ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0712.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: University; Campus Planning; Architecture
Online: 29 June 2021 (15:22:38 CEST)
A university campus is a place full of memorable experiences and a sense of place. It is an environment that potentially creates a social and intellectual exchange of ideas and brings together diverse people. Campus planning is one essential need for any higher institution and is an instrument used for directing, promoting, and securing orderly physical development of an institution Campus planning present unique opportunities for demonstrating and popularizing contemporary tendencies in urban planning. The purpose of this study is to explore the overall concepts of the campus planning and architecture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (Knust) And University of Ghana (Legon). The Study was based mainly on two methods; Documentary research and qualitative Observation to have in depth knowledge about the campuses. Through field observation, the study was limited to the spatial organization and planning, site layout and master planning, land use, use of space, and architectural details. The study adopts A Comparative Analysis Approach and found out that Campus Planning Concept varies and unique to campuses and in developing a campus plan, it involves a time-consuming dynamic process and besides, there are neither shortcuts nor one approach or generic solution to that. The study also revealed that Iconic and unique buildings are usually found on university campuses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0003.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: project management; sustainable development; projects; competences; sustained success; sustainability; research university; sustainable university
Online: 1 April 2018 (12:45:02 CEST)
The paradigm that assumes the autonomous management of universities involves them in the redefinition of their policies and processes and the training of their staff, designing new formulas that allow them to adapt to a changing environment. In this context, research and sustainable universities can link with society to solve its problems and influence a responsible and sustainable development. Through a Delphi panel, importance to acquire and improve project management (PM) competences by teaching and research staff (TRS) into innovating education and research projects is measured, from the standard of individual competences (ICB4) of the International Project Management Association (IPMA). Also, internal data sources from the flexible structures of two Spanish universities (the University of Cadiz (UCA) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM)), are investigated, in order to analyze how they are organized. Thanks to the study of cases, an increasing tendency to work by projects is observed, empowering teams, managing properly stakeholders and facilitating their functions towards society. Likewise, after two rounds of experts’ consultation, consensus is reached with an acceptable and stable level of responses, resulting in confirmation that there is alignment between IPMA competences and TRS’ needs for sustained success in education and research, contributing to universities’ development, improvement and sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0033.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Tertiary Education, TETFUND, Management, University
Online: 6 October 2017 (09:05:56 CEST)
This study set out to determine the effect of Tertiary Education Tax Fund (TETFUND) on management in Nigerian tertiary education. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions significantly affect the enrollment ratio to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. The hypothesis was formulated in line with the objectives of the study. Survey and Time series research design were adopted. Data were obtained from National Bureau of Statistics by use of financial ratios and tested using regression analysis with aid of SPSS statistical package version 20.0. Based on the analysis, the study found that ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions have no correlation with the enrollment ratio of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. Based on the findings, the study recommends that to the intervention agency to achieve meaningful on its constituents fund allocations should commensurate with enrolment ratio of tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: perceived sensory dimension (PSD); restoration experience; perceived restorativeness; university campus open space; university students
Online: 25 August 2017 (07:48:48 CEST)
Salutogenic landscape with its health-promoting qualities is a solution for ever-increasing problem of stress for university students as a vulnerable group. Based on nature related theories, natural environments could have a salutary effect on psychological restoration through stress alleviation. There is a body of research on investigating the impact of open green space characteristics for increasing of psychological restoration through framework of attention restoration theory and supportive environment theory. However, there is little knowledge on how the interaction among these characteristics could promote perceived restoration experience (PRE). To address this problem, using perceived sensory dimension (PSD) for open green space qualities and Perceived Restorativeness (PR) as properties of restorative environments, this study assessed the extent to which the PSD and PR impact on PRE. Using 444 screened data, the mediation effect of PR on the association of PSD to PRE is shown as well as the validity and reliability of proposed relationships. `Serene', `space', `prospect', `rich in species' and `nature' were the most influential PSDs on PRE through their higher effect on perceived characteristics of `fascination' and `compatibility'. These results provide information within landscape architecture and planning to promote the development of open spaces as resources for psychological restoration and stress relief.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0029.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: eating disorder; gender; age; university degree
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:58:08 CET)
Background: The passage through university, as a complex experience, can heighten personal susceptibility to eating disorders. The objective of this research is to determine how gender, age, year of course, and center or faculty can influence the risk of an eating disorder among university students. Method: A transversal and descriptive study with a probabilistic sample of 516 Spanish students from 26 university degrees is performed, by administering the Inventory Eating Disorder-Reference criterion (EDI-3-RF) to the students. Results: It was found that the female students enrolled in second-year grades presented a greater obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction, that the male students did more physical exercise to control their weight, and that those under 20 years and the students from both the Health and Law Faculties presented greater bulimic behavior. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement preventive measures adapted to the university students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: physical activity; overweight; obesity; BMI; university students
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:45:02 CEST)
Overweight and obesity, including its prevalence and consequences reflect a leading public health problem. Studies have already shown that physical activity leads to a reduction in body weight in children and adults. However, the university setting has rarely been investigated. The aim of this review is therefore to examine and summarize the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions to reduce obesity and overweight in university students. Three databases (PubMed, Scopus & Web of Science) were searched for relevant studies published in English between January 2010 and February 2022. Quantitative studies, conducting a physical-activity-based intervention with overweight or obese university students and reporting changes in BMI, were included. Data were described in a narrative synthesis. Eleven of 16 included studies reported a significant reduction in BMI. However, all studies except one were able to demonstrate some BMI improvements, whereas all studies reported significant changes in at least one health-related indicator. Aerobic exercises were able to demonstrate the greatest reductions in BMI. This review is the first systematic presentation on the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions on overweight and obese university students. Future work should reconsider BMI as the primary outcome because it is prone to bias. More interventions are needed to improve strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0591.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: regional development; periphery; socioeconomic index; academy; university
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:45:08 CEST)
MIGAL – Galilee Research Institute is a regional R&D center in the northeast peripheral region of Israel. An internationally recognized applied research institute, MIGAL specializes in biotechnology and computational sciences, plant sciences, precision agriculture and environmental sciences, as well as food, nutrition and health. Most of MIGAL’s researchers serve as the core faculty at Tel Hai Academic College (TH). Despite the country’s small surface area, socioeconomic inequality in Israel is high by OECD standards, with wage differences between rich and poor regions reaching up to 400%. The aims of this study are to identify possible socioeconomic impacts of MIGAL–TH on the peripheral northeast’s development. We discuss the effects of academic research and institutions of higher education on mitigating differences between the center and periphery of the country. Data for MIGAL, TH and the northeastern peripheral region were collected from the yearly reports of the two institutions and the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. MIGAL was found to serve as a link between research, academic teaching and socioeconomic development in the northeast periphery. Several variables related to this link and describing MIGAL–TH and northeastern periphery development were analyzed over time: MIGAL’s budget, total number of employees and number of employees with PhDs; number of TH graduate students; socioeconomic index (SEI) of the northeastern periphery and its position on the Israeli list of regional SEIs. The signs and significance levels of their trends indicate a potential socioeconomic impact of academic research and higher education on peripheral development in the northeast of the country. Research budgets and the creation of jobs for academics living in the region are just a few examples of this impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0540.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Intellectual Property Legislations; Public University Libraries; Jordan
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:46:19 CEST)
Despite the scientific and technological development, libraries of Jordanian universities suffer from an obvious lack of digital information resources, because for many reasons, the most important of these is the non-application of intellectual property legislation (IPL) related to these resources. This study investigated the reality of the application of intellectual property legislation related to digital information resources at the libraries of public universities in Jordan. The population study consisted of all employees of departments of digital information resources. The study sample was (74) employees. Texts of regulations for the intended libraries and the Jordanian copyright law No. (22) for the year (1992) were reviewed and analyzed. In addition, a questionnaire was developed regarding the actual application of intellectual property legislation relating to digital resources at the university libraries in Jordan. Results revealed that the application of IP legislation relating to digital resources at the libraries of public universities in Jordan was moderate and that the supervising to the libraries of universities from the National Library regarding the protection of intellectual property rights of digital resources was moderate. The study recommended the application of intellectual property legislation related to digital resources in the intended libraries, this could be achieved through including intellectual property legislation in the regulations of public services in the intended libraries, to provide for the terms of protecting IP rights for digital resources, improving the legislation, developing of the Jordanian copyright law to be compatible with digital information resources, providing the necessary support for these libraries, and emphasizing the role of the National Library.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0478.v1
Subject: Keywords: Perception, Covid-19, Vaccination, University Students, Bangladesh
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:27:47 CEST)
