ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0380.v1
Online: 14 April 2021 (13:51:32 CEST)
Sustainability transition theories analyse a systematic shift towards sustainability at micro (niche), meso (regime) and macro (landscape) level. The assessment of technological systems and structures at the firm level in sustainability transition literature is scant. The present study, taking the technological assessment perspective at the firm level, finds answers to questions like (a) how do established corporations move towards sustainable practices? (b) what role does technological innovation play in the firm’s transition towards sustainability? (c) what technological modes are adopted for sustainability transition? We find answers to these questions through an in-depth case analysis of two multi-national companies in the consumer goods industry. Internally developed and externally acquired technologies by firms in the last 15 years are plotted using qualitative and quantitative indicators on pre-designed templates. Technologies for all three sustainability dimensions, namely, environmental, social and economic, are mapped and the impact assessed. The analysis finds a sustainability transition landscape that shows the use of protected (patents, trademarks, designs) and unprotected technologies (open innovation) to generate impacts like production efficiency, consumption reduction, emission reduction, reduce-recycle-reuse among others. Companies implementing sustainable technologies do observe positive impacts. Implementation of reduce-reuse-recycle (3R)-based technologies enhance the achievement of sustainable development targets. Furthermore, the use of trademarks seems common in differentiating their technologies and identities. These and other results are detailed and used to comment on the role of managing intellectual property and harnessing the effect of technological innovations in sustainability transition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0245.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 14 November 2022 (08:26:39 CET)
We investigate the innovational determinants of “Patent Applications” in Europe. We use data from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019. We use Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled OLS, WLS and Dynamic Panel. We found that the variables that have a deeper positive association with “Patent Applications” are “Human Resources” and “Intellectual Assets”, while the variables that show a more intense negative relation with Patent Applications are “Employment Share in Manufacturing” and “Total Entrepreneurial Activity”. A cluster analysis with the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette Coefficient has been realized. The results show the presence of two clusters. A network analysis with the distance of Manhattan has been performed and we find three different complex network structures. Finally, a comparison is made among eight machine learning algorithms for the prediction of the future value of the “Patent Applications”. We found that PNN-Probabilistic Neural Network is the best performing algorithm. Using PNN the results show that the mean future value of “Patent Applications” in the estimated countries is expected to decrease of -0.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0012.v2
Online: 9 September 2016 (07:42:15 CEST)
Solid waste management in Accra is a major challenge to the Metropolitan Authorities and inhabitants. The rapidly increasing population coupled with poor capacity of the municipal and private waste management companies to management waste effectively has created issues of environmental concern. Due to poor waste managements systems, most household dispose waste indiscriminately leading to floods and health issues. The study showed that about 60% of household waste is organic materials which has the potential to be converted to compost for agriculture purpose. Meanwhile plastics and rubbers which litters the environment as well as blocking major storm drains and gutters hence creating huge environmental hazard is made of 11% of the total component of most household waste generated daily. The study also revealed that among the methods of disposing waste, dumping waste in skip containers located at authorized places was the preferred means of disposing waste by household though others also dispose waste by other means such as burying and burning. Inadequate skip containers per population of household in an area coupled with irregularity of tracks picking these containers makes skip containers dumping site ugly scene, hence creating health issues. Among the constraints that impact negatively on sustainable waste management in Accra Metropolis, economic constraints was perceived as the main challenge which affect efficient waste management. Currently the country is going through serious economic challenges so government does not release money timely to fund projects which waste management is key. Most donor partners that use to support the government with funds have either reduced or redrawn their services as they have no confidence in the state of Ghana economy. Aside the constrains, the study also indicated that factors such as poor public attitude towards waste management, poor enforcement of sanitation by-laws, inadequate and untimely release of government funds were also seen as the main factors affecting waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: innovation and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion processes; open innovation
Online: 25 April 2022 (04:40:06 CEST)
The following article analyzes the determinants of the innovation index in Europe. The data refer to the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for the period between 2010 and 2019 for 36 countries. The data are analyzed using the following econometric techniques: Panel Data with Random Effects, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Dynamic Panel Data, Pooled OLS, WLS. The results show that the Innovation Index is negatively connected to some variables, among which the most significant are "GDP per capita", "R&D expenditure public sector", "Venture capital", "Tertiary education", and positively connected to some variables among which the most relevant are: "Government procurement of advanced technology products", "Average annual population growth", "Finance and support", "Human resources", "Marketing or organisational innovators", "Linkages". A clustering was then carried out using the unsupervised k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette coefficient which shows the presence of 2 clusters per value of the Innovation Index. Eight machine learning algorithms has been used for prediction with real data. The Tree Ensemble Regression algorithm has been chosen as best performer. A further prediction has been made with the augmented data. The result shows that the best performing algorithm is Linear Regression with an innovation index value predicted to grow by approximately 3.38%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Shariah; hospital; healthcare; management; Islam
Online: 7 September 2020 (10:52:33 CEST)
The Ministry of Health evaluates hospital management in accordance with the standard of quality of service. The concept of Shariah hospitals offers management services that exceed the standard of quality of hospital care. The study aims to illustrate the concept of Shariah hospitals in Indonesia. We collect related literature from various media via online search with the keywords “Shariah hospitals,” “implementation of Shariah hospitals,” and “application of Shariah hospitals.” Main findings: The study finds that the Shariah hospitals built by the philosophy of Islam are willing to provide the best health-care services to patients. A code of conduct must be fulfilled by the hospital management in Shariah hospitals: (1) general liability, (2) obligations to society and the environment, (3) obligations to patients, (4) obligations to the leaders, staff, and employees, and (4) relationships with related institutions. The foremost challenges include the improvement of health personnel performance and the quality of services in addition to perceptions that are not inclusive of the system of Shariah hospitals. This implementation should run consistently and with the commitment of all parties. Such insight, in turn, can be counted as an input to an approach to health services, particularly in increasing the performance rates, such as hospital. This study is the first to provide new insight into discussion about shariah hospital by presenting its focuses on Islamic approaches in meeting the quality standards of health services in hospitals so as to obtain more value. However, exclusive principles—Islamization, heterogeneity, and the performance of health workers—challenge the implementation of this hospital system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: social entrepreneurship; responsible innovation; sustainable management; Mexican SMEs.
Online: 29 May 2019 (10:44:35 CEST)
Responsible innovation combines philanthropic and economic aspects and it is common to refer to entrepreneurs who lead it as "social entrepreneurs". The present study of 100 Mexican SMEs, provides knowledge of exploratory nature about what the models of organization are conducive to SMEs in the generation and development of responsible innovations. Through the statistical technique of cluster analysis, this study identified and characterized four models of organization according to the level of social entrepreneurship reached: (1) “The techno-scientific organization”, (2) “The techno-social organization”, (3) “The capitalist-social organization” and (4) “The capitalist organization”. While in Europe the dominant discourse about responsible innovation focuses on the control of the risk of social rejection of the advance of science and technology; in contexts such as the Mexican, the phenomenon is configured as the mechanism through which entrepreneurs articulate its technological and scientific capabilities to solve priority and specific problems of the society, however, the social impact does not crucially affect their business initiatives. The techno-scientific organization (50% of studied SMEs) is proposed as the model of organization with greater viability for Mexican entrepreneurs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; management; performance; sustainability
Online: 31 July 2017 (15:43:49 CEST)
The study examines how the South African construction industry can nurture an entrepreneur and a large successful entrepreneurial construction company, even though the founder had no formal education and the company was founded during the Apartheid era. The question of whether entrepreneurs are born or are made is based on the age-old question of nurture and nature. The paper presents the narratives of a successful entrepreneur Mr. Sam Lubbe. The narratives presented are collected through a case study research approach. The data collected suggests that although Sam does not have any formal education, he succeeded based on nurturing given to him when he had the opportunity to work for a large South African construction company, his innate characteristics of self-confidence, task-result orientation, originality, future direction, and a unique business model which also helped him access international construction work opportunities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0101.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biodiversity conservation, livelihood, co-management, stakeholder, law enforcement
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:20:07 CET)
Despite of being an exceptionally biodiversity rich country, the forest coverage of Bangladesh is declining at an alarming rate. Declaration and management of protected areas in this regard is one of the efforts from government side to tackle the loss of biodiversity. The limited numbers of forest-protected areas (FPA), established to conserve the dwindling forest biodiversity of the country with high pressure on them for timber, non-timber forest products, and fuelwood - makes their management challenging. Moreover, most of the FPAs of the country declared only in the recent decades with very limited infrastructure, manpower and policy support for monitoring and governance. Some people-centred approaches for the management of FPAs and alternative livelihood and income generation subsidies although made available through a few project interventions, their number are still inadequate and performance remains less than satisfactory. This chapter provides a critical review of the FPAs of Bangladesh looking at their role in biodiversity conservation, management challenges, and key lessons from previous management interventions with recommendations for the future. It has been revealed that the FPA system of Bangladesh still poorly represents the diverse forest ecosystems with relatively small forest size and lack of corridors for the movement of wildlife. There are ample opportunities to render co-management of FPAs an effective strategy to minimize the conflicts in FPAs management in the country. It is, however, important to ensure the access of local forest-dependent people to different alternative income generating options that may adequately support their livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation.
