ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Physical Assets; Econometric Models; Fisher’s Equation; Life Cycle; Risk Tax; Apparent Rate
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:23:08 CEST)
Having as objective to reach a circular economy, it is important to maximize the Physical Asset’s Life Cycle. The evaluation of Physical Assets Life Cycle may have several approaches which may provide different results. These differences may not be very significant, but must be taken into consideration, because they have consequences in the manager decision. This permits to have a wider time interval to decide when to withdrawal the Physical Asset or to renewal it, and or if this ought to continue functioning because the profits are higher than the expenses, what allows to diminish waste and increase sustainability. These are some aspects that are discussed in this paper, which presents several models to evaluate the Physical Assets Life Cycle, considering the market value, devaluations methods and a more generalized way of Fisher’s Equation, which can include the Risk tax, among others. The results are discussed supported in data for simulation, which are used for each Econometric Model aiming to evaluate the differences among them. In all Models they are considered not only the expenses, namely of Investment and Functioning, but also the Profits, which permit to evaluate the Physical Asset Life Cycle in a holistic way. The models are very versatile, allowing to evaluate quantitatively the changing in the maintenance policies, the energy prices variations, the risk evaluation, the variation of profits according to the real market, and so on. The results demonstrated the robustness of the approach described and that maximize the Physical Assets Life Cycle allowing to minimize the consumption of world resources and, by consequence, it contributes for a more sustainable world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: carbon footprint; dacarbonization; car manufacturing; automotive industry; low-carbon material
Online: 15 September 2023 (10:59:32 CEST)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from human activities have climbed significantly above pre-pandemic levels and reached record highs that unequivocally accelerate global warming. Industry has a significant impact on climate change, emitting at least 21 % of global GHGs and making little overall progress toward its reduction until now. Reducing industry’s emissions requires coordinated action along the value chains in order to promote mitigation options, such as energy and material efficiency, circular material flows, and transformative changes within production processes. The authors analyzed the GHG emissions generated during the manufacturing of three different products of automotive suppliers located in Austria. Despite previous efforts toward an environmentally compatible fabrication, additional and significant reduction potentials were identified. These measures for product carbon footprint (PCF) reduction included the sourcing of low-carbon materials (which are already available on the market), more extensive use of renewable energy, and changes towards more resource efficient manufacturing processes and machinery. Depending on the materials used, the PCF can be reduced by up to 80 %. The findings serve to prepare for future PCF reporting regulations and illustrate reduction potentials to achieve future market advantages, especially when PCFs become an awarding criterion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0899.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: digital twins; application methodology; improvement of production systems and services
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:48:08 CEST)
The escalating environmental challenges that stem from urban residential waste in densely populated areas have become increasingly prominent in recent times. As a result, the waste management sector has experienced significant growth nationwide. However, due to the predominantly manual nature of these processes, their effectiveness falls short of meeting the current demand. Addressing these issues requires process enhancement. In this context, Industry 4.0, particularly the concept of Digital Twins, emerges as a potential avenue for refining processes. To tackle both current and future industry challenges, it is imperative to create a comprehensive methodology capable of generating effective solutions within the waste management sector. This paper provides an explanation of digital twins, outlines the methodological framework comprising an architectural structure and layered model, and details a series of sequential methodical stages for implementing digital twins based on the specific scope determined by the end-user. A noteworthy aspect is the transformative potential of digital twins in enhancing efficiency and precision within waste management practices. By providing a virtual real-time representation of the waste management system, digital twins empower simulations and experimentation to fine-tune processes. Furthermore, they facilitate informed decision-making by offering a detailed visualization of the complete system, simplifying the identification of challenges and opportunities for improvement. that this article derives from the presentation titled "Digital Twin application methodology for the improvement of production and service systems. Application to waste management processes" at the "Sustainable Smart Cities and Territories International Conference" held in the city of Manizales, Colombia, from 21st to 23rd June 2023.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: micro machining; cutting tools; tungsten carbide; high speed steels; surface roughness; surface finish; edge preparation
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:39:15 CEST)
The performance and lifespan of cutting tools are significantly influenced by their surface quality. The present report highlights recent advances in enhancing the surface characteristics of tungsten carbide and high-speed steel cutting tools using a novel micro-machining technique for polishing and edge-honing. Notably, the main aim is to reduce the surface roughness while maintaining the hardness of the materials at an optimal level. By conducting a thorough analysis, of surfaces obtained with different techniques. It was that micro-machining method effectively decreased the surface roughness of the cutting tools, most effectively of the techniques investigated. Significantly, the surface roughness is reduced from an initial measurement of 400 nm to an impressive value of 60 nm. No significant change in hardness was observed, which guarantees the maintenance of the mechanical properties of the cutting tools. This analysis enhances the comprehension of surface enhancement methodologies for cutting tools through the presentation of these findings. The observed decrease in surface roughness, along with the consistent hardness, exhibits potential for improving tool performance. These enhancements possess the capacity to optimise manufacturing processes, increase tool reliability, and minimise waste generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0259.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: XGBoost; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Steel Blast Furnace; Machine Learning; Regression
Online: 5 September 2023 (07:58:59 CEST)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based simulation has been the traditional way to model complex industrial systems and processes. One very large and complex industrial system that has benefited from CFD-based simulations is the steel blast furnace. The problem with the CFD-based simulation approach is that it tends to be very slow to generate data. The CFD-only approach may not be fast enough for use in real-time decision-making. To address this issue, in this work, the authors propose the use of machine learning techniques to train and test models based on data generated via CFD simulation. Regression models based on neural networks are compared to tree boosting models. In particular, several areas (tuyere, raceway, and shaft) of the blast furnace are modeled using these approaches. The results of the model training and testing are presented and discussed. The obtained R2 metrics are, in general, very high. The results look promising and may help to improve the efficiency of operator and process engineer decision-making when running a blast furnace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Water-tube boiler; fog eliminator; gas scrubber; particulate matter
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:04:55 CEST)
The sugar company Valdez S.A. Entity located within the geographical limits of the city of Milagro, needs to reduce its emissions to the environment and does not always comply with the air emissions standards for stationary combustion sources, which indicates that for equipment installed before 2003 they have a maximum limit of 300 mg / m³. A mist eliminator was designed to work inside the original wet gas scrubber of the water-tube cauldron #10, which uses Bagasse as fuel, for the generation of steam for industrial use. The research is documentary and field. The methodology used was mixed. focusing on the comparison of three types of technologies to meet the objectives, the fog eliminators types: Demister, Cyclone and Chevron. To find the appropriate complement, a comparison sheet was made, which is a table of contents evaluated quantitatively, analyzing indicators formulated in each of the contents. The results, supported by the Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis methodology, select the Chevron type fog eliminator, with the best efficiency for capture. Using AutoCAD, allows to visualize in 3D, the structural design in the gas scrubber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Prediction of tensile splitting strength; quality in concrete paving blocks; density of the fresh paving block; water absorption of concrete paving blocks; weight of the fresh paving blocks
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:33:10 CEST)
Paving blocks are concrete pieces placed in exposed places to the weather, which are sub-jected to loads and wear. Hence, quality control in the manufacture of paving blocks is es-sential to guarantee the properties and durability of the product in construction projects. In Ecuador, the requirements are described in the Ecuadorian technical standard "NTE INEN 3040", and tensile splitting strength is a fundamental requirement to guarantee product quality. It is analyzed using quality control measurements such as dimensions, the weight of the fresh paving block in the vibro-compacted process, and the percentage of water absorption in order to know how the variables influence and manage to predict the tensile splitting strength to avoid product non-conformity in advance, having a timely and better control of the manufacturing process. The data was obtained from a company that can produce 30 000 units per day of rectangular paving blocks with 6 cm thickness. Mul-tivariate models such as multiple linear regression, regression trees, random forests and neural networks are performed to predict the tensile splitting strength variable through two groups of predictors; the first group is the thickness mm, width mm, length mm, mass of fresh paving block g and percentage of water absorption %. The second group of pre-dictor variables is the density of the fresh paving block kg/m3 and the percentage of water absorption %. It is concluded that the multiple linear regression method performs better in predicting the first group of predictor variables with a mean square error (MSE) of 0.110086, followed by the neural network without hidden layers resulting in an MSE of 0.112198. The best method for the second set of predictors was the neural network with-out hidden layers with a mean square error ( MSE ) of 0.112402, closely followed by the multiple linear regression model with an MSE of 0.115044.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1775.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: ultrasonics; filtration; porous media; acoustic radiation force; microplastics
Online: 25 August 2023 (08:26:08 CEST)
When a suspension passes through a high-frequency standing sound wave, the particles it contains are manipulated by acoustic forces. In a one-dimensional sound field, these forces lead to a planar arrangement of the particles and the formation of agglomerates. It is known that the combination of these forces and depth filtration can be utilized to significantly increase the filter efficiency of coarse-pored media. So far, this concept has only been used in microfluidics. In this paper, we present the results of a scaled-up filtration channel to test the viability of the industrial application of acoustically assisted filtration systems for the removal of microparticles. The influences of acoustic power input, flow rate, and the porosity of the filter media are investigated. In addition to verifying the scalability, a significant decrease in the large particle fraction in the outflow of the channel was observed when a high-power sound field is applied. Furthermore, the formed agglomerates tend to rise to the fluid surface. The floating particles mostly consist of a large particle fraction.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1746.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: SCADA; scientific software; Kotlin language
Online: 24 August 2023 (10:47:51 CEST)
In this article, we discuss problems that exist in modern SCADA systems and present a Controls-kt (formerly DataForge-controls) software development kit, that allows both to create a control system from scratch and provide integration with existing systems via Magix specification and connector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1379.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; energy savings; industrial hydraulics; power drive architecture; CO2 emissions reduction
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:40:19 CEST)
In hydraulic systems, energy dissipation can be significant. The pressure drops that can occur in the hydraulic circuit, influenced by the adopted drive architecture, result in an absorbed power often significantly greater than that required by the mechanical system. In this paper, a comparative study of energy efficiency among five drive common architectures in industrial hydraulic axes is carried out. The analysis is applied to a hydraulic blanking press with variable speed and force, a fairly frequent industrial system, e.g. in the production of semi-finished brass products. Standard, regenerative, high-low, variable displacement pump and variable speed drive for a fixed displacement pump configurations have been analysed and compared. An adequate and optimized sizing of the various components of the system has been carried out in each case and subsequently the energy consumption has been estimated for a load cycle common to all the considered cases. The results show that the choice of power generation architecture of the hydraulic system has a very significant impact on energy efficiency and consequently operating costs and carbon footprint. The performed quantification of the potential energy efficiency of the considered drive architectures can be very useful in guiding energy-conscious choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Traditional Shipyard Industry; Manufacturing Cycle Efficiency; Non-Value Added; Lean Manufacturing.
