ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: preprint; citations; scholarly communication; open science; peer review; impact factor
Online: 16 April 2021 (16:45:49 CEST)
Preprints are regularly cited in peer reviewed journal articles, books and conference paper. Are preprint citations somehow less important than citations to peer reviewed research papers? This study investigates citation patterns between 2017 and 2020 for preprints published in three preprint servers, one specializing in biology (bioRxiv), one in chemistry (ChemRxiv), and another hosting preprints in all disciplines (Research Square). As evaluation of scholarship continues to largely rely on citation-based metrics, this analysis and its outcomes will be useful to inform new research-based education in today’s scholarly communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0387.v1
Subject: Keywords: Scholarship evaluation; Tenure and promotion; Teaching and mentoring; Researcher evaluation; Academic career; Open science
Online: 19 January 2021 (16:37:50 CET)
In most world’s countries, scholarship evaluation for tenure and promotion continues to rely on conventional criteria of publications in journals of high impact factor and grant funding. Continuing to hire and promote scholars for their achievements in research and in securing research funds exposes universities at risk because students, directly and indirectly through government funds, are the main source of revenues for academic institutions, whereas talented young researchers are those who actually carry out most of the published research. Purposeful scholarship evaluation needs to include all three areas of scholarly activity: research, teaching and mentoring, and service to society. Young scholars seeking tenure and promotion benefit from the practice of open science because it provides better and more impactful results with respect to each of the three areas of scholarship.
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: scientific publishing; scientific journals; scholarly publishing; scientific papers; open science; scientific articles
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:48:21 CEST)
In the digital era in which over 4 billion people regularly access the internet, the conventional process of publishing scientific articles in academic journals following peer review is undergoing profound changes. Following physics and mathematics scholars who started to publish their work on the freely accessible arXiv server in the early 1990s, researchers of all disciplines increasingly publish scientific articles in the form of freely accessible and fully citeable preprints before or in parallel to conventional submission to academic journals for peer review. The full transition to open science, I argue in this study, requires to expand the education of students and young researchers to include scholarly communication in the digital era.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaics; solar energy; Father Verspieren; solar energy in Africa; rainwater harvesting; solar pump
Online: 3 April 2020 (03:38:43 CEST)
Almost fifty years after the first installations, I identify the main lessons learned from fighting drought and poverty in Africa with direct solar-powered pumps thanks to Father Bernard Verspieren and Mali Aqua Viva. Six main findings and three main recommendations emerge from the present analysis. They are of direct relevance to all Africa’s countries whose population has gone from 438 million in 1977 to 1,308 million in 2019, with about 600 million still having no access to electricity. In place of “awareness campaigns” and extraordinary courses held by international organizations, I recommend to establish national solar energy institutes whose task will include the education of solar energy professionals giving practice-oriented workshops on solar-powered drip irrigation and rainwater harvesting throughout each Africa’s country. Said education will critically include the economic and social aspects of distributed “generation” of energy and water from sunlight and rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0264.v1
Subject: Keywords: recycling; composting; waste-to-energy; incineration; municipal solid waste; circular economy; green jobs
Online: 17 March 2020 (03:46:53 CET)
Sharing the same raw material, recycling and composting are in direct conflict with incineration of municipal solid waste in combined heath and power plants. Indeed, waste-to-energy plants in regions with high recycling rates import urban waste from other countries to use otherwise unused capacity, and raise revenues. Using the case of Italy’s second largest and economically most developed region, I discuss the economic viability of municipal solid waste incineration to produce electricity and heath in the context of the increasing role of electricity production from renewable energy sources as well as of the emerging mass-scale uptake of bioplastics. Four lessons and three guidelines aimed to local authorities and policy makers emerge from the present study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Russia; solar power; hydrogen energy; electric vehicle; lithium battery
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:47:34 CET)
With a relatively small population, Russia accesses huge oil, natural gas, coal and uranium resources, and hosts advanced nuclear energy, oil and natural gas industries. However, the combined effect of today’s low cost electricity generation via photovoltaic modules, water and wind turbines and similarly low cost storage in Li-ion battery and solar hydrogen obtained via water electrolysis will have a profound impact on Russia’s energy and automotive industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0143.v2
Online: 8 October 2019 (11:40:06 CEST)
From professors overwhelmed by anxiety-driven e-mails from students, through faculty and administrative staff wasting valued time on e-mail minutia, misuse of electronic mail in the academy has become ubiquitous. After a brief overview of the unique features of e-mail communication, this study provides insight and guidelines to plan new educational activities on healthy and productive utilization of e-mail in the academy of the digital era. The overall aim is to prioritize scholarly deep work by focusing on teaching and research work, freeing working time wasted on unproductive use of e-mail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0251.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: single atom; chemistry foundations; chemistry methodology; Bose-Einstein condensate; chemistry and physics
Online: 24 January 2019 (10:07:29 CET)
Fostering fruitful collaboration between chemistry and physics scholars, the analysis of the differences in the practical approach to single atoms in chemistry and in physics affords a number of conceptual outcomes pointing to a more balanced relationship between chemistry and physics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0062.v1
