), determining its biological characteristics and behavior. For this purpose, we applied next generation sequencing of small noncoding RNAs, quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to analyze FFPE and frozen tumor samples as well as blood plasma from patients with benign cystadenoma (BSC), serous borderline tumour (SBT), low-grade and high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC and HGSOC, respectively). We found significant upregulation of MMP7 and MUC16 and downregulation of PGR in LGSOC and HGSOC in comparison with BSC. The tissue content of miR-199a-5p, miR-214-3p, miR-424-3p, miR-424-5p, miR-125b-5p significantly inversely correlated with the expression level of MUC16 and blood serum CA125 concentration, and significantly directly correlated with the PGR expression level in tumor tissue. On the contrary, the tissue content of miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-93-5p, responsible for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cell, significantly directly correlated with the blood serum CA125 concentration and significantly inversely correlated with the PGR expression level in the tumor tissue. Levels of the EMT-associated miRNAs significantly directly correlated with the content of hsa_piR_022437, hsa_piR_009295, hsa_piR_020813, hsa_piR_004307, hsa_piR_019914 in tumor tissues. Among them, expression level of hsa_piR_004307 significantly inversly correlated with the PGR expression level in the tumor. Two optimal logistic regression models were developed based on the quantitation of hsa_piR_020813, miR-16-5p, hsa_piR_022437 or hsa_piR_004307, hsa_piR_019914, miR-93-5p in the tumor tissue, both of which significantly diagnose PGR-negative tumor phenotype with 93% sensitivity. According to FunRich3.1.3 functional enrichment analysis tool, 72 gene-targets of miRNA and piRNA identified here as markers of PGR-negative ovarian tumor phenotype were proven to be mutated in different cancers such as ovarian, breast, colorectal, liver, stomach, lung, endometrial, thyroid cancer. Among them, the blood plasma levels of miR-16-5p and hsa_piR_022437 can be used to diagnose PGR-negative tumor phenotype with 86% sensitivity before surgery and chemotherapy to choose the treatment strategy for this most aggressive type of ovarian cancer (for instance, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by cytoreduction in combination with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy) to increase the effectiveness of treatment and longevity of the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ventilator; pandemic; ventilation; influenza pandemic; coronavirus; coronavirus pandemic; pandemic ventilator; single-limb; open source; open hardware; COVID-19; medical hardware; RepRap; 3-D printing; open source medical hardware; embedded systems; real-time operating system
Online: 26 June 2020 (17:25:16 CEST)
This study describes the development of an automated bag valve mask (BVM) compression system, which, during acute shortages and supply chain disruptions can serve as a temporary emergency ventilator. The resuscitation system is based on the Arduino controller with a real-time operating system installed on a largely RepRap 3-D printable parametric component-based structure. The cost of the system is under $170, which makes it affordable for replication by makers around the world. The device provides a controlled breathing mode with tidal volumes from 100 to 800 milliliters, breathing rates from 5 to 40 breaths/minute, and inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio from 1:1 to 1:4. The system is designed for reliability and scalability of measurement circuits through the use of the serial peripheral interface and has the ability to connect additional hardware due to the object-oriented algorithmic approach. Experimental results demonstrate repeatability and accuracy exceeding human capabilities in BVM-based manual ventilation. Future work is necessary to further develop and test the system to make it acceptable for deployment outside of emergencies in clinical environments, however, the nature of the design is such that desired features are relatively easy to add with the test using protocols and parametric design files provided.