ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0667.v1
Online: 29 October 2018 (09:54:28 CET)
Visfatin, a member of the adipokine family, plays an important role in many metabolic and stress responses. The mechanisms underlying the direct therapeutic effects of visfatin on wound healing have not been reported yet. In this study, we examined the effects of visfatin on wound healing in vitro and in vivo. Visfatin enhanced the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and keratinocytes, and significantly increased the expression of wound healing-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of HDFs with visfatin induced activation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2 (JNK1/2) in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 led to a significant decrease in visfatin-induced proliferation and migration of HDFs. Importantly, blocking VEGF with its neutralizing antibodies suppressed the visfatin-induced proliferation and migration of HDFs and human keratinocytes, indicating that visfatin induces the proliferation and migration of HDFs and human keratinocytes via increased VEGF expression. Moreover, visfatin effectively improved wound repair in vivo, which was comparable to the wound healing activity of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Taken together, we demonstrate that visfatin promotes the proliferation and migration of HDFs and human keratinocytes by inducing VEGF expression and can be used as a potential novel therapeutic agent for wound healing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0304.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs); VEGF-A; PlGF; VEGF-B; VEGF-C; VEGF-D; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; CCBE1; proteases; ADAMTS3; plasmin; cathepsin D; KLK3; prostate-specific antigen (PSA); thrombin; wound healing; metastasis; proteolytic activation; vascular biology
Online: 18 January 2021 (09:05:58 CET)
Specific proteolytic cleavages turn on, modify, or turn off the activity of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). Proteolysis is most prominent among the lymphangiogenic VEGF-C and VEGF-D, which are synthesized as precursors that need to undergo enzymatic removal of their C- and N-terminal propeptides before they can activate their receptors. The activating cleavage of VEGF-C is mediated by at least five different proteases: plasmin, ADAMTS3, prostate-specific antigen, cathepsin D, and thrombin. All of these proteases except for ADAMTS3 can also activate VEGF-D. Processing by different proteases results in distinct forms of the "mature" growth factors, which differ in affinity and receptor activation potential. The “default” VEGF-C-activating enzyme ADAMTS3 does not activate VEGF-D and therefore, VEGF-C and VEGF-D do function in different contexts. VEGF-C itself is also regulated in different contexts by different proteases. During embryonic development, ADAMTS3 activates VEGF-C. In contrast, thrombin and plasmin likely activate VEGF-C/-D during tissue injury-induced lymphangiogenesis, and PSA and cathepsin D perhaps during tumor-associated pathological lymphangiogenesis. Additionally, cathepsin D from saliva might activate latent VEGF-C/-D upon wound licking, thereby accelerating healing. Similar to tyrosine kinase receptors and VEGFs themselves, these activating proteases could be targeted to modulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in relevant diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: angiogenesis; Bidens pilosa; cancer; hypoxia; PDIA4; VEGF
Online: 4 November 2020 (15:20:10 CET)
Simply Summary: Translation of new cancer treatments between pets and human were noticed in comparative oncological investigation. The current study aims at evaluating a polyacetylenic glucoside purified from an edible herb, Bidens pilosa, to present its anti-angiogenic effects. We innovatively find this polyacetylenic glucoside, cytopiloyne, shows anti-angiogenic effect on different in vitro assays and various in vivo animal models under hypoxia. Based on results of this study, cytopiloyne will be a prospective herb angiogenesis inhibitor candidate to control animal or human cancer formation as adjuvant therapy. Abstract: Anti-angiogenesis is a pivotal combination treatment approach in cancer therapy but rare using on companion animals. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-angiogenic effect of a B. pilosa sourced polyacetylenic glucoside, cytopiloyne, on various in vitro assays and in vivo models. We provide evidences showing that CP has anti-angiogenic activities. Firstly, CP inhibited sponge/ Matrigel plug angiogenesis from tumor cells and decreased the survival of tumor cells on hypoxic conditions. Besides, CP declined PKCα protein expression which a protein leads to the growth and spread of tumors under hypoxia. Secondly, inhibitory effects of CP on endothelial angiogenesis were confirmed by chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, tube formation of SVEC4-10 cells and Matrigel plug assay. A dose-dependent CP treatment inhibited 4T1 cells proliferation under hypoxia and migration. It also suppresses VEGF transcription under hypoxia. Finally, we found that CP decreased PDIA4, a novel regulator of cancer growth, expression in endothelial cells. This effect was confirmed by PDIA4 knockout mice with reduced angiogenesis in Matrigel plug assay. Taken together, these results suggest that CP might act as a promising anti-angiogenic herbal agent candidate to be used in animal hypervascularized cancer of veterinary medicine or in combination to control human cancer as adjuvant therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: copper; endoglin; preeclampsia; VEGF-A; sVEGF-R1
Online: 21 September 2019 (09:51:28 CEST)