After a long waited span, the whole world could see the ray of covid-19 vaccine to resist the planet to watch the death procession. But some country people especially the people of Bangladesh keep them aside to take the vaccination. This study aims to understand the perception towards the COVID-19 vaccination program in Bangladesh and the targeted subject is the university student as they are suffering highly depression nowadays. Higher education has been affected globally as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in 223 countries. Moreover, for this pandemic situation, the university students can not complete their graduation which binds them to enter their professional career. Alike all of the developed countries, as well as developing countries, Bangladesh, also considered vaccination as an effective measure to protect the peoples from the Covid-19 virus. This study targeted three psychological factors of the university students and surveyed 322 students from the different universities in Bangladesh to understand their perception regarding vaccines. Moreover, it is seen that most of the students doubt the effectiveness of the vaccine which interrupts them from taking the vaccine willingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0185.v1
Online: 14 June 2020 (16:06:03 CEST)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an emerging viral infection, is impacting the social, economic and political patterns of the world. To contain the spread of this pandemic, Nigeria like many countries globally, has imposed drastic preventive measures such as physical distancing and lockdown/curfew. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) about COVID-19 among members of staff of a university community in southwest, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous, self-designed, online KAP questionnaire was conducted from April 18 to May 31, 2020. Purposive and chain referral sampling techniques were used to recruit respondents from the teaching and non-teaching categories of the university. The KAP questionnaire consisted of ten knowledge questions regarding the identification of clinical characteristics, transmission and prevention of COVID-19. The questions on attitude (15) and perception (10) assessed respondents on adherence to policies and their views on government efforts to contain the spread of the infection respectively. A total of 125 (teaching) and 102 (non-teaching) staff responded. The respondents had scientific (78.8 %) and non-scientific (28.2 %) work background. Approximately 59.1 % of the respondents were males. The mean knowledge and positive attitude levels were 70.8 % (SD ± 9.6 %) and 83.1 % (SD ± 13.07 %) respectively. Significant differences in the knowledge mean scores were observed for demographic categories such as educational qualification (p = 0.0006), staff work category (p = <0.0001), work background (p = <0.0001), and type of lockdown (p = 0.0271). Most of the respondents (85.3 %) opined that COVID-19 was a biological weapon and viewed the lockdown as necessary (81.5 %). However, they thought that the Nigerian government was not doing enough to mitigate COVID-19 spread. The perception of COVID-19 in the university community bear implications across public health initiatives, compliance with precautionary behaviour and bilateral relations with foreign nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0372.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: delta project; university living lab; ecological corridor
Online: 25 June 2018 (07:59:08 CEST)
The University of Guayaquil, which shares the same name as the city where it is located, faces the challenge of transforming its image for the XXI century. It was deemed necessary to identify details about the urban evolution of the historic link with the city, in relation to the changes produced by the project’s siting and its direct area of influence. The goal is to integrate the main university campus within a framework which guarantees sustainability and allows innovation in the living lab. To achieve this, the action research method was applied, focused on participation and the logic framework. For the diagnosis, proposal, and management model, integrated working groups were organized with internal users such as professors, students, and university authorities, and external actors such as residents, the local business community, Guayaquil city council, and the Governorate of Guayas. As result of the diagnosis, six different analysis dimensions were established which correspond to the new urban agenda for the future campus: compactness, inclusiveness, resilience, sustainability, safety and participation. As a proposal, the urban design integrates the analysis dimensions whose financing and execution are given by the Town Hall, at the same time the Governorate integrates the campus with its network of community police headquarters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: stress; resilience; mindfulness; psychological well-being; university students
Online: 23 December 2022 (06:10:38 CET)
Purpose: Using an identical experimental structure with both Thai and Singaporean undergraduates, we investigated relationships (interactions) among social support, stress, resilience, mindfulness, and self-efficacy on psychological well-being (PWB). Stress indicated a negative influence on PWB, but mindfulness, resilience, self-efficacy, and social support indicated positive influences. Methods: A cross-sectional predictive design was used with 966 Thai and 673 Singaporean university students. After calculating an adequate sample size and performing convenience sampling, we administered the following six standard scales: the Perceived Stress Scale, the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, the Mindfulness Awareness Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Psychological Well-being Scale—along with a demographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling were performed for participants’ PWB. Results: Mindfulness had significant effects for both factors of PWB, including autonomy and growth, and cognitive triad, across two samples. In the Thai sample, resilience most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and perceived stress did so the cognitive triad, whereas in the Singaporean sample, perceived control most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and support from friends did so the cognitive triad. Conclusion: These findings provide specific knowledge toward enhancing psychosocial interventions and toward promoting PWB to strengthen mindfulness, resilience, perceived control of stress, and social support. stress, resilience, mindfulness, psychological well-being, university students
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Six sigma (6σ); DMAIC; Academia; Presidency University; defects
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:57:20 CET)
The Six Sigma (6σ) method is used to improve and optimize an organization’s products, services, and processes by constantly decreasing defects. In this paper we try implementing the 6σ methodology in Academia. The challenges and actuality of implementation of 6σ methodologies successfully in Academia are immense. However, the benefits of applying 6σ are equally great. The objective of this paper is to understand the evolution, benefits, and challenges of 6σ practices in academia through a case study of Presidency University situated in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The problem statement in the paper is the poor performance of students in academics and by using the DMAIC approach of 6σ we try to identify and understand the causes and set out to improve them so the students can have better placement and academic opportunities. This paper is also an attempt to show the readers about the wide application of 6σ in fields other than manufacturing and how it can be beneficial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0571.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: university; HEI; students; sustainability; UBC; qualitative study; perception
Online: 26 July 2021 (11:48:43 CEST)
As sustainability gains significance within Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) worldwide, the University of British Columbia (UBC) stands as one of the global champions of sustainability. In 2019, Times Higher Education ranked UBC as number one in the world for taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts and ranked one in Canada for making cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. Over the years, UBC students have been instrumental to sustainability on the UBC campus by advocating for divestment, climate justice, and other sustainability commitments and projects in the university. Hence, this qualitative study examines students’ engagement with or their perception of the university’s sustainability programs and image. The study found that students acknowledged and commended the university’s sustainability efforts in teaching, research, providing sustainability-related opportunities for students, and in sustainability operations. However, students also addressed hesitation on the part of university administration in championing climate justice and bolder climate action. The conclusion is that continued support and engagement with students are critical for UBC to achieve its climate action plans and sustainability goals in general. The study contributes to the ongoing discourse on the influential role of young people and the youth climate movement in catalyzing ambitious global climate action at all levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: university students; electronic cigarettes (ECs); questionnaire survey; Slovakia
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:37:40 CET)
Young adults are more likely to have experimented with electronic cigarettes (EC) and underestimate their risks. The on-line survey adapted from American Survey on Tobacco and Alternative Tobacco Products included questions about the personal use of EC, perceptions about the harms and their role in disease causation, education and cessation training and practices related to classical cigarettes (CC), electronic cigarettes (EC) and alternative tobacco products (ATP). The questionnaire filled in 577 medical students (71.9% women) from Comenius University in Bratislava, the average age was 23±2yrs. The sample comprised of 486 (84.2%) Slovak and 91 (15.8%) foreign students; 385 were (66.7%) non-smokers, 111 (19.3%) ex-smokers and 81 (14 %) current smokers. EC currently use 13.5 % medical students, more males than females (22.2% vs 10.12%; OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.55−4.13), more foreign students than Slovak students (24.2% vs 11.52; OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.41−4.26), more smokers of classical cigarettes than non-smokers (46.9% vs 8.06%; OR 10.07, 95% CI 5.85−17.34). EC seems to be less harmful to 59.97 % students, mostly in the age groups ≤ 24 (61.76% vs 51.49%; OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03−2.07), 41.25% of students consider EC to be less addictive, 55.6% think they do not get enough education on EC during their medical study. The results show the high consumption of tobacco products and the lack of knowledge and awareness among medical students.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Australia; cooperative learning; Iran; quality of implementation; university instructor
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:01:05 CET)
Cooperative learning (CL) is a teaching and learning pedagogy that has been used widely in school but there is limited information on instructors’ perceptions of CL nor observations of how CL is implemented in higher education settings. In this study, we investigated the ad-vantages and challenges of embedding CL into instructors’ teaching in Iran and Australia. Data were collected through interview and observation. Results showed that despite challenges such as the lack of familiarity of CL and how it can be implemented in university curricula, issues associated with assessment, and time constraints, CL created an interactive, pleasant and safe environment for deep learning in both countries. The findings showed that there were challenges in Iran such as a tendency to use traditional approaches to teaching, insufficient understanding of how to establish teamwork, and a lack of up-to-date teaching resources. In Australia, changing courses, working with external students, catering for individual differences, and building positive relationships were some of the challenges of implementing CL. We believe that these challenges can be overcome if university instructors are prepared to address them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0516.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Perceptions, public university students, online classes, COVID-19, Bangladesh
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:52:48 CEST)
The severe disease outbreak COVID-19 pandemic impacted public health and safety and the educational systems worldwide. For fear of the further spread of diseases, most educational institutions, including Bangladesh, have postponed their face-to-face teaching. Therefore, this study explores public university student's perceptions towards online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Data were collected among students of Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh, through an online survey. The study followed both a qualitative and quantitative approach, where the survey technique was used as an instrument of data collection. Results showed that most students were facing difficulty participating in virtual classes and could not communicate with their friends correctly during online classes. They faced challenges in online schooling, and the majority of the students preferred conventional types of learning to virtual classes and did not understand the content of virtual classes easily. The study also explored that most students did not feel comfortable in online classes. Still, considering the present pandemic situation, they decided to participate in online classes to continue schooling. Besides, the study discovered that female students showed better real perceptions than male students regarding online classes, and urban students have more optimistic appreciation than rural students. Moreover, laptop or personal computer users showed more positive perceptions towards online education than mobile users. Furthermore, Broadband/ Wi-Fi users have more positive perceptions than mobile network users. These findings would be an essential guideline for governments, policymakers, technology developers, and university authorities for making better policy choices in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0547.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Efficacy, Health Belief Model, Substance use, Intervention, University student