Online: 21 July 2017 (11:30:42 CEST)
On June 8 and June 9, 2017, we gave two invited lectures at the Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry (ZIOC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. The first lecture, “Sol-Gel Catalysts: Making Green Chemistry Possible”, focused on the practical outcomes of 25 years of research on sol-gel entrapped catalysts. The second, “Chemistry for the Bioeconomy: From Discussion to Action”, offered a critical insight to the forthcoming bioeconomy. Both lectures aroused much interest in the audience and ended with a vigorous discussion lasting about one hour. An outlook is provided herein.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0381.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: hydroxychloroquine; COVID-19; immunomodulator; cytokine storm; flow chemistry
Online: 21 April 2020 (08:26:31 CEST)
Hydroxychloroquine, a known antiviral metabolite of chloroquine, is increasingly used along with antibiotic azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In about one month India, the world’s largest manufacturer, delivered hydroxychloroquine for treating COVID-19 to over 50 countries. The therapy is being used across the world both for patients staying at home at the early phase of symptoms, as well as for patients hospitalized. We summarize achievements as of late April 2020, review possible modes of action and suggest avenues for the quick scale-up of production of hydroxychloroquine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0054.v1
Subject: Keywords: energy poverty; primary energy; renewable energy; distributed generation; energy storage
Online: 5 February 2020 (03:31:29 CET)
Following an updated outlook of global energy production and utilization, we show through selected examples from both developing and developed countries how distributed generation from renewable energy sources, and from solar energy in particular, is the key solution to ending energy poverty across the world. Guidelines aimed at policy makers suggest a systems view of energy that will be instrumental in guiding the transition from fossil fuels to combustion-free renewable energy for all energy end uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: lithium-ion battery; battery recycling; battery electric vehicle; circular economy
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:10:23 CEST)
Driven by the rapid uptake of battery electric vehicles, Li-ion power batteries are increasingly reused in stationary energy storage systems, and eventually recycled to recover all the valued components. Offering an updated global perspective, this study provides a circular economy insight on lithium-ion battery reuse and recycling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0027.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Heterogeneous catalysis; green chemistry; organosilica; flow chemistry; sol-gel; nanocatalysis
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:46:48 CEST)
Removing one key barrier to the industrial uptake of green chemistry and nanocatalysis in the fine and specialty chemical industry requires to fill an ongoing “talent shortage” via expanded chemistry education. In this study we show how the use of hybrid sol-gel catalysts to synthesize fine chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients in flow chemistry reactors illustrates new ideas to reshape chemistry education based on recent research outcomes, visualization and digital tools. Several lessons learned from the industrial and academic utilization of these materials in continuous-flow conversions conclude the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0342.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Omeg@Silica; periodic mesoporous silica; omega-3; anchovy; fish oil
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:25:43 CEST)
Fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), vitamin D3 and natural astaxanthin sustainably extracted from anchovy fillet leftovers using biobased limonene only, can be conveniently stabilized by adsorption on periodic mesoporous silicas. The simplicity of the process, the high load of entrapped fish oil, and the biocompatible nature of silica support numerous forthcoming applications of this new class of “Omeg@Silica” materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0175.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, flow chemistry, green chemistry, fine chemicals
Online: 17 January 2019 (08:37:02 CET)
Due to metal leaching and poor catalyst stability, the chemical industry’s fine chemical and pharmaceutical sectors have been historically reluctant to use supported transition metal catalysts to manufacture fine chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients. With the advent of new generation supported metal catalysts and flow chemistry, we argue in this study, this situation is poised to quickly change. Alongside heterogenized metal nanoparticles, both single-site molecular and single-atom catalyst will become ubiquitous. This study offers a critical outlook taking into account both technical and economic aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; BIPV; energy transition; energy efficiency; photovoltaics
Online: 12 January 2018 (10:23:45 CET)
Large-scale integration of solar energy technologies in Rome’s built environment epitomizes the needed general adoption of distributed generation via functionalization of buildings of all size and end use across the world, to become active energy generators and no longer energy users only. This paper identifies selected technology solutions and critical policy and educational initiatives to effectively achieve within the next decade (2018-2027) the widespread uptake of decentralized solar energy systems in the built environment on a global scale.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0095.v1
Online: 31 July 2017 (16:05:17 CEST)
Chemistry is the last natural science discipline to embrace prepublishing, namely the publication of non-peer reviewed scientific articles on the internet. After a brief insight into the origins and the purpose of prepublishing in science, we conduct a concrete analysis of the concrete situation, aiming at providing an answer to several questions. Why the chemistry community has been late in embracing prepublishing? Is this in relation with the slow acceptance of open access publishing by the same community? Will prepublishing become a common habit also for chemistry scholars?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0152.v1
Subject: Keywords: citrus fruits; coronavirus; COVID-19; flavonoids; hesperetin; hesperidin; hydrodynamic cavitation; pectin; SARS-CoV-2.