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by a series of clinical features such as hypertension and proteinuria associated with endothelial dysfunction and the impairment of placenta vascular endothelial integrity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of serum copper (Cu) level on some angiogenesis-related factors including vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sVEGF-R1), soluble endoglin (sEng) and cerruloplasmin (Cp) in Iraqi women with preeclampsia (PE) and control pregnant women. Therefore, 60 women with PE in addition to 30 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Serum concentration of sEng, VEGF-A, sVEGF-R1, and Cu in PE group significantly increased (p<0.05) in the PE group compared with that in the control group. Increased production of antiangiogenic factors, soluble VEGF-A and sEng contribute to the pathophysiology of PE, indicating the involvement of these parameters in the angiogenic balance in patients with PE. Tests for between-subject effects showed that the circulating angiogenesis factors and Cu were significantly associated with the presence of PE. Serum Cu level was significantly correlated with VEGF- A and VEGF-R1 levels but not with sEng. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only Cp and BP can significantly predict the complications in women with PE. In conclusion, serum Cu has a role in the angiogenesis in women with PE and may be a new drug target in the prevention or treatment of PE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Physical activity; bone vascularization; angiogenesis; VEGF; bone repair
Online: 19 March 2021 (14:47:50 CET)
Physical activity is widely recognized as a biotherapy by WHO in the fight and prevention of bone diseases such as osteoporosis. It reduces the risk of disabling fractures associated with many comorbidities, and whose repair is a major public health and economic issue. Bone tissue is a dynamic supportive tissue that reshapes itself according to the mechanical stresses to which it is exposed. Physical exercise is recognized as a key factor for bone health. However, the effects of exercise on bone quality depend on exercise protocols, duration, intensity and frequency. Today, the effects of different exercise modalities on capillary bone vascularization, bone blood flow and bone angiogenesis remain poorly understood and unclear. As vascularization is an integral part of bone repair process, the analysis of the preventive and/or curative effects of physical exercise is currently very undeveloped. Angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling may constitute a new way for understanding the role of physical activity, especially in fracturing or in the integration of bone biomaterials. Thus, this review aims to clarify the link between physical activities, vascularization and bone repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Lab-on-a-disk; 3D microstructure; FLISA; VEGF
Online: 6 January 2021 (14:20:00 CET)
Fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) is a commonly used, quantitative technique for detecting biochemical based on antigen–antibody binding reactions using a well-plate platform. With the developments in the manufacturing technology of microfluidic systems, FLISA can be implemented onto microfluidic disk platforms, which allows the detection of trace biochemical with high resolutions. Apart from requiring a lower proportion of reagent (1/10), this method also reduces the time required for the entire process to less than an hour. The incubation process involves antigen–antibody binding reactions as well as the binding of fluorogenic substrates to target proteins. The protocol for FLISA on a microfluidic platform necessitates the appropriate execution of liquid reagent movements during each step in order to ensure sufficient binding reactions. Herein, we propose a novel microfluidic disk comprising a 3D incubation chamber. Vascular endothelial growth factor as concentration with ng mL-1 is detected sequentially using a benchtop process employing this 3D microfluidic disk. The 3D microfluidic disk is implemented without requiring manual intervention or additional procedures for liquid control. During the incubation process, microbead movement is controlled through centrifugal force, generated due to disk rotation, and gravitational force via bead sedimentation on the sloped floor of the chamber.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: MicroRNAs (miRNAs); gastric cancer; angiogenesis; VEGF; ramucirumab; biomarkers
Online: 31 December 2020 (07:20:49 CET)
Gastric Cancer (GC) is the fifth most frequently diagnosed malignant tumor and the third cause of cancer mortality worldwide. For advanced GC, a large number of novel drugs and combinations have been tested, but results are still disappointing and the disease incurable in the majority of cases. In this regard, it is critical to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying GC development. Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of cancer with a fundamental role in GC growth and progression and ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody binding to vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (VEGFR-2) is approved in the treatment of advanced and pretreated GC. However, no predictive biomarkers for ramucirumab have been identified so far. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionally conserved single-stranded noncoding RNAs playing an important role, via post-transcriptional regulation, in essentially all biologic processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, survival, invasion, and migration. Notably, in our review, we focused on miRNAs involved in angiogenic pathways in GC. Moreover, we evaluated the possible prognostic and predictive role of angiogenesis-related miRNAs as novel biomarkers of GC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0731.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: neuroimmune semaphorins; plexins; cancer; angiogenesis; inflammation; VEGF; Sema4A