Online: 20 April 2021 (13:21:28 CEST)
Abstract Aim: To determine the efficacy of health beliefs model –based intervention in changing the belief related to substance use among university student in Mosul city-Iraq. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Methods: A probability (simple random sample) of (N=80) undergraduate student in different specialties would be selected. The study sample will be recruited from (4) colleges in the University of Mosul's Engineering, Sciences, Medicine and Education Colleges. The sample will be randomly assigned into experimental and control groups of (40) undergraduate student for each group. Such chosen is employed of pool of topics that have the criteria contain students who have using on (Smoking, Hookah, Drug abuse and Alcohol).For during from 25of October / 2019 till 1 of February/2021. Data is analyzed using the "Statistical Package for Social Science" (SPSS) software for Windows (V:26). Results: This finding indicated that before the intervention, mean scores for all concepts of HBM, add to Motivation, Control, and behaviors intensions of students they were almost equal. However, after the intervention were significantly different in the study group, while it was not significant in the control group. Conclusion:This study concluded that designing an HBM-based study could affect students' understanding and their behaviors in the field of substance abuse. Considering the positive correlation between construct of HBM, particularly in "perceived benefits and perceived severity" related to students’ beliefs. These beliefs implied a significant correlation with each other and with the attention to the prevention of addiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainable development goals; university; institutional policy; learning strategy; indicators
Online: 17 December 2020 (07:57:34 CET)
This paper presents a practical case illustrating how the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda have been designed and articulated in the context of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Even though there is a widespread formal adherence of universities to the SDGs, there is a lack of solid commitment to go beyond the compartmentalization of their implementation and to contribute to a holistic approach. The EHUagenda 2030 is a roadmap to move towards an integrated, verifiable and pragmatic contribution to this international agenda. It describes the UPV/EHU's contribution to 12 of the 17 SDGs, with the addition of its own commitment to linguistic and cultural diversity (SDG 17 + 1), along with the three sectoral plans: the Equality Campus, the Inclusion Campus and the Planet Campus. It also describes the refocus of its education model IKD i3; i3 is ikaskuntza x ikerketa x iraunkortasuna, Basque for learning x research x sustainability. Additionally, it includes the UPV/EHU’s Panel of Sustainable Development Indicators, which addresses the technical aspects of monitoring the implementation of the SDGs. The systematic methodology used in this process (mapping; mainstreaming; diagnosis and definition and, finally, estimation) and presented in this paper could be replicated in other universities yet to embark on this integration. The steps and findings presented here can also be applied to other organizations and help the integration process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0265.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: life habits; mindfulness; flow meditation; university students; controlled trial
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:33:25 CEST)
The present study explored the effects of a Second-generation mindfulness-based intervention known as Flow Meditation (Meditación-Fluir) in the improvement of life habits. A sample of university students (n = 51) in Spain were randomly assigned to a seven-week mindfulness treatment or a waiting list control group. Results showed that compared to the control group, individuals in the mindfulness group demonstrated significant improvements across all outcome measures, including healthy eating habits (balanced diet, intake rate, snacking between meals, decrease in consumption by emotional states negative, increased consumption by negative emotional states, amount of consumption, meal times, consumption of low-fat products), tobacco, alcohol and cannabis consumption, and resting habits. There were differences between males and females in some of these variables and a better effect of the treatment was evident in the females of the experimental group as compared to males. The Flow Meditation program shows promise for fostering healthy life habits, thus decreasing behaviors related to maladaptive eating, tobacco, alcohol and drug consumption, as well as negative resting habits, in university students. This mindfulness program can significantly contribute in the treatment of eating disorders and addictions, wherein negative emotional states and impulsivity are central features of the condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: real monitoring; energy efficiency management system; wsan; majmaah university
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:58:31 CEST)
This research presents alternative solutions for an Energy Efficiency Management System (EEMS) serving as a framework for optimizing the energy consumption algorithm and lowering energy consumption. First, a monitoring Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is used for sensing, measuring, gathering data, and modeling all the dynamic disturbance parameters of the rooms in the building. Second, integrated software for metering and controlling the processes of digital data flow is used. Third, an alternative solution is proposed to reduce energy consumption. The primary benefits of this system are real-time monitoring; rapid, alternative solutions; and the ability to make a prudent decision on how to lower energy consumption. The system shows instant and accumulated solutions for short and long-term time planning. The solutions identified can be implemented in the same buildings under the same circumstances. The universities of Majmaah and Philadelphia have buildings with similar infrastructure. The system was applied to the buildings at Philadelphia University. The results were generalized to both universities. After implementation, the energy consumption of the EEMS using WSAN (based on the monitoring was reduced up to 23% when compared to that of the initial state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: University; emotional education; social ambit; cognitive domain; physical education degree
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:21:11 CET)
The objective of the present study was to apply an intervention program based on emotional ed-ucation and self-knowledge, in students of the degree in Education to verify changes in wisdom. For this, the 3S-WS questionnaire was administered before and after 8 weeks of intervention, an-alyzing aspects related to affective, cognitive and reflective wisdom. The sample consisted of 100 students (40 men and 60 women, aged between 20 and 29 years). After the intervention program, students improved reflective wisdom without difference between sexes. On the other hand, men had higher values in all variables than women. In conclusion, the program to improve personal development and self-awareness could be useful to improve wisdom (especially reflective wis-dom) in 3rd and 4th year students of the degree in Education, specializing in Physical Education. At the same time, it is intended that these students understand the foundations of the intervention so that in the future it can be replicated in their classrooms and contribute to the sustainable de-velopment of the 2030 Agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of things; Artificial Intelligence; Smart University; Microcontroller; Smart buildings
Online: 5 February 2021 (21:52:06 CET)
In this paper we designed system for smart university building based on artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IOT). Our idea can be summarized in smart security system that has different sensors to detect the surrounding environment of the class room in campus which keep everyone and everything on campus safer. By using (IOT), (AI) technologies and applications and by using microcontroller programming we can make the university building safer, secure and more energy saves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0123.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Skin cancer; Photoprotection habits; Photoexposure; University students; Teachers health sciences
Online: 7 December 2020 (07:04:11 CET)
Background: Excessive sun exposure, together with insufficient protection, is the main risk factor for the onset of Melanoma and Non Melanoma skin cancer, namely the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations across the world, and of several other skin and eye adverse health effects. Epidemiological data show the existence of scant awareness of this risk, and of high rates of sunburn among young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine sun exposure habits and protection behaviour in university students. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study to investigate sun exposure and protection practices in a group of education sciences students at a university in southern Spain. This survey provided data for a descriptive and comparative analysis, by groups and gender, of photoprotection and skin self-examination practices. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire have been analysed. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 315 students. Most of them (74.6%) have suffered at least one sunburn in the last year. The use of sunscreen or protective clothing is not frequent, and 89.5% of students do not self-examine their skin. The metric properties of the questionnaire showed high values of reliability and validity. Conclusions: The awareness of solar exposure risk in Spanish university students of Education Sciences is low, self-protection is scant, the potential exposure to dangerous levels of UV radiation is high and most students have suffered one or more sunburns in the last year. Intervention strategies should be introduced in these students to highlight the risks involved and the need of more adequate sun protection practices. Information campaigns should be conducted to address the problem so that, when these students become teachers, they have an adequate knowledge of the risk and of the benefits of a higher attention to this problem, and can translate these competences in health education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0217.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Creating Shared Value; university-business contamination; living lab; sustainability science
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:38:20 CET)
This paper presents and discusses the pedagogical implication of teaching Shared Value, presenting a case study about a contamination lab namely the case of the Shared Value Living Lab (SVLL) which took place at the University of Torino (UniTO) in Italy. The paper analyzes the pedagogical side of CSV (arguments, topics, learning methodologies, etc.) in the framework of recent theories and approaches of teaching sustainability in business school and in the cooperation between industry and academia, as well. Our research methodology relies on the analysis and comparison of one case study under an intrinsic as it enables researchers to find “interactivity” and connectedness between the individuals participating. The SVLL case is an interesting example of co-creation of social value between academia and its stakeholders. First, it represents an inclusive project linking society and business; second, SVLL acted as a hub putting in contact different interlocutors; third, SVLL training stimulated the acquisition of soft skill in students (interviews, managing relations, represents the project outside university, explaining the project to people, research curiosity) through contamination activities. With our study, we demonstrate the change in students participating in the SVLL may not only be cognitive but also affective, making students feel hopeful, empowered and liberated, and ready to contribute to a more profound change towards the vast array of pro-sustainability behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: university; sociology of education; economism; social institution; higher education; modernization
Online: 27 February 2019 (05:04:32 CET)