Online: 21 August 2023 (02:43:16 CEST)
This article explores the important role of traditional shipyards in the global maritime industry, covering aspects of construction, repair, and maintenance. With the advent of faster manufacturing techniques, traditional shipyards face important challenges such as planning errors, coordination problems, delivery delays, and underutilization of technology, which results in high costs, reduced productivity, and prolonged projects. The application of Manufacturing Cycle Efficiency (MCE) emerged as an important solution to significantly increase production efficiency. MCE empowers shipyards to deal effectively with waste, bottlenecks, and disruptions, thereby increasing performance, competitiveness, and profitability. Using a comprehensive approach that uses both qualitative and quantitative methods, including field surveys, and in-depth interviews in the traditional shipyards industry, this research identifies Non-Value-Added (NVA) processes, conducts process mapping, and calculates MCE. The findings reported in this article underscore the significant wastage in the production process, indicating an urgent need for improvement, given the current average MCE value of 67.08%, indicating considerable room for improvement. This article provides innovative perspectives on optimizing the traditional shipyards industry through production cycle efficiencies while offering actionable recommendations. Key focus areas include integrating management systems, adopting advanced technologies, and implementing sustainable strategies to improve MCE, especially by reducing non-value-added time wastage, such as inspection and storage. By implementing strategies that optimize production, minimize waste, and overcome the challenges of global competition, this research contributes to improving MCE. In conclusion, this study is an invaluable guide for industry stakeholders, enabling them to enhance their competitiveness and adapt effectively to a dynamic business environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: optical interference; length measurement; fiber optic remote transmission; streak statistics
Online: 18 August 2023 (08:02:20 CEST)
The calibration of length is related to the national economy and people's livelihood. The traditional calibration of length value was sent the uncalibrated instrument to the laboratory and the intrinsic error of the tested instrument was obtained in the laboratory. However, calibrating the instrument in the site produced additional error. In this article, a remote calibration method of length measurement based on optical fiber information transmission following with a proof of principle system was studied to reduce the additional error. The 1.0-level displacement guide rail was calibrated according to this method. The results showed that the relative error of guide rail displacement under different lengths was within 0.6%. The expanded uncertainties of 10 μm, 100 μm and 1 mm were analyzed respectively. The calibration results meet the actual standards of the guide rail. This optical method is a good candidate for remote calibration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: injection moulding; small-angle X-ray scattering; morphology; isotactic polypropylene
Online: 15 August 2023 (15:50:00 CEST)
We have recently introduced the possibility of performing operando small-angle X-ray scattering measurements using a novel industrially relevant injection moulding system for plastics. We show that useful time-resolving measurements can be performed with a time-cycle of 1s and we highlight the possible steps to reduce this to 0.5s. We show how we can use the transmission measurements to provide a time-marker when plastic first enters the mould cavity in the region probed by the incident X-ray beam. We show the opportunities provided by this experimental stage mounted on the NCD-SWEET beamline at ALBA to probe the reproducibility of the injection moulding system on different scales. The design of the equipment allows the development of the structure and the morphology to be evaluated in different parts of mould cavity and we evaluate any differences in a rectangular mould cavity. We identify future prospects for this equipment in terms of novel mould heating and cooling systems and the opportunities for quantitatively evaluating radical approaches to injection moulding technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: monocular camera; world coordinates; pose measurement; rigid body
Online: 15 August 2023 (10:33:35 CEST)
A method of measuring the absolute pose parameters of a moving rigid body using a monocular camera is proposed, aiming at addressing calibration difficulties and inconsistencies of repeated measurements of the rigid-body pose for a camera having a varying focal length. The proposed method does not require calibration beforehand. Using more than six non-coplanar control points symmetrically arranged in the rigid-body and world coordinate systems, the matrices of rotation and translation between the camera and two coordinate systems are obtained and the absolute pose of the rigid body measured. In this paper, formulas of the absolute pose measurement of a moving rigid body are deduced systematically and the complete implementation is presented. Position and attitude measurement experiments carried out on a three-axis precision turntable show that the average absolute error in the attitude angle of a moving rigid body measured by an uncalibrated camera at different positions changes by no more than 0.2 degrees. Analysis of the three-dimensional coordinate errors of the centroid of a moving rigid body shows little deviation in measurements made at three camera positions, with the maximum deviation of the average absolute error being 0.53 cm and the maximum deviation of the standard deviation being 0.66 cm. The proposed method can measure the absolute pose of a rigid body and is insensitive to the position of the camera in the measurement process. This work thus provides guidance for the repeated measurement of the absolute pose of a moving rigid body using a monocular camera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0956.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: multidimensional data analysis; correspondence analysis; agglomerative hierarchical clustering; random forest; hydraulic system; machine learning; feature importance
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:14:49 CEST)
As a consequence of applying advanced maintenance practices, the theoretical probability of failures is relatively low. However, observation of low market intelligence and maintenance management has been reported. The experimental investigation is supported by findings from a survey targeting asset-intensive companies applying hydraulic power systems. Next, the study incorporates multidimensional data analysis using CA-AHC (Correspondance Analysis with Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering) approach. The non-parametric machine learning models are used from generated feature subspace to extract features affecting maintenance performance indicators. The results support empirical evidence that equipment age increases the probability of failures. However, the novel findings show that number of maintenance personnel, equipment size measured by nominal working energy consumption, and activities dedicated to maintaining fluid cleanliness impact regression results of companies utilising hydraulic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0979.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: image processing; K-means clustering algorithm; Traversal algorithm; Indirect solution method
Online: 14 August 2023 (08:57:37 CEST)
The utilization of tempered blast furnace (BF) slag through the direct fiber forming process to create high-value thermal insulation materials offers a dual benefit: it efficiently harnesses the latent heat within unused slag and substantially enhances the value of blast-furnace slag utilization. However, gauging the melting properties of iron slag under high temperatures is a challenge. In this study, we explore the melting behavior of SiO2 within a high-temperature molten pool. We employ dynamic visual data (video stream) captured via a non-contact charge coupled device (CCD) video recording system to extract SiO2 contours through image processing. The change in image centroid characteristics is used to establish a convolution function relationship, and MATLAB's traversal search algorithm determines SiO2's centroid position. Given that SiO2 is proportionate to crucible pixels, the area of SiO2 is calculated through pixel statistics within these contours. Subsequently, we propose a new indirect method to process image information, yielding SiO2 volume and mass at different time points. An exponential fitting yields the melting rate function of SiO2. Finally, we compare this indirect method with shape from shading (SFS), quantitative characterization, and dimensional analysis techniques. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of each method. Our findings reveal that the indirect solution method presented here boasts straightforward calculation steps and imposes minimal image format requirements. This research provides theoretical and technical support for blast-furnace slag's direct fiber forming process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0637.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: smooth lattice structure; parametric construction; wireframe solidification; filleted node; surface patch; irregular lattice topology
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:45:31 CEST)
Additive manufacturing enables the realization of complex component designs that can not be achieved with conventional processes, such as the integration of lattice structures for weight reduction. To include lattice structures in component designs, an automated algorithm compatible to conventional CAD is required that is able to handle various lattice topologies as well as variable local shape parameters such as strut radii. Furthermore, smooth node transitions are desired since previous studies indicate advantages regarding reduced stress concentrations and the structural response to loadings such as fatigue performance. The surface patch-based algorithm developed in this work is able to solidify given lattice frames to smooth lattice structures without manual construction steps. The algorithm requires only a few seconds of sketching time for each node and favours paralellization. Automated special case workarounds as well as fallback mechanisms are considered for non-standard inputs. It is demonstrated on irregular lattice topologies and applied for the construction of a lattice infill of an aircraft component that was additively manufactured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0552.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: hot wire; anemometer; uncertainty; sensitivity
Online: 8 August 2023 (05:34:17 CEST)
The hot wire anemometer is a commonly used device for measuring air speed in laboratories. In this paper, the relationship between air speed and the hot wire temperature in different air speed ranges was analyzed based on the theory of thermal equilibrium. A measurement circuit and hot wire shape were designed based on the principle of the hot wire anemometer, and the linear relationship between current and temperature in the hot wire at different air speeds was verified in an adjustable air speed field. The measured current was used to represent air speed. The designed hot wire anemometer was experimentally validated to provide measurement results that match the theoretical values in different air speed ranges. Finally, the sensitivity of the anemometer in different measurement ranges was determined based on the uncertainty of the instrument's sensitivity and the measurement formula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: conceptualization; methodology; job allocation; reinforcement learning; stocker; digital twin; simulation; Industry 4.0
Online: 7 August 2023 (03:03:04 CEST)
In this study, reinforcement learning (RL) was used in factory simulation to optimize storage devices for use in Industry 4.0 and digital twins. First, we defined an RL environment, modeled it, and validated its ability to simulate a real physical system. Subsequently, we introduced a method to calculate reward signals and apply them to the environment to ensure the alignment of the behavior of the RL agent with the task objective. The stocker simulation model was used to validate the effectiveness of RL. The model is a storage device that simulates logistics in a manufacturing production area. The results revealed that RL is a useful tool for automating and optimizing complex logistics systems and increase the applicability of RL in logistics. We proposed a novel method for creating an agent through learning using the proximal policy optimization algorithm, and the agent was optimized by configuring various learning options. The application of reinforcement learning resulted in an effectiveness of 30% to 100%, and methods can be expanded to other fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: OSH Management system; Employee productivity; Structural equation modeling; Development
Online: 4 August 2023 (12:36:15 CEST)
Manufacturing is a significant sector of the economy in many nations and is frequently regarded as an engine of economic expansion, particularly in developing nations. Despite its importance, the metal sector is seen as unsafe due to frequent and high accident rates as well as worker health issues. Therefore, the primary goal of this research is to create a safety model with the goal of development in occupational safety and health in order to reduce workplace injuries, diseases, and deaths in the Akaki Basic Metal Industry. The hypothesized model was developed and tested on a sample 215 respondents who worked for production businesses. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 was used to enter and analyze the acquired data, and the Analysis Moment of Structure (AMOS) version 21 software was used to build the model. Through the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), research models were examined and confirmed. A good-fit structural model (PCLOSE=0.001, Goodness of Fit Index=0.971, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.121, Comparative Fit Index=0.986 and TLI =0.906) indicated that Safety culture, safety police and safety climate constructs direct influence on firm productivity. The new structural model can be used to provide better understanding of the links between firm productivity indicators and contributing components, and make stronger recommendations for effective intervention in construction projects
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0257.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Light Gradient Boosted; Machine learning; Non-Intrusive Approach; electric load forecasting; Support Vector Machine; Synthetic Load Profile.