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:56:35 CEST)
In this article we investigate the determinants of “New Doctorate Graduates” in Europe. We use data from the EIS-European Innovation Scoreboard of the European Commission for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019 with Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel, WLS, Panel Data with Fixed Effects and Panel Data with Random Effects. We found that “New Doctorate Graduates” is positively associated, among others, with “Human Resources” and “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products” and negatively, associated among others, with “Total Entrepreneurial Activity” and “Innovation Index”. We apply a clusterization with k-Means algorithm either with the Silhouette Coefficient either with the Elbow Method and we found that in both cases the optimal number of clusters is three. Furthermore, we use the Network Analysis with the Distance of Manhattan, and we find the presence of seven network structures. Finally, we propose a confrontation among ten machine learning algorithms to predict the value of “New Doctorate Graduates” either with Original Data-OD either with Augmented Data-AD. Results show that SGD-Stochastic Gradient Descendent is the best predictor for OD while Linear Regression performs better for AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; HMLV; LMHV; Production scheduling; Digital Manufacturing; Computer aided production management (CAPM); Smart Manufacturing; MCDM
Online: 17 March 2022 (11:47:59 CET)
Sustainability is the core concern of every business; The exploration of avenues to maintain sustainability while staying competitive with high level of productivity remains a vital endeavor. Production flexibility is a key area that can enhance the sustainability of manufacturing industries as it can ensure product availability, scalability, agility/fault tolerance as well as disaster recovery potentials. Technological advancements have provided avenues where companies can enhance virtually all aspects of their operations for efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative research approach to identify the capability requirements for smart and effective production management and subsequent analysis is done using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making methodology to identify and rank various industry 4.0 technologies and concepts that can provide these smart capabilities in in manufacturing industries to aid the businesses to achieve sustainability with production flexibility. The paper identifies over 12 smart capabilities and 9 Industry 4.0 Technologies which are applicable to production management. It also compares results from the analytics of historical I4.0 implementation as discussed in literatures with the current state as deduces from survey feedbacks from various manufacturing industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0123.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: co-management; livelihoods; conflicts; biodiversity conservation; sustainable development
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:25:34 CET)
Good governance in natural resource management (NRM) is one of the most challenging issues in developing countries that often inappropriately embedded in national policies and political agendas. It is, in fact, even more important for countries like Bangladesh with exceptionally high pressure and dependence on its natural resources for sustaining rural livelihoods. Globally, nowadays, good governance is considered as one of the key factor for achieving the goal of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Bangladesh, of late has responded to that global zeal by involving local communities in the management of country’s declining forest and other natural resources. The colonial legacy of the forestry sector of Bangladesh was planned and, managed as interim projects through donors’ prescriptions. Thus, institutions, management processes and conservation outcomes were problematic. The conventional approach adopted by colonial and post-colonial regimes for forest management also proved to be inefficient due to its top-down management system. The absolute dependency on donor support, and their prescription sometimes worsened the situation both ecologically and socially. Global, regional and local trends supported the need for a different dimension in the governance paradigms. The introduction of a pluralistic approach, known as co-management in protected areas (PAs) is an example of an attempt whereby shared governance mechanism are implemented to attain the desired goals of conservation that will also address the livelihoods and aspirations of communities living in and around PAs of the country. However, in designing future forest and PA regimes the concern of the external aid support and attached conditions remain a reality that needs to be addressed. Adequate attention should be given to our vanishing biodiversity, culture and community livelihoods through devising an appropriate governance mechanism recognizing and supporting local rights, access and participation in the environmental management. It is now time to mainstream the adhoc nature of governance according to our national conservation strategy and policy frameworks in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the Bangladesh NRM sector addressing the human and community right of people in the specific context of forest protected areas management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: innovation and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion orocesses; open innovation
Online: 13 September 2022 (09:50:32 CEST)
In this article we estimate the value of “Non-R&D Innovation Expenditures” in Europe. We use data from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission from the period 2010-2019. We test data with the following econometric models i.e.: Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS. We found that “Non-R&D Innovation Expenditures” is positively associated among others to “Innovation Index” and “Firm Investments” and negatively associated among others to “Human Resources” and “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products”. We use the k-Means algorithm with either the Silhouette Coefficient and the Elbow Method in a confrontation with the network analysis optimized with the Distance of Manhattan and we find that the optimal number of clusters is four. Furthermore, we propose a confrontation among eight machine learning algorithms to predict the level of “Non-R&D Innovation Expenditures” either with Original Data-OD either with Augmented Data-AD. We found that Gradient Boost Trees Regression is the best predictor for OD while Tree Ensemble Regression is the best Predictor for AD. Finally, we verify that the prediction with AD is more efficient of that with OD with a reduction in the average value of statistical errors equal to 40,50%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; hardware and software co-design; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; self-management; self-adapting; self-healing
Online: 17 July 2017 (10:27:33 CEST)
Though Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) become very popular in last the decade, dependability of CPS is still a critical issue and related survey is rare. We try to spell out the jigsaw of technologies and figure out the technical trends of dependable self-managing CPS. This survey first recalls the motivation and the similar concepts. By analyzing four generic architectures, we summarize the common characteristics and related assurance technologies, and propose a more generic environment-in-loop processing flow of CPS and a formal interaction flow between physical space and cyber space. Further, the similarity between correctness and dependability is formally analyzed and the new five research questions of dependable self-managing CPS are presented. Then we review the critical technologies and related correctness verification & validation (V&V) methods, the architectures for dependable self-managing CPS. Further, the detail dependability management and V&V technologies are surveyed, which covers the areas of running-time fault management methods and whole life cycle V&V technologies, maintenance and available tool sets. For holistic CPS development, Modeling techniques and MDE (model driven engineering) based V&V methods are analyzed in detail. Then we complete the jigsaw of technologies and figure out the missing part. Further, we propose the technical challenges and the further direction. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable self-managing CPS development and evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: isoflavones; menopause management; endometrial thickness; mammary density; liver function; plant extracts
Online: 27 October 2016 (12:21:59 CEST)
Long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination based on agnus castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli, and effectiveness on vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders in postmenopausal women, were assessed. A controlled study was carried-out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group), at the dosage recommended. Kuppermann index, PSQI, and SF-36 were determined at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. 180 women (100 in ESP group and 80 in C group, mean age 55.5 years, in menopause for about 36 months) were enrolled in the study. At the treatment end, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. Kuppermann index, and particularly hot flushes, were progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. No adverse events were observed. Agnus castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. Endometrium, mammary glands and liver function, were unaffected after 12 months treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation; mental model refinement; food systems; knowledge management participatory modeling; system dynamics; systems thinking
Online: 27 November 2016 (04:12:49 CET)
Food systems will need to undergo considerable transformation. To be better prepared for and resilient to uncertainty and disturbances in the future, resource users and managers need to further develop knowledge about the food and farming system, with its dominating feedback structures and complexities, and to test robust and integrated system-based solutions. This paper investigates how participatory system dynamics modeling can be adapted to groups at the community level with low or no formal educational background. The paper also analyzes the refinement of workshop participants’ mental models as a consequence of a participatory system dynamics intervention. For this purpose, we ran two workshops with small-scale farmers in Zambia. Analysis of workshop data and post-workshop interviews shows that participatory system dynamics is well adaptable to support an audience-specific learning-by-doing approach. The use of pictures, objects and water glasses in combination with the basic aspects of causal loop diagramming makes for a well-balanced toolbox. Participants acquire understanding that is also relevant beyond systems thinking in that is offers a range of practical insights such as a critical evaluation of common food security strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: waste management; economic instruments; pay-as-you-throw; municipal solid waste; recycling; environmental management
Online: 3 November 2016 (10:28:43 CET)
The “Pay-as-you-throw” scheme, PAYT, is an economic instrument of waste management that implements the “polluter pays” principle by charging inhabitants of municipalities according to the amount of residual, organic and bulky waste they send for third-party waste management. When combined with well-developed infrastructure to collect the different waste fractions (residual waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, bio waste, green cuttings, many recyclables) as well as with a good level of citizen’s awareness, its performance has frequently been linked to high collection rates of recyclables. However, the establishment and operation of PAYT systems can require significant resource inputs from municipalities. In this paper, PAYT is analysed through a case study from the German County of Aschaffenburg, covering nearly 20 years of implementation across 173,000 inhabitants. Key performance indicators applied include temporal trends in the county’s recyclables collection rate, waste treatment fees for residents and municipal waste management costs, benchmarked against German municipalities not implementing PAYT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; real-time self-adaptation, self-management; self-healing
Online: 29 January 2019 (04:45:47 CET)
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been a popular research area in the last decade. The dependability of CPS is still a critical issue, and rare survey has been published in this domain. CPS is a dynamic complex system, which involves various multidisciplinary technologies. To avoid human error and to simplify management, self-management CPS (SCPS) is a wise choice. And to achieve dependable self-management, systematic solution is necessary to verify the design and to guarantee the safety of self-adaptation decision, as well as to maintain the health of SCPS. This survey first recalls the concepts of dependability, and proposes a generic environment-in-loop processing flow of self-management CPS, and then analyzes the error sources and challenges of self-management through the formal feedback flow. Focus on reducing the complexity, we first survey the self-adaptive architecture approaches and applied dependability means; then we introduce a hybrid multi-role self-adaptive architecture, and discuss the supporting technologies for dependable self-management at the architecture level. Focus on dependable environment-centered adaption, we investigate the verification and validation (V&V) methods for making safe self-adaptation decision and the solutions for processing decision dependably. For system-centered adaption, the comprehensive self-healing methods are summarized. Finally, we analyze the missing pieces of the technology puzzle and the future directions. In this survey, the technical trends for dependable CPS design and maintenance are discussed, an all-in-one solution is proposed to integrate these technologies and build a dependable organic SCPS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable SCPS building and evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0091.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: sustainable waste management behaviors; protection motivation theory; pro-environmental behaviors; threat appraisal, coping appraisal
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:29:00 CEST)
This study aims to explain individual engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs) based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT). SWMBs include waste avoidance, green purchasing behavior, reuse and recycle, and waste disposal behaviors. This study applies PMT to explore how individuals’ SWMBs are influenced by their perceived threats caused by environmental contamination from waste disposal and their perceived coping capability. The Bangkok metropolitan area was selected as a case study because it has faced serious waste management problems caused by massively increasing amounts of solid waste during the last ten years. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with 193 public and private officers residing in the city of Bangkok. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to justify the effect of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on the engagement in SWMBs. The results demonstrated that respondents’ self-efficacy highly influenced all types of SWMBs. The perceived probability of being impacted from pollutants influenced all of the SWMBs except green purchasing behaviors. Response efficacy did not influence all SWMBs; however, the perceived severity of adverse consequences caused by pollutants highly influenced reuse and recycle behaviors. It could be suggested that PMT is well suited for investigating low-cost and simple SWMBs. It could also be suggested that different communication campaigns should be established to enhance citizens’ engagement in each type of SWMB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Innovation; and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 26 September 2022 (10:39:02 CEST)
In this article we have estimated the value of “Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship” in Europe. We use data from European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019. We use Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, Pooled OLS, and Dynamic Panel. Our results show that “Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship” is positively associated, among others, to “Innovation Friendly Environment” and “Turnover Share Large Enterprises”, while it is negatively associated, among others, to “Sales Impacts” and “R&D Expenditure Business Sectors”.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0039.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: knowledge management; tacit knowledge; explicit knowledge
Online: 4 August 2016 (08:30:38 CEST)
In this paper I take the book by Michel Serres “Thumbelina” as the occasion for a reflection on the conceptual basis of knowledge management, as it was built by Ikujiro Noanka and co-workers. The direct access to knowledge that Thumbelina practices together with her peers is, in fact, for me, a god observation point to bring the reflection of Nonaka further, towards the discovery of a new understanding of knowledge and knowing processes. If the digital revolution is third step after writing and printing, in the soft changes in the relations between human beings and knowledge, then it poses in an urgent manner the problem to deepen our understanding of what knowledge and intelligence are and to change our practice at the education level and to design new digital tools to support our knowledge management processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: learning management system; integrated planning and advising system; information system; field education; social work; graduate education
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:28:58 CEST)
In graduate programs such as social work, field education is the signature pedagogy of education. As such, student placement with an appropriate field education agency is critical to ensure academic success and career readiness. A variety of Learning Management System (LMS) and Integrated Planning and Advising Service (IPAS) technologies have been developed to fully integrate technology into the educational system and streamline and improve the learning experience for students, educators, and administrators. Few (if any) of the existing solutions have capabilities to match students with field educators on the basis of an individual student’s completed coursework and area of specialization, as well as field educator needs and opportunities. This paper describes our experience developing a custom LMS/IPAS system—the School of Social Work information System (SSWiS)—that was designed specifically for student learning, faculty advising, and academic administration within our social work graduate program. We present the challenges that motivated the design of the SSWiS before describing the architecture and functionality of our solution. We then discuss our preliminary evaluation results. We conclude with a discussion of the benefits and limitations of our system in the context of today’s technical needs in graduate education in social work and other fields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway infrastructure; high-speed rail; tracks; risk; management and monitoring; climate change; global warming; adaptation; operational readiness
Online: 5 August 2016 (05:11:02 CEST)