Online: 31 October 2018 (04:45:19 CET)
Neuroimmune semaphorin 4A (Sema4A), a member of semaphorin family of transmembrane and secreted proteins, is an important regulator of neuronal and immune functions. In the nervous system, Sema4A primarily regulates the functional activity of neurons serving as an axon guidance molecule. In the immune system, Sema4A regulates immune cell activation and function granting a fine tuning of immune response. Recent studies have shown a dysregulation of Sema4A expression in several types of cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal and breast cancers. Cancers have been associated with abnormal angiogenesis. The function of Sema4A in angiogenesis and cancer is not defined. Recent studies have demonstrated Sema4A expression and function in endothelial cells. However, the results of these studies are controversial as they report either pro – or anti-angiogenic Sema4A effects depending on the experimental settings. In this mini-review, we discuss these findings as well as our data on Sema4A regulation of inflammation and angiogenesis, which both are important pathologic processes underlining tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis. Understanding the role of Sema4A in those processes may guide the development of improved therapeutic treatments for cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0026.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; melatonin; angiogenesis; VEGF; VEGFR; HIF-1α
Online: 6 March 2017 (06:34:02 CET)
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of ovarian cancer (OC) it promotes rapid cell growth and the associated metastasis. Identifying new bioactive compounds to target angiogenesis may provide valuable paradigms as therapeutic strategies. Melatonin is a well-characterized indoleamine that possesses important anti-angiogenic properties in a set of aggressive solid tumors. Herein, we evaluated the role of melatonin therapy on the angiogenic signaling pathway in OC of an ethanol-preferring rat model that mimics the same pathophysiological conditions occurring in women. OC was chemically induced with a single injection of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) under the ovarian bursa. After the rats developed serous papillary OC, half of the animals received i.p. injections of melatonin (200 µg/100 g body weight/day) for 60 days. Serum levels of melatonin were higher following therapy, and the expression of its receptor MT1R was significantly increased in OC-bearing rats, regardless of ethanol intake. TGFB1, a transforming growth factor-beta1, was reduced only after melatonin treatment. Importantly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was severely reduced after melatonin therapy in animals given or not given ethanol. Conversely, the levels of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) was diminished after ethanol consumption, regardless of melatonin therapy, and VEGFR2 was only reduced following melatonin. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was augmented with ethanol consumption, and notably, melatonin significantly reduced their levels. Collectively, our results suggest that melatonin attenuates angiogenesis in OC of an animal model of ethanol consumption; this provides a possible complementary therapeutic opportunity for concurrent OC chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0090.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Airflow restriction, Physical exercise, Respiratory Muscle Training, Endurance performance, VEGF, EPO
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:04:27 CEST)
Introduction: The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) has been introduced as a novel tool to allow for respiratory muscle training and altitude exposure during exercise that can improve performance and hematological markers in elite and well-trained athletes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of wearing ETM while training on erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance in elite Kayaking girls. Methods: Thirty elite Kayaking girls (14 to 18-year-old) were equally and randomly assigned into mask, no mask, and control groups. The mask and no-mask groups completed 8 weeks of repeated sprint training, while the control group performed their routine kayaking training programs. Pre- and post-training tests included EPO, VEGF, VO2max, lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance. Results: 1000-m time trial significantly decreased for mask (p < 0.001) and control (p = 0.035) groups, and was significantly lower in mask group than control (p = 0.014) and no mask (p = 0.009) groups. EPO did not show any significant changes for all groups. VEGF was increased significantly for mask (p = 0.04) and no mask (p = 0.014) groups. Lactate was decreased significantly for mask group (p = 0.025). VO2max increased significantly for no mask group (p = 0.021). Conclusion: Wearing the ETM while participating in 8 weeks of repeated sprint training might improve specific blood markers and endurance performance, especially anaerobic pathways. Performing repeated sprint training while wearing ETM has the potential to enhance performance in Kayak racing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: plasmonics; nanomedicine; theranostics; copper; VEGF; glioblastoma; differentiated neuroblastoma; peptidomimetics; qPCR; actin.