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:37:48 CEST)
Due to related uncertainties brought by changes in energy consumption and the integration of rooftop photovoltaic systems, the accuracy and availability of load profiling data are difficult to achieve. However, project managers and planners use a precise load profile as a crucial tool when determining whether the feeder must be updated or de-loaded. The paper aims to create a non-intrusive monitoring system that predicts the synthetic load profiles behavior of energy consumption using a Light Gradient Boosted and Support Vector Machine (SVM) machine learning technique. The most effective ML algorithm is chosen, and it has the potential to be assessed and verified using validation curves, residuals model generation, and prediction error metrics based on the following key statistical indicators: Mean Absolute Error, Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, R-Square, Root Mean Squared Logarithmic Error, and Mean Absolute Percentage Error. The most effective ML has the potential to be assessed and verified using validation curves, residual model generation, and prediction error metrics based on the following key statistical indicators. The result shows that the estimation of the Irms avg -based on LightGBM is more accurate than the SVM because of its quick, economical, and difficult to overfit, particularly with high-dimensional data, speed, and efficiency of the MAE (3.0698), MSE (15.2757), RMSE (3.9020), RMSLE (0.1433), and MAPE (0.0049) respectively. Additionally, the machine learning model shows that, when compared to the SVM, the LightGBM model had the highest accurate prediction, with R-Square values of 89.8%, 90.3%, and 88.5% for Irms_A_avg, Irms_B_avg, and Irms_C_avg, respectively for Brakfontein Substation supply region, and best represents a diverse customer base.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: hybrid manufacturing; biodegradable thermoplastic polymer; PLA components; process parameters optimization; roughness prediction; neural network modeling
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:24:27 CEST)
This paper presents a new method of process parameters optimization, adequate for 3D printing of PLA (Polylactic Acid) components. The authors developed a new Hybrid Manufacturing Equipment (HME), suitable for producing complex parts made from a biodegradable thermoplastic polymer, for environmental sustainability. Our new HME equipment is producing PLA parts by both additive and subtractive techniques, with the aim of obtaining accurate PLA components with a good surface quality. A design of experiments has been applied for optimization purposes. The following manufacturing parameters were analyzed: rotation of the spindle, cutting depth, feed rate, layer thickness, nozzle speed, and surface roughness. Linear regression models and neural network models were developed to improve and predict the surface roughness of the manufactured parts. A new test part was designed and manufactured from PLA, to validate the new mathematical models, which can now be applied for producing complex parts made from polymer materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Supply chain; Network design; Two-Stage; Fixed cost; Sensitivity analysis
Online: 3 August 2023 (09:57:29 CEST)
Most of the literature on the optimization problem of transportation in supply chain networks (SCN) considered fixed costs (FC). However, in the practical applications of this problem it is important to study the effect of FC. This paper examines the impact of fixed cost increase as well as the variable cost on the optimization of a Two-Stage SCN. To do so, two mathematical models for mixed-integer nonlinear programming are developed. The first model optimizes fixed and variable costs in addition to the opening cost, whereas the second model only optimizes variable and opening costs. To evaluate the effect of considering FC on the optimization supply chain problem, four groups of instances are randomly generated, and solved using Lingo. The results of the two models are compared utilizing the average percentage deviation. In addition, sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of changes in opening and variable costs on the considered optimization problem. The computational results and the sensitivity analysis show that the first model with minimized FC outperforms the second model, which does not consider the FC in minimization and FC affect the optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Manufacturing Optimization; Process Automation; Industrial Efficiency; Furniture Production
Online: 1 August 2023 (11:21:20 CEST)
In the era of Industry 4.0, the focus on optimizing manufacturing processes is crucial. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the EnPAS system, a proprietary automated control and monitoring tool developed by KAD3, implemented in the production process of Corten steel furnishings - the "Lila" chair and "Line" planter. Designed to enhance operational efficiency, EnPAS facilitates improved workflow by streamlining production stages and reducing downtime. The research design involves a comparative analysis of the workshop's production process, both before and after the implementation of the EnPAS system. Elements such as de-greasing, oxidation, and finishing stages, among others, were examined. The implementation of the EnPAS system led to a significant reduction in the total production time for both products. Further, there was a substantial decrease in waiting time and setup time. These findings unequivocally indicate the transformative impact of the EnPAS system on the manufacturing process, showcasing its potential in driving efficiency improvements, reducing production times, and increasing output. The study underscores the importance of leveraging such advanced control and monitoring tools to optimize modern manufacturing processes and does not exaggerate conclusions not backed by the research.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: production-inventory system; lyapunov stability; infinite dimensional system; finite dimensional system
Online: 1 August 2023 (02:47:13 CEST)
This research work aims to develop a mathematical modeling for production-inventory systems. Two mathematical models are present: An infinite dimensional, partial differential equation (PDE), production level modeling is present and a finite dimensional system for a coupled dynamic pricing, production rate and inventory level ordinary differential equations (ODE), integrating a proper Lyapunov stability analysis of the dynamical system and simulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2105.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3-D printing; additive manufacturing; innovation; intellectual monopoly; intellectual property; open innovation; open hardware; open source; patent; RepRap
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:51:27 CEST)
Open-source 3-D printing has played a pivotal role in revolutionizing the additive manufacturing (AM) landscape, by making distributed manufacturing economic, democratizing access, and fostering far more rapid innovation than antiquated proprietary systems. Unfortunately, some 3-D printing manufacturing companies began deviating from open-source principles and violating licenses for the detriment of the community. To determine if a pattern has emerged of companies patenting clearly open-source innovations, this study presents three case studies from the three primary regions of open-source 3-D printing development (EU, U.S. and China) as well as three aspects of 3-D printing technology (AM materials, an open-source 3-D printer, and core open-source 3-D printing concepts used in most 3-D printers). The results of this review have shown that non-inventing entities called patent parasites are patenting open-source inventions already well-established in the open source community and in the most egregious cases commercialized by one (or several) firms at the time of the patent filing. Patent parasites are able to patent open-source innovations by using a different language, vague patent titles and broad claims that encompass enormous swaths of widely diffused open-source innovation space. This practice poses a severe threat to innovation and several approaches to irradicate the threat are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1865.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Bio-composite, Resin, palm kernel shells, whelk shells, clams, bamboo fiber, Engineering Applications, Taguchi Techniques
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:28:18 CEST)
This study focused on the optimization of the flexural strength of bio-composite samples of palm kernel, whelks, clams, periwinkles shells and bamboo fiber, reinforced with resin for engineering applications. The aim of the study was to: formulate different samples of bio-composite reinforce with resin for engineering applications and to evaluate the flexural strength, of the fabricated composite. The hand lay-up technique was used for the composites produced by incorporating different percentage compositions of the shells/fiber (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) into varied proportions of epoxy resin and catalyst. The cured samples after 24hours were subjected to tensile, impact, flexural and water absorption test. The experiments were conducted using Taguchi optimization method L25 (5x5) with five design parameters and five level combinations in Minitab 18 statistical software. The results showed that the average values of flexural was 114.87MPa when compared to the unreinforced of 72.33MPa bio-composite. The study recommended that agricultural waste like palm kernel shells, whelk shells, clams, periwinkle shells and bamboo fiber, should be converted into important engineering applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1798.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D/4D printing; advanced robotics systems; pneumatic muscles; actuators
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:49:15 CEST)
3D/4D printing technologies are currently among the fastest growing, cutting edge fabrication technologies. The scale of their applications is vast and applicable to nearly all industries. 3D printing technologies are particularly popular in robotics, and especially in advanced design innovative solutions for areas such as manufacturing, space technology and medicine. The development of robotics, and in particular of the precision of manufactured components, such as actuators, pneumatic muscles, power transmission units, etc., means that new prototypes are still being made, where the use of 3D printers reduces the production time severalfold and allows for completing the necessary simulations and tests. In addition, the use of 3D printers allows for the production of thin-walled and cellular structures, which is a great advantage compared to conventional fabrication technologies. In the range of 3D printers available on the market, only a few selected technologies allow for actual use in the construction of advanced robot elements (muscles, vibration dampers, etc.). In the era of rapid growth of the precision of the available 3D printers and modern materials, 3D printing may soon become a major tool in robotics. This article presents an overview of 3D printing technologies and materials in terms of their application in robotics and provides examples of the use of 3D and 4D printing in prototyping and fabrication of robotic elements with particular emphasis on the current state of the art. The study considered the possibilities of using 3D/4D printing in robotics with the use of polymeric materials. The review of the literature and the research work currently being carried out in this area is very promising and it seems that 3D/4D printing in robotics is widely used and is still developing, which allows to conclude that in the near future the number of research works in this field will increase rapidly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1685.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Reverse logistic; Reverse Chain; WEEE; Industry 4.0 Technology; Simulation; Artificial intelligence; Eco-efficiency; Circular Economy
Online: 26 July 2023 (02:43:27 CEST)
The objective of this study was to apply simulation and computational intelligence techniques using artificial intelligence and genetic algorithm for economic and environmental optimization of the reverse network (manufacturers, waste managers and recyclers in São Paulo, Brazil) of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) to promote circular economy. For the economic evaluation, the reduction of: fuel, drivers, insurance, depreciation, maintenance and charges was considered and for the environmental evaluation, the environmental impact was measured in the abiotic, biotic, water, land, air and greenhouse gases compartments. It is concluded that the optimized structure of the WEEE reverse chain for São Paulo, Brazil reduced the number of collections, making the most of the cubage. It also generated economic and environmental gains, contributing to the strategic actions of the circular economy. Thus, the proposed simulation allows replication in organizational practice, mainly to meet the 2030 agenda on reducing the carbon footprint generated in transport in large cities. Thus, this study can guide companies on structuring the reverse WEEE chain in São Paulo, Brazil for economic and environmental optimization, a relevant aspect considering the exponential generation of WEEE, requiring the implementation of the national solid waste policy, and subsequently the signature of the electronics sector agreement in São Paulo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1648.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Laser beam butt welding; Acoustic process monitoring; Nondestructive testing (NDT); Joint gap detection; Temporal resolution; Clustering; Neighborhood Components Analysis (NCA)
Online: 25 July 2023 (04:52:39 CEST)
With increasing power and speed of laser welding, in-process monitoring has become even more crucial to ensure process stability and weld quality. Due to its low cost and installation flexibility, acoustic process monitoring is a promising method and has demonstrated its effectiveness. Since its feasibility has been the focus of existing studies, the temporal resolution of acoustic emissions (AE) has not yet been addressed despite its utmost importance for realizing real-time systems. Aiming to provide a benchmark for further development, this study investigates the relationship between duration and informativeness of AE signals during high power (3.5kW) and high speed (12m/min) laser beam butt welding. Specifically, the informativeness of AE signals is evaluated based on the accuracy of detecting and quantifying joint gaps for various time windows of signals, yielding numerical comparison. The obtained results show that signals can be shortened up to a certain point without sacrificing their informativeness, encouraging to optimize the signal duration. Our results also suggest that large gaps (> 0.3mm) induce unique signal characteristics in AE, which are clearly identifiable from 1 ms signal segments, equivalent to 0.2mm weld seam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1633.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Digital Technologies; MCDM Approach; Hesitant fuzzy set; uncertainty management
Online: 25 July 2023 (03:12:44 CEST)
With advances in information technology, big data, mobile communications, and robotics, digital technologies are increasingly being used in factories around the world. This digital transformation is named industry 4.0. Today, industrial companies are looking at how to adopt this era and implement these technologies 4.0 while improving their performance and generating more profits. The objective of this paper is to help companies to better choose the appropriate digital technologies according to their activities using a multi-experts-multi-criteria decision-making approach under hesitant fuzzy information. The proposed model is a generic model based on Multi-Agent Systems allowing to have an idea of the parameters necessary to apply the adopted approach. The adopted approach allows a better representation of uncertainty and subjectivity of experts’ judgments. It would be of great interest, especially, when exact quantitative data are not available. A real case company example is exposed (automotive company) towards putting into practice the proposed approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1419.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: hydrogen; hard-to-abate sectors; energy transition; electrolysis; blended combustion; steel industry
Online: 20 July 2023 (11:09:46 CEST)