On the termination of nearly twenty years since the beginning of commercialization of the Ukrainian higher education the intensity of discussion of its purposes, results and possible amendments don't decrease neither among experts, nor among the interested public. Supporters and opponents of commercialization note that education is that social branch which participates in the formation of prerequisites of economic growth. The main point of the article is to disclose the essence of the phenomena of economism and commercialization. Economism is seen as part of globalization of education, a global corporatization of education provides training for the global labour market, using human capital economic theories. As noted by George Spring, the human capital, economists argue that investments in education lead to economic growth, reducing income inequality and increasing employment. The article confirms that the state educational policy as a component of social policy is one of instruments of influence of the state on formation of social structure and is directed to the solution of problems of societal level. It does relevant sociological examination of transformational processes in education and, in particular, results of commercialization. Thus, it is possible to claim that the educational system tests the uncommon influence of globalization, forming and building a peculiar system of the relations and interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: vertical farming; zero acreage farming; university; sustainability; economics; climate change
Online: 11 October 2018 (04:05:17 CEST)
The world is facing several global issues such as food and energy crisis, climate change and greenhouse gases emissions. To subdue these issues, many entities from academia and industries have innovated alternate techniques of performing regular activities which cause such problems. One of these innovations is the introduction of vertical and zero acreage farming in the field of sustainability. These carry the potential to solve one of the most important affairs of food security in most countries of the world. But, this technology has been in its nascent stage for many years. This paper uses a comprehensive framework proving the feasibility of initiating vertical farming on university campuses to feed the staff and students, which could also set an example to the rest of the world into using this technique on a wider scale. The study chose Huazhong University of science and technology (HUST) in Wuhan city, China for accessing the return on investment and food sufficiency if vertical farming is implemented. Using Central Limit Theorem, a statistical model was developed, and various scenarios were analyzed. The results indicated that if a separate vertical farm is constructed, the breakeven can be achieved in a range of 10-20 depending on parameters such as type of operation, number of floors and amount of vegetation. The study has shown that the use of vertical farming cannot only bring in revenue for the campus but also aid in mitigating climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: University libraries; marketing; library sources and services; Social media; Facebook; Whatsapp
Online: 1 March 2022 (11:05:33 CET)
Purpose –The basic purpose of this paper is to find out the librarians perceptions, skills, most effective and constrains to use social media for the marketing purposes in the University libraries and to examine how these libraries perceive the importance of social media marketing. Design/methodology/approach –A nation-wide online survey on University libraries in the Pakistan was conducted to flourish this study, and a total number of 161 responses were used to analyze collected data. Findings –This study revealed the application of social media in university Libraries is very high .The results also disclosed that University libraries observe social media as a substantial tool to increase marketing of library sources and services anticipate to increase their use. Practical implications –The findings of this study can help as a parameter for University libraries when engaging social media for marketing purposes in their libraries. Originality/value –This study calculated the present situation of social media use for marketing in the University Libraries environment, a background that has been under-study in the literature, from these perspectives: perceptions, Skills, effectiveness, practices and constrains
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Depression; anxiety; stress; university healthcare workers; COVID-19; post–movement lockdown
Online: 16 November 2020 (13:46:33 CET)
This study investigated the prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and determined the association between various factors, social support, and depression and anxiety among university healthcare workers in Malaysia after the government lifted the movement control order (MCO) put in place to curb the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This online, cross-sectional survey recruited 399 participants from two university hospitals, and they were administered a self-reported questionnaire on demographic, personal, and clinical characteristics; COVID-19-related stressors; and coping. In addition, they completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to measure perceived social support, as well as the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess depression, anxiety, and stress. We found that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress were 21.8%, 31.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Participants with moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress made up 13.3%, 25.8%, and 8.1% of the sample, respectively. Being single or divorced, fear of frequent exposure to COVID-19 patients, those who agreed that their area of living had a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases, and uncertainty regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 cases in the area of living were associated with higher odds of depression and anxiety. Conversely, having more than three children and greater perceived friend support were associated with lower odds of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress remained elevated even after the MCO was lifted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transport mode; revealed preference; stated preference; multinomial logit model; university students
Online: 8 May 2020 (08:42:54 CEST)
This work mainly aims to identify and understand the factors influencing the switching of transportation modes among higher-education students in Joinville, Brazil when traveling to universities. Furthermore, this study evaluates the possibility of switching from individual vehicles to other modes of transport (i.e., bus, bicycle, and walking) by employing a multinomial logit model. The results indicate that students would be interested in switching from individual motor vehicles to other options. The scenarios for switching to buses presented the highest switching probability. The bus cost was the most important factor for switching. Meanwhile, the parking space reduction does not affect the student's choice, indicating that restricting available spaces should not be an isolated measure for decreasing the car mode attractiveness. Finally, the transport mode switch would occur only if alternative modes to the car or their infrastructure are improved; otherwise, students maintain their usual choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: education; University of the District of Columbia; engineering education; summer program
Online: 13 June 2019 (07:28:00 CEST)
Preparing high school students for engineering disciplines is crucial for sustainable scientific and technological developments in the USA. This paper discusses a pre-college program, which not only exposes students to various engineering disciplines but also enables them to consider engineering as the profession. The four-week long “Engineering Innovation (EI)” course is offered every year to high school students by the center of outreach, Johns Hopkins University. EI program is designed to develop problem-solving skills through extensive hands-on engineering experiments. A team consisting of an instructor, generally a PhD in Engineering, and a teaching fellow, generally a high school science teacher, closely work with students to pedagogically inculcate basics of core engineering disciplines such as civil, mechanical, electrical, materials, and chemical engineering. EI values independent problem-solving skills and simultaneously promote the team spirit among students. A number of crucial engineering aspects such as professional ethics, communications, technical writing, and understanding of common engineering principles are inculcated among high school students via well-designed individual and group activities. This paper discusses the model of EI program and its impact on students learning and their preparation for the engineering career.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy efficiency indices; data visualization; clustering algorithms; university campus; energy management
Online: 10 April 2018 (10:40:47 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a simple tool to help the energy management of a large buildings stock defining clusters of buildings with the same function, setting alert thresholds for each cluster, and easily recognizing outliers. The objective is to enable a building management system to be used for detection of abnormal energy use. First, we framed the issue of energy performance indicators, and how they feed into data visualization (Data Viz) tools for a large building stock, especially for university campuses. Both for Data Viz and clustering algorithm processes, we discussed two possible approaches to choose the right number of clusters and the identification of alert thresholds and outliers, after a brief presentation of the University of Turin's building stock case study. Different Data Viz tools have been studied to apply a specific clustering algorithm, the k-means one. An explorative analysis based on the general Multidimensional detective approach by Inselberg has been performed. Two multidimensional analysis tools, the Scatter Plot Matrix and the Parallel coordinates method have been used. Secondly, the k-means clustering algorithm has been applied on the same dataset in order to test the hypothesis made during the explorative analysis. Data Viz techniques developed in this study revealed to be very useful to explore quickly and simply a large buildings' stock, identifying the worst efficient buildings and clustering them according to their distinct functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public policy; science policy; technology; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (09:33:38 CET)
This paper presents an alternative conceptualization and definition of technology in the context of university technology transfer. The ambiguity regarding the conceptualization of technology is apparent in the technology transfer literature. An expanded conceptualization of technology potentially opens new approaches to researching the topic of technology transfer. It may also cause policymakers to think more comprehensively about what it means to successfully transfer technologies derived from federally funded research to the private sector for use that benefits the public interest. This paper integrates constructs and ideas in the related literature to provide a new perspective of technology that can support future scholarly research and public policy formulation about technology transfer in general, and university technology transfer specifically. Although the paper focuses on university technology transfer to the private sector in the United States, the insights it presents are relevant to technology transfer more broadly and applicable in other geopolitical contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0042.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: e-record; COVID-19 era; electronic memorandum; e-memo; ICT; university administration
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:51:23 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: perceived stress; life satisfaction; academic performance; university students; stress management; COVID-19
Online: 21 October 2021 (13:59:07 CEST)
The circumstances arising from the exceptional situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected all socioeconomic areas in the last two years. The field of Education has not been an exception and the management of the situation seems to have caused an increase in the level of perceived stress of university students. On this basis, this research that aims, first, to analyze the student’s level of perceived stress during the de-escalation and return to normality period, secondly, to evaluate its relationship with life satisfaction and, finally, to detect the students' needs in stress management, has been developed. An exploratory-descriptive study of quantitative and cross-sectional nature has been carried out. 222 university students of the Childhood and Primary Education Degrees of the University of Jaén (Spain) have participated. The instruments, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) have been used. The results show a moderate and partial relationship among the dimensions of the used instruments. The obtained coefficients of determination are, Academic Performance (r² = .019) and Life Satisfaction (r² = .402), with a mean square error (SRMR) of .079. These findings show the need to develop actions within the university training program in effective stress management strategies.