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and many of the observed changes are unprecedented over five decades to millennia. Globally the atmosphere and ocean is increasingly getting warmer, the amount of ice on the earth is decreasing over the oceans, and the sea level has risen. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the total increasing temperature globally averaged combined land and surface between the average of the 1850-1900 period and the 2003 to 2012 period is 0.78 °C (0.72 to 0.85). But should we prepare for such the relatively small change? The importance is not the mean of the warming but the considerable likelihood of climate change that could trigger extreme natural hazards. The impact and the risk of climate change associated with railway infrastructure have not been fully addressed in the literature due to the difference in local environmental parameters. On the other hand, the current railway network in Malaysia, over the last decade, has been significantly affected by severe weather conditions such as rainfall, lightning, wind and very high temperatures. Our research findings point out the extremes that can lead to asset system failure, degraded operation and ultimately, delays to train services. During the period of flood, the embankment of the track can be swept away and bridge can be demolished, while during drought, the embankment of the track can suffer from soil desiccation and embankment deterioration, high temperature increases the risk of track buckling and high winds can result in vegetation or foreign object incursion on to the infrastructure as well as additional quasi-static burden exerted. This review is of significant importance for planning and design of the newly proposed high speed rail link between Malaysia and Singapore.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Environmental Assessment Report (EAR); environmental health; Environmental Management/Environmental Management Systems (EM/EMS) Model; Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Multinational oil companies (MOCs); Niger Delta; Ogoni; Ogoniland; Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC); United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:39:30 CET)
In August 4 2011, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) of Ogoniland, to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14–month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. It was intended that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post EAR, and, despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred, both on the part of the government, and on the part of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents, particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although, the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta) as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and Environmental Management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the Environmental Management/Environmental Management System (EM/EMS) model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: demand management; European Supergrid; peak loads; residential electricity demand
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:41:25 CET)
The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances) to different levels of peak demand risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0081.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: resilience, land management, wildfire, Mediterranean dry forest
Online: 27 July 2016 (10:01:44 CEST)
Wildfires have always been a part of the history of Mediterranean forests. However, forest regeneration after a wildfire is not certain. It depends on many factors, some of which may be influenced by land management activities. Failure of regeneration will cause a regime shift in the ecosystem, reducing the provision of ecosystem services and ultimately leading to desertification. How can we increase Mediterranean forests’ resilience to fire? To answer this question, we did a literature review, investigating chains of processes that allow forests to regenerate (which we label “regeneration mechanisms”), and assessed the impact of selected management practices documented in the WOCAT database on the regeneration mechanisms. We identified three distinct regeneration mechanisms that enable Mediterranean forests to recover, as well as the time frame before and after a fire in which they are at work, and factors that can hinder or support resilience. The three regeneration mechanisms enabling a forest to regenerate after a fire consist of regeneration (1) from a seed bank; (2) from resprouting individuals; and (3) from unburned plants that escaped the fire. Management practices were grouped into four categories: (1) fuel breaks, (2) fuel management, (3) afforestation, and (4) mulching. We assessed how and under what conditions land management modifies the ecosystem’s resilience. The results show that land management influences resilience by interacting with resilience mechanisms before and after the fire, and not just by modifying the fire regime. Our analysis demonstrates a need for adaptive – i.e. context- and time-specific – management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0007.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Crop production, Soil management, Soil Organic Carbon, Soil productivity
Online: 2 January 2017 (14:25:02 CET)
Crop productivity is directly dependent to soil fertility. High soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil is vital as it leads to improved soil quality, increased productivity, and stable soil-aggregates. In addition, with the signing of the climate agreement, there is growing interest in carbon sequestration in landscapes. This paper looks at how SOC can be increased so that it not only contributes to reduction of CO2, but also translates to increased food production thereby enhancing food security. This synergy between mitigation and enhancing food security is even more relevant for mountain landscapes of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region where there remains huge potential to increase CO2 sequestration and simultaneously address food security in the chronic food deficit villages. Soil samples were collected from seven transects each in Bajhang and Mustang and from 4 land use types in each transect. Samples of soils were taken from two depths in each plot; 0-15 cm below the soil surface and 15-30 cm below the soil surface to compare the top soil and subsoil dynamics of the soil nutrients. The lab analysis was performed to assess the soil texture, soil color, soil acidity in 'power of hydrogen' (pH), macro-nutrients as soil fertility. Secondary data was used to analyze the level of food deficit in the villages. The result shows that most of the sample soils from Mustang were clay (82.1%) which is 46 samples out of 56. The pH value of soil from Bajhang ranged from 5.29 to 9.09. The pH value of soil ranged from 5.65 to 8.81 in Mustang. SOC contents of sampled soils from Bajhang ranged from 0.20% to 7.69% with mean amount of 2.47% ± 0.17. SOC contents of sampled soils from Mustang ranged from 0.51% to 8.56% with mean amount of 2.60% ± 0.25. By land use type, forest land had the highest carbon (C) content of 53.61 t ha-1 in Bajhang whereas in Mustang, agricultural land had the highest C content of 52.02 tons ha-1. Based on these data, we can say that there is potential for increasing SOC through improved soil health and crop production and soil. Sustainable soil management should be practiced for higher productivity. Livestock may also provide farmyard manure, which can be used to fertilize cultivated soils, which increases soil productivity. Increasing productivity would aid in increasing the access and availability of food in these mountain villages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: mucositis; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; pathophysiology; management; melatonin
Online: 9 March 2017 (04:46:30 CET)
The current treatment for cervico-facial cancer involves radio and/or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, cancer therapies can lead to local and systemic complications such as mucositis, which is the most common dose-dependent complication in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Mucositis can cause a considerably reduced quality of life in cancer patients already suffering from physical and psychological exhaustion. However, melatonin, whose role in the treatment of mucositis has recently been investigated, offers an effective alternative therapy in the prevention and/or management of radio and/or chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review focuses on the pathobiology and management of mucositis in order to improve the quality of cancer patients’ lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Patkos; sustainable development; knowledge sharing; knowledge management; Homo Technologicus; Homo Sustainabiliticus; conceptual model; quantum organizational decision-making
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:09:03 CET)
This conceptual, interdisciplinary paper will start by introducing the commencement of a new era in which human society faces continuously accelerating technological revolutions, named for short ‘Padkos’. In this context, a conceptual model of sustainable development with a focus on knowledge sharing and management will be proposed. The construct of knowledge management will be unpacked into a three-layer model with a focus on the knowledge-human and data-machine spheres. Then, each sphere will be discussed with concentrating on the learning and decision- making processes, the digital supporting systems and the human actors’ aspects. Moreover, the recombination of new knowledge development and contemporary knowledge management into one amalgamated construct will be proposed. The holistic conceptual model of knowledge sharing for sustainable development is comprised by time, cybersecurity and two alternative humanistic paradigms (Homo Technologicus and Homo Sustainabiliticus). Two additional particular models are discussed in depth. First, a recently proposed model of quantum organizational decision-making is elaborated. Next, a boundary management and learning process is particularized. The paper ends with several implications for the future based on the deliberations in the paper and the models discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: e-reputation management; online management; hotel industry
Online: 13 February 2020 (13:50:11 CET)
The purpose of this study is to find out the e-reputation management of the hotel industry, as well as the social media channels used as the tools of hotel e-reputation building. This study used a qualitative approach by analyzing the in-depth interviews with hotel marketing communication practitioners of 15 hotel companies in Bandung City. The findings identified that e-reputation is considered a crucial factor in determining hotel performance due to the change of customers’ behaviors today and identified also three types of e-reputation management activities implemented by hotel companies, such as online activities, offline activities, and online/offline activities. The results of this study have implications for the hospitality industry, as a reference for formulating their marketing strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Management; Improvement; System; Production process; Technologies; management methods
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:22:28 CEST)
Managers are often faced with the task of improving the management of the production 17process in order to maintain the sustainability of production efficiency in a highly competitive en-18vironment. The submitted contribution deals with the design of a system that will support them in 19the selection of progressive methods and technologies in order to improve the management of pro-20duction processes. Managers often follow new trends in this issue, but it is not easy to work on the 21knowledge that proven progressive technologies can bring them higher efficiency. The presented system is based on the use of knowledge of existing solutions of manufacturers of automotive components, where companies solve similar problems in production management. The mix of methods and technologies used in the management of production processes brings companies different results in the achieved efficiency. The proposed system for supporting the selection of the production management method and technology is designed from blocks of data collection, benchmarking of the performance of production processes of industrial enterprises, and further from data mining technology to obtain knowledge about the effect on efficiency from already implemented technologies. The last blocks help to examine the differences in the implementation of the same methods and technologies and allow to present the obtained results to the manager in the form of recommendations for choosing a suitable progressive method and technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0615.v1
Subject: Keywords: Building management system; Smart building; Energy consumption management; Demand response management; Energy consumption optimization
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:19:32 CEST)
Considering the increasing rate of energy consumption and its environmental detrimental effects, as well as considering the use of non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, energy management issues have become more important. Given the 40% share of the building industry's total energy consumption, as well as the 80% share of energy consumed during the operation period, attention to the areas of energy management and optimization during the operation period of the buildings can have a major impact on buildings’ energy performance. In this research, through identifying building energy management tools and studying previous studies and assessing the effects of building energy management systems, the economic and environmental impacts of using building energy management systems on the annual energy consumption in an office building in Tehran as a case study has been investigated. The results indicate a 32 percent reduction in energy consumption and a significant reduction in the release of the environmental pollutants in smart mode compared to the base mode. Moreover, considering the social costs associated with the emitted pollutants as well as the return period, it has been attempted to identify the factors contributing to the economic justification of using smart heating and cooling systems. According to the results, the use of smart energy management systems can be considered as an effective step in optimizing and managing energy consumption in the construction sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: management methods; management; system; technologies; production process; process improvement
Online: 29 June 2022 (10:16:24 CEST)
The contribution deals with the selection of progressive methods and technologies to improve the management of production processes in the industrial area. The first chapter of the contribution summarises the theoretical starting points for the management of production processes and their progressive concepts. Chapter 2 deals with the analysis of the current state of play in the use of methods and technologies in production management and summarise its problem areas. Chapter 3 presents the design of a system for selecting the appropriate method and technology to improve the management of the production process. The system presented is designed from data collection blocks, a benchmark for the performance of industrial enterprises' production processes, and data mining to gain knowledge of the impact of the methods and technologies used on the performance of production processes. The last block of the system allows the presentation of the obtained results, which sets out the recommendation for the choice of progressive method and technology. The system is partially verified in the last chapter of the contribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Covid-19; shoes; smart management; shoemaking machinery; sustainable management
Online: 7 July 2022 (03:48:28 CEST)
During the Covid-19 pandemic in Taiwan, analytical tools of PEST (political, economic, social-cultural, and technological), SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat), nine building blocks of a business model canvas, and knowledge management were combined to develop a theoretical framework, and used to assess business, smart and sustainable management of two case companies: Tung Sheng Company Limited and its subsidiary, Strong Basic Enterprise Limited. A heuristic inquiry research design was adopted. In addition to secondary data from the two case companies, major top managers were interviewed to reveal constructive questions about the existing business models and to re-interpret strategy. The results showed that case companies own capabilities of R & D (research and development) as a foundation to further apply new smart ICT (information and communication technology) and execute green manufacturing. Additionally, strong key partnerships are used to diversify business investment for leveraging on limited resources given current insufficient qualified employees. Resilient practices adopted new and green technology to help mitigate the negative impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic. This study provides a useful framework and practical information about how to examine business models, smart and sustainable management processes of the two case companies and to make adjustments in strategies for the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0191.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: water data management; urban water system; strategic planning; integrated water management
Online: 20 June 2019 (04:02:14 CEST)
Rapid technological advancements in information communication technologies have enabled water resource data collection at greater spatial and temporal scale. However, this water data is often limited to the purposes of its primary collection, and limits decisions made by stakeholders towards sustainable urban water management. This empirically focused research paper examines how water practitioners involved in strategic planning can capture additional values from integrating different water data. Furthermore, the perception of 22 urban water practitioners across Australia are presented, regarding the importance of and difficulty in using water data for strategic planning, and the necessary steps for achieving integrated water management practices. Interviewees perception revealed gaps in available water resource data (i.e. water quality, ground water, stormwater, and urban water use), and limitations of industry guidelines for operating within existing governance frameworks. Overall, the research highlights the Australian urban water sector’s perception of water data’s crucial role in representing stakeholders interest; however, changes made in water data’s collection are required for an integrated water management approach. Implications for future open water data standard are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0393.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Humble leadership; employee creativity; top management support; project management effectiveness
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:40:27 CEST)
This paper aims to explore the effect of humble leadership on project success by integrating the mediating role of employee creativity. Top management support moderates the direct relationship (humble leadership and project management effectiveness) and indirect relationships through employee creativity. Time-lagged data were obtained from 332 persons working in the matrix organization across the information technology. The results showed that humble leadership enhance project management effectiveness by mediating and moderating processes. This study provides a solution to an underlying research question that has gone unanswered in prior studies. What are the strategies proposed for humble leadership in fostering the effectiveness of the project?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:05:44 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Circular economy; sustainability; environmental management; resource management; strategy; motivations; knowledge; challenges.