Online: 11 August 2019 (07:13:00 CEST)
Angiogenin (ANG), an endogenous protein that plays a key role in cell growth and survival, has been scrutinised here as promising nanomedicine tool for the modulation of pro-/ anti-angiogenic processes in brain cancer therapy. Specifically, peptide fragments from the putative cell membrane binding domain (residues 60-68) of the protein were used in this study to obtain peptide-functionalised spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of about 10 nm and 30 nm in optical and hydrodynamic size, respectively. Different hybrid biointerfaces were fabricated by peptide physical adsorption (Ang60-68) or chemisorption (the cysteine analogous Ang60-68Cys) at the metal nanoparticle surface, and the cellular assays were performed in the comparison with ANG-functionalised AuNPs. Cellular treatments were performed both in basal and in copper-supplemented cell culture medium, to scrutinise the synergic effect of the metal, which is another known angiogenic factor. Two brain cell lines were investigated in parallel, namely tumour glioblastoma (A172) and neuron-like differentiated neuroblastoma (d-SH-SY5Y). Results on cell viability/proliferation, cytoskeleton actin, angiogenin translocation and VEGF release pointed to the promising potentialities of the developed systems as anti-angiogenic tunable nanoplaftforms in cancer cells treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0219.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Myocardial infarction; Apoptosis; Angiogenesis; PR1P; Prominin-1; vacular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:53:41 CEST)
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of death in the western world. Although medical advancements have been made in interventional revascularization technologies, a large percentage of patients are not candidates for them due to co-morbidities or lack of local resources. Thus, there remains a need for the development of novel non-invasive strategies to treat MI. Approaches to accelerate revascularization within ischemic tissues through angiogenesis by providing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in protein or gene form has been shown to be effective in animal models but not in humans likely due to its short half-life and systemic toxicity. We previously showed that a small peptide (PR1P) we developed stabilizes VEGF in its active dimer state, increases VEGF binding to its receptors and potentiates VEGF activity. Here we show that systemic PR1P treatment targeted, stabilized and upregulated endogenous VEGF within ischemic myocardium following left coronary artery surgery in mice and rats. Targeted VEGF upregulation led to augmentation of heart function at two weeks following surgery. We conclude that PR1P is a potential candidate therapeutic for MI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, angiogenesis, PPAR-γ2, PPRE, Akt/mTOR, HoxA7, VEGF, LIF, HUVEC
Online: 17 July 2018 (09:10:14 CEST)
We investigated the effect and molecular mechanism of 24-MCF-induced PPAR-γ2 on angiogenesis-related genes in MCF7 cells. cDNA microarray, semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and western blotting revealed that 24-MCF mediated the expression of genes related to angiogenesis in MCF-7 cells. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that promoter activation of the LIF gene, an anti-angiogenesis factor, was increased upon PPAR-γ2 overexpression and 24-MCF treatment, whereas activation of HoxA7 and VEGF promoters, known pro-angiogenesis factors, decreased upon PPAR-γ2 overexpression and 24-MCF treatment. We identified PPAR-response elements (PPRE) located in the VEGF (-913 to +1), HoxA7 (-1107 to +1), and LIF promoter regions (-9032 to -8403). VEGF promoter activity was abolished by mutation of the PPRE motif. Treatment with 24-MCF inhibited expression of VEGF and inhibited the Akt/mTOR pathway. Treatment with 24-MCF also decreased VEGF secretion in MCF7 cells and PMA-stimulated tube formation in HUVECs. Our findings suggest that 24-MCF induces PPAR-γ2-mediated regulation of anti-angiogenesis via PPRE motifs in VEGF, HoxA7, and LIF promoters or upstream regions. Furthermore, 24-MCF treatment inhibits angiogenesis by blocking VEGF secretion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: NF-κB; IL-1β; IL-6; VEGF; TNF-α; FN; ICAM-1; VCAM-1
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:46:10 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by inappropriate insulin function. Despite wide progress in genome studies, defects in gene expression for diabetes prognosis still incompletely identified. Prolonged hyperglycemia activates NF-κB, which is a main player in vascular dysfunctions of diabetes. Activated NF-κB, triggers expression of various genes that promote inflammation and cell adhesion process. Alteration of pro-inflammatory and profibrotic gene expression contribute to the irreversible functional and structural changes in the kidney resulting in diabetic nephropathy (DN). To identify the effect of some important NF-κB related genes on mediation of DN progression, we divided our candidate genes on the basis of their function exerted in bloodstream into three categories (Proinflammatory; NF-κB, IL-1B, IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF); (Profibrotic; FN, ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and (Proliferative; MAPK-1 and EGF). We analyzed their expression profile in leukocytes of patients and explored their correlation to diabetic kidney injury features. Our data revealed the overexpression of both proinflammatory and profibrotic genes in DN group when compared to T2D group and were associated positively with each other in DN group indicating their possible role in DN progression. In DN patients, increased expression of proinflammatory genes correlated positively with glycemic control and inflammatory markers indicating their role in DN progression. Our data revealed that the persistent activation NF-κB and its related genes observed in hyperglycemia might contribute to DN progression and might be a good diagnostic and therapeutic target for DN progression. Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these molecules to serve as disease biomarkers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: angiogenesis; cancer; VEGF; anticancer; vessel co-option; resistance to anti-angiogenesis treatment; cancer hallmark
Online: 23 April 2020 (04:09:02 CEST)
Angiogenesis is a term that describes the formation of new blood and lymphatic vessels from a pre-existing vasculature. This allows tumour cells to acquire sustenance in the form of nutrients and oxygen and the ability to evacuate metabolic waste. As one of the hallmarks of cancer, angiogenesis has been studied extensively in animal and human models to enable better understanding of cancer biology and the development of new anti-cancer treatments. Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in the process of tumour genesis, because solid tumour need a blood supply if they are to grow beyond a few millimeters in size. On the other hand, there is growing evidence that some solid tumour exploit existing normal blood supply and do not require a new vessel formation to grow and to undergo metastasis. This review of the literature will present the current understanding of this intricate process and the latest advances in the use of angiogenesis-targeting therapies in the fight against cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ALG13; apoptosis; cell cycle; chemokine signaling; FAM27C; genomic medicine; oxidative phosphorylation; TASOR; VEGF signaling; VHL.
Online: 6 October 2020 (14:47:30 CEST)
Published transcriptomic data from surgically removed metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples were re-analyzed from the Genomic Fabric Perspective that considers the transcriptome a multi-dimensional mathematical object, constrained by a dynamic set of expression correlations among genes. Every gene in the chest wall metastasis (MET), two primary tumors (PTA, PTB) and the surrounding normal tissue (NOR) of the right kidney was characterized by three independent measures: average expression level (AVE), relative expression variation (REV) and expression correlation (COR) with each other gene. AVE was used to determine the regulation of the genomic fabrics of ccRCC, apoptosis, chemokine and VEGF signaling pathways. REV quantified the alteration of the transcripts’ abundances control, while COR determined the remodeling of the transcriptomic networks of chemokine signaling and oxidative phosphorylation genes. The gene hierarchy was established in based on Gene Commanding Height and the Gene Master Regulators (GMR) TASOR (PTA), FAM27C (PTB) and ALG13 (MET) and DAPK3 (NOR) were identified in each profiled region. We predict that TASOR overexpression would block transcription in PTA but not in PTB, while slightly stimulating it in NOR. Silencing of ALG3 would slow-down the cell-cycle in all three cancer regions with practically no effect in NOR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: clear cell renal cell carcinoma; hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs); selenium; PD-L1; miRNA; VEGF; mTOR inhibitors
Online: 19 September 2018 (05:10:22 CEST)
In the last two decades, the discovery of various pathways involved in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have led to the development of biologically-driven targeted therapies. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), angiogenic growth factors, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutations and oncogenic miRNAs play essential roles in the pathogenesis and drug resistance of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. These insights have led to the development of VEGF inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and immunotherapeutic agents which have significantly improved outcomes of patients with advanced RCC. HIF inhibitors will be a valuable asset in the growing therapeutic armamentarium of RCC. Various histone deacetylase (HDAC)inhibitors, including selenium and agents such as PT2385 and PT2977, are being explored in various clinical trials as potential HIF inhibitors to ameliorate the outcomes of RCC patients. In this article, we will review the current treatment options and highlight the potential role of selenium in the modulation of drug resistance biomarkers expressed in ccRCC tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Vascular inflammation; Peripheral arterial disease (PAD); Chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI); GHAS trial; TNF-α; hs-CRP; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); NOX4; eNOS; VEGF-A.