Subject: Keywords: Straw Hat University; Farmer's Professor; Rural Transformation; Targeted poverty alleviation in China
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:40:08 CEST)
China is out of extreme poverty in 2020 on schedule and one decade in advance to fulfill the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and became the first developing country to alleviate poverty in half century. Therefore, a large numbers of effective approaches are emerging, and the intellectual’s technology-led poverty reduction, which locally known as the “Straw Hat University”initiated by “Farmer's professor”mode, is the most tried and tested approach motivated by the intellectual’s “Serve the people” tradition and supported by the all nation. This research conduct case analysis with three most remarkable organic intellectuals as Agronomist Yuan longping, Mycologist Lin Zhanxi and Plant pathologist Zhu Youyong with their bridging gaps in food security, regional imbalance and ethnic disparity respectively to sort out the sustainable modules and universal experiences. The conclusion indicates that“Farmer's Professor” Initiated “Straw Hat University” is an effective approach to solve human beings’ development problems and benefit the livelihoods, especially in the under development regions; and the authentic down to earth experiments into productivity as well as the Intellectual property transformation is the perfect path to deploy offline and online resources building the effective production and supply chain to integrate industries by intellectual’s critical innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: environmental health science; community engagement; community based participatory research; community-university partnerships
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:07:29 CET)
Community-engaged research is understood as existing on a continuum from less to more community engagement, defined by participation and decision-making authority. It has been widely assumed that more is better than less engagement. However, we argue that what makes for good community engagement is not simply the extent but the fit or alignment between the intended approach and the various contexts shaping the research projects. This article draws on case studies from three Community Engagement Cores (CECs) of NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Science Core Centers (Harvard University, UC Davis and University of Arizona,) to illustrate the ways in which community engagement approaches have been fit to different contexts and the successes and challenges experienced in each case. We analyze the processes through which the CECs work with researchers and community leaders to develop place-based community engagement approaches and find that different strategies are called for to fit distinct contexts. We find that alignment of the scale and scope of the environmental health issue and related research project, the capacities and resources of the researchers and community leaders, and the influences of the socio-political environment are critical for understanding and designing effective and equitable engagement approaches. These cases demonstrate that the types and degrees of alignment in community-engaged research projects are dynamic and evolve over time. Based on this analysis, we recommend that CBPR scholars and practitioners select a range of project planning and management techniques for designing and implementing their collaborative research approaches and both expect and allow for the dynamic and changing nature of alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: social noise; auditory, non-auditory noise effects; personal music players; university students
Online: 30 November 2019 (10:07:18 CET)
Purpose: The study is aimed to quantify the effects of social noise (personal music players (PMP), high-intensity noise exposure events) and road traffic noise exposures in the sample of Slovak university students living and studying in Bratislava. Methods: There were 1,003 university students (306 males and 697 females, average age 23.13±2) enrolled in the study; 347 lived in the student housing facility exposed to road traffic noise (LAeq =67.6 dB) and 656 in the control one (LAeq =53.4 dB). Respondents completed a validated ICBEN 5-grade scale “Noise annoyance questionnaire”. The exposure to PMP was objectified by the conversion of the subjective evaluation of the volume setting and duration. With the cooperation of the ENT specialist, we arranged audiometric examinations on the pilot sample of 41 volunteers. Results: From the total sample of 1,003 students, 794 (79.16 %) of them reported the use of PMP in the course of the last week; average time of 285 minutes. There was a significant difference in PMP use between the exposed (85.59 %) and the control group (75.76 %) (p=0.01). Among PMP users 30.7 % exceeded the LAV (lower action value for industry LAeq,8h = 80 dB). On a pilot sample of volunteers (n=41) audiometry testing was performed indicating a hearing threshold shift at higher frequencies in 22% of subjects. Conclusions: The results of the study on a sample of young healthy individuals showed the importance of exposure to environmental noise from different sources (transportation, neighborhood, construction, entertainment facilities, etc.) as well as social noise and the need for prevention and intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: depression; acculturation stress; social connectedness; international students, university students, ASSIS, suicidal ideation
Online: 24 December 2018 (14:52:30 CET)
(1) This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depression and its correlation with acculturative Stress and Social Connectedness among domestic and overseas students in Japan International University. (2) Methods: A Web-based survey was distributed among students of International University, which resulted in 263 responses. On the survey together with socio-demographic data, a nine-item tool from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), was used to measure the prevalence of Depression and its relationship with socio-demographic data, Social Connectedness Scale was used to measure Social Connectedness, and Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) was used to measured acculturative stress. (3) Results: Depression was significantly high in international and domestic students (37.81% and 29.85% respectively). English language proficiency and students age (20 years old) showed a significant correlation with depression among domestic students (β=-1.63, p=0.038 and β=2.24, p=0.048). Stay length (third year) also displayed a significant correlation with depression among international students (β=1.08, p=0.032). Among international and domestic students statistically significant positive correlation between depression and acculturative stress, negative associations of social connectedness with depression and acculturative stress were also found. Suicidal or self-hurting ideation thoughts are found among around 20% of all students. (4) Conclusions: These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of depression among students of International University, and overseas students are more affected. Depression, Acculturation stress and Social Connectedness show statistically strong intercorrelation, which highlights the need of host University to recognise the role of Acculturation and Social Connectedness in the development of Depression among students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Political Socialization, Political Participation, Social Networking, Political Science Students, Islamic Azad University
Online: 20 December 2018 (13:19:22 CET)
The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the impact of social networks on political socialization and political participation of political science students of the Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran south branch during 2007-2017. This article is a descriptive-survey research based on the theory of planned behavior and has been done based on random sampling with a population of 280 samples. The findings indicate that 93% of students use social media and spend a significant part of their study hours on social networks, which mainly include Telegram, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp. The variables related to social networks affect the socialization and political participation of students, and the extent of the impact of social networks on encouraging individuals to participate in the election as a component of political socialization is positive and significant. This finding and other findings are a positive and significant impact of social networks on the attitudes, values and norms, attitudes and behaviors of political science students as a sample population, and thus the hypothesis of this research has been confirmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0473.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: mental health; perceived stress; university students; gender differences; COVID-19; post-lockdown; Romania
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:38:11 CEST)
The rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide was accompanied by intense fears, confusion, worries, anger and stress threatening people’s mental health. Unprecedented measures to slow down and prevent the transmission of COVID-19 have had various impacts on the population’s health behaviour and mental health. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the lockdown’s effects on university students’ mental health in Romania. Based on a cross-sectional design, the survey data were collected from a sample of 722 participants (247 males; M = 21.1 years; SD ± 1.73). A path analysis was performed to verify the hypothesised direct and indirect effects included in the multiple mediation model. The findings showed a positive association between stress and boredom proneness, missing daily social interactions, spending more time on phone conversations and the increasing interest in following news about the pandemic. The path analysis revealed an excellent fit between the proposed multiple mediation model and the sample data. Boredom proneness and missing daily social interactions both affected stress, directly and indirectly, through more time spent on phone conversations. In addition, it was found that the increased interest in following news about the pan-demic mediated the relationship between boredom proneness and perceived stress. In terms of gender differences, our findings revealed that female students experienced significantly higher stress levels than male students, perceived to a greater extent the lack of daily social interactions and spent more time on phone conversations. Overall, the findings further extend the empirical evidence on university students’ mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, universities need to organise support programmes focused on developing university students’ coping strategies to maintain their mental health even in adverse contexts.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0532.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: National Qualification Framework; education performance; university barriers; edu-cation system; Bosnia and Herzegovina
Online: 21 May 2021 (17:20:56 CEST)