Online: 18 June 2018 (14:15:28 CEST)
The move towards a new Circular Economy (CE) economic model has been advocated and supported in Portugal, however, there is limited research on this topic. To address this gap, a quantitative research based on an online survey was carried out among 99 Portuguese organizations, encompassing a wide range of sectors and sizes. The results show that CE is regarded as a strategic and relevant issue for profitability and value creation. Furthermore, the perception that it requires the adoption of new business models in addition to the classical “reduce, reuse, and recycle” approach is growing. Moreover, based on the hypotheses raised, results suggest that the level of CE adoption is positively impacted by the status of the EMS (Environmental Management System) certification and the willingness to improve the environmental performance and achieve a sustainable business model. However, CE activities are still relatively modest and a friendlier context (fiscal, legal, organizational, etc.) and the stronger support from supply chain agents and consumers are required. Future research should focus on how to design and shape the transition from a linear to a CE economy, and to ascertain if the positive attitude towards CE is materialized in changing the way business is done.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0544.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pillar-based lake management; object-based lake management; Lake Rawapening
Online: 29 November 2022 (08:49:57 CET)
Lake Rawapening, Semarang Regency, Indonesia, has incorporated a holistic plan in its management practices. However, despite successful target achievements, some limitations remain that a review of its management plan is needed. This paper identifies and analyzes existing lake management strategies as a standard specifically in Lake Rawapening by exploring various literature, both legal frameworks and scholarly articles indexed in Google Scholar and published in Water by MDPI about lake management in many countries. There are two major types of lake management, namely pillar-based and object-based. While the former is the foundation of a conceptual paradigm that does not comprehensively consider the roles of finance and technology in the lake management, the latter indicates the objects to manage so as to create standards or benchmarks for the implementation of various programs. Overall, Lake Rawapening management should include more programs on erosion-sedimentation control and monitoring of operational performance using information systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diabetes mellitus; obesity; meta-analysis; patient education; self-management; disease management
Online: 13 July 2022 (15:19:53 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. There is increasing evidence showing therapeutic patient education (TPE) as a clinically and cost-effective solution to improve biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among people with DM and obesity. The present systematic review and meta-analysis presents a critical synthesis of development of TPE interventions for DM and obesity and the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. A total of 54 of these RCTs were identified among patients with obesity and diabetes and were thus, qualitatively synthesized. Out of these, 47 were included into quantitative synthesis. There was substantial heterogeneity in reporting of these outcomes (I2= 88.35%, Q= 317.64), with significant improvement (SMD=0.36, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.49) noted in biomedical outcomes in the intervention group. The effect sizes were comparable across interventions delivered by different modes and delivery agents. These interventions can be delivered by allied health staff, doctors or electronically as self-help programs, with similar effectiveness (P < 0.001). These interventions should be implemented in healthcare and community settings to improve health of patients suffering from DM and obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: pastoral resilience; co-management concept; decentralization; holistic management; water-shed management plan; commercialization of herding; Common Pool Resources
Online: 14 May 2018 (12:10:23 CEST)
This paper addresses pastoral resilience by drawing out the coping strategies and mechanisms utilized by the Maasai Pastoralists through a food system approach, based on the study findings of an anthropological study of pastoralism in Laikipia County, Rift Valley, Kenya. This paper is guided by the specific objectives aimed at establishing actors and their roles, and describing the institutional settings and changes in pastoralism. Using a new institutionalism approach, the paper focuses not only on the actors and their roles in pastoralism but also on how internal and external forces regulate access and use of common pool resources (CPRs) resulting in sustainability of the food system. We argue that this has an impact on the practice of pastoralism that continually defines and redefine the actors’ roles as well as elicit the value of pastoral economies and benefits accrued to a wide range of actors hence reinforcing pastoral resilience. The study also identified institutional settings and changes that lead to pastoral survival resulting from the country’s devolved system of governance. Data collection was through in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and unstructured observations in the pastoral regions. The findings reveal that actors at the household, state, non-state, and service providers have developed varied coping strategies and mechanisms that sustain pastoralism. The study also identified institutional settings and changes that promote pastoral resilience; notably, private land ownership patterns, co-management of livestock markets, commercialization of herding, decentralization of livestock services, holistic management of pasturelands and the use of water-shed management plans. As a result, increased scholarship and advocacy in regards to the concept of co-management of livestock markets, is recommended as a means of understanding pastoral resilience that the food system exhibits.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0041.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: uncertainty management; risk management; safety; ISO 31000:2009; ISO 31010:2009; risk management framework; risk-sentience; safety culture; risk culture; enterprise risk management
Online: 19 June 2018 (12:58:28 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a new auxiliary enterprise risk management framework and process to serve as an enabler to the global ISO 31000 risk framework and ISO 31010 processes. This framework has been designed particularly for use within high-risk environments and those characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA). This paper proposes a methodology for optimization of structured sharing and grass-roots management of all available risk-sentience information with the assessed potential to develop into an identifiable risk in the future. The author introduces new risk terminology including risk-sentience, risk-sentience information, and risk-sentience management. The process involved the development of the Theory of Risk-Sentience (ToRS), Risk-Sentience Auxiliary Framework (RSAF) and a risk-sentience management process referred to as LUOMEAR (Learning from Uncertainties, Others Mistakes, Experiences and Anecdotal Reporting). Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF), SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, and a newly developed Risk-Sentience Fertility Checklist were used to conduct pre and post-trial evaluations. The findings include positive adjustments in safety culture, components of commitment to quality, communication and team-working around safety issues, access to evolving risk-information, and efficient sharing and management of recorded risk-information. Recommendations are made for more extensive application of both the proposed auxiliary risk framework and process within high-risk sectors to further explore its effectiveness and scope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: information technology; construction project management; cost management; impact factor model; progressive technology; construction industry, life cycle cost management.
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:12:55 CET)
Construction project management and cost management is a difficult process that affects the overall success of construction projects. The success of a construction project can be assessed according to key performance indicators (KPIs). Cost savings and cost optimization over the life of a construction project is one of these KPIs. Cost management is largely performed through intelligent information technology in the construction industry. Information systems and information technologies have seen an increase in use in the management of construction projects. The same goes for cost management. Several studies mentioned in the paper point to this increase in use in recent years also in the management of costs at various stages. Many studies point to the use of information technology and software applications in the field of cost management. Still, to a large extent, there are no surveys focused on the analysis of the impact and impact factor of information technology on cost savings or cost optimization in various phases of construction projects. The research discusses the issue of the impact of information technology on cost management in various phases of a construction project. The main goal of the research is to analyze the influence of information technology factors on cost savings and optimization in individual phases of a construction project. Several statistical methods were used in the research. The resulting model of information technology impact factor was created based on data processing and the use of the AHP method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0250.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Management; telework; communication; human resource management; business; digitalization; Covid-19 pandemic
Online: 15 August 2022 (05:57:07 CEST)
In the context of the pandemic caused by Covid-19, an important aspect that was affected and changed was the way people communicate. Communication efficiency can be improved by using modern technologies, for example: mobile devices, digital audio and video platforms, text platforms, social media and more. For further economic success, digital skills are needed not only for executives, but also for managers, in order to be able to lead teams and avoid situations of stress and tension in the virtual environment. This scientific paper includes a primary research of how the pandemic affected the communication at the workplace. For this a qualitative analysis was first performed, in which the interview was used as a working tool. Next, on the basis of a questionnaire, a hypothesis was formulated and validated afterwards through multiple linear regression. This research highlighted the particularly important role of communication and, in this context, the role of the remote team leader. In order to keep the team motivated and interested in the virtual environment, the manager must use modern tools to motivate, support and express his appreciation when the team, respectively the members of his team, achieve their goals successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: change management; decision-making model; risk management; resource management; process improvement; good governance
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:42:05 CEST)
Abstract: Purpose – In this article we lay out the change management practices adopted by financial firms in small states within the Eurozone. We determine whether these organisations have the ability to identify triggers for change (Red Flags) and subject them to eight thematic elements to understand whether management practices can continue to exist and support operational environments, even when unexpected circumstances affect their day to day operations and processes. In doing this we examine the extent to which the eight thematic elements from the model designed by Dalli Gonzi, (2019) (The Dali Model) can assist organisations in risk identification and business continuity planning. Design/methodology/approach – A self-administered questionnaire purposely designed for this study was administered to personnel working in internal controls within financial institutions of small Eurozone states. The participants were asked to grade statements using a 5-point Likert scale, ‘1’ being ‘totally disagree’ and ‘5’ being totally agree’ to the statement posed under the thematic elements forming the basis of the Dali Model. Findings – Factor analysis provided support for the eight hypothesised dimensions of the decision-making model: connection, capacity, governance, network, policy, training, process improvement, standards. Originality/value – The study provides a better understanding and support of “best practice” in change management through an understanding and assessment of the eight factors that are the basis of this model. It addresses practical recommendations to ensure application to a wider frame of use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0455.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Flying-fox, disaster management, heat events, heat stress, roost management, physiology, veterinary management.
Online: 24 September 2018 (12:28:19 CEST)
Flying-fox populations are increasingly threatened by heat events, starvation events and other stressors due to habitat clearing and human/flying-fox conflict.These factors are unlikely to resolve, meaning that a well-coordinated and timely approach to flying-fox disasters is imperative for the mitigation of further flying-fox population impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0321.v1
Subject: Keywords: MPS FESTO workstation; production management; cloud computing; process management; Android; iOS; RFID
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:09:37 CET)
Industria 4.0 is present in smart and digital manufacturing, making manufacturing companies improve productivity, reducing delivery time and related costs. The objective of this work is to demonstrate through three integrated MPS Festo stations (Distribution, Pick \& Place and Sorting), using the Internet of Things and Google Analytics technologies, the benefits in relation to remote performance monitoring. The intended objective is achieved through the implementation of the monitoring system at the three MPS Festo stations. The data obtained through the integration of the Festo stations and their respective sensors are processed and analyzed in a cloud infrastructure, so that the main metrics are visualized and transmitted on a panel. This monitoring system improves the perception of process performance, as the main performance metrics are displayed, such as productivity, cycle time and parts produced. The cloud infrastructure allows remote viewing and monitoring of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0277.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: gender; leadership; women in top management; career management, Chile
Online: 19 October 2018 (05:48:06 CEST)
The issue of women’s participation in top management and boardroom positions has received increasing attention in the academic literature and the press. However, the pace of advancement for women managers and directors continues to be slow and uneven. The novel framework of this study organizes the factors at the individual, organizational and public policy level that affect both career persistence and the advancement of women in top management positions; namely, factors affecting 1) career persistence (staying at the organization) and 2) career advancement or mobility (getting promoted within the organization). In the study location, Chile, only 32 percent of women “persist”, or have a career without interruptions, mainly due to issues with work–family integration and organizational environments with opaque and challenging working conditions. Women who “advanced” in their professional careers represent 30 percent of high management positions in the public sector and 18 percent in the private sector. Only 3 percent of general managers in Chile are women. Women in Chile have limited access and are still not integrated into business power networks. Our findings will enlighten business leaders and public policy-makers interested in designing organizations that retain and promote talented women in top positions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0033.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Tertiary Education, TETFUND, Management, University
Online: 6 October 2017 (09:05:56 CEST)
This study set out to determine the effect of Tertiary Education Tax Fund (TETFUND) on management in Nigerian tertiary education. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions significantly affect the enrollment ratio to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. The hypothesis was formulated in line with the objectives of the study. Survey and Time series research design were adopted. Data were obtained from National Bureau of Statistics by use of financial ratios and tested using regression analysis with aid of SPSS statistical package version 20.0. Based on the analysis, the study found that ETF fund allocations to Nigerian Tertiary Institutions have no correlation with the enrollment ratio of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. Based on the findings, the study recommends that to the intervention agency to achieve meaningful on its constituents fund allocations should commensurate with enrolment ratio of tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Requirement Change Management; Methodology; Change Management Process; Software System
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:41:40 CET)
During software development requirement gathering is an important phase. Requirements are the basis of software development. The success or failure of any software depends upon level of understanding developed in requirements. During software development requirements keeps on changing due to different reasons. Hence requirements are such a critical phase that leads to the total project failure. So, to understand the impacts and to identify the conflicts with existing requirements, it is important to manage and analyze the requirements well. Requirement change management is the interest of this paper. Different requirement change management techniques has been discussed in this paper and analyzed them well and finally conclude the results accordingly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0079.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Systems Management, Biomedical Research Policy, Organizational Development, Quality Management
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:42:47 CET)
There has been a growing call for reform of the U.S. biomedical community in recent years. As a community, we face a growing list of issues including excessive waste, reproducibility, bias, inadequate training, and the absence of sustainable long-term planning that detract from the overall goal of advancing human health. In response to this debate, biomedical stakeholders have taken positive steps forward to remedy these issues. However, we must continually improve upon these steps to promote the long-term stability of the biomedical enterprise. Given the widespread interest of the scientific community in addressing these issues, there exists a unique opportunity to come together and create a new era of biomedical discovery. The completion of this exciting task requires reflection on our view and management of the system, and what the best route to sustainable change may be. Importantly, a coordinated approach that considers the collective make-up of the biomedical system and how processes and people influence collective output and create value for patients is needed. Here, these three areas and the concepts of systems theory, total quality management, and organizational development and their contribution to the management and effectiveness of biomedical discovery are discussed. Importantly recommendations are made concerning overall management strategy, process efficiency and quality research, administrative tasks, organizational cultural challenges, individual and team development, and funding strategy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Household waste; household waste management; sustainable city; integrated waste management model; Malaysia cities
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:27:56 CEST)
In recent years, Malaysia has faced environmental challenges caused by municipal solid waste, especially household waste, during the Covid-19 pandemic. Among all the household waste, plastic and paper are the most prominent waste that causes environmental hazards. Several recycling associations in Malaysia have carried out their practices for better waste sustainability and management to curb the increasing amount of household waste. However, the effectiveness is still vague in achieving smart and effective household waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate Malaysia’s household waste management, mainly in three significant municipalities in Malaysia for Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Melaka, in becoming a resilient and sustainable city by addressing two main research questions 1) What are the key factors for ensuring the more success move for future household waste management in cities? and 2) How will the 3 municipalities address their waste issues based on the key factors from RQ1, respectively? This paper reviewed 13 waste management articles and explores the potential of the four factors of waste management from the perspective of technology and data, economy, social and governance. The discussed factors and models contributed to an integrated future-proofing framework that focuses on smart waste tracking, an gamified awareness education, and strict policies to control waste management are the way forward for the future of smart cities household waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Training; competence; incentives; management; performance.