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:44:42 CET)
Background: Vascular inflammation plays a crucial role in peripheral arterial disease (PAD), although the role of the mediators involved has not yet been properly defined. The aim of this work is to investigate gene expression and plasma biomarkers in chronic limb-threating ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Using patients from the GHAS trial, both blood and ischemic muscle samples were obtained to analyze plasma markers and mRNA expression, respectively. Statistical analy-sis was performed by using univariate (Spearman, t-Student, X2) and multivariate (multiple lo-gistic regression) tests. Results: 35 patients were available at baseline (29 for mRNA expression). Baseline characteristics (mean): Age:71.4±12.4 (79.4% male); TNF-α:10.7±4.9; hs-CRP:1.6±2.2; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR):3.5±2.8. Plasma TNF-α was found elevated (≥8.1) in 68.6% of patients, while high hs-CRP (≥0.5) in 60.5%. Diabetic patients with high level of inflammation showed significantly higher levels of NOX4 expression at baseline (p=0.0346). Plasma TNF-α had a negative correlation with eNOS expression (-0.5, p=0.015) and hs-CRP with VEGF-A (-0.63, p=0.005). The expression of NOX4 was parallel to that of plasma TNF-α (0.305, p=0.037), especial-ly in DM. Cumulative mortality at 12-month was related to NLR ≥3 (p=0.019) and TNF-α ≥8.1 (p=0.048). The best cut-off point for NLR to predict mortality was 3.4. Conclusions: NOX4 and TNF-α are crucial for the development and complications of lower limb ischemia, especially in DM. hs-CRP could have a negative influence on angiogenesis too. NLR and TNF-α represent suita-ble markers of mortality in CLTI. These results are novel because they connect muscle gene expres-sion and plasma information in patients with advanced PAD, deepening the search of new and ac-curate targets for this condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: C. argyrosperma; corneal chemical burn; angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization (CNV); vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Interleukin-1β (IL-1β); Cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2); Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB)
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:07:15 CEST)
Cornea severe inflammation produces opacity or even perforation, scarring, and angiogenesis, resulting in blindness. The cornea can be used to study the effect of new anti-angiogenic chemopreventive agents. We researched the anti-angiogenic effect of two extracts, Methanol (Met) and Hexane (Hex), from the seed of Cucurbita argyrosperma, in the inflamed corneas. The corneas of Wistar rats were alkali-injured and treated intragastrically for seven successive days. Clinical manifestation as opacity score, corneal neovascularization (CNV) area, re-epithelialization percentage, and histological evaluation were performed. Inflammatory (COX-2, NF-κB, and IL-1β), and angiogenic (VEGF-A, VEGFR1, VEGFR2) markers were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf-a mRNA levels were also determined. After treatments, we observed slim corneal thickness with lower opacity scores and low cell infiltration compared to untreated rats. Treatment also accelerated wound healing and decreased CNV area. The staining of inflammatory and angiogenic factors was significantly decreased. These effects are related to a down-expression of Cox-2, Il-1β, and Vegf. These results suggest that intake of C. argyrosperma seed can be used to attenuate the angiogenesis secondary to inflammation in corneal chemical damage.