Education is the bedrock of any nation. It is essential for individual and societal growth and development. This triggers the demand for quality education which simultaneously increases with a growing demand for quality assurance. This study investigated the role of quality assurance in achieving the expected outcome of education in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s higher education system. Comparative development is looked at by examining other National Qualification Frameworks. The study was based on textual reviews and descriptive analysis on student enrollment and programs of studies. Unlike the global trend, it can be seen that student enrollment is on the decline in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was found that quality assurance is an indispensable tool for strengthening the higher education system and for achieving the desired change and outcomes, that education offers. It was also found that study programs and curricula are pivotal for teaching and learning processes, and that a unified qualification framework is essential for achieving set objectives of education at all levels. The study recommended, among other things, that sound quality assurance systems as well as appropriate structure for monitoring and accreditation be put in place and be judiciously followed in order to achieve the desired outcomes in conjunction with the set objectives of higher education. Moreover, vital thoroughly analyzed pressures (i.e., democratic, economic, and systemic) barriers show signs of epistemological, political, and institutional barriers in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID–19; combat; Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF); pandemic; safety and security; university
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:09:02 CET)
To define and evaluate the areas of consideration concerning in identifying the critical factors that top universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines can be used for triangulating the courses of actions that can be applied to improve the current practices of universities towards its combat to the COVID–19 disease is the primary objective of this study. The researchers used a descriptive design of methodology by using questionnaire–checklist to scientifically describe the situation, problems, phenomenon, or program, or provide information about certain issues related to the virus outbreak. The respondents of the study were faculty and staff of five established universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines wherein the researchers employed a non–probability sampling technique to be logically assumed as the representative of the entire population. The results of the study shown that the top universities in Nueva Ecija have made efforts to ensure the safety of university workers by complying with the Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF) protocols. It can be inferred, in reality, that there are some areas that must be improved especially when it comes to ensuring the welfare of the personnel who are still reporting to work even in this time of the pandemic. The researchers suggested an enhancement plan that can be adapted by these universities to resolve the concerns of the faculty and staff especially in reducing the spread of the virus without sacrificing the day–to–day transactions of the academic institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0540.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: universal communicative competence; algorithm; digital technology of collaborative learning; technical university; Microsoft Teams
Online: 27 October 2020 (09:00:22 CET)
This article presents a quantitative assessment of pedagogical support aimed at improving collaborative education at a modern technical university. The article analyzes the structural composition of the universal communicative competence in a foreign language to identify the advantages of the proposed content detailization. An algorithm for constructing educational and speech actions of students with the use of collaborative digital technology, regarding the monitoring and control of tools, is developed and theoretically justified. Microsoft Teams is offered as a platform for implementing digital collaborative learning technology. The didactic possibilities and methodological functions of Microsoft Teams in foreign language teaching are revealed. The digital technology of the collaborative learning algorithm is relevant for building collaborative actions is relevant, since it contributes to the development of the ability to solve common professional tasks. The algorithm of the dialogic communication, including problem, contradiction, conflict, intellectual difficulty, having general professional context as a stimulus to enhance the interaction in pair work is proposed as pedagogical support. The analysis and quantitative assessment of students' oral responses showed that the dialogue in a foreign language, based on the algorithmic component, is more structured and stimulates students' communication on relevant professional-oriented topics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Leadership, management, competency-based learning, organizational performance, institutions of higher learning, university, education
Online: 15 March 2019 (10:04:47 CET)
This paper presents a brief account and rationale for implementation of competency-based learning in any form of management and leadership development programmes in South Africa. The fact that competency-based learning (CBL), also known as outcomes-based learning has been scrapped from the schooling system in South Africa is unfortunate as this method enhances critical thinking skills and practical problem-solving skills. This paper presents CBL as a model of meta-cognitive approach to learning that integrates both theory and practice into experiential learning through six dimensions, namely, active learning, constructive learning, cumulative learning, goal-oriented learning, learner-centred and curriculum design strategies. In the advent of the fast-paced global economy, managers and leaders need to seek those business schools that value real-time practical approach to curriculum for relevance and to maximize shareholder value through human resource development. This brief presentation ends by recommending an approach through CBL that fosters three critical pillars of leadership development, namely: intellectual, behavioural and emotional agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0665.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: university and higher education; sustainability; change and transformation; sustainable development goals; living labs
Online: 29 October 2018 (09:43:58 CET)
Universities can do more to deliver against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), working with faculty, staff and students as well as their wider stakeholder community and alumni body. They play a critical role in helping shape new ways for the world, educating global citizens and delivering knowledge and innovation into society – universities can be engines of societal transformation. Here, using a case study approach, different ways of strategizing sustainability in a university setting are explored with an example from the UK, Europe and USA. The first case is a public UK university that adopted enterprise and sustainability as its academic mission to secure differentiation in a disrupted and increasingly marketized global higher education sector which then became a source of inspiration for change in regional businesses and the local community. The second case study is a business sector-led sustainability-driven transformation working with a private university in Bulgaria to catalyze economic regeneration and social innovation. Finally, the case of Harvard’s Office for Sustainability engagement program is given to show how this approach connects faculty and students with institutional sustainability plans and external partners. Each case is a living lab, positioning sustainability as an intentional strategy. Leadership at all levels, and by students, was key to success in acting with purpose. Partnerships within and with universities can help accelerate delivery of the SDGs, with higher education making a fuller contribution to sustaining the economic, cultural and intellectual well-being of our global communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0276.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: entrepreneurial university; entrepreneurship; faculties of education; self-perception; triple helix; third mission; teacher training.
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:03:53 CEST)
Universities have increasingly incorporated a third mission into their strategic planning. In addition to teaching and research, they have emphasised the training of entrepreneurs. However, there is still a lot of work to be done, as this process is facing resistance. The Entrepreneurial University covers all disciplines, including faculties of education. However, it has been shown that entrepreneurship tends to be more related to the faculties of economics and engineering, with a lesser presence in the faculties of education for various reasons: they consider entrepreneurship to be alien to their teaching role, there is a lack of entrepreneurial culture, and the objective of the Entrepreneurial University is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyse the level of entrepreneurship in Spanish faculties and schools of education. Forty deans and heads of education faculties in Spain took part in the survey. The results indicated a sufficient level of entrepreneurship; the dimensions related to active methodologies, and mission and strategy were the most developed, whereas entrepreneurship funding and entrepreneurship training for faculty employees were the least developed areas. Some deans noted that entrepreneurship was alien to their professional performance, although courses and good practices for the development of entrepreneurial initiative are gradually being implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0236.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Internet addiction; mobile phone addiction; online social network; university students; technological addictions; behavioral addictions
Online: 25 January 2018 (05:10:00 CET)
1) Background: It has been more than a decade since the concern about addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has been a popular topic of discussion recently, thus it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the evolution of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the evolution of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006–2017; 2) Methods: To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and the CERI and CERM questionnaires on negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students and compared with data from former studies over the period 2006–2017; 3) Results: The perception of problematic Internet and mobile phone use has increased over the last decade, social networks are considered responsible for this increase, and females are the ones perceived to be more affected than males. The degree to which participants agree with the statement “I am addicted to the Internet” can be used as a screening item for problematic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; eating habits; physical activity; MEDAS-14; Emotional eating questionnaire (EEQ) and university population.