This paper offers a set of comprehensive guidelines aimed at facilitating the widespread adoption of hydrogen in the industrial hard-to-abate sectors. The authors begin by conducting a detailed analysis of these sectors, providing an overview of their unique characteristics and challenges. The paper delves into specific elements related to hydrogen technologies, shedding light on their potential applications and discussing feasible implementation strategies. By exploring the strengths and limitations of each technology, the paper offers valuable insights into its suitability for specific applications. Finally, through a particular analysis focused on the steel sector, the authors provide in-depth information on the potential benefits and challenges associated with hydrogen adoption in this particular context. By emphasizing the steel sector as a focal point, the authors contribute to a more nuanced understanding of hydrogen's role in decarbonizing industrial processes and inspire further exploration of its applications in other challenging sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: vehicle routing problem; electric vehicles; internal combustion vehicles; common carriers; branch and cut and pricing; labelling algorithms
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:54:36 CEST)
With the continuous improvement and observable benefits of electric vehicles (EVs), major logistic companies are introducing more EVs into their conventional fleets. This gives rise to a new type of vehicle routing problem with mixed vehicles, where heterogeneous internal combustion vehicles (ICVs) and electric vehicles are considered in route planning. In addition, certain deliveries that are not efficient on any type of vehicles, are outsourced to third-party common carriers. In this paper, we define this problem as a mixed vehicle routing problem with common carriers (MVRPC). The objective of such problems is to minimize the transportation costs by considering routes with ICVs and EVs, the possibility of visiting recharging stations, outsourcing options, and drivers’ layover regulations. This variant of the vehicle routing problems has many practical applications, particularly in the design of long-haul transportation and last-mile delivery services. Effective MVRPC solutions play a key role in promoting the going Green image and optimally allocating resources. The problem has received limited attention in the literature likely because addressing all the needed aspects is especially challenging. To solve the large-scale problem, we develop a branch-and-cut pricing framework that relies on strong cuts and customized labeling algorithms. Numerical experiments highlight the effectiveness of our algorithm. This success can be attributed to tailored critical resources, dynamically bounded bidirectional labeling procedures, strong dominance criteria, and implementation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: smart manufacturing; big data; manufacturing process; big data analytics; decision-making; uncertainty
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:38:31 CEST)
This paper presents a systematic approach to developing big data analytics for manufacturing process-relevant decision-making activities from the perspective of smart manufacturing. The proposed analytics consists of five integrated system components: 1) data preparation system, 2) data exploration system, 3) data visualization system, 4) data analysis system, and 5) knowledge extraction system. The functional requirements of the integrated systems are elucidated. In addition, JAVA- and spreadsheet-based systems are developed to realize the proposed integrated system components. Finally, the efficacy of the analytics is demonstrated using a case study where the goal is to determine the optimal material removal conditions of a dry electrical discharge machining operation. The analytics identified the variables (among voltage, current, pulse-off time, gas pressure, and rotational speed) that effectively maximize the material removal rate. It also identified the variables that do not contribute to the optimization process. The analytics also quantified the underlying uncertainty. In synopsis, the proposed approach results in transparent, big-data-inequality-free, and less resource-dependent data analytics, which is desirable for small and medium enterprises—the actual sites where machining is carried out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0984.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: continuous improvement; waiting line; DMAIC; simulation; process control; productivity; customer service
Online: 14 July 2023 (07:53:30 CEST)
This work focused on proposing a plan for improvement and control of the customer service process in a customer service center, based on a waiting line analysis where it describes all the elements that interact in the system and a statistical analysis of processes to define the state in which it operates. Subsequently, the simulation of processes is applied to represent the system studied, and with it, to be able to evaluate different strategies for improvement and increase in productivity. The following strategies were evaluated: correction of the instability of customer service processes, establishment of new specification limits according to the promise of value to be fulfilled to customers, human resource management, administrative technical support. Finally, with the results obtained from the simulation of the system, the improvement and productivity increase plan is planned according to the DMAMC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control, or DMAIC) continuous improvement cycle established in six sigma
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0856.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Mitragyna speciosa; mitragynine; novel technology; energy consumption; pulsed electric field; ultrasound extraction
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:06:28 CEST)
The aim of this work was to determine the potential of using a pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultra-sound (US) apparatus to produce mitragynine extracts from Mitragyna speciosa dried leaves. Four modes of the device were tested: PEF, US, US + PEF, and PEF + US. The results were compared with extracts obtained using a conventional technique (maceration, as the control). Changes in the mitragynine content were determined with the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the mitragynine contents from kratom extracts using four different modes were different. The highest extraction (106.63 ± 0.85 mg/L) of mitragynine was achieved by the PEF + US procedure, followed by US + PEF (97.27 ± 1.33 mg/L), with increased extraction efficiencies of 45.81 ± 0.59% and 33.00 ± 1.85%, respectively. Moreover, the total energy consumption under the combination technique was 25.0% lower than that with PEF assistance. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) provided confirmatory evidence for the extraction of M. speciosa by the prototype. This study confirmed that PEF and US devices can be considered a green alternative method and may contribute to the application of agricultural products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0802.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Small cylinder; Roundness; Measurement uncertainty; Linear-scan
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:48:25 CEST)
To verify the reliability of the proposed stitching linear scan method for roundness measurement of small cylindrical workpieces, measurement uncertainties of the workpieces with various dimension are conducted. The cross-sectional circle of a cylindrical workpiece is divided into several equal arcs to be measured. Thus, the arc profile can be characterized according to the measured arcs. The roundness profile of the cylindrical part can be obtained by stitching these arc profiles together. Firstly, the measurement uncertainty of the workpiece with a diameter 1.5 mm and length 5.8 mm is evaluated to be 0.095 μm which can meet the uncertainty target of 0.1 μm. Considering the uncertainty of θx and θz which are the alignment around X-axis and Z-axis respectively changing with workpiece dimension changing, relevant uncertainties are carried out. As a result, there is no limitation with respect to workpiece diameter theoretically If the alignment can reach θz = θx = ±0.1° without considering the measurable range of the machine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0663.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Thick-Plate-Bridge steel; GMAW; welding process parameters; thermal-mechanical coupling
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:29:13 CEST)
The welding and construction processes of H-type thick-plate-bridge steel involve complex multi-pass welding processes, which is difficulty to ensure its welding performance. Accordingly, it is crucial to explore the inherent correlation among the welding processes parameters and welding quality, and applied it into the welding robots, eliminating the instability from manual welding. In order to improve the welding quality, the GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) welding process parameters are simulated using the Q345qD bridge steel flat joint model. Four welds with X-shaped grooves are designed to optimize the parameters of welding current, welding voltage, and welding speed. The optimal welding process parameters are investigated through thermal-elastic-plastic simulation analysis and experimental verification. The results indicate that when the welding current is set to 230A, the welding voltage to 32V, and the welding speed to 0.003m/s, the maximum deformation of the welded plate is 0.52mm, with a maximum welding residual stress of 345MPa. Both the simulation results of multi-pass welding and experimental tests meet the welding requirements, as they show no excessive stress or strain. These parameters can be applied into building large steel frame bridges with welding robots, improving the quality of welded joints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0545.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: ISO 5500X; sustainability; asset management; physical assets; SAMP; balanced scorecard; KPI
Online: 10 July 2023 (08:34:48 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to propose a tool to measure the performance of a Strategic Asset Management Plan (SAMP) based on a Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The SAMP converts organizational objectives into asset management objectives, also specifies the role of the asset management system and brings support to achieve asset management objectives. The SAMP becomes the heart of the organization and integrates with long-term, medium-term, and short-term financial plans integrated with same term activity plans. In the SAMP, the balance among performance, costs and risks is also taken into consideration in order to achieve the organization’s objectives. On the other side, the SAMP is a guide to set the asset management objectives while describing the role of the Asset Management System (AMS) in meeting those objectives. While SAMP is the central figure of AMS, it is important to measure its performance and needs to be build and improved through an iterative process, what means that is not just a document, it is “the document”, and should be treated as a “living being” that needs to adapt to internal and external changes quickly. The BSC is an excellent tool where, through the appropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), the progress can be measured, and is supported by four perspectives: Financial; Customer; Internal Process; and Learning and Growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0437.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: straightness error; ultra-precision guideway; splitting measurement; error compensation; flatness error
Online: 7 July 2023 (04:19:09 CEST)
The straightness error of guideway is one of the key indicators of ultra-precision machine, which plays an important role in the machining accuracy of work-piece. In order to measure straightness error of long distance ultra-precision guideway accurately, a splicing measurement for straightness error of guideway using high-precision flat mirror and displacement sensor was proposed in this paper, and the data splicing processing algorithm based on coordinate transformation was studied. Then comparative experiments on splicing measurement and direct measurement of straightness error were carried out on a hydrostatic guideway grinder. The maximum difference between the two measurements was about 0.3μm, which was far less than the straightness error of 5.8μm. The experiment demonstrated the correctness of the proposed splicing measurement method and data processing algorithm. To suppress the influence of straightness error on machining accuracy, a straightness error compensation algorithm based on error rotation transformation and vertical axis position correction was proposed, and the grinding experiment of a plane optics with size of 1400mm×500mm was carried out, whose flatness error after grinding was about 2.98μm. The straightness error of the grinding machine had been well suppressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Carbon nanotubes; Polylactic acid; 3D printing; Electromagnetic interference shielding; Composites
Online: 6 July 2023 (02:18:32 CEST)
High-performance electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials with ultralow density and environment friendly properties are greatly demanded to address electromagnetic radiation pollution. Herein, carbon nanotubes/polylactic acid (CNTs/PLA) materials with different CNTs contents, which exhibit characteristics of light weight, environmental protection and good chemical stability, are fabricated by 3D printing technology, where CNTs are evenly distributed and bind well with PLA. The performances of 3D printed CNTs/PLA composite are improved compared to pure 3D printed PLA composite, which include mechanical properties, conductive behaviors and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. The EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of CNTs/PLA composite could be improved when the contents of CNTs increase. When it reaches 15 wt%, the EMI SE of 3D printed CNTs/PLA composite could get up to 47.1 dB, which shields 99.998% of electromagnetic energy. Meanwhile, the EMI shielding mechanism of 3D printed CNTs/PLA composite is mainly of absorption loss, and it generally accounted for more than 80% of the total shielding loss. These excellent comprehensive performances endow the 3D printed CNTs/PLA composite with great potential for use in industrial and aerospace area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: statistical analysis; turning; Inconel 718; superalloy; machining process; finite element modeling; FEM
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:22:10 CEST)
Nickel superalloys occupy a reasonably broad niche in the industry. One of this group's most common and well-known alloys is Inconel 718. Parts from Inconel 718 are used in aerospace, energy, automotive, and some other vital industries, which creates a demand for research and improvement of the machining conditions of this alloy. This article is devoted to the systematization and generalization of the accumulated experience of machining of Inconel 718 at turning operation. The research methodology is based on the Pareto distribution. In the study, more than 50 articles devoted to turning Inconel 718 were analyzed. The tool materials, methods, and types of coating used in turning Inconel 718 were analyzed. Finite element method modeling of processing processes has been considered. The trends in the selection of cutting parameters and the geometry of the cutting tool and finite element method modeling of processing processes have been considered. Lacuna for promising future research was formulated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: machine learning; manufacturing; industry; business benefit; sustainability; artificial intelligence
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:32:58 CEST)
Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, particularly the subfield of machine learning (ML), has been expected to bring significant benefits to all sectors of business and public services. The manufacturing industry is considered one of the domains most likely to benefit from AI tech-nologies. During the recent years, there has been a growing research and development effort on machine learning–based solutions for manufacturing industries, as shown by the growing number of research publications. However, the business, environmental or societal benefits of applying ML in manufacturing industry have not been reviewed and evaluated. This paper re-views the reported benefits of ML in the manufacturing industry by analysis of scientific publi-cations. The focus of the review is on research papers that were published from 2017 to 2021. The review pays particular attention to the industry sector, manufacturing operations, machine learning methods used, maturity of results and the benefits pursued and achieved. The benefits are divided into business benefits, environmental sustainability, and societal sustainability. The analysis shows that the maturity of ML-based solutions is still low, despite the intensive research. Consequently, future research projects should place more emphasis on the maturity of the solu-tions, which would lead to their broader adoption into operational use, thus benefiting industry and society at large. This calls for closer collaboration between the research community and in-dustry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Product Design; Green Self-identity; Environment-friendly products; Materials Selection; Material Properties; Databases; Product Quality.