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:55:28 CEST)
Background.Nurse gives professional nursing service to patients according to competence owned. Based on these services in the end of every year, nurses are given incentives for medical services as financial incentive. Purpose. To analyze the impact of competence training and incentives medical services’ distribution upon the achievement of nurse’s performances in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Matterial and method. Observational survey research with cross sectional design. Population. Nurses in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Technique. Total sampling technique with number of samples 183 respondents. Inclusive criteria of samples are willing to be interviewed, nurse’s status, permanent offices without limitation from particular working unit or poly in hospital. Independent variable: (1) competence training; (2) Incentives for medical services. Dependent variable; Nurse’s performance achievement. Variables are measured by using Lickert scale. Information are recorded through questionnaire. Analyzes using linier regression. Result. There are impacts of competence training (α=.000;ß=.489)and distribution of incentives for medical services(α=.012; ß=.152)upon nurse’s performances achievement in General Hospital of Prof.W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Conclusion.The training of nursing service status that could increase competences among nurses with affair incentives for medical services’ distribution simultaneously end up in the increasing of nurse’s performances achievement in a hospital
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0693.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Product Data Management; Product Life Cycle Management; Concurrent Engineering; Validation of Design
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:17:05 CEST)
All departments in a business work separately, but for the same purpose.In this article, a system that allows not only the mechanical design department but also the manufacturing, storage, process planning, quality control, electrical design, purchasing departments, etc. to have access to the required information has been developed. Initially, current manufacturng result informations is collected from the project attandees. Secondly, a workflow is designed dependent on the current data flow. All the project stakeholders are introduced to join and use product data management system. In the absence of this kind of system, loss of time, scraps and loss of engineering time would be investigated. This allowed the company owners to be sure that no faulty revision of design will be produced after the system started. On the other hand automation of bill of materials generation provided the purchasing department correct and up to date information about outsourced parts. Allowing different engineering disciplines to work together provided more suitable environment. Gradually this conditions allowed all the departments work faster and market the new product much faster than before the system. Tracing the workflows for management purposes would be handled by the system. A ‘Validation of Design’ process is modelled for the company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: pandemic; green areas; protected areas; urban planning; visitor management; protected area management
Online: 11 January 2022 (18:23:29 CET)
Public green and open spaces fulfil various social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic roles, which complement each another, but can also compete with one another. COVID-19 pandemic catalysed multiple societal changes, including citizens’ perception, needs and expectations posed towards urban green spaces. This article discusses the extent to which the temporally and geographically changed patterns of experiencing these natural spaces also influenced users’ perception and behaviour as well as their appreciation of the conservation areas. The study is based upon two surveys carried out in the greater metropolitan region of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. A quantitative survey (representative online panel) among Viennese population (n=1012), as well as qualitive interviews with experts responsible for conservation areas, administrators of federal parks, along with NGOs representatives were carried out in spring and summer 2021. Our study shows the changed use of urban and suburban large green spaces and conservation areas: first, from the perspective of those responsible for the areas as well as the visitors. Both perspectives supplement one another. They highlight also changed perception of urban citizens towards green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. An increased importance of time spent in nature (68%) and possibility to visit large green areas (67%) was reported by Viennese citizens. Also, higher recognition of green spaces located close to home was observed among 69% of the respondents. Thus, the presented study contributes to the ongoing international discussion on the transition of societal needs and its effects on urban green spaces induced by the pandemic. Presented results deliver solid arguments highlighting the need of urgent transformation towards a more sustainable, resilient and healthy urban space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0436.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Water Framework Directive; River Basin Management Plan; Water Resource Management; Water Governance; Stakeholders
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:29:51 CEST)
The River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) is an essential component of the European Union Water Framework Directive that details an integrated approach required to protect, improve and sustainably manage water resources. RBMP were intended to be produced for the periods 2009-2015, 2016-2021 and 2022-2027. However, after two years of delays in the development processes, the Republic of Ireland produced its first RBMP in 2010. The second RBMP cycle was also implemented in 2018 and is expected to run until the end of 2021 to give way to the third RBMP, whose consultation processes have been ongoing since December 2019. This paper contributes to the forthcoming RBMP by assessing stakeholders’ perspectives on the second RBMP through a desk-based review and by conducting interviews with nine institutions (14 interviewees). The qualitatively analysed interviews reveal a broad spectrum of actors associated with water management and governance in the Republic of Ireland through a three-tier governance structure that has been delivered (with amendment) through the first two RBMPs. Organisations such as the An Fóram Uisce|The Water Forum, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Local Authority Waters, and the Agricultural Sustainability Support and Advisory Programme have responsibilities designated in the RBMPs to deliver improved water quality, integrated catchment management, community engagement and awareness-raising. Trust has also been building up among these organisations and other agencies in the water sector. Despite these responsibilities and progress, the interviews identified communication lapses, ineffective collaboration and coordination among stakeholders and late implementation to be hampering the successful delivery of the second RBMP, in addition to significant pressures acting on water bodies from agricultural activities and urban wastewater treatment. Towards the third RBMP, the paper concludes that optimised water sector finance, enhanced and well-resourced communications, and improved stakeholder collaboration are needed to foster effective and efficient water services delivery and quality. More so, given the cross-cutting impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on water resources and the interconnected relations among the goals, the paper further recommends the integration of the SDGs in the various plans of actions and a co-benefits approach to derive the triple benefits from biodiversity, climate change initiatives and water quality measures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0095.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:58:22 CEST)
Background: Indonesia is an archipelago with various cultured, will bee affects all aspects of people's lives, including beliefs related to health behavior and health care. One problem that needs serious attention is the elderly group because the elderly are a vulnerable group who have a high risk of experiencing health problems, such as anemia with hypertension, so they need good care management. The research objective was to determine self-management intervention for hypertensive elderly. Methods: This research is a literature review with five databases (Scopus, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Proquest), the study design used is an experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional, and review systematic, in March 2021. Guidelines for using JBI to measure quality and listing check out Prisma in this review guide. A feasibility study based on title, abstract, full text, and research methodology. The data analysis used narrative analysis based on the research findings. Results: Twelve articles met the predefined review inclusion criteria. The study found eight interventions for self-management in elderly hypertension, namely: 1) Knowledge of hypertension, 2) Regulation of physical activity, 3) Limitation of alcohol and cigarette consumption, 4) Sleep rest and stress management, 5) Diet and body weight management, 6) Blood pressure control, 7) Family and social support, 8) Adherence to therapy regimens. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study results obtained eight elderly self-management interventions, this done properly will affect compliance in optimizing the health of the elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0542.v1
Online: 27 October 2020 (09:04:36 CET)
This study determines the management of downstream oil palm development in the technopolitan areas of Pelalawan Regency. The study object was analyzed qualitatively in stages, including the development, potential, and management of downstream oil palm. The results show that the downstream oil palm facilitates the development of various ideas, innovations, and knowledge from the use of products with high selling value. This supports the government, academia, business, and society in implementing Good Agricultural Practice (GAP). The downstream oil palm development in Pelalawan Regency is managed in an integrated, competitive, and sustainable manner. This allows all stakeholders and society (independent smallholders) to receive economic, social, and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0267.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: CHD; newborn; management; organization; cardiac surgery
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:55:42 CEST)
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common birth anomaly affecting approximately 1% of births and have a prevalence of about 5.8 per 1000 people. CHD is the most common congenital anomaly in newborn babies. Management of the newborn with CHD represents a frontier of clinical pediatric cardiology. Progress in diagnosis and surgical treatment of the individuals with a heart defect has progressed to the point that almost all heart defects can be significantly improved and treated. Cardiovascular malformations account for about 10% of infant deaths and nearly half of all deaths from malformations
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0392.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forest management methods; adaptive forest management; climate change; ecological norm
Online: 27 July 2022 (04:40:00 CEST)
The compelling effects of climate change on forests may have been underestimated in the past few decades in practical forestry. Although the first attempts to draw attention to this complex problem appeared almost half a century ago, the debate has been conceptual rather than experimental and applicative. At first glance, the con-cerns were mainly related to sustainable forest management (SFM) issues, which obviously needed attention. Over time, the effects of climate change have been mainly considered in the context of the SFM; they started from various and somewhat different scales and goals. Over time, more research and awareness of the im-portance of SFM under the pressure of climate change have led to the development of a clearer field that can be defined as ‘adaptive forest management’ - to climate change. One of the characteristics of this discipline is to be featured by the absence of univocal methods and / or objectives to be pursued but to identify, verify, and adapt methods to the various climatic and forest types and conditions found in the field. Therefore, this work shows some phases of forest planning and management concepts and criteria over time and recalls some innovative and / or adaptive methods related to the approach to forest planning and management under climate change
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0174.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cloud computing; big data; fog computing; software-defined; networking; network management; resource management; topology.