Online: 9 April 2020 (12:47:09 CEST)
Based on recent computational and experimental studies, hesperidin, a bioactive flavonoid abundant in citrus peel, stands out for its high binding affinity to the main cellular receptors of SARS-CoV-2, outperforming drugs already recommended for clinical trials. Thus, it is very promising for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19, along with other coexistent flavonoids such as naringin, which could help restraining the pro-inflammatory overreaction of the immune system. Controlled hydrodynamic cavitation processes showed the highest speed, effectiveness and efficiency in the integral and green aqueous extraction of flavonoids, essential oils and pectin from citrus peel waste. After freeze-drying, the extracted pectin showed high quality and excellent antioxidant and antibacterial activities, attributed to flavonoids and essential oils adsorbed and concentrated on its surface. This study reviews the recent evidence about hesperidin as a promising molecule, and proposes a feasible and affordable process based on hydrodynamic cavitation for the integral aqueous extraction of citrus peel waste resulting in hesperidin-rich products, either aqueous extracts or pectin tablets. The uptake of this process on a relevant scale is urged, in order to achieve large-scale production and distribution of hesperidin-rich products. Meanwhile, experimental and clinical studies could determine the effective doses either for therapeutic and preventive purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0386.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: hesperidin; COVID-19; pectin; flavonoids; hydrodynamic cavitation; IntegroPectin
Online: 26 March 2020 (13:59:28 CET)
Computational studies suggest that hesperidin, a flavonoid abundant in citrus peel, binding the three main cellular receptors of SARS-CoV-2 virus can act in the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. Herein we urge the uptake of hydrodynamic cavitation industrial-scale reactors based on the low cost, reliable Venturi tube for the extraction of citrus pectin rich in hesperidin (and in other bioflavonoids including naringing) by very fast processing of waste orange peel or waste lemon peel in water only. A device able to process up to 500 kg of waste peels per session, similar to the one lately deployed in Italy for hydrodynamic cavitation-assisted brewing, is capable to provide 36,000 doses of 1000 mg hesperidin per day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0074.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: solar energy; solar green roof; energy transition; biosolar roof; green roof; air pollution
Online: 7 February 2019 (13:02:10 CET)
Solar green roofs, namely rooftops functionalized with properly selected living vegetation and photovoltaic modules, achieve an ideal symbiotic relationship in which promotion of biodiversity and onsite renewable energy production are both enhanced whereas the roof provides a wide range of environmental, health, aesthetic and economic benefits. This study provides a unified outlook of this eminent sustainable technology at the dawn of its uptake across the world, especially in polluted urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: anchovy; omega-3; limonene; circular economy; fish processing waste; marine fishery discards
Online: 3 February 2019 (02:58:23 CET)
Fish oil rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids is extracted in high yield from anchovy filleting waste using d-limonene as green biosolvent in a simple solid-liquid extraction performed by mechanically stirring and maceration followed by limonene removal via evaporation under reduced pressure. As limonene is renewably obtained from waste orange peel, this protocol establishes a circular bioeconomy method to obtain valued omega-3 extracts from biowaste available worldwide in several million t/year amount. The method closes the materials cycle and opens the route to full valorisation of an important biological resource so far mostly discarded as waste. Significant economic opportunities benefiting local communities, the ecosystem and public health are anticipated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0729.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: scientometric analysis; catalysis; bibliometric indicators; catalysis research; catalysis journals
Online: 31 July 2020 (04:36:20 CEST)
The outcomes of the present scientometric analysis of research in catalysis provide chemistry and catalysis scholars with a closer bibliometric knowledge of an old and central field of chemical research which is being reshaped by fundamental and technological advances spanning from single-atom heterogeneous catalysis to flow chemistry. Improving and widening research and education in catalysis is a strategic need for national economies. Four research policy guidelines aimed at fostering progress in catalysis research and education conclude the study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0486.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Pectin; Food hydrocolloid; Green extraction; Heteropolysaccharide; Citrus; Bioeconomy
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:09:20 CET)