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:35:44 CEST)
Material selection for product design is a complex task. Thus, one of the objectives of this work is to analyze, understand and promote the importance of selection of materials to conceive quality products with help of designers' that promote green self-identity in the early stage of the conception of new products. A questionnaire was sent to professional designers and engineers. 38 responses were validated, this being the sample of our study. The aspects that influence the complex selection of materials and the final quality of the products through the design and production process is presented. As a result of the answers carried out with product designers who work in the market, with students who are graduating and with some engineers, a new approach for the selection of materials was developed. Based on a collection of main ideas from traditional and non-traditional methods of material selection, seeking to group the maximum requirements of both methods, inspired by the "Canvas" model on the basic modular methodology, a new model for a project of new product is presented. Our study focuses on the selection of materials, since this aspect is one of the most relevant steps in early stage of the prototyping phase of new products, with a view to reducing CO2 from the air in the atmosphere that we all breathe. The classification of materials is complex, due to the diversity of available options. The novelty of this model is that all properties of the newly designed product, such as technical, aesthetic, productive, environmental and other properties, are all grouped in a model, which serves as an innovative support. Thus, the designer has at his disposal a tool that can help him in the selection of the best material for the products he designs. This study intends to make a contribution in the field of material selection, quality and design of new products, promoting a green self-identity for designers in the initial phase of product design. Consequently, all consumers in search of a sustainable planet will profit from it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: laser beam butt welding (LBW); Joint-gap formation; AE-analysis; Non-destructive test-30 ing (NDT); Deep learning; Audible to Ultrasonic sensors
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:14:05 CEST)
This study aimed to explore the feasibility of using airborne acoustic emission in laser beam butt welding for the development of an automated classification system based on neural networks. The focus was on monitoring the formation of joint gaps during the welding process. To simulate various sizes of butt joint gaps, controlled welding experiments were conducted, and the emitted acoustic signals were captured using audible to ultrasonic microphones. To implement an automated monitoring system, a method based on short-time Fourier transformation was developed to extract audio features, and a convolutional neural network architecture with data augmentation was utilized. The results demonstrated that this non-destructive and non-invasive approach was highly effective in detecting joint gap formations, achieving an accuracy of 98%. Furthermore, the system exhibited promising potential for low latency monitoring of the welding process. The classification accuracy for various gap sizes reached up to 90%, providing valuable insights for characterizing and categorizing joint gaps accurately. Additionally, increasing the quantity of training data with quality annotations could potentially improve the classifier model's performance further. This suggests that there is room for future enhancements in the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1925.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: wire electron beam additive manufacturing; aluminum bronze; wire-based additive manufacturing; EBAM; DED-EB
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:08:25 CEST)
In recent years, in addition to the commonly known wire-based processes of Directed Energy Deposition using lasers, a process variant using the electron beam has also developed to industrial market maturity. The process offers particular potential for processing highly conductive, reflective or oxidation-prone materials. However, for industrial usage there is a lack of comprehensive data on performance, process limits and possible applications. The present study deals with this problem using the example of the high-strength aluminum bronze CuAl8Ni6. Multi-stage test welds are used to determine the physically possible process limits and draw conclusions about the suitability of the parameters for additive manufacturing. For this purpose, optimal ranges for energy input, possible welding speeds and the scalability of the process were investigated. Finally, additive test specimens in the form of cylinders and walls are produced and the hardness profile, microstructure and mechanical properties are investigated. It is found that the material CuAl8Ni6 can be well processed by wire electron beam additive manufacturing. The microstructure is similar to a cast structure, the hardness profile over the height of the specimens is constant and the tensile strength and elongation at fracture values achieved correspond to the specification of the raw material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1914.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Tissue Engineering; DLP; Graphene Oxide; PLLA
Online: 27 June 2023 (13:03:50 CEST)
In this study, 3D printing of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds reinforced with graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles via Digital Light Processing (DLP) was investigated to mimic bone tissue. Stereolithography is one of the most accurate additive manufacturing method, but the dominant available materials used in this method are toxic. In this research, a biocompatible resin (PLLA) was synthetized and functionalized to serve the purpose. Due to the low mechanical properties of the printed product with the neat resin, graphene oxide nanoparticles in three levels (0.5, 1, and 1.5 Wt.%) were added with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties. At first, the optimum post cure time of the neat resin was investigated. Consequently, all the parts were post-cured for three hours after printing. Due to the temperature-dependent structure of GO, all samples were placed in an oven at 85 ° C for different time periods of 0, 6, 12, and 18 hours to increase mechanical properties. The compression test of heat treated samples reveals that the compressive strength of the printed parts containing 0.5,1, and 1.5 % of GO increased by 151,162 ad 235%, respectively. Scaffolds with the designed pore sizes of 750 microns and a porosity of 40% were printed. Surface hydrophilicity test was performed for all samples showing that the hydrophilicity of the samples increased with increasing GO percentage. The degradation behavior of the samples was evaluated in a PBS environment, and it revealed that by increasing GO, the rate of component degradation increased, but the heat treatment had the opposite effect and decreased the degradation rate. Finally, besides improving biological properties, a significant increase in mechanical properties under compression can introduce the printed scaffolds as a suitable option for bone implants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1820.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Photolithography; Optimal Design of Experiments; Optimal Experimental Design; D-optimal; G-Optimal; A-Optimal; Control Algorithm; Optimization; Genetic Algorithms; Compound Criteria
Online: 26 June 2023 (14:02:17 CEST)
In photolithography process, nanometer level precise, wavefront aberration models enable the machine to be able to meet the overlay (OVL) drift and critical dimension (CD) specifications. Software control algorithms take as input these models and correct any expected wavefront imperfections before reaching the wafer. In such way a near optimal image is exposed on the wafer surface. Optimizing the parameters of these models though, involves several time costly sensor measurements which reduce the throughput performance, in terms of exposed wafers per hour, of the machine. In that case, photolithography machines come across the trade-off between throughput and quality. Therefore one of the most common Optimal Experimental Design (OED) problems in photolithography machines (and not only) is how to choose the minimum amount of sensor measurements that will provide the maximum amount of information. Additionally, each sensor measurement corresponds to a point on the wafer surface and therefore we must measure uniformly around the wafer surface as well. In order to solve this problem, we propose a Sensor Marks Selection Algorithm which exploits Genetic Algorithms. The proposed solution first selects a pool of points that qualify as candidates to be selected in order to meet the uniformity constraint. Then, the point that provides the maximum amount of information, quantified by the Fisher based criteria of G, D and A-Optimality, is selected and added to the measurement scheme. This process though is considered "greedy", and for this reason Genetic Algorithms (GA) are exploited to further improve the solution. By repeating in parallel the "greedy" part several times we get an initial population that will be the input to our GA. This meta-heuristic approach outperforms the "greedy" approach significantly. The proposed solution is applied in a real life semiconductors industry use case and achieves interesting industry and academical results as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1599.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: recycled polymers; self-reinforced composite; polymer blends; injection molding; material performance
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:13:13 CEST)
The presented research focused on the evaluation of the novel concept of overmolding technique using self-reinforced composite prepregs and recycled polymer blends. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed manufacturing technique, several series of materials based on polycarbonate/polyethylene terephthalate (PC/PET) and polycarbonate/polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PC/PETG) blends were prepared. The reinforcing component in the form of overmolded prepreg was made from polyester-based self-reinforced composite (srPET). The prepared materials were compared in terms of mechanical properties and heat resistance; the study was supplemented by thermal analysis measurements (DMTA, DSC). Considering the mechanical characteristics, the overmolding technique turns out to be an effective method of improving the properties of composites, and the increase in impact strength turns out to be particularly beneficial. The increase of the impact strength for overmolded PC/PET blend reached 430 % for PC/PETG sample 330% , while for PC-based composite, only 100%. The expected improvement in thermomechanical properties turned out to be difficult to achieve due to the rapid softening of the srPET prepreg at around 70 °C. However, technological tests and analysis of properties clearly indicated that the use of PC-based blends makes it possible to create a permanent connection with reinforcement based on srPET prepregs, which can significantly expand the potential of applications of this type of materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Intelligent maintenance; neural network; attention mechanism; transformer; time series fore-casting; internet of things; cyber physic system; monitoring; artificial intelligence
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:04:16 CEST)
The unstable international economic situation is reflected in the supply chain stress, lack or increased cost of some raw materials, fuel or semi-finished products is forcing organizations to perform new optimization initiatives in the utilization of their equipment and assets pointed to obtain the maximum value from them, while maintaining and even improving the quality of their products. The achievement of these objectives involves the reduction or minimization of equipment downtime to maintain the advantage over their competitors and ensure the organization's competitiveness. The intelligent maintenance system (IMS) provides adequate support for decision-making related to equipment maintenance, since poor maintenance results in unplanned stoppages, with the consequent additional cost and increased customer dissatisfaction, and an over-maintenance can result in an additional labor cost, time and the replacement of parts that are in good conditions. The utilization of new tools and technologies introduced by Industry 4.0 offers multiple opportunities for enhancement through communication and computerized data processing, aiming to improve the maintainability of a hydrogen compressor using neural networks based on attention mechanisms combined with linear regression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Intuitionistic fuzzy sets; Decomposed fuzzy sets; TOPSIS; Risk analysis; Supplier selection problem
Online: 20 June 2023 (07:42:16 CEST)
Decomposed fuzzy sets are the resent extension of intuitionistic fuzzy sets by incorporating functional and dysfunctional points of views to the definition of membership functions. This paper extends the Technique of Order Preference Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method to the Decomposed Fuzzy TOPSIS (DF TOPSIS) method and applies it to a multi-criteria risk-based supplier selection problem under fuzziness. DF TOPSIS involves finding a positive ideal solution and a negative ideal solution and measuring the distance of each alternative to these solutions. The final ranking is obtained based on the proportion of distances to the positive and negative ideal solutions. The developed DF TOPSIS method incorporates the accuracy and consistency of expert judgments, enhancing the decision-making process. A sensitivity analysis is also presented in order to show the robustness of the obtained rankings by DF TOPSIS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0159.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Term Sets; Supply Chain Management; Decision Making; Systematic Literature Review
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:46:43 CEST)
Supply Chain Management (SCM) encompasses a wide variety of decision-making problems that affect business and supply chain performance as a whole. Since most of these problems involve uncertainty and hesitation on the part of Decision Makers (DMs), various studies have emerged recently that present SCM applications of techniques based on Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Term Sets (HFLTSs) and HFLTS extensions. Given the relevance of this subject and the lack of literature review studies, this study presents a systematic review of HFLTS and HFLTS extension applications to SCM decision-making problems. In order to answer a set of research questions, the selected papers have been classified in accordance with a group of factors that are pertinent to the origins of these studies, SCM, HFLTSs, and decision-making. The results demonstrate that the Source and Enable processes have been studied with greater frequency, while the most common problems have to do with supplier selection, failure evaluation, and performance evaluation. The companies of the automotive sector and Sustainable SCM and Green SCM strategies predominate in the analyzed studies. Even though most of the studies use techniques based on HFLTSs, we have identified applications of seven distinct HFLTS extensions, with Double Hierarchy Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Term Sets and Probabilistic Linguistic Term Sets being the most utilized. The identification of gaps in the literature presents avenues for future studies focused on innovative applications, integrations of techniques, comparisons of techniques, group decision-making, and validation procedures for new models. The results of this study offer a panorama of the state of the art in regard to this subject and can help researchers and practitioners develop new studies which involve the use of methods that employ HFLTSs and HFLTS extensions in SCM decision-making problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0980.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Ultrasonic impact treatment; strengthening effect
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:54:18 CEST)
Metal fabrications experience complex physical metallurgical processes during additive manufacturing, leading to residual stress and coarse microstructure with directional growth. It significantly affects the comprehensive performance of the fabrications, which limits the application of additive manufacturing. Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT), as a strengthening means to assist additive manufacturing, can effectively improve the stress state and refine the microstructure and the comprehensive performance. This paper introduces the effect of UIT on AM metal fabrications on microstructure morphology, stress distribution, surface roughness, internal defects, and comprehensive performance to gain a deeper understanding of the role of UIT on additively manufactured metal fabrications, which is based on the working principle and effect of process parameters. In addition, the strengthening mechanism of UIT in additive manufacturing is described from the perspective of surface plastic deformation and substructure formation, providing support for the shape and property control of metal fabrications in the process of additive manufacturing assisted by UIT. Finally, the issues that need to be studied in depth on UIT in additive manufacturing are summarized, and an outlook on future research directions is taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0974.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Reliability estimation; EM algorithm; Censored data; Weibull distribution; Industrial equipment; Maintenance optimization; Failure analysis; Proactive maintenance