Online: 26 February 2020 (15:34:25 CET)
Cloud infrastructure provides computing services where computing resources can be adjusted on-demand. However, the adoption of cloud infrastructures brings concerns like reliance on the service provider network, reliability, compliance for service level agreements (SLAs), etc. Software-defined networking (SDN) is a networking concept that suggests the segregation of a network’s data plane from the control plane. This concept improves networking behavior. In this paper, we present an SDN-enabled resource-aware topology framework. The proposed framework employs SLA compliance, Path Computation Element (PCE) and shares fair loading to achieve better topology features. We also present an evaluation, showcasing the potential of our framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0361.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: openstreetmap; disaster management; osm; disaster relief
Online: 28 November 2019 (11:10:33 CET)
Over the last few decades, many countries, especially Caribbean island ones, have been challenged by the devastating consequences of natural disasters, which pose a significant threat to human health and safety. Timely information related to the distribution of vulnerable population and critical infrastructure are key for an effective disaster relief. OpenStreetMap (OSM) has repeatedly been shown to be highly suitable for disaster mapping and management. However, large portions of the world, including countries exposed to natural disasters, remain unmapped. In this study, we propose a methodology that relies on remotely sensed measurements (e.g. VIIRS, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1) and derived classification schemes (e.g. forest and built-up land cover) to predict the completeness of OSM building footprints in three small island states (Haiti, Dominica and St. Lucia). We find that the combinatorial effects of these predictors explain up to 94% of the variation of the completeness of OSM building footprints. Our study extends the existing literature by demonstrating how remotely sensed measurements could be leveraged to evaluate the completeness of OSM database, especially in countries at high risk of natural disasters. Identifying areas that lack coverage of OSM features could help prioritize mapping efforts, especially in areas vulnerable to natural hazards and where current data gaps pose an obstacle to timely and evidence-based disaster risk management actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: fishery; bioeconomic; sustainability; tuna; management
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:09:47 CET)
Ocean temperatures are increasing. Little work has been done to examine the effects that these changes will have on fishery production. The study at hand seeks to incorporate the influence of climate change into established bioeconomic fishery models. Stock biomass is approximated to be a function of sea surface temperature. Following a feasible generalized least squares regression using data from the Western and Central Pacific, the interaction between fishery effort and temperature is found to be statistically significant. From this model, various functional forms relating effort, catch, and temperature are specified. In particular, a function that returns an effort requirement given a target catch level and temperature forecast is generated.The importance of these tools for fishery management is explored through application to Western and Central Pacific tuna fisheries. Recommendations for extensions into future research are made and the foundation for a model of efficient effort allocation across time and the entirety of a management area, given changing temperatures, is specified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rule-based system; reservoir management model; land management model; SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool)
Online: 10 May 2018 (06:27:38 CEST)
Decision tables have been used for many years in data processing and business applications to simulate complex rule sets. Several computer languages have been developed based on rule systems and they are easily programmed in several current languages. Land management and river-reservoir models simulate complex land management operations and reservoir management in highly regulated river systems. Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model the rule sets and corresponding actions found in these models. In this study, we discuss the suitability of decision tables to simulate management in the river basin scale Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) model. Decision tables are developed to simulate automated irrigation and reservoir releases. A simple auto irrigation application of decision tables was developed using plant water stress as a condition for irrigating corn in Texas. Sensitivity of the water stress trigger and irrigation application amounts were shown on soil moisture and corn yields. In addition, the Grapevine Reservoir near Dallas, Texas was used to illustrate the use of decision tables to simulate reservoir releases. The releases were conditioned on reservoir volumes and flood season. The release rules as implemented by the decision table realistically simulated flood releases as evidenced by a daily NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency) of 0.52 and a percent bias of -1.1%. Using decision tables to simulate management in land, river and reservoir models was shown to have several advantages over current approaches including: 1) mature technology with considerable literature and applications, 2) ability to accurately represent complex, real world decision making, 3) code that is efficient, modular and easy to maintain, and 4) tables that are easy to maintain, support, and modify.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: waste management; civil construction waste; sustainability
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:26:32 CET)
Given the importance of the development of urban infrastructure and environmental impacts produced by the civil construction waste (CCW), it is important to correct the handling of CCW with objective solutions that are more environmentally friendly. In that sense the present study aimed to determine indicators that make it possible to estimate the amount of CCW generated from construction sites in the city of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil. The generation of CCW was estimated in a general way, regarding the composition of its mixture, correlated to the gross areas of the buildings studied and their generated volumes of RCC. This generating rate was evaluated in a general way and specifies two types of sites: the new residential and new non-residential constructions. The data required for the development of these indicators was obtained through extensive survey and interviews carried out at the environment secretariat of the City Hall. The generating rate of CCW obtained for non-residential buildings was 0.2052m3/m2 or 170.44kg/m2, for new residential sites was 0.2054m3/m2 or 170.60kg/m2 and for new commercial or non-residential construction sites, it was 0.20453 m3/m2 or 169.85kg/m2. It was also possible to estimate the amount generated annually per inhabitant in the municipality, which is 0.60m3/inhabit.year or 498.55kg/inhabit.year.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: effective anesthesia; earthquake; orthopedic; victim’s management
Online: 25 February 2020 (12:14:03 CET)
Lombok earthquake that occurred in July 2018 has three large magnitude earthquakes that caused huge losses; 564 victims died, 1684 injured, 445 343 refugees, and 215 628 houses were damaged. The role of anesthesiology is very important to give prompt therapy for injured victims. This research gave an overview of the important role of Anesthesiologist and the selection of anesthesia techniques during the natural disasters’ victims’ management. This study was conducted by collecting data of all earthquake victims treated at the emergency room (ER) of RSUD NTB on August 6th and 7th 2018 and all victims operated during August 5 – 25th 2018. All data were recorded, analyzed, and presented in descriptive form using frequency, pie chart, and bar diagrams. The result shown that the highest number of patients treated in ER are during the first seven days after the earthquake and reduced to several weeks. The majority of patients treated are trauma patients who need orthopedic surgery. Since limited number of anesthesiologist should be considered with the right selection of anesthesia techniques, so that the disaster preparedness could be prepared well and the disaster management could run well. General anesthesia was widely used than regional anesthesia, but the different is not significant. The type of regional anesthetic drug usually used is lidodex in combination with catapres. The role of anesthesiologist during disaster is important to handle a safe and optimal surgical condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: COVID-19; myasthenia gravis; respiratory management
Online: 7 June 2020 (09:28:09 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought unprecedented risks and challenges to everyone in the world. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the nervous system. Infection can worsen it and cause severe symptoms such as myasthenia crisis and respiratory failure. At present, the pandemic of COVID-19 may promote the aggravation of patients with MG. This article focuses on the respiratory management of MG patients during the epidemic of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; demand-side management; hybrid power system; micro grid; renewable energy resources; supply-side management
Online: 15 September 2022 (03:18:48 CEST)
Sources are classified into two depending upon the factor of reviving. These sources, which cannot be revived into their original shape once they are consumed, are considered as nonrenewable energy resources, i.e., (coal, fuel) Moreover, those energy resources which are revivable to the original condition even after being consumed are known as renewable energy resources, i.e., (wind, solar, hydel) Renewable energy is a cost-effective way to generate clean and green electrical energy Now a day’s majority of the countries are paying heed to energy generation from RES Pakistan is mostly relying on conventional energy resources which are mostly nonrenewable in nature coal, fuel is one of the major resources, and with the advent of time their prices are increasing on the other hand RES have great potential in the country with the deployment of RES greater reliability and an effective power system can be obtained In this thesis, a similar concept is being used and a hybrid power system is proposed which is composed of intermixing of renewable and nonrenewable sources The Source side is composed of solar, wind, fuel cells which will be used in an optimal manner to serve load The goal is to provide an economical, reliable, uninterruptable power supply. This is achieved by optimal controller (PI, PD, PID, FOPID) Optimization techniques are applied to the controllers to achieve the desired results. Advanced algorithms (Particle swarm optimization, Flower Pollination Algorithm) will be used to extract the desired output from the controller Detailed comparison in the form of tables and results will be provided, which will highlight the efficiency of the proposed system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0427.v1
Subject: Keywords: Solid waste management; LED lamp; characterization protocol; recycling; LED waste management
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:25:18 CEST)
Solid-state lighting has been replacing conventional lighting in the market, raising concerns for implementing an efficient end-of-life management system. Since LED waste streams have not been quite dominant, characterization studies (product-level characteristics, component-wise information, bill of materials, diversity, and differences) are inconsistent and having substantial gaps. This study investigates the end-of-life LED lamp literature, focusing on the bill-of-materials, and reveals that the characterization procedure suffers from a severe lack of sample representativeness. Consequently, characterization results are widely varied and not generalizable. Moreover, most of the studies did not inform and document the detailed sample characteristics, precluding the possibility of identifying reasons for variation. Combining available information from the recent studies, we present a mass distribution at the component level, exemplifying the prospect for meeting EU regulatory limit and the need for more insight at the lamp and component level. To fill the disconnection between lamp level characteristics and component and material content, we propose a characterization protocol that carefully documents lamp, component, and material level information by establishing a lamp-component–material composition nexus. The protocol may help researchers, policymakers, and industrial stakeholders conduct a systematic characterization, analyze complexities and prepare for a sustainable solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: virtual information modeling; project management knowledge areas; construction projects; communication management.
Online: 2 May 2018 (11:40:14 CEST)
In the contemporary construction management, poor project performance, cost overrun, and low-quality construction have become a central point of attention for improving project performance including information, interaction and communication management. virtual design and construction and building information modelling play indispensable role in improving the project performance. The aim of this study is to propose a Virtual Information Modeling as a novel information and communication technology method with potential to overcome problems in the construction industry. Using one-sample t test with Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, we analysed data collected from structured questionnaire survey involving project managers working at architecture, engineering and construction industries in Tehran, Iran. The results suggest that the most important benefits and challenges of using Virtual Information Modeling are related to the area of integration, and implementation of Virtual Information Modeling has the greatest impact on this area of project management knowledge. Thus, integration should be considered a top priority for construction companies implementing Virtual Information Modeling in their projects. Policymakers should understand that careful management of virtual information is essential for improving the performance of projects and enhancing the process efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0229.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Economic evaluation; Water resource management; Meta-regression analysis; River management funds; Sustainability of water resources
Online: 13 August 2018 (12:26:24 CEST)
Water management can improve the quality of valuable ecosystem services but can be costly to implement and the management costs are covered by national taxes collected by water users. Based on 30 valuation studies of water quality improvement from the Environmental Valuation Information System (EVIS) database provided by Korea Environment Institute (KEI), a meta-regression analysis was employed to measure the benefits that major river basins provided to the society. We compare these benefits to the costs, namely River Management Funds (RMFs) which are financial resources to support a variety of projects for managing and improving upstream water quality. Based on benefit-cost comparison, this study evaluates the efficiency of water resource management in South Korea. This study also provides policy options that are helpful to maintain the sustainability of water resource by improving the planning and performance of water management in the long run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0230.v1
Online: 10 September 2020 (09:04:18 CEST)
This work investigates the utility of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Water Model (NWM) for water management operations by assessing the total inflow into a select number of reservoirs across the Central and Western U.S. Total inflow is generally an unmeasured quantity, though critically important for anticipating both floods and shortages in supply over a short-term (hourly) to sub-seasonal (monthly) time horizon. The NWM offers such information at over 5,000 reservoirs across the U.S., however, its skill at representing inflow processes is largely unknown. The goal of this work is to understand the drivers for both well performing and poor performing NWM inflows such that managers can get a sense of the capability of NWM to capture natural hydrologic processes and in some cases, the effects of upstream management. We analyzed the inflows for a subset of Bureau of Reclamation (BoR) reservoirs within the NWM over the long-term simulations (retrospectively, seven years) and for short, medium and long-range operational forecast cycles over a one-year period. We utilize ancillary reservoir characteristics (e.g. physical and operational) to explain variation in inflow performance across the selected reservoirs. In general, we find that NWM inflows in snow-driven basins outperform those in rain-driven, and that assimilated basin area, upstream management, and calibrated basin area all influence the NWM’s ability to reproduce daily reservoir inflows. The final outcome of this work proposes a framework for how the NWM reservoir inflows can be useful for reservoir management, linking reservoir purposes with the forecast cycles and retrospective simulations.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Management; entrepreneurial behavior; leadership; SMEs; innovation
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:48:59 CET)
The objective of this study is to identify how demographic characteristics (gender, age, seniority at work, and educational level) are related to the entrepreneurial behavior of companies. To comply with the above, a quantitative, transversal, and non-experimental research was carried out, which consisted in applying an instrument to 262 managers of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a northern city in Mexico. The collected information was analyzed in the software SPSS, version 26 with statistical testing by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis. The main findings dermore highly educated managers are those who contribute to this behavior of the studied companies, while gender and seniority at work are not differentiating elements in relation to the above. This research generates different possibilities of studies to be carried out in large companies from other sectors, as well as to include behavioral characteristics as study variables.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: telehealth; telemedicine; NCOVID-19; technology; management; regulations
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:09:18 CEST)
Telehealth has been playing a progressively major role in the management of the NCOVID-19 crisis. The enforcement of social distancing measures has had the consequence of reduced technology distance in almost every walk of life. In this paper, based primarily on the still unfolding experiences of deploying it during the current situation, we argue that telehealth has finally come of age and that it is time to move it from the peripheries to the center of the 21st century healthcare. To provide a live context to the discussion, several instances of how telehealth strengthened our healthcare systems during the NCOVID-19 crisis are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0022.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: smart environments; notification management; machine learning
Online: 3 November 2019 (16:12:57 CET)