Online: 2 December 2021 (12:52:17 CET)
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, eating and physical activity behaviours, in a University population. A healthy diet such as the Mediterranean Diet (MD) pattern, rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants completed a survey consisting of 3 sections: sociodemographic data; dietary and physical activity behaviour; questionnaire of the Mediterranean Diet (MEDAS-14) and the emotional eater questionnaire Garaulet (EEQ). (3) Results: A total of 168 participants completed the questionnaire 66.7% women, from Spain 79.2%, 76.8% students, living in family home 76.2% and in normal weight 66.1% . Our population did the grocery 1 or less per week (76.8%); decreased or stay the same the consumption of fruits (57.1%), vegetables (58.9%), dairy products (74.4%), pulses (73.2%), fish/seafood (76.8%), white meat (83.3%), red and processed meat (91.1%), snacks (78.6%), rice/pasta/potatoes (78.6%), nuts (83.9%), low alcohol drinks (89.3%), spirits (98.8%) and sugary drinks (91.7%) . Increased cooking time (73.2%) and decreased or stay the same their physical activity (63.7%). University Employees increased more weight (1.01±0.02) than students (0.99±0.03) (p<0.05). 79.8% of the participant obtained a Medium/High Adherence to the MD. Emotional and very emotional eaters were higher in women group (p<0.01). (4) Conclusions: In the event of further confinement, strategies should be implemented to promote a balanced and healthy diet together with the practice of physical activity, taking special care of the group of women and University Employees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:20:09 CEST)
The paper presents the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date on how students perceive the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on various aspects of their lives on a global level. With a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries, the study reveals that amid the worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support provided by teaching staff and their universities’ public relations. Still, deficient computer skills and the perception of a higher workload prevented them from perceiving their own improved performance in the new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about issues to do with their future professional career and studies, and experienced boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic has led to the adoption of particular hygienic behaviours (e.g. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily practices (e.g. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role played by hospitals and universities during the epidemic compared to the government and banks. The findings also show that students with selected socio-demographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were generally more strongly affected by the pandemic since they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of their university are also identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; critical realism; emergency remote teaching; higher education; rural-based university; unintended pedagogical consequences
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:43:22 CET)
In this empirical article, we argue that, while emergency remote teaching (ERT) may have achieved its goal of saving the academic years during the COVID-19 pandemic, it also constructed unintended pedagogical consequences that were possibly overlooked at the time of advocating it. The research question that the article attempted to answer is, what unintended pedagogical consequences did students and lecturers suffer because of the move to ERT at rural-based universities (RBUs) in South Africa? Drawing on students' and lecturers’ lived experiences of ERT, this article foregrounds unintended pedagogical consequences that arose at one RBU in South Africa during the transition from face-to-face teaching to ERT. Underpinned by the tenets of critical realism philosophy, as well as student integration theory, in-depth interviews with three lecturers and six students were conducted. The findings of the study indicate that home conditions, individual characteristics, pre-COVID-19 blended learning experiences, university training and support, and teaching, learning, and assessment practices and policies altogether contributed to the construction of unintended pedagogical consequences of ERT presented in this article. These consequences include (1) exclusion of low-income students in active teaching and learning, (2) equipping middle-class students with better chances of success than working-class students. (3) distressing female students and lecturers more than their male counterparts, and (4) unproductive assessment practices. This study may be beneficial to academics and policymakers from similar contexts in their plight to continue with remote teaching and assessment (RTA) beyond the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0060.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; coronavirus; disease outbreaks; students; university; health promotion; public health; mass testing
Online: 2 December 2020 (11:41:01 CET)
We aimed to explore student and staff perceptions and experiences of a pilot COVID-19 asymptomatic testing service (P-ATS) in a UK university campus setting. This was a mixed-method study comprised of an online survey, and thematic analysis of qualitative data from interviews and focus groups conducted at the end of the 12-week P-ATS programme. Ninety-nine students (84.8% female, 70% first year; 93.9% P-ATS participants) completed an online survey, 41 individuals attended interviews or focus groups, including 31 students (21 first year; 10 final year) and 10 staff. All types of testing and logistics were highly acceptable (virus: swab, saliva; antibody: finger prick) and 94.9% would participate again. Reported adherence to weekly virus testing was high (92.4% completed ≥6 tests; 70.8% submitted all 10 swabs; 89.2% completed ≥1 saliva sample) and 76.9% submitted ≥3 blood samples. Students tested to ‘keep campus safe’, ‘contribute to national efforts to control COVID-19’, and ‘protect others’. 31.3% had high anxiety as measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) (27.1% of first year). Students with lower levels of anxiety and greater satisfaction with university communications around P-ATS were more likely to adhere to virus and antibody tests. Increased adherence to testing was associated with higher perceived risk of COVID-19 to self (virus) and others (antibody). Qualitative findings revealed 5 themes and 13 sub-themes: ‘emotional responses to COVID-19’, ‘university life during COVID-19’, ‘influences on testing participation’, ‘testing physical and logistical factors’ and ‘testing effects on mental wellbeing’. Asymptomatic COVID-19 testing (virus/antibodies) is highly acceptable to students and staff in a university campus setting. Clear communications and support for mental wellbeing is likely to be important for testing uptake and adherence. Strategies are needed to facilitate social connections and mitigate the mental health impacts of COVID-19 and self-isolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0233.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: water; climate change; territorial context; sustainable development goals; Agenda 2030; university students; climate literacy; social representation
Online: 20 November 2019 (03:38:43 CET)
The relationship between Climate Change and Water is an obvious and key issue within the Sustainable Development Goals. This study aims to investigate the social representation created around this relationship in three different territorial contexts in order to evaluate the influence of the territory on the perception of the risk of Climate Change and its relationship with water. By means of a questionnaire completed by 1709 university students, the climatic literacy of the individual was evaluated in order to relate it to other dimensions on the relationship between Climate Change and Water (information, training previous on climate change and pro-environmental attitudes) in their different dimensions in three different territorial contexts. The results show that the socio-cultural context influences the social representation of Climate Change, but not from the climatological condition, so that it is reasonable to think that the social representation of this relationship is favoured by a common culture around this relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0073.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: research concepts; tacu; literature review model; postgraduate; challenges; C.O.S.T.A model; institutions of higher learning; university; education
Online: 8 April 2019 (06:10:38 CEST)
Postgraduate research is a massive stumbling block to students who had never had an opportunity of exposure to research methods. A study conducted by the researcher (Costa, 2018) revealed challenges in postgraduate supervision—one of these challenges was lack of exposure to research language by students. Qualitative research and its complexities due to a variety of approaches including rigour determination pose a plethora of challenges to novice researchers. This document presents C.O.S.T.A model as a tool suitable for use by academics and students, with a panoramic view of steps to be taken first to understand foundational concepts and the language of research and secondly to make informed choices on the research methods and design strategy options available for the prospective researcher. Conclusions drawn on the reliability of the model are based on empirical evidence of application of the model observed over a period of 12 months, with some students testifying to have passed their research projects satisfactorily at their respective leading universities in South Africa. Secondary research also provides voluminous sources of success of similar research supervision programmes both in South Africa and abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0504.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: science policy; technology policy; technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:45:25 CET)
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at understanding how technology maturity level influences the incidence of university technology transfer to the private sector. The study examined the topic from the perspective of private sector organizations. It used data from a random sample of patent applications filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and a theoretically guided sampling of multiple cases of private sector organizations that contemplated obtaining and assimilating technologies created at universities in the United States. The patent application data were analyzed using nonparametric statistical techniques and the case data were analyzed using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The findings of the study suggest that the typical maturity level of technologies created at U.S. universities is a TRL-5 or lower on as scale adapted from the NASA technology readiness level (TRL) scale. A technology maturity level of TRL-6 or higher is likely an insufficient but necessary part of at least one unnecessary but sufficient configuration of conditions that tends to result in the occurrence of university technology transfer. However, under certain circumstances, a technology maturity level of at least TRL-6 could be a sufficient but unnecessary condition for the occurrence of university technology transfer. These findings have several important implications. First, they provide support for the notion that university technology transfer is subject to causal complexity. Moreover, it may be possible to increase the incidence of university technology transfer in the United States by implementing public policy and practices that explicitly take technology maturity level into consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: sustainability; transportation; fleet management; campus; university; renewable energy; energy transition; economic analysis; risk management; modelling; ghg emissions reduction
Online: 6 January 2023 (02:27:18 CET)