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:50:43 CEST)
Centrifugal pumps are widely employed in the oil refinery industry due to their efficiency and effectiveness in fluid transfer applications. The reliability of pumps plays a pivotal role in ensuring uninterrupted plant productivity and safe operations. Analysis of failure history data shows that bearings have been identified as critical components in oil refinery pump groups. However, traditional reliability estimation theories may not apply when data is limited or subject to right censoring. This paper addresses the complexity of estimating the Weibull distribution parameters using the maximum-likelihood method under the abovementioned conditions. The likelihood equation lacks an explicit analytical solution, necessitating the use of numerical methods for resolution. The proposed approach presented in this article leverages the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for estimating the Weibull distribution parameters. This method provides more accurate estimates of failure rates and probabilities by accounting for limited and censored data. The findings are demonstrated through a case study, showcasing the practical application of the proposed approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0945.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: fused deposition modeling (FDM); PETG; different geometry shapes; tensile properties; mechanical characteristics; print orientation
Online: 13 June 2023 (14:39:42 CEST)
The objective of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis between rectangular-shaped ASTM D3039 specimens with different angles (0°, 15°, and 90°) and various tensile test specimens based on ASTM and ISO standards, all 3D-printed using polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) material through FDM. The study aimed to assesses the weak spot commonly found at the neck of the specimens. Two different printing orientations, namely flat and on-edge, were investigated, and a comprehensive examination and comparison were made regarding the variations in tensile strength, E-modulus, strain, and elongation at break among the tested samples. Additionally, the broken areas was evaluated, and a numerical study utilizing the finite element method (FEM) was conducted to identify stress risers' locations in each specimen type. The experimental results demonstrated that the ASTM D3039-0° specimen exhibited the best tensile properties when printed in the on-edge orientation, while the flat orientation yielded the best results in terms of the broken area. On the other hand, the ISO 527-2 specimens displayed the lowest tensile properties, regardless of the printing orientation. The study highlighted the enhanced tensile properties achieved with the rectangular shape. Specifically, the tensile strength of ASTM D3039-0° was 17.87% and 21% higher than that of the ISO 527 geometry shape for the flat and on-edge orientations, respectively. The numerical analysis indicated that the ISO 527-2 specimen had either no or minimal stress raisers, and the higher stresses observed in the narrow section were isolated from the gripping location.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0841.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; nozzle clogging; machine learning; smart monitoring
Online: 12 June 2023 (13:28:18 CEST)
High efficiency and safety are critical factors in ensuring optimal performance and reliability of systems and equipment across various industries. Fault Monitoring (FM) techniques play a pivotal role in this regard by continuously monitoring system performance and identifying the presence of faults or abnormalities. However, traditional FM methods face limitations in fully capturing the complex interactions within a system and providing real-time monitoring capabilities. To overcome these challenges, Digital Twin (DT) technology has emerged as a promising solution to enhance existing FM practices. By creating a virtual replica or digital copy of a physical equipment or system, DT offers the potential to revolutionize fault monitoring approaches. This paper aims to explore and discuss the diverse range of predictive methods utilized in DT and their implementations in FM across industries. Furthermore, it will showcase successful implementations of DT in FM across a wide array of industries, including manufacturing, energy, transportation, and healthcare The utilization of DT in FM enables a comprehensive understanding of system behavior and performance by leveraging real-time data, advanced analytics, and machine learning algorithms. By integrating physical and virtual components, DT facilitates the monitoring and prediction of faults, providing valuable insights into the system’s health and enabling proactive maintenance and decision-making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0786.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT); Systematic literature review; Implementation; Adoption; Critical Factors
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:30:13 CEST)
This paper presents a systematic literature review that identifies critical factors impacting the implementation of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) worldwide. The study utilizes two databases, ProQuest and Compendex, as well as Google Scholar. The study identified eight dimensions that illustrate the critical factors of AMT adoption and implementation: education, planning, top management know-how, technical know-how, business, economic impact, regulations, and social impact. The results highlight a research gap in understanding the need for effective integration among these eight dimensions in developed and developing economies. Consequently, the study recommends the adoption of a broader perspective that considers the role of integration and interaction between critical factors in each category and their impact on AMT implementation. The systematic literature review conducted in this study reviews several critical factors related to the adoption and implementation of AMT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0743.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing applications; 3D printing platform for additive manufacturing; FDM; robot arm
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:18:03 CEST)
The paper presents the conceptualization and realization of a novel platform for additive manu-facturing, an industrial robot arm-based system for additive manufacturing applications. Tradi-tional 3D printers, especially those employing fused deposition modelling (FDM) processes, are restricted to depositing material in a single toolpath plane (e.g. x-y plane). The focus of this study was to explore the feasibility of integrating commercial off the shelf (COTS) additive manufac-turing technologies with a six degree of freedom industrial robot arm to yield a 3D additive manufacturing system with the capability to perform free-form six degree of freedom fused deposition modelling. The present paper presents the development of a platform from stage 0, i.e. materials to its use, and finally a printed product with the developed extruder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: likelihood ratio order; usual stochastic order; cold-standby system; log-concave; logconvex; lifetime
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:42:54 CEST)
In this paper, we first establish upper stochastic bounds on the lifetime of a used cold standby system with arbitrary age, using the likelihood ratio order and the usual stochastic order. Then, stochastic comparisons are made between the lifetime of a used cold standby system with age t and the lifetime of a cold standby system consisting of used components with age t using the likelihood ratio order and the usual stochastic order. We use illustrative examples to explore the results presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Order Picking; Class-Based Storage Location Assignment; Production Planning; TOPSIS; Decision Support System Flow
Online: 5 June 2023 (03:23:09 CEST)
For effective warehouse management, various criteria should be taken into consideration in terms of inventory management, demand, transportation distance, usage area, delivery-waiting times, and minimizing the costs that may arise from them. Because, the purpose of the product assignment problem is to minimize the total transport distance during storage and to reduce the space required for product assignment. However, the storage location assignment problem (SLAP) occurs simultaneously with production planning activities in real life. In this study, an integrated mixed-integer nonlinear (MINLP) mathematical model is proposed, which includes the assignment of products to storage areas and production planning, using the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) class based policy for storage systems where multiple criteria are important. In the TOPSIS class-based policy, weight and waiting time criteria are taken into account, as well as the COI (Cube-per-order index index), which is widely used in the literature. In addition, a decision support system flow has been proposed that takes into account the single criterion, multiple criteria and COI index criteria of the developed model and provides its integration with different product assignment policies. Detailed literature research; It has been revealed that the proposed mathematical model and decision support system flow have the feature of applying an existing field of science to a new problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: resonators; OCMR; hotplate; temperature control; MEMS devices
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:52:41 CEST)
This paper introduces a chip-level oven-controlled system for improving the temperature stability of MEMS resonators. Wherein the resonator and the micro-hotplate are manufactured by MEMS technology, then wire-bounded in a package shell at the chip level. The proposed resonator is transduced by the AlN film, and its temperature is monitored by temperature-sensing resistors on both sides. The designed micro-hotplate is placed at the bottom of the resonator chip as a heater and insulated by airgel. The PID pulse width modulation (PWM) circuit controls the heater according to the temperature detection result to provide a constant temperature for the resonator. The proposed oven-controlled MEMS resonator (OCMR) exhibits a frequency drift of 3.5ppm in the range of -50°C to 125°C, and the method also can be applied to other MEMS devices that require temperature control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1565.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Data Strategies and learning approaches; Challenges and Opportunities; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:37:17 CEST)
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more prevalent across industries as diverse as healthcare, finance, and transportation. Artificial intelligence is based on the analysis of large data sets and requires a continuous supply of high-quality data. However, using data for AI is not without its challenges. This paper comprehensively reviews and critically examine the challenges of using data for AI, including data quality, data volume, privacy and security, bias and fairness, interpretability and explainability, ethical concern, and technical expertise and skills. This paper examines e these challenges in details and offers advices on how companies can address them. By understanding and addressing these challenges, organizations can harness the power of AI to make smarter decisions and gain a competitive advantage in the digital age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: recycling of spent coffee grounds; lactic acid production; polylactic acid
Online: 31 May 2023 (13:19:57 CEST)
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Annual coffee consumption continues to increase, but at the same time, it generates a large amount of spent coffee grounds from the brewing process, that arises environmental problems. An appropriate solution to manage these spent coffee grounds becomes crucial. Our project aims to discuss the feasibility of utilizing the spent coffee ground to synthesize polylactic acid as a recycling application for spent coffee ground. This paper will discuss the properties and potential recycling applications of spent coffee grounds, the brief production process of polylactic acid, and the potential process for converting spent coffee ground to lactic acid. From our review, it is feasible to utilize spend coffee ground as the primary sources for lactic acid production by bacteria fermentation, and further produce bioplastics, polylactic acids by ring-opening polymerization. Possible ways to improve the yield and corresponding cost analysis are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: process design; modularity; complexity; manufacturing lead time; simulation
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:05:11 CEST)
In principle, modular or integral character of manufacturing lines depends on topological designs of products and determined operation tasks. On the other hand, in specific situations there is an articulated need for modular design in smart manufacturing systems, since modular layouts are a crucial step towards agile production via smart manufacturing. The aim of this paper is to explore how the modular layout relates to manufacturing lead time (MLT) and to operational complexity of smart manufacturing systems. For this purpose, topologically different models of alternative process layouts were simulated and tested, while MLT values were obtained using Tecnomatix Plant Simulation. Obtained positive findings of this research could be useful not only in selection of the most suitable process design from the alternative ones, but especially in deepening knowledge and better understanding of the concept of optimal network modularity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2135.v1
Online: 30 May 2023 (12:18:02 CEST)
Friction Stir Welding is a suitable solid-state joining technology to connect dissimilar materials. To produce an effective joint, it requires a phase of optimization which leads to the definition of process parameters such as pin geometry, tool rotational speed, rotation direction, welding speed, thickness of the sheets or tool tilt angle. The aim of this review is to present a complete and detailed frame of the main process parameters and their effect on the final performance of a friction stir welded joint in terms of mechanical properties and microstructure. Particularly, the attention was focused on the connection between different aluminum alloys. Moreover, the experimental results were correlated to the development and the applications of tools, which can effectively use in the design of the manufacturing process, such as finite element analyses, artificial neural networks, statistical studies. The review wants to be also a point of reference to identify the best combinations of process parameters based on the dissimilar aluminum to be joined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Innovation Ecosystem; Technology Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Hydrocarbon-Based Economies; Innovation Systems
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:00:58 CEST)
Innovation is rapidly growing and affecting various industries, including hydrocarbon processing. This study aims to conduct a comprehensive and organized review of the literature on innovation ecosystems and their performance. It will examine existing definitions of innovation ecosystems and related concepts and identify metrics and indicators for measuring innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems. The term "innovation ecosystem" has gained considerable attention from scholars and practitioners over the past fifteen years. Despite the proliferation of research in this area, there are concerns about its fragmented knowledge base. While previous reviews have highlighted the theoretical connections between innovation ecosystems and related concepts, there is still a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the current state of innovation ecosystem research. The study used a systematic literature review approach that combines bibliographic coupling and content analysis methods, drawing on over 100 studies to identify five streams of current innovation ecosystem research: technology innovation, platform innovation ecosystems, regional development, innovation ecosystem conceptualization and theorization, and entrepreneurship and innovation. The study's contribution lies in decoding the intellectual structure of current innovation ecosystem research and providing targeted recommendations for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1829.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Poka Yoke; Pick to Lights; architecture; effectiveness; industrial engineering