With the evolution of technology over the years, it has become possible to develop intelligent environments based on the concept of the Internet of Things, distributed systems, and machine learning. Such environments are incorporated with various solutions to solve user demands from services. One of these solutions is UBIPRI middleware, whose central concept is to maintain privacy in smart environments and to receive notifications as one of its services. However, this service is freely performed, disregarding the privacy that the environment employs. Another consideration is that based on the researched related works, it was possible to identify that the authors do not use statistical hypothesis tests in their solutions developed in the presented context. This work proposes an architecture for notification management in smart environments, composed by a notification manager named PRIPRO to assign it to UBIPRI and to aim to perform tests and comparisons between classification algorithms to delimit which one is most feasible to implement in the PRINM decision-making mechanism. The experiments showed that the J48 algorithm obtained the best results compared to the other algorithms tested and compared.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: offsite construction; housing associations; strategic management
Online: 10 December 2021 (09:02:12 CET)
Offsite construction is increasingly being presented as a way to increase housing delivery and reduce the housing crisis. Housing Associations play a pivotal role in the delivery of affordable homes and therefore offsite construction could be beneficial in alleviating the crisis. For offsite construction uptake to increase, the conceptual and pragmatic advantages and challenges surrounding offsite housing in relation to evolving social domestic needs to be explored and understood. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the viability of offsite construction as not only a full-service solution to social housing provision, but an integral strategic partner for meeting the range of specialised fabrication needs for these new properties. A literature review is carried out to explore the conceptual and pragmatic advantages and challenges encountered by HAs adopting offsite construction methods. The paper also investigates which the housing tenures are most suited to offsite construction technology. The paper highlighted that whilst individual case studies and example homes offer one mode of justification for Housing Associations to move forward, it is the cumulative effect of cost savings, sustainability, specialised skill sets, labour reduction, structural innovation, and rate of construction that should be weighed and incorporated into this consideration-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0753.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: student relationship management; critical success factors; knowledge management; employees’ involvement; student orientation; SRM technology; confirmatory factor analysis
Online: 2 November 2018 (04:04:24 CET)
Due to the upward trend in the globalization of sustainability issues and the intense competitive environment, it is evident that higher education institutions need new strategic approaches to succeed. To this end, the inquiry for this paper has been made into the debate about student relationship management. Going through the literature indicates that institutions have mainly perceived the concept as a technological initiative for solving the problems in individual domains, accompanied by uncoordinated efforts. Thus, the aims of this study are to theoretically present critical success factors of this strategic approach and to empirically examine the recognized factors. To do so, confirmatory factor analysis that is a quantitative analytic method was performed. The results and analyses revealed that there has been a significant correlation between the four critical success factors including knowledge management, student relationship management technology, student orientation, and employees’ involvement. It was also found that these factors are significantly correlated with the construct of student relationship management success. The findings have consequently highlighted that in addition to the technological tool, the role of knowledge management, employees’ involvement, and student orientation appeared to be particularly important for the implementation of the application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis; nature; flood management; disaster
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:08:52 CEST)
A disaster wrecks those affected. It spares many in the affected areas, yet those spared may be indirectly impacted. Specific risks are often inherent within a social system or physical location, but they can also be created due to unavoidable natural or technological hazards. The consequences, however, can be similar in that they wreak havoc in communities and destroy economic systems. The analytical framework of deterrence and coping has ascertained beneficial in many circumstances, but a cost benefit calculation is a must to infer the feasibility of planning strategy and resource allocation. This study points to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) of flood management by District Disaster Management Kulgam. The assessment is established on secondary pooled data collected from administration offices, NGOs, published Journals, and local and national newspapers. It also characterised the strategy, the technique adopted, and the sources of flood damage cost information. The totalled benefits report for 78686.18 lakh of rupees, and that of total costs account for 2218.75lakh of rupees. The Benefit-Cost ratio greater than one (>1) indicates that Flood Management in District Kulgam was economically feasible and successfully governed. The State of Jammu and Kashmir put up with necessary prevention and administration measures to break the spell of devastation due to floods to significant status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0087.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainable land management; adoption; risk; upland; Vietnam
Online: 8 October 2019 (10:50:40 CEST)
This study investigates how the determinants including risk preference affect farmers’ decision to adopt SLM practices in upland areas of Vietnam. Empirical data collected through in-depth interviews with 200 farmers in Na Ri district, Bac Kan province were used. The factors affecting SLM adoption of farmers in Na Ri district were examined by the 2SLS or IV-Probit model. The estimated 2SLS regression indicated that there is a set of factors affecting SLM adoption, namely, relative risk aversion, farming experience, farm size, knowledge of SLM, membership in farmers’ organization, number of labors, and slope of farm land. Specifically, relative risk aversion had a negative effect on SLM practices adoption. The farmers who are less risk averse are more likely to adopt more SLM practices. This implies that reducing farmer’ risk exposure could promote SLM practices. This result is also helpful for policymakers to understand farmers’ behaviors and promote the diffusion of SLM practices across regions on a large scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Stress Testing; Credit Risk; Credit Risk Testing; Evaluation of Credit Risk; Credit Risk Management; Organizational Management
Online: 7 October 2021 (13:44:12 CEST)
The stress testing methodology should be implemented and applied to the entity's overall financial system at least annually, and if the organization operates in a volatile economy, it should be performed at least twice a year. Finally, managers should include regular training and development sessions for relevant employees of their organization to be fully informed and more informed and informed, considering the evolving science, theory and practicality of a discrete range of stress testing mechanisms that can be appropriately applied to overall financial framework and system of multiple financial institutions and banks. In addition, stress testing is essentially a methodology that collects and analyzes certain future macro-prudential and micro-prudential economic drivers and indicators, the primary purpose of which is to assess the future financial and economic well-being, level of growth and status quo of a financial institution, bank, organization, credit institution or economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically focused and incorporated into the paper, which substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance, feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries. region. with the primary intention of assessing the future financial and economic well-being, level of growth and status quo of a group of financial institutions, banks, organizations, credit institutions or the economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically targeted and incorporated into a paper that substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance of the feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries. region. with the primary intention of assessing the future financial and economic well-being, level of growth and status quo of a group of financial institutions, banks, organizations, credit institutions or the economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically focused and incorporated into the paper, which substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance, feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries. region. the level of growth and status quo of the financial institutions, banks, organizations, credit institutions or the economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically focused and incorporated into the paper, which substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance, feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries. region. the level of growth and status quo of the financial institutions, banks, organizations, credit institutions or the economy or the nation as a whole. In addition, several of these reviews were specifically focused and incorporated into the paper, which substantially and broadly discussed and summarized the importance, feasibility and implementation and conclusions of different stress testing approaches for financial institutions and banks, especially in European and Chinese countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0164.v1
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:55:08 CEST)
Species of Acacia have been extensively entrenched in the tropical, and semi-arid regions as well as in the southern hemisphere. Acacia species have been bounteous faces the pest and pathogenic pressure. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an immensely important aspect of producing a healthy Acacia plantation without harmful impacts on the environment. Here an attempt was made to determine the possibilities of integrated pest management for Acacia. Overall, this information will be helpful to increase awareness about the integrated pest management of the members of the genus Acacia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: carbon-footprint; dentistry; environment; management; sustainability
Online: 18 May 2022 (10:43:57 CEST)
Background There is increasing awareness of problems associated with global warming but a lack of a systematic approach on how to deliver more environmentally sustainable dental care. A sustainable world aims to ensure that basic needs and quality of life of everyone are met, now and for future generations. The carbon footprint is an indicator of environmental sustainability. Aim The aim is to suggest an environmental management change for the dental practice focusing on the objective of carbon footprint reduction. Environmental management change design The management change is based on the concept of “Plan-Do-Check-Act”, as recommended by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and described through the environmental aspects of the dental practice. The approach focuses on establishing and implementing environmental objectives, followed by monitoring results and taking actions to improve continually. The environmental aspects considered for the dental practice are activities causing an impact on the carbon footprint: energy use, travel, product purchasing, waste production, emission to air, water use, and contamination of land. Conclusions The “Plan-Do-Check-Act” ISO 14100-2015 model can be effectively integrated into the dental practice setting for its environmental management. A reduction of the carbon footprint of the dental practice is achieved by applying the environmental management change described for each activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0270.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: environmental management; deep-seabed mining; International Seabed Authority; management thresholds; regulation; precaution
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:25 CEST)
The establishment of thresholds is integral to environmental management. This paper introduces the use of thresholds in the context of deep-seabed mining, a nascent industry for which an exploitation regime of regulations, standards and guidelines is still in the process of being developed, and for which the roles and values of thresholds have yet to be finalised. There are several options for integrating thresholds into the International Seabed Authority’s regulatory regime, from being stipulated in regulations to being part of a mining contract, each option having its own advantages and disadvantages. Here we explore the range of ways that thresholds can be derived, set out the challenges in translating ecological and management data into thresholds, highlight factors for acceptance and operationalisation of thresholds in deep-seabed mining, and explain the necessity of refining thresholds as knowledge on impacts to features improves. Some comparable marine industries already use thresholds and these could potentially be used as starting points for the development of thresholds for deep-seabed mining. In order to be acceptable to the wide range of deep-seabed mining stakeholders, thresholds need to strike a balance among levels of harm acceptable by society, levels of environmental precaution justifiable by governments, scientific robustness, and operational practicality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0346.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: artificial immune system; cellular networks; personal communication system; location management; mobility management
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
In this paper, we are proposing a bio-inspired location management (LM) technique for personal communication system (PSC). It is based on artificial immune system (AIS), with self-adaptation and self-updates attributes in order to perform the location management, and work helps to achieve the better quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) for the mobile users. Here, we are suggesting a modified mobile switching center (MSC) architecture, and an adaptive self-modified location management procedure. The proposed mobile switching centre architecture has an advantage of rule-based and fact-based system to store the rules and fact related to location management procedure, and it shows the intelligent behavior of system. The mobile switching centre calculates the best method for location management and rule-base system trigged the rules to perform the techniques. The system stores the result (techniques for location management) in fact-base system for future use. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed techniques been analyzed, and it observed that the proposed system has 45-50% improvement in performance over the current location management techniques. Here, we are taking the performance parameters such as signaling cost, database update cost, overhead measurement, mobility management cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0341.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: sustainable transformative business model; shared-value, digitization; innovation management; dynamic capabilities; transformation management; resource based view
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:23:41 CEST)
We examine how external triggers, including the digital imperative and the need for more sustainable resource and stakeholder employment, spark the development of transformative sustainable business models. Drawing on the resource-based view and the shared value approach we conceptualize a multifaceted framework that helps to identify key determinants and coherent layers of transformative sustainable businesses models. Our theoretical arguments integrate recent research findings on external dynamics, such as digital technological advances and rising global competitive dynamics, with internal capabilities on both the organizational and the individual level, allowing for a more complete understanding of transformative potentials on the firm level. We propose that key determinants of sustainable transformative business models adhere to both, innovative value-creating reconstructionist and sustainable shared-value logic, and include elements such as co-creation with customers, usage-based pricing, agile and adaptive behavior, closed-loop resource employment, asset-sharing, and collaborative business ecosystems. At the same time, organizational, economic, and environmental layers encompassing sustainable business models need to be both horizontally and vertically coherent to unfold their full potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Nurses; Leadership; COVID-19; Management; Communication
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:14:55 CET)
Purpose: To evaluate nursing leaders' perception towards communication and relationship management competencies while using digital platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Background: Communication and relationship management competencies among nursing leaders will ensure healthcare models are successfully implemented. Nursing leaders can achieve effective leadership by mastering these competencies leading to an overall improvement in the quality of nursing care. However, digital platforms have been rapidly evolving in the healthcare ecosystem and have been significant during the battle with COVID-19. It is crucial to ensure that nursing leaders can use digital platforms to communicate and practice efficient management in their op-erations, especially during a crisis when their services are vital. Design: Descriptive, comparative study. Methods: The study was conducted between February to March 2021. A 5-item Linkert-type questionnaire was adopted from the American Organization for Nursing Executives (2005) and was sent to identified nursing leaders in Hamad Medical Corporation through the official email. Results: Two hundred fifty nurse leaders were invited to participate, but only 116 responded positively, translating to a response rate of 46.4%. The male participants represented a larger proportion of 64.10%, while the female was 35.90%. Regarding the questionnaire, the Cronbach alpha was α ˃ 0.987, indicating that all items revealed a sufficient level of internal consistency. The respondents had a minimum of 0 and a maximum of 52.6n in the communication and relationship management items. Influencing behavior, relationship management, and effective communica-tion had the lowest scores, which indicate low competency. The F value in ANOVA analysis was close to 1.0, implying that the null hypothesis is true. The significance value is <0.5 implying that there is a difference in response on effective communication proficiency of nurse leaders. Conclusions: Digital platforms are communication tools that are widely adopted to engage and reach nurses on numerous topics. Nurse leaders should capitalize on their benefits and generate critical discussions. The continued need to research nursing leadership competencies is critical as healthcare continues to change and evolve. Educational institutions and healthcare organizations must understand that nursing leaders should strive for professional development and knowledge acquisition to improve their communication and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0793.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Erasmoneura vulnerata; Vitis vinifera; insecticides; vineyard management
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:15:14 CET)