From new understanding of pectin molecular structure and physiological effects on man up to new production methods and new applications, significant new knowledge of pectin has emerged in the last two decades (2010-2020). These developments open the route to new and unexpected applications of this uniquely complex heteropolysaccharide ubiquitous in plants and fruits well beyond its traditional use as food hydrocolloid. This study provides a unified perspective on the new science and technology of pectin. Furthermore, we offer an insight into forthcoming pectin uses from an expanded perspective taking into account selected technology and economic factors that, we argue in this study, will shortly impact the pectin production and uptake in many countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0232.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: limocitrol; lemon; citrus; bioeconomy; biocolorant; flavonoids
Online: 10 September 2020 (09:12:44 CEST)
A brief technical and economic insight into producing the water-soluble yellow colorant limocitrol 3-O-6”-[3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)])-β-D-glucopyranoside from waste lemon peel via simple solid-liquid extraction in aqueous ethanol or via hydrodynamic cavitation of waste lemon peel in water, shows that the biocolorant can be obtained at affordable cost. Coupled to the simplicity and sustainability of the extraction processes suggested, the high chemical and physical stability of this polymethoxylated flavanol and the health benefits of citrus flavonoids, support industrialization of this new bioeconomy production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Single-atom catalysis; heterogeneous catalysis; chemical innovation; low atomicity
Online: 4 September 2018 (14:55:10 CEST)
Recent advances in single-atom catalysis resulted in readily accessible materials whose application in most catalytic reactions mediated by conventional nanoparticle-based catalysts often results in higher activity and selectivity. Can we expect catalysis by atomically dispersed atoms to find practical applications? Which are the hurdles to be overcome prior to widespread uptake of atomically dispersed metals in industrial synthetic processes and in hydrogen fuel cells?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0011.v1
Online: 1 May 2017 (10:09:39 CEST)
The biophenol integral extraction protocol from vegetation water developed in the early 2000s for the three-phase olive mill was adapted to a large two-phase mill operating in Sicily during the 2016/2017 season. The new set-up allows extensive recovery of olive phenolics, transforming previous waste into a source of revenues for the milling company and of valued bioproducts for its bioeconomy partner, while eliminating a source of potential pollution altogether.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0266.v1
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:18:39 CET)
Produced in many world’s countries at over 1 million tonne/year rate by extraction of certain woods and barks with boiling water, tannin is a class of high molecular weight biophenols increasingly used in a number of industries. This study offers a new bioeconomy insight into an old natural product that, we argument in this study, will play a crucial role in the development of the bioeconomy of forest regions. After providing an updated picture of key economic and production aspects, we show how flourishing research on tannin’s biological activity and technological applications has revealed many new properties which are likely to drive significant growth in demand in the near and mid-term future. The study concludes with selected recommendations for bioeconomy scholars and for policy-makers based in forest areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0028.v1
Online: 4 March 2019 (09:53:55 CET)
Approaching the end of the second decade of the 21st century, almost the whole demand of vanillin is met by the synthetic product obtained either via a petrochemical process starting from phenol and glyoxylic acid or from energy intensive alkaline oxidative depolymerization of lignin. Only a minor fraction is comprised of natural vanillin obtained from ferulic acid fermentation, and even less of highly valued Vanilla planifolia extracts. Are there alternative green production methods? And, if yes, are they suitable to find practical application?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0067.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: limonene; poly(limonene carbonate); bioeconomy; sustainable polycarbonates; solar economy
Online: 5 April 2018 (10:48:13 CEST)
Limonene epoxide (1,2 limonene oxide) readily reacts with carbon dioxide in a ring opening copolymerization reaction with insertion of CO2 and formation of polycarbonates of exceptional chemical and physical properties. Both poly(limonene carbonate) and poly(limonene dicarbonate) can be synthesized using low cost Zn or Al homogeneous catalysts. This study addresses selected relevant questions concerning the technical and economic feasibility of limonene and carbon dioxide polymers en route to the bioeconomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0065.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: betanin; natural red; pigment; betalain; Opuntia; beet root
Online: 10 November 2017 (04:56:22 CET)
