Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

RepRapable Automated Open Source Bag Valve Mask-Based Ventilator

Version 1 : Received: 26 June 2020 / Approved: 26 June 2020 / Online: 26 June 2020 (17:25:16 CEST)

How to cite: Petsiuk, A.; Tanikella, N.G.; Dertinger, S.; Pringle, A.; Oberloier, S.; Pearce, J. RepRapable Automated Open Source Bag Valve Mask-Based Ventilator. Preprints 2020, 2020060318 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0318.v1). Petsiuk, A.; Tanikella, N.G.; Dertinger, S.; Pringle, A.; Oberloier, S.; Pearce, J. RepRapable Automated Open Source Bag Valve Mask-Based Ventilator. Preprints 2020, 2020060318 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0318.v1).

Abstract

This study describes the development of an automated bag valve mask (BVM) compression system, which, during acute shortages and supply chain disruptions can serve as a temporary emergency ventilator. The resuscitation system is based on the Arduino controller with a real-time operating system installed on a largely RepRap 3-D printable parametric component-based structure. The cost of the system is under $170, which makes it affordable for replication by makers around the world. The device provides a controlled breathing mode with tidal volumes from 100 to 800 milliliters, breathing rates from 5 to 40 breaths/minute, and inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio from 1:1 to 1:4. The system is designed for reliability and scalability of measurement circuits through the use of the serial peripheral interface and has the ability to connect additional hardware due to the object-oriented algorithmic approach. Experimental results demonstrate repeatability and accuracy exceeding human capabilities in BVM-based manual ventilation. Future work is necessary to further develop and test the system to make it acceptable for deployment outside of emergencies in clinical environments, however, the nature of the design is such that desired features are relatively easy to add with the test using protocols and parametric design files provided.

Supplementary and Associated Material

Subject Areas

ventilator; pandemic; ventilation; influenza pandemic; coronavirus; coronavirus pandemic; pandemic ventilator; single-limb; open source; open hardware; COVID-19; medical hardware; RepRap; 3-D printing; open source medical hardware; embedded systems; real-time operating system

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