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:43:43 CEST)
Product assembly is usually one of the last steps in the entire production process. This activity is typically entrusted to assembly workers because it is generally not possible to automate every type of product. For complex products, assembly can take a long time until the fitter learns the procedure and is able to assemble the product on his own. This contribution presents a cus-tom-developed system that enables controlled assembly of the extruder and can be used for complex and diverse products. The system serves to guide the fitter precisely and shows him which part to use at which time. The proposed system will show and describe on the display all necessary assembly steps and parts. Two-step verification is used to ensure that the correct part is picked from the stack. The contribution is supported by the implementation of a case study in a small company with a sample of 30 employees, which demonstrates that the proposed system shortens the extruder assembly time and significantly reduces the error rate. The presented solution is scalable and flexible, as it can be easily adapted to display the assembly steps of another product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1807.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Clay; Nanometric Properties; Thermogravimetry
Online: 25 May 2023 (11:01:58 CEST)
Ecuador has 4000 Km2 of volcanic nanoclay reserves that could be industrialized. An immediate application is to modify the local AC-20 asphalt with this aggregate. This resource was characterized with FTIR, XRD, FRX, SEM, BET, Laser Granulometry, SPECMIN, TSG, TGA, DTG, DSC and Atmospheric Adsorption. FTIR showed vibration peaks Si and Al. X-ray diffraction indicated the presence of silicates and alumina, BET measured particle size (30 to 250 nm), and the SSA property measured the specific surface area (280.38 m2/g). Chip rock (natural clay) was treated with H2O2 or NaOH or NH3 and evaluated with SPECMIN -TSG obtaining spectra close to vermiculite, allophane and bentonite minerals. At 1000 °C additional samples were calcined in Thermogravimetry (TGA), Differential Thermogravimetry (DTG), Differential Thermal Analysis (DCS), with mass loss around 40%, corresponding to organic matter, hydroxyl (OH) and destruction of its structure with spicule formation at 956 °C. With the DSC there were endothermic and exothermic manifestations. The Si/Al layers would have micro and meso porosity, it was also found to be a nanoparticulate material, with high adsorption capacity. At temperatures above 350 °C, its structure collapsed. Thus, this synthesized nanoclay will be used as an additive to form new materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1758.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Digital Twin; DT; Product Lifecycle Quality; PLQ; Digital Twin Certified; DTC
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:46:34 CEST)
Quality products are a main focus for manufacturers. Product users only determine a product is a quality product if it performs in operation to the user’s perceived standard. Product manufactures need to take a product lifecycle quality (PLQ) perspective of quality and not simply focus on manufacturing quality control, which is more accurately specification control. Manufacturing is the key phase where products take their physical form. There are increasing costs and decreasing risk of different physical quality strategies. The information provided using digital twins and virtual testing promises to be both low risk and cost and has the potential to predict what the customer will experience in operation by testing products passively with data and actively with simulation to destruction. Digital Twin Certified (DTC) is proposed as the methodology for accomplishing this. DTC will be especially important for the adoption of additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1596.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Food process industry; Production scheduling; MILP; Optimization; Heuristics
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:33:31 CEST)
This work addresses the lot-sizing and production scheduling problem of multi-stage multi-product food industrial facilities. More specifically, the production scheduling problem of the semi-continuous yogurt production process, for two large-scale Greek dairy industries, is considered. Production scheduling decisions are taken using two approaches: i) an optimization and ii) a rule-based approach, followed by a comparative study. A MILP model is applied for the optimization of short-term production scheduling of the two industries. Then, the same problems are solved using the commercial scheduling tool ScheduleProTM, which derives scheduling decisions, using simulation-based techniques and empirical rules. It is concluded that both methods, despite having their advantages and disadvantages, are suitable for addressing complex food industrial scheduling problems. The optimization-based approach leads to better results in terms of operating cost reduction. On the other hand, the complexity of the problem and the experience of production engineers and plant operators can significantly impact the quality of the obtained solutions for the rule-based approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1580.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Low intensity ultrasound vibration; ultrasonic assistance welding; high power ultrasound trans-ducer
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:24:10 CEST)
This paper investigates the use of contactless power ultrasonic excitation to decrease the electrical impedance of the weld in laser welding. The literature extensively documents the impact of em-ploying contact power ultrasonic excitation on the microstructure morphology and refinement of grain in the weld. This study involves characterizing an industrial High Power Ultrasound Transducer (HPUT) by determining the optimal distance and angle for contactless excitation of the fusion zone in the weld, aiming to achieve the maximum amplitude. Subsequently, the transducer is integrated into the laser welding system, resulting in the creation of an ultrasonic-assisted welding system. To find the improvement due to the contactless vibration assistance, the welding area was char-acterised by an impedance ohmmeter device. The results indicate an approximately 6 % im-provement in the welding quality in terms of the impedance value, an important parameter for battery pack welding. In response to the issue of overheating in the industrial transducer during prolonged welding operations, an alternative transducer was proposed to overcome this challenge. Further investigations are carried out by the alternative transducer to find the effect of different wave types, namely, shear and compressional waves, on the welding quality. The contact vibration can excite the plate approximately 50 times higher in acceleration amplitude than contactless ex-citation. Nevertheless, enhancements of 10% and 6% are observed in the impedance value when utilising compressional and shear waves, respectively, as compared to the results obtained with contactless vibration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1563.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: artificial intelligence, federated learning, predictive maintenance, 5G, smart sensors, manufacturing, data security, data silos
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:28:23 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) models are expected to have a great impact in the manufacturing industry, optimizing time and resource cost by enabling applications such as predictive maintenance (PM) of production machines. A necessary condition for this is the availability of high quality data collected as close as possible to the process in question. With the advent of 5G equipped multi sensor platforms (MSPs), high sampling rate data can be collected and transmitted for processing in real time. This poses a data security challenge, since this data may give valuable insight into confidential business information of companies. Federated learning (FL) enables the training of AI models with data from multiple sources without it leaving the shop floor, by utilizing distributed computing resources available on premise. This paper introduces an architecture of FL based on data collected from 5G MSPs for enabling PM in industrial environments and discusses its potential benefits and challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Human-robot cooperation; Cobot; Holonic agents; Production processes; PLC
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:50:04 CEST)
In large industrial plants, the trend is to move the position of the human to the area of service and diagnostics, in medium and smaller plants the trend is different and is mainly directed to the sphere of close cooperation between the human and the robotic system. This paper deals with the implementation of human-cooperating robots in manufacturing processes. The analytical part of the paper deals with theoretical knowledge, taking into account the latest trends in the subject area. To achieve a successful implementation of cobots based on the above-mentioned operating systems in manufacturing systems, it is necessary to pay attention specifically to the interfacing of the robotic operating system with the control systems of the manufacturing systems at the process level of the enterprise. Within the practical part, an algorithm with well-defined steps towards the successful implementation of cobots in holonic manufacturing processes is proposed. By setting up an experimental workstation in the laboratory, the proposed procedures are verified at the end of the paper. In the context of the implementation of collaborative robots in enterprises, the paper also discusses cloud computing. The creation of a design for the implementation of a collaborative robot with a human represents the missing link in the whole chain of commercial applications of the latest trends from the field of robotic systems in the industrial sphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Digital manufacturing; Quality Management; ERP; MES
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:44:22 CEST)
The rapid market changes and strong product individualization create the need for great flexibility of manufacturing management on new foundations, such as the Industry 4.0 model. Digital manufacturing is the basis for Industry 4.0, that have the following dimensions: (i) digital manufacturing based on advanced digital-oriented technologies, (ii) smart products (advanced manufacturing mode and new characteristics), and (iii) smart supply - chain (procurement of raw materials and delivery of finished products). Bidirectional exchange of information in collaborative manufacturing, using it exchange also for digital platforms of design of the innovative products. In this paper we are showing developed model of one Serbian digital factory model for Quality 4.0 (Q 4.0) , especially in workshop as a part of ERP/MES model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0974.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Adaptive routing; dyamic programming; shortest paths; acyclic directed graphs
Online: 15 May 2023 (04:33:40 CEST)
Routing a person through a traffic network presents a tension between selecting a fixed route that is easy to navigate and selecting an aggressively adaptive route that minimizes the expected travel time. We propose to create non-aggressive adaptive routes in the middle-ground seeking the best of both these extremes. Specifically, these routes still adapt to changing traffic conditions, however we limit the number of adjustments made in the route. This improves the user experience, by providing a continuum of options between saving travel time and minimizing navigation. We design strategies to model single and multiple route adjustments, and investigate enumerative techniques to solve these models. To alleviate the intractability with handling real-life traffic data, we develop efficient algorithms with easily computable lower and upper bounds. We finally present computational experiments highlighting the benefits of limited adaptability in terms of reducing the expected travel time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0633.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: hot-wire; gas metal arc welding; single-pass welding; lower energy consumption welding
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:12:09 CEST)
This paper presents a novel approach of welding thick steel plates that offers time and energy savings compared with conventional techniques. The combination of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and hot-wire technology simplifies the joint configuration and enhances the process tolerance. In this study, a square butt joint was prepared with as-cut edges and a thickness of 15 mm. The relationship between the welding current and the deposition rate of solo GMAW showed limitations and low process tolerance. Increasing the welding current led to a larger deposited volume with unnecessary weld penetration. An independent deposition volume due to hot-wire insertion was used to improve process tolerance. This approach provided an additional volume without increasing the welding current and reduced unnecessary penetration. With optimized parameters, full-penetration single-pass welding was achieved. Compared with the formation of a typical single-v butt joint at a similar welding speed of 30 cm/min, the proposed process reduced the minimum arc time and power consumption by approximately 83% and 62%, respectively. Moreover, a single pass at a travel speed of 60 cm/min was achieved with approximately 91% and 81% less arc time and power consumption, respectively. In summary, the combined process simplifies the joint configuration, enables full-penetration single-pass welding, and reduces time and energy requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0541.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: computing methods; numerical control; mathematical model; predefined cycles; tool path
Online: 8 May 2023 (13:15:55 CEST)
This paper presents some aspects of command and control of the new generation of machines-tools with numerical control. A problem faced by numerical control programmers is related to the length (relatively long) of the programs, with implications in the costs and duration of the manufacturing preparation. A method of reducing the main program and other redundant expenses is the introduction and use of processing cycles and subroutines for automatic calculation of the cutting tool trajectory, a fact that also allows the optimization and simplification of numerical control programming on flexible order manufacturing systems numeric. The method involves the use of predefined cycles and appropriate subroutines in order to improve the efficiency of the programming activity in a balanced way. It is a new and rapid method for optimize the structure of program using the numerical subroutine for command the movement of tool, in our case, with application for turning and milling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Selective laser melting (SLM); 3D printing; Additive manufacturing (AM); 316 stainless steel (SS316); EBSD; TEM
Online: 8 May 2023 (12:04:18 CEST)
There is a fast-growing interest in the use of selective laser melting (SLM) for metal/alloy additive manufacturing. Our current knowledge of SLM printed 316 stainless steel (SS316) is limited and sometimes appears sporadic, presumably due to the complex interdependent effects of a large number of process variables of the SLM processing. This is reflected from the discrepant findings in the crystallographic textures and microstructures in this investigation with those reported in the literatures, which also vary itself. The as-printed material is macroscopically asymmetric in both the structures and crystallographic textures. The <101> and <111> crystallographic directions align parallel with the SLM scanning direction (SD) and build direction (BD), respectively. Like-wise, some characteristic low angle boundary features are reported crystallographic, while this investigation unequivocally proves them non-crystallographic since they always maintain an identical alignment with the SLM laser scanning direction irrespective of the matrix material’s crystal orientation. There is also 500±200 nm columnar or cellular features, depending on the cross-section, generally found all over the sample. These columnar or cellular features are formed with walls made of dense packing of dislocations entangled with Mn, Si and O enriched amorphous inclusions. They remain stable after the ASM solution treatments at 1050 °C temperatures, and therefore, are capable of hindering boundary migration events of recrystallization and grain growth. Thus, the nanoscale structures can be retained at high temperatures. Large 2-4 µm inclusions form during the solution treatment, within which the chemical and phase distribution are heterogeneous.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Dataspace; data sharing; drones; B5G; security; IoT; Federated learning; Blockchain; Industry 4.0; Industry 5.0