Sourced so far mostly from beet root juice, betanin is a red-violet natural colorant increasingly used by the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries. We provide an updated bioeconomy perspective into a valued betacyanin whose supply and applications, we argue in this study, will rapidly expand.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0377.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: limonene; green extraction; essential oil; citrus processing waste; p-cymene
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:39:24 CET)
A renewable cyclic monoterpene obtained from citrus peel, limonene is widely used as a fra-grance, nutraceutical ingredient, antibacterial, biopesticide, and green extraction solvent. Indus-trial demand largely exceeds supply. After reviewing recent advances in the recovery of limonene from citrus peel and residues with a particular attention to benign-by-design extractive processes, we focus on the latest results in its dehydrogenation to p-cymene via heterogeneous catalysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0160.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: cellulose; lemon; grapefruit; citrus processing waste; hydrodynamic cavitation; bioeconomy
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:25:17 CET)
Named herein “CytroCell”, the cellulosic material obtained via hydrodynamic cavitation of citrus processing waste in water is cellulose of low crystallinity, high porosity, good water holding capacity and good dispersibility in water. These properties, here demonstrated for the first time for lemon and grapefruit CytroCell, open the route to mass scale production of a useful functional material from a cheap and abundant biowaste. The process, indeed, does not require any pre-treatment of the raw material, and does not use acid, alkali, chemical oxidants or enzymes.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0327.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: omega-3; polyphenols; olive; PUFA; hydroxytyrosol; bioeconomy
Online: 15 October 2020 (15:12:25 CEST)
Thanks to the pioneering studies of Østerud and co-workers it is now increasingly understood that natural polyphenols present in marine oils play an essential role in protecting omega-3 lipids from oxidation and autooxidation ensuring that no proinflammatory products are formed after intake as it often happens with assumption of refined omega-3 concentrates. Strong antioxidants exerting multiple biological functions, olive biophenols are ideally suited to functionalize marine oils creating a synergy which has the potential to foster public health across the world. This study identifies suitable avenues to advance the sustainable production of health-beneficial formulations based on newly obtained natural marine oils and olive phenolic extracts. Important educational outcomes for bioeconomy educators conclude the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: AnchoisFert; Fish waste; Green extraction; Limonene; Organic fertilizer
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:32:23 CET)
Is the production of the “AnchoisFert” organic fertilizer via the circular economy process based on omega-3 lipid extraction of milled anchovy fillet leftovers with citrus limonene followed by mild drying economically and technically viable? This study answers this question and identifies the main obstacles, chiefly of economic and organizational nature, to be overcome prior to commercialization of this new organic fertilizer. Along with non-variable and proven efficacy, successful competition with conventional organic and inorganic fertilizers requires affordable cost and regular supply. This, inter alia, requires to establish new and mutually beneficial relationship between bioeconomy firms and fish processing companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; circular economy; biogas; fish waste; anchovy; limonene
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:03:46 CET)
Anchovies are amid the largest fish catch worldwide. The anchovy fillet industry generates a huge amount of biowaste (e.g. fish heads, bones, tails) that can be used for the extraction of several potentially valuable bioproducts including omega-3 lipids. Following the extraction of valued fish oil rich in omega-3, vitamin D3 and zeaxanthin from anchovy fillet leftovers using biobased limonene in a fully circular process, the solid residue was used as starting substrate for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion. The results first reported in this study demonstrate good potential energy recovery of the anchovy sludge of about 280 mLCH4∙gVS-1. Due to unbalanced C/N ratio typical of marine biowaste, co-digestion with a carbon rich substrate is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Citrus flavonoids; naringin; naringenin; pectin; byproducts; anti-ischemic myocardial protection; hydrodynamic cavitation
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:33 CEST)