The American leafhopper Erasmoneura vulnerata, detected in Europe in early 2000s, has recently become a pest in North-Italian vineyards. Issues were recorded in organic and conventional vine-yards despite the application of insecticides devoted to the control of other pests. Erasmoneura vulnerata completes three generations, and the second generation is frequently associated to large populations. The selection of appropriate active ingredients and the timing of their application is crucial for effective pest control. Field trials were carried out in North-eastern Italy, using a randomized design, to evaluate the impact of insecticides applied against other grapevine leafhoppers on E. vulnerata populations. The beginning of the second generation was selected as best timing for insecticide application. For a number of natural products, two applications were planned. Among the selected insecticides, the most effective were acetamiprid, flupyradifurone and lamb-da-cyhalothrin. Regarding natural products, the most effective was kaolin that could represent an alternative to pyrethrins in organic vineyards. The identification of pest threshold levels and the evaluation of side effects of the most effective insecticides on key natural enemies occurring in vineyards are required
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: emergency; hospital; emergency health; medicine; management
Online: 21 August 2017 (12:47:01 CEST)
Introduction: The management performance of hospitals in emergency departments in coping with clinical hazards is necessary for their success in providing quality services. The purpose of this study is to provide an optimization procedure and applying management performance in health and medical emergency on the rate of emergency preparedness of the suburb city hospitals. Research method: A semi-experimental and interventional descriptive study in the emergency department of Shahid Motahari Hospital in 2015-2016. Data was collected through the standard checklist of hospital emergency responsiveness test to WHO disasters with 90 questions in 9 domains which is codified by the World Health Organization, in the form of interviews and observing evidences , and if necessary a numerical analysis. Initially, the situation was measured according to this checklist. In the next stage, a set of solutions was developed and then the solutions were implemented according to the obtained information. Data analysis before and after proposing the procedure and its application in order to improve the quality of health management performance and emergency preparedness was performed using central indices, and for describing and presenting the survey results, tables and graphs were used. Results: The highest and lowest emergency preparedness rates for disasters and emergencies before the proposed procedure were the Communication Factor (%77/8) and Human resource factor (%2/8) respectively. The degree of preparedness of the medical center was measured in the management performance according to the model (WHO) before proposing the procedure (%77.98). The researcher's procedure provided and applied based on the information obtained from survey environment, location and type of hospital structure. After providing the procedure, the maximum and minimum rates were the continuity of service factor (%58.3) and post-accident rebuilding factor (%100), respectively. Generally, the rate of emergency preparedness of studied medical center in management performance for coping with disasters and medical emergencies was measured (%97.2) according to hospital emergency responsiveness test for accidents and (WHO). The significance level is less than 0.05, so we can say that the effectiveness with confidence (95%) was effective. Conclusion: According to the statistics of accidents and disasters in the suburb cities, the results of the research and the importance of the role of emergency departments in interurban hospitals in controlling accidents, the need for planning and implementation of practical measures such as conducting training courses on health management in disasters and emergencies, having an estimate of critical and essential resources, changing the structure, providing manpower (emergency management) in order to more precise control and ease of service, maintenance and repair of equipment, timely triage and retrofitting of hospitals were effective in improving their preparedness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: engineering procurement and construction project (EPC); project management; design changes; infrastructure development projects; construction management; New Zealand
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:06:44 CEST)
Design changes seem inevitable in engineering, procurement and construction EPC projects. Such changes create a need for a proactive approach to adjusting project scope, cost and time (the triple constraints) for efficiency and effectiveness in overall delivery. This study investigates the causes and implications of design changes in order to improve design change management practices. Data for the study was obtained through online interviews with New Zealand industry practitioners. Thematic analysis was used to collate the results into meaningful data. The study found that design changes were predominantly caused by clients' inadequate strategic planning, insufficient attention to design, EPC contractors' inadequate design ability, and on-site variations. There were three categories of such design changes: direct impact on the project, the reciprocal and complementary effect on stakeholders, and the far-reaching impact on the community. The study concludes by suggesting improvements, such as strengthening the integration of project teams to enhance design quality, strategic alignment of stakeholders at the planning stage, early contractor involvement (ECI) between the planning and design phases, and improving collaboration between design and construction teams. Further, a combination of high technical skills (e.g. design ability) and soft skills (can-do attitude, interpersonal skills, problem-solving skills, documentation skills, etc.) are needed to effect the desired improvement in design change management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: cidb; contractor development; entrepreneur; growth; management; sustainability; time
Online: 31 July 2017 (11:57:32 CEST)
The focus of research has mainly been on the life cycle approach to project development, while limited attention has been given to the ageing construction companies that make all these activities/processes happen. This paper examines the organisational factors determining the sustainability and growth of building and civil engineering contractors in South Africa. The paper explores whether there are specific organisational factors that aid the sustainable development and growth of contractors in the South African construction industry. The paper analyses data gathered from face-to-face interviews conducted with four established and twelve upgraded and successful building and civil engineering contractors listed on the Construction Industry Development Board’s (cidb) Register of Contractors. The aim of the study is to identify the organisational factors critical for sustainable contractor development and growth in South Africa. The study found that organizational factors responsible for the sustainable development and growth of construction contractors include the size of the founding team members, management capabilities, strategic decisions made by founders/leaders and the ability of the company to constantly evolve, adapt and respond effectively to threats/challenges whenever they surface, amongst other findings. Capacity to generalise the results of the study to the large cidb registered contractor group is limited by the smallness of the sample size. Future research should make use of a larger sample size to obtain more general findings. The results of the study imply that the founding team size, experience, entrepreneurial and managerial capabilities, capacities and organisational structures that enable the efficient response of companies to external and internal challenges are key components of the definable arrangements that will support the sustainability and growth of construction organisations. The paper is of value to government departments and agencies such as the cidb and contracting firms in the construction industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0260.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Pancasila; Millennial Generation; Industrial Revolution; human capital management
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:20:18 CEST)
Introduction: The imbalance between technological development and ideological strengthening has resulted in the fading of the Pancasila ideological values of millennials. Technology that accompanies everyday life seems to be the main character in human life. Yet if humans themselves do not use technology wisely, technology can be a threat to both individuals and the life of the nation and state. If technology is increasingly out of control, threats to the Pancasila ideology are very likely to occur, such as in the G 30S PKI incident. Therefore, it is necessary to take action both from the government and the community as individuals to safeguard the development of technology to be used wisely. That way, we can prevent the threat to the Pancasila ideology together. Writing this article aims to analyze how the role and influence of the Pancasila ideology on the millennial generation in the 4.0 industrial revolution and to find solutions so that the values of Pancasila remain attached to the next generation of the Indonesian nation. Method: Writing This article uses a qualitative method by using literature reviews from the results of related research journals that have been published online through websites and other online media. Results: Thirteen journals and one book have met the criteria for the inclusion of a predetermined review. Research is based on the stigma of society regarding technological developments in the Industrial revolution 4.0. Therefore, the government is expected to be more severe in implementing human capital management. Conclusion: By procuring human capital management, it will be possible that Human Resources (HR) in Indonesia will be able to carry out the ideals of a golden Indonesian generation with Pancasila values inherent in the hearts of the people and the nation's future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0496.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: resource management; oil curse; footprint; fiscal policy
Online: 19 November 2020 (08:41:25 CET)
The resource curse indicates that economic growth performs poorly in countries with significant natural resources. Nevertheless, certain countries rich in energy managed to protect their resource riches in the long run. It is necessary to enforce effective policies in resource-rich countries to fully leverage the advantages which can come from the abundance of natural resources. This study aimed to evaluate how oil-rich countries would avoid resource flows by successful fiscal and management policies. By taking the guidance of Norway and implementing fiscal policy focused on tax rules on its oil management, it is proposed that oil-exporting countries benefit significantly. The framework attempts to mitigate this resource curse and utilise oil revenues in the interest of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0256.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Home energy management system, Flexible demand-response, optimal load-scheduling, Mixed Integer Programming, Predictive control, demand-side-management
Online: 27 February 2019 (12:10:32 CET)
In this work, an algorithm for the scheduling of household appliances to reduce the energy cost and the peak-power consumption is proposed. The system architecture of a home energy management system (HEMS) is presented to operate the appliances. The dynamics of thermal and non-thermal appliances is represented into state-space model to formulate the scheduling task into a mixed-integer-linear-programming (MILP) optimization problem. Model predictive control (MPC) strategy is used to operate the appliances in real-time. The HEMS schedules the appliances in a dynamic manner without any a priori knowledge of the load-consumption pattern. At the same time, HEMS responds to the real-time electricity market and the external environmental conditions (solar radiation, ambient temperature etc). Simulation results exhibit the benefits of proposed HEMS by showing the reduction of up to 47% in electricity cost and up to 48% in peak power consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Environmental decision support systems; applications; outcome-based approach; adaptive management; user requirements; environmental management; participatory land planning
Online: 6 October 2017 (08:51:07 CEST)
There is increasing demand from stakeholders for tools to support outcome-based approaches in environmental management. For such tools to be useful, understanding user requirements is key. In Scotland, UK, stakeholders were engaged in the development of an Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS) to support the management of land and freshwater resources for multiple policy outcomes. A structured participatory engagement process was employed to determine stakeholder requirements, establish development principles to fulfil these requirements and road-test prototypes. The EDSS specification that emerged from this bottom-up process was spatially-explicit, free at the point of use, and touch and mobile device compatible. This application, which is under development, does not closely resemble most existing published EDSS. We suggest that there is a mismatch between the way scientists typically conceptualise EDSS and the kinds of applications that are likely to be useful to decision-makers on the ground. Interactive mobile and web-based geospatial information services have become ubiquitous in our daily lives, but their importance is not reflected in current literature on EDSS. The current focus in environmental management on adaptive, stakeholder-centred strategies based on outcomes offers an opportunity to make better use of these new technologies to aid decision-making processes.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: cave; microclimate; monitoring; sustainable management; Carpathians; Romania
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:26:38 CET)
(1) Background: Show caves are unique natural attractions and touristic traffic can trigger their degradation within a very short time. There are no universal solutions to counter the effects of the touristic impact upon cave environment and both protection protocols and management plans have to be established on a case-by-case basis; (2) Methods: The study includes four show caves from the Romanian Carpathians, where monitoring of the number of visitors, paralleled by the monitoring of the main physico-chemical parameters of the air and water (CO2, temperature, humidity, drip rate, conductivity, and pH) was implemented; (3) Results and Conclusions: The results of the study has: (i) established a monitoring protocol to be applied to each of the four show caves; (ii) established a set of basic principles to be enforced by the management of show caves; (iii) issued a set of preventive measures and instructions to be followed by the personnel and stakeholders of the caves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy management schemes; particle swarm optimisation; community microgrids; scheduling battery energy; real-time energy management and renewable energy
Online: 16 June 2020 (09:46:03 CEST)
Although energy management of a microgrid is generally performed using a day-ahead scheduling method, its effectiveness has been questioned by the research community due to the existence of high uncertainty in renewable power generation, power demand and electricity market. As a result, real-time energy management schemes are recently developed to minimise the operating cost of a microgrid while high uncertainty presents in the network. This paper develops modified particle swarm optimisation (MPSO) algorithms to solve optimisation problems of energy management schemes for a community microgrid and proposes a scheduling approach after taking into consideration high uncertainty to effectively minimise the operational cost of the microgrid. The optimisation problems are formulated for real-time and scheduling approaches, and solution methods are developed to solve the problems. It is observed that the scheduling program demonstrates superior performance in all the cases, including uncertainty in prediction, as compared to the other energy management approaches, although solutions have significant deviations due to prediction errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0529.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Project Management Office; PMO; Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO); EPMO Challenges; ANOVA; Efficiency
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:11:05 CET)
During the European unification process, they stated the need for drawing up a common energy strategic plan that will affects electricity production system in terms of infrastructure, production and generation. The EU strategic action plans included; reduction in emissions, an increase in renewable energies, energy efficiency. In this light therefore the energy efficiency was booked for researching. This article presents an in-depth study of the challenges in transforming a functioning PMO model to an EPMO model within four electricity companies from different countries within the EU and how those challenges can be address within companies implementing same methodology to bring about electricity production efficiency. Will these identified challenges make it impossible for the companies to achieve electricity production efficiency in the transformation from PMO to EPMO? PMO has been the major methodology used by these companies. To achieve production efficiency, the need for a heavyweight methodology was identified (EPMO) and implemented in four mega electricity producing companies with cross boarder distributions, one from France; Germany; Spain and UK
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0723.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: airlines; human resource management; COVID-19; crisis
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:24:11 CET)
In January 2020, the World Health Organization declared a public health emergency and announced a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which would later go on to be declared as a pandemic, changing the global sphere and placing the economies of almost all countries under heavy stress. The airline industry, that had just begun recovering after facing crises one after another in the last two decades, from early 2000 due to 9/11, to the global financial crisis later, is now oce again facing an enormous challenge of closed borders and greater lockdowns due to the pandemic. Borders are closed, with very few planes are in the air, while the rest are grounded. The purpose of this paper is to give a conceptual understanding of the current pandemic situation and its consequences on the airline industry. The paper takes a unique perspective of human resource management (HRM) that is rarely used in the airline industry.
Online: 30 October 2020 (15:35:00 CET)
In the information age today, data are getting more and more important. While other industries achieve tangible improvement by applying cutting edge information technology, the construction industry is still far from being enough. Cost, schedule, and performance control are three major functions in the project execution phase. Along with their individual importance, cost-schedule integration has been a significant challenge over the past five decades in the construction industry. Although a lot of efforts have been put into this development, there is no method used in construction practice. The purpose of this study is to propose a new method to integrate cost and schedule data using big data technology. The proposed algorithm is designed to provide data integrity and flexibility in the integration process, considerable time reduction on building and changing database, and practical use in a construction site. It is expected that the proposed method can transform the current way that field engineers regard information management as one of the troublesome tasks in a data-friendly way.