The global transport sector of the world economy contributes about 15% of the Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) emissions in the world today. The University of Saskatchewan has pursued the green energy transition over the years. They have spearheaded diverse sustainability projects and agendas, due to the importance of curbing climate change and advancing sustainability. The transport system in the university campus is one area of focus where the Sustainability Office plans to introduce some innovations, as a way of curbing GHG emissions while also advancing sustainability practice in the university campus. The study carried out an economic benefit analysis on the campus fleet (consisting of 91 ICE vehicles) to determine if it is economically or financially feasible to transition from Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) or PVs (Petrol Vehicles) to Electric Vehicles (EVs). The analysis used RETScreen Expert software for analyzing renewable energy technology projects. The variables of Payback Period (PBP), cash flow projections, savings made from transitioning (fuel cost savings and energy cost savings), Benefit-Cost-ratio, GHG emission reduction potential, etc. were analyzed. The findings revealed that the GHG emission from the campus fleet will be reduced by 100% (this will result in the removal of about 298.1 tCO₂ from the environment). Also, the fleet manager will save approximately $129,049 (88.9%) in fuel costs. Apart from these, the return on investment will be achieved in year 5 (all things being equal), but can be reduced to year 2 if the vehicles are put into constant and active use (eliminating most idle times. Also, the Sustainability Office will be making a GHG reduction revenue of $14,906.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: regenerative higher education; podcasting as qualitative inquiry; ecological university; sustaina-bility transitions; regenerative education practices; regenerative education design
Online: 28 June 2022 (03:57:41 CEST)
Abstract Universities have the potential, and the responsibility, to take on more ecological and relational approaches to facilitating learning-based change in times of interconnected socio-ecological crises. Signs for a transition towards these more regenerative approaches of higher education (RHE) that include more place-based, ecological, and relational, ways of educating can already be found in niches across Europe (see for example the proliferation of education-based living labs, field labs, challenge labs). In this paper, the results of a podcast-based inquiry into the design practices and barriers of enacting such forms of RHE are shown. This study revealed seven educational practices that occurred across the innovation niches. It is important to note these practices are enacted in different ways, or are locally nested in unique expressions, For example, while the ‘practice’ of Cultivating Personal Transformations was represented across the included cases, the way these transformations were cultivated were unique expressions of each context. These RHE-design practices are derived from twenty-six narrative-based podcasts as interviews recorded in the April through June 2021 period. The resulting podcast (The Regenerative Education Podcast) was published on all major streaming platforms from October 2021 and included 21 participants active in Dutch Universities, 1 in Sweden, 1 in Germany, 1 in France, and 3 primarily online. Each episode engages with a leading practitioner, professor, teacher, and/or activist that is trying to connect their educational practice to making the world a more equitable, sustainable, and regenerative place. The episodes ranged from 30 to 70 minutes in total length and included both English (14) and Dutch (12) interviews. These episodes were analyzed through transition mapping a method based on story analysis and transition design. The results include seven design practices such as Cultivating Personal Transformations, Nurturing Ecosystems of Support, and Tackling Relevant and Urgent Transition Challenges, as well as a preliminary design tool that educational teams can use together with students and local agents in (re)designing their own RHE to connect their educational praxis with transition challenges.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: mineral physics; ultrasonic interferometry; resonant ultrasound spectroscopy; law of corresponding states; equations-of-state; Columbia University; American Geophysical Union
Online: 29 March 2019 (07:54:57 CET)
From 1964 to the early 1970s, Orson Anderson led a research program at the Lamont Geological Observatory in the newly-emerging field of “mineral physics”. In collaboration with colleagues Edward Schreiber and Naohiro Soga, Orson exploited the techniques of physical acoustics to study the behavior of the sound velocities of minerals at elevated pressures and temperatures. This research program also included semi-empirical studies of relationships between the bulk modulus and the molar volume of solids and the use of lattice dynamics to calculate the elastic moduli of cubic structures as a function of pressure to predict instabilities, as well as theoretical investigations of the Lagrangian vs. Eulerian formulations of finite strain equations of state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0229.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI); CLOs; educational tools; hybrid learning; integrated management system; learning management system; PLOs; technology-embedded teaching; web-based teaching
Online: 26 January 2022 (11:54:27 CET)
With the rapid surge in technological advancements, an equal amount of investment in technology-embedded teaching has become vital to pace up with the ongoing educational needs. Distance education has evolved from the era of postal services to the use of ICT tools in current times. With the aid of globally updated content across the board, technology usage ensures all students receive equal attention without any discrimination. Importantly, web-based teaching allows all kind of students to learn at their own pace, without the fear of being judged, including professionals who can learn remotely without disturbing their job schedules. Having web-based content allows low-cost and robust implementation of the content upgradation. An improved, yet effective, version of the education using such tools is Hybrid Learning (HL). This learning mode aims to provide luxurious reinforcement to its legitimate candidates while maintaining the quality standards of various elements. Incorporated with both traditional and distance learning methods, along with exploiting social media tools for increased comfort level and peer-to-peer collaboration, HL ultimately facilitates the end user and educational setup. The structure of such a hybrid model is realized by delivering the study material via a learning management system (LMS) designed in compliance with quality standards, which is one of the fundamental tackling techniques for controlling quality constraints. In this paper, we present the recently piloted project by COMSATS University Islamabad (previously known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) which is driven by technology-embedded teaching model. This model is an amalgam of the traditional class room model with the aid of state-of-the-art online learning technologies. The students are enrolled as full-time students, with all the courses in traditional classroom mode, except one course offered as hybrid course. This globally adapted model helps the students to benefit from both face-to-face learning as well as gaining hands-on experience on technology-enriched education model providing flexibility of timings, learning pace, and boundaries. Our HL model is equipped with two major synchronous and asynchronous blocks. The synchronous block delivers real-time live interaction scenarios using discussion boards, thereby providing a face-to-face environment. Interactions via social network has witnessed equally surging improvement in the output performance. The asynchronous block refers to the lecture videos, slides and handouts, prepared by imminent professors, available 24/7 for students. To ensure quality output, our HL model follows the course learning outcomes (CLOs), and program learning outcomes (PLOs) as per international standards. As a proof of concept, we have deployed a mechanism at the end of each semester to verify the effectiveness of our model. This mechanism fundamentally surveys the satisfaction levels of all the students enrolled in the HL courses. With the surveys already conducted, a significant level of satisfaction has been noted. Extensive results from these surveys are presented in the paper to further validate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed HL model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0070.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors; satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents; Natural Language processing; Swivel embedding; Words Cloud.
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:06:22 CET)
The review of previous works shows this study is the first attempt to analyse the lockdown effect using Natural Language Processing Techniques, particularly sentiment analysis methods applied at large scale. On the other hand, it is also the first of its kind to analyse the impact of COVID 19 on the university community jointly on staff and students and with a multi-country perspective. The main overall findings of this work show that the most often related words were family, anxiety, house and life. On another front, it has also been shown that staff have a slightly less negative perception of the consequences of COVID in their daily life. We have used artificial intelligence models like swivel embedding and the Multilayer Perceptron, as classification algorithms. The performance reached in terms of accuracy metric are 88.8% and 88.5%, for student and staff respectively. The main conclusion of our study is that higher education institutions and policymakers around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0055.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale9—Short form (IGDS9-SF); university students; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; cultur*/collectivisti*/individualis*; invariance; gender; game type
Online: 21 March 2022 (11:04:57 CET)
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age =17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, albeit strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: digital competence; teacher education; privacy; cyber security; Internet; teachers; university; initial training; Competencia digital; formación del profesorado; privacidad; seguridad cibernética; Internet; docentes; universidad; formación inicial
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:22:39 CEST)
The use of technologies and the Internet poses problems and risks related to digital security. This article presents the results of a study on the evaluation of the digital competence of future teachers in the DigCompEdu European framework. 317 undergraduate students from Spain and Portugal answered a questionnaire with 59 items, validated by experts, in order to assess the level and predominant competence profile in initial training (including knowledge, uses and interactions and attitudinal patterns). The results show that 47% of the participants belong to the profile of teachers at medium digital risk, evidencing habitual practices that involve risks such as sharing information and digital content inappropriately, not using strong passwords, and ignoring concepts such as identity, digital “footprint” and digital reputation. The average valuations of each item in the seven categories show that future teachers have an average competence in the area of digital security. They have good attitudes toward security but less knowledge and fewer skills and practices related to the safe and responsible use of the Internet. Future lines of work are proposed, aimed at responding to the demand for a better prepared and more digitally competent citizenry. The demand for education in security, privacy and digital identity is becoming increasingly important, and these elements form an essential part of initial training.