Citrus flavonoids are well-known for beneficial effects at the cardiovascular and cardio-metabolic level, but often the encouraging in vitro results are not confirmed by in vivo approaches; also clinical trials are inconsistent. The limited bioavailability of them can be, at least in part, the reason of these discrepancies. Therefore many efforts were performed towards the improvement of their bioavailability. Hydrodynamic cavitation methods were successfully applied to the extraction of byproducts of the Citrus fruits industry, showing high process yields and affording stable phytocomplexes, known as IntegroPectin, endowed with great amounts of bioactive compounds and high water solubility. Cardioprotective effects of grapefruit IntegroPectin were evaluated by an ex vivo ischemia/reperfusion protocol. A further pharmacological characterization was carried out to assess the involvement of mitochondrial potassium channels. Grapefruit IntegroPectin, where naringin represented 98% of flavonoids, showed anti-ischemic cardioprotective activity, better than pure naringenin (the bioactive aglycone of naringin). On cardiac isolated mitochondria, this extract confirmed that naringenin/naringin were involved in the activation of mitochondrial potassium channels. The hydrodynamic cavitation-based extraction confirmed a valuable opportunity for the exploitation of Citrus fruits waste, with the end product presenting high levels of Citrus flavonoids and an improved bioaccessibility that enhances its nutraceutical and economic value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0707.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Grape processing waste; Polyphenols; Green extraction; Microwave-hydrodiffusion and gravity, Enocyanin; Resveratrol; Flavonoids; Anthocyanins; Wine pomace
Online: 29 March 2021 (16:06:18 CEST)
The extraction of grape processing waste (wine pomace) via microwave-hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) from three different cultivars grown in Sicily (Syrah, Perricone and Nero d’Avola) rapidly affords aqueous extracts highly concentrated in valued biophenols including flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The method does not employ organic solvent, acid or base and does not require grinding or freeze drying of the wine pomace nor separation of the grape skins from seeds and stem. All the extracts have a pronounced stability as shown by their red-violet color fully retained after storage for more than a year (15 months) in freezer under air. Concentrations of phenolics up to 2000 ppm were detected in the aged extracts of Sicily’s local cultivar Perricone, which also has the highest content of flavonoids. These findings provide a simple and economically viable extraction route to biophenol-rich red extracts that can be used as food colorants as well as to formulate nutraceutical, cosmetic and personal care products starting from an agricultural by-product available in >10 million tonne yearly amount.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0143.v1
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:54:24 CET)
A shrimp oil rich in omega-3 lipids and carotenoids is obtained in remarkably high 5 wt% yield extending to pink shrimp processing waste (head and carapace) the circular economy approach to extract fish oil from fish processing by-products using d-limonene. Biobased limonene, a powerful antimicrobial and antioxidant agent, is an excellent solvent for both lipids and astaxanthin-based carotenoids preventing oxidative degradation during the extraction cycle including solvent and oil separation at 85°C. A new low cost route is established to extract valued marine oil from biowaste annually made available in over 2.2 million tonnes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0145.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Opuntia ficus-indica; nutraceutical; betanin; pectin; natural colorant
Online: 23 October 2017 (03:57:04 CEST)
The integral extraction via microwave-assisted hydrodiffusion and hydrodistillation of water-soluble bioproducts contained in the peel of Opuntia ficus-indica white and red cultivars harvested in Sicily, affords red and stable aqueous extracts mostly containing valued betanin, pectin and biophenols. Potentially useful as nutraceutical products, these aqueous extracts are a source of valued ingredients in high demand for a number of important food, cosmetic, beverage and nutraceutical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0620.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: IntegroPectin, naringin, eriocitrin, citrus, flavonoids, pectin, circular economy
Online: 26 February 2021 (13:47:16 CET)
Following the analysis of terpenes present in new lemon and grapefruit “IntegroPectin” pectins obtained via the hydrodynamic cavitation of industrial lemon and grapefruit processing waste, the HPLC-MS analysis of the flavonoid compounds reveals the presence of eriocitrin, naringin, hesperidin and kaempferol typical of the respective citrus fruits. The pectic fibers rich in rhamnogalacturonan-I “hairy” regions act as chemical sponges adsorbing and concentrating at their outer surface highly bioactive citrus flavonoids and terpenes. These findings, together with the unique molecular structure of these new whole citrus pectins, provide preliminary insight into the broad-scope and powerful biological activity of these biomaterials. Numerous new biomedical applications beyond prevention and treatment of microbial infections and neurodegenerative disease are anticipated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0106.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: citrus pectin; lemon; grapefruit; IntegroPectin; flavonoids; citrus terpenes; polyphenols; antimicrobial resistance; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Online: 5 August 2020 (03:34:49 CEST)