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:57:43 CEST)
Dataspaces are decentralized and open ecosystems that guarantee trustworthy and secure sharing of data among their participants. In recent years, dataspaces have gained popularity due to their design for managing and sharing heterogeneous data from various sources and domains; and their capability to incrementally solve data integration issues. Leveraging dataspace and advanced technologies plays a vital role in solving many real-world applications effectively and efficiently in real-time. Drone technology is one type of technology that can be deployed to gather data from different resources in harsh or smart environments. Beyond fifth-generation (B5G) communication networks significantly contribute to drones’ development and widespread use by providing low latency and high throughput. Therefore, data sharing among drones in B5G networks offer significant potential to enhance commercial and civilian applications. However, several security issues for collaboration and data sharing, such as data privacy leakage, because of sensitive data and the lack of trustworthy centralized monitoring. Furthermore, sharing data is one of the essential requirements for drone collaboration to achieve their tasks effectively and efficiently in real-time. This conceptual framework presents a novel dataspace in the sky, focusing on securing drone data sharing in B5G for Industry 4.0 toward Industry 5.0. We present how Federated Learning (FL) assists drones in collaboration effectively and efficiently, sharing models instead of raw data. However, because of the fragility of the central curator, the reliability of contribution recording, and the poor quality of shared local models, there are still significant security and privacy issues for drone-assisted smart environments in B5G. Therefore, we present the conceptual framework for leveraging blockchain and FL to secure and manage data sharing of collaborative drones’ dataspace in space in a decentralized fashion. The decentralisation of dataspaces would significantly expand the drive and market for the development of citizen-friendly mobility services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0498.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Black-box models; Neural networks; LSTM; oxygen concentration modeling
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:49:20 CEST)
Activated sludge process is a well known method to treat municipal and industrial waste water. In this complex process, the oxygen concentration in the reactors plays a critical role in the plant efficiency. This paper proposes the use of a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network to identify an input-output model suitable for the design of an oxygen concentration controller. The model is identified from easy-accessible measures collected from a real plant. This dataset covers almost a month. The performances achieved with the proposed LSTM model are compared with the ones obtained with a standard AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input (ARX). Both models catch the oscillation and the overall behaviour (ARX ρ=0.833 , LSTM ρ=0.921), but, while the ARX model fails in reaching the correct amplitude (FIT=41.20%), the LSTM presents satisfactory performance (FIT=60.56%).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0424.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: digital twins; federation of twins; industrial current practices; interviews; review; survey
Online: 6 May 2023 (11:08:40 CEST)
The digital twin (DT) research field is experiencing rapid expansion, yet the research in industrial practices in this area remains poorly understood. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by sharing feedback and future requirements from the manufacturing industry. The methodology employed in this study involves an examination of a survey that received 99 responses and interviews with 14 experts from 10 prominent UK organisations, most of which are in the defence industry in the UK. The survey and interviews explored topics such as DT design, return on investment, drivers, inhibitors, and future directions for DT development in manufacturing. The study findings indicate that DTs should possess characteristics such as adaptability, scalability, interoperability, and the ability to support assets throughout their entire life cycle. On average, completed DT projects reach the break-even point in less than two years. The primary motivators behind DT development were identified to be autonomy, customer satisfaction, safety, awareness, optimisation, and sustainability. Meanwhile, the main obstacles include a lack of expertise, funding, and interoperability. The study concludes that the federation of twins and a paradigm shift in industrial thinking are essential components for the future of DT development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0347.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: wood; solid wood bending; quality; nondestructive testing
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:14:28 CEST)
Bending of solid wood from European oak is one of the most demanding technological processes due to its specific structural and physical properties and variability. We investigated the influence of wood moisture content (MC) and stiffness, determined by NDT, as well as previous drying methods on the bending ability of the wood. The best quality was obtained with bending specimens bent at a moisture content of at least 16 % and quarter or semi-quartersawn. The number of rejected specimens increased slightly when HF bending was used. Single-stage predrying of oak to a final MC of 8 % resulted in a high rejection rate (> 70 %) regardless of drying technique. The acceptance rate was higher for less stiff specimens where the ratio of ultrasonic velocity in the straight (vS) and bent region (vB) was less than 0.5 (vB/vS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Chloride stress corrosion cracking (CSCC); crack-branching; c-ring specimen; porosity; residual stresses; transgranular cracking
Online: 5 May 2023 (02:21:01 CEST)
This study investigates the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of type 316L stainless steel (SS316L) produced with sinter-based material extrusion additive manufacturing (AM). This technology has been shown to produce SS316L with microstructures and mechanical properties comparable to its wrought counterpart in the annealed condition. However, despite plenty of research on SCC of SS316L, little is known about SCC in sinter-based AM SS316L. This study focuses on the influence of sintered microstructures on susceptibility to SCC initiation and crack-branching. Custom-made C-rings were exposed to different stress levels in acidic chloride solutions at various temperatures. To better understand the SCC behavior of SS316L, solution-annealed (SA) and cold-drawn (CD) wrought SS316L were tested for comparison. Results showed that sinter-based AM SS316L was more susceptible to SCC initiation than SA wrought SS316L but more resistant than CD wrought SS316L. Moreover, sinter-based AM SS316L showed noticeably better resistance to crack-branching than both wrought SS316L counterparts. The investigation was supported by comprehensive pre- and post-test microanalysis using light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Concurrent design; Morphological diagram method; PUGH method; TRIZ theory
Online: 29 April 2023 (09:43:33 CEST)
With the improvement in medical quality, cold mechanical rehabilitation equipment can no longer meet the psychological needs of the physically handicapped. Therefore, design for behaviour change should be viewed as a strategy for enabling lifestyle changes as soon as possible. Although how to use equipment to assist physically disabled people in hydrotherapy rehabilitation is the primary design goal, the psychological feelings of users are also one of the focuses of this study. Besides, coupled with the large-scale spread of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in the past two years. People's living habits are also forced to change, many activities that people are used to doing outdoors are being slowly completed at home. During the epidemic, it is very dangerous and inconvenient for users who need to go to institutional rehabilitation regularly. Hence, it is urgent to change past usage habits and places. In this study, a personal multi-functional hydrotherapy bucket is designed. In addition to not having to use a public spa with other people to reduce the risk of contracting the Coronavirus Disease, it can be easily placed at home by reducing its size. According to market research, it is known that the current domestic hydrotherapy buckets on the market usually only have a single function. The large medical hydrotherapy pools are not only rare in Taiwan, but this kind of equipment also takes up a lot of space. Various factors have resulted in a relatively low market share of hydrotherapy pools compared to other rehabilitation equipment. In order to take into account, the physical and psychological needs of the physically disabled, this research focus on the design of a multi-functional but small-sized hydrotherapy bucket. Taking the convenience of entering and leaving the bucket as the starting point to improve the shortcomings of the existing products, on the other hand, because most users are inconvenient to move, safety is also the focus of the design to reduce the occurrence of accidents and injuries. This study is based on the systematic design methodology of concurrent design to obtain product design results. Firstly, conduct market research and select products from different manufacturers for analysis and comparison. Through functional analysis and sorting out the problem points, the TRIZ theory and the morphological diagram method are used to find the solution to the problem. Finally, the best design scheme is obtained by the PUGH method. Besides, construct a 3D model to present the design concept that meets the design goals. The research results are hoped to be used as a reference for designing and developing related products, thereby increasing the home's multifunctional hydrotherapy buckets' market share.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: two-color-thermography; temperature; temperature determination; ratio-based temperature measurement; laser beam welding; low-melting materials
Online: 28 April 2023 (09:44:43 CEST)
Knowledge of the temperature evolution is crucial to understand and control laser beam welding of low-melting materials. Existing temperature determination approaches are restricted to i) one-dimensional temperature information (e.g. ratio-pyrometers), ii) a priori knowledge of the emissivity (e.g. thermography) and iii) high temperature regions (e.g. two-wavelength imaging). In this paper, a ratio-based two-color-thermography approach is developed that allows for two-dimensional temperature determination in low-melting temperature ranges (< 1200 K). For static measurement situations it is demonstrated, that temperature can be determined despite variation in signal intensity and emissivity with high accuracy. The two-color-thermography set-up is further transferred into a commercial laser beam welding machine and experiments are conducted for varying process parameters. The direct application of the developed two-color-thermography system in dynamic process situations is limited as image artifacts presumably caused by internal reflections inside the optical beam path are present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: foot movement; foot interface design; foot touchpad; movement direction.
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:18:32 CEST)
The feet cannot perform tasks as quickly and with as much dexterity as the hands. However, due to the heavy workload placed on the hands, there is potential for the feet to replace or assist the hands. In order to use the feet more effectively, this study aims to find ways to increase the speed and accuracy of directly touching a touchpad with the feet while in a seated position. The study investigates the effects of three factors: the slope of the touchpad, the direction of foot movement, and the touch area of the foot used. Regarding the direction of foot movement, the study found that the most effective direction for both accuracy and speed was at a 30-degree angle to the right when the front of the right foot was set at 0 degrees. The 0-degree and 60-degree angles showed similar efficiencies, but were lower than the 30-degree angle. The study also found that using the big toe as the touch area resulted in the best speed, accuracy, and subjective satisfaction. The index toe was the second-best option, while using the ball of the foot was the least accurate and slowest option. Lastly, using an slope angle of 15 degrees for the touchpad was found to increase work efficiency compared to using a 7-degree slope angle. These findings can serve as guidelines for designing foot interfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Flame straightening; heat input; microstructure; toughness; welding heat input
Online: 27 April 2023 (07:31:24 CEST)
Abstract: The paper compares and analyses the effects of correctly and excessively executed heating cycles on flame straightening, far above the limits recommended by the steel manufacturer. The paperwork emphasizes the microstructural changes induced by overheating in the flame straightening process. Flame straightening is a flame heating process of metal constructions in which very limited areas of the construction are heated to the straightening temperature with the aim of inducing geometrical changes.The flame straightening process is used in most of metallic structure manufacturing companies. In many cases, it is not possible to carry out under economic conditions of metal structures without flame straightening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0862.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: digital twin system; shipbuilding; shipyard; digitalization; product lifecycle; technology applied to maritime industry; quality management; dimensional quality control
Online: 24 April 2023 (13:53:38 CEST)
Current trends in industrial development strive for maximum digitalization. The digital industrial revolution has been going on for more than a dozen years, Industry 4.0 and the idea of digital twins (DT) is becoming the focus of virtually all industrial sectors. Some sectors are more predisposed to digitalization, for others the process is much more difficult. This depends mainly on the specific characteristics and susceptibility of a given industry, including the current degree of digitalization of enterprises, as well as the knowledge and mental readiness of employees. The individual characteristics of an industry are important. Shipyards belong to the industry with a traditional approach, where the degree of digitalization remains low. As a result, the efficiency of shipbuilding processes and the quality of ships built are not sufficiently controlled. The article addresses this problem, reviews work in the field of digitalization of shipbuilding processes and points out the needs and challenges in this area. The article proposes the concept of a DT system for the entire ship design and production process. Key areas of digitalization of actual processes were defined, and a division was made into planning, monitoring and process analysis activities. Special attention was paid to the area of dimensional quality control and the Dimensional Quality Management Metasystem (DQMM) was featured in the comprehensive DT system. The requirements were defined and the limitations of the proposed solution were identified, taking into account a number of external factors including the degree of readiness of the manufacturer – the shipyard. The developed DT system concept was tested on the example of the construction process of a simplified ship. Practical aspects of the implementation of the proposed solution, in particular DQMM, were indicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0856.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Graded Porosity; Acetabular Cup; Ti6Al4V; DMLS
Online: 24 April 2023 (11:19:12 CEST)
Porous structured metallic implants are preferable as bone graft substitutes due to their faster tissue integration mediated by bone in-growth and vascularization. The porous scaffolds/ implants should also mimic the graded structure of natural bone to ensure a match of mechanical properties. This article presents a method to design graded porous structured acetabular implant and identifies the suitable parameters for manufacturing the model through additive manufacturing. The design method is based on slice-wise modification to ensure continuity of gradation. Modification of the slices was achieved through the binary image processing route. A geodesic dome type design was adopted for developing the acetabular cup model from the graded porous structure. The model had a solid shell with the target porosity and pore size gradually changing from