Grapefruit and lemon pectin obtained from the respective waste citrus peels via hydrodynamic cavitation in water only are powerful, broad-scope antimicrobial alternatives to antibiotics against Gram-negative and -positive pathogens. Dubbed IntegroPectin, these pectic polymers functionalized with citrus flavonoids and terpenes show superior antimicrobial activity when compared to commercial citrus pectin. Similarly to commercial pectin, lemon IntegroPectin determined ca. 3 log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus cells, while an enhanced activity of commercial citrus pectin was detected in the case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells with a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 15 mg mL-1. Although grapefruit and lemon IntegroPectin share equal MBC in the case of P. aeruginosa cells, grapefruit IntegroPectin shows boosted activity upon exposure of S. aureus cells with a 40 mg mL-1 biopolymer concentration being sufficient to achieve complete killing of the bacterial cells. Insight on the mechanism of action of these biocompatible antimicrobials and their effect on bacterial cells, at the morphological level, were obtained indirectly through Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and directly through scanning electron microscopy. In the era of antimicrobial resistance, these results are of great societal and sanitary relevance as they open new avenues to develop innovative antimicrobials for the treatment of polymicrobial infections unlikely to develop drug resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0157.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: pectin; antioxidant; lemon; flavonoids; hydrodynamic cavitation; IntegroPectin
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:00:13 CEST)
Lemon pectin extracted along with water-soluble flavonoids and other phytochemicals from citrus industry’s waste lemon peel via hydrodynamic cavitation in water, directly at pre-industrial scale and further isolated via freeze drying, shows exceptionally high antioxidant and non-cytotoxic activity. Preliminary investigation indicates also significant antimicrobial activity. These findings open the route to the development of new nutraceutical and healthcare application of a versatile biopolymer endowed with new functionality, rapidly and conveniently obtained from an abundant by-product of the agrofood industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: pectin; antibacterial; lemon; flavonoids; hydrodynamic cavitation; IntegroPectin
Online: 17 March 2020 (03:43:39 CET)
Pectin extracted via hydrodynamic cavitation in water only from waste lemon peel and further isolated via freeze drying displays significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram positive pathogen which easily contaminates food. The antibacterial effect of the new IntegroPectin is largely superior to that of commercial citrus pectin, opening the way to advanced applications of a new bioproduct now obtainable in large amounts and at low cost from citrus juice industry’s waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0034.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: IntegroPectin, lemon, grapefruit, pectin, waste citrus peel, -terpineol, hydrodynamic cavitation, circular economy
Online: 1 December 2020 (15:07:35 CET)
The HS-SPME GC-MS analysis of the volatile compounds adsorbed at the outer surface of lemon and grapefruit pectins obtained via hydrodynamic cavitation of industrial waste streams of lemon and grapefruit peels in water only suggests important new findings en route to understanding the powerful and broad biological activity of these new pectic materials. In agreement with the ultralow degree of esterification of these pectins, the high amount of highly bioactive α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol points to limonene decomposition catalyzed by residual citric acid in the citrus waste peel residue of the juice industrial production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0325.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: biomethane; d-limonene; flavanones; food waste; green extraction; hydrodynamic cavitation; orange waste; pectin; polyphenols
Online: 29 July 2019 (04:04:30 CEST)
Waste orange peel represents a heavy burden for the orange juice industry, estimated in several million tons per year worldwide; nevertheless, this by-product is endowed with valuable bioactive compounds, such as pectin, polyphenols and terpenes. The potential value of the waste orange peel has stimulated the search for extraction processes, alternative or complementary to landfilling or to the integral energy conversion. This study introduces controlled hydrodynamic cavitation processes, as a new route to the integral valorization of this by-product, based on simple equipment, speed, effectiveness and efficiency, scalability, and compliance with green extraction principles. Waste orange peel, in batches of several kg, was processed in more than 100 L of water, absent any other raw materials, in a device comprising a Venturi-shaped cavitation reactor. The extractions of pectin, endowed with a very low degree of esterification, polyphenols (flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), and terpenes (mainly d-limonene) were effective and fast (high yield, few min of process time), as well as the biomethane generation potential of the process residues was effectively exploited. The achieved results proved the viability of the proposed route to the integral valorization of waste orange peel, though wide margins exist for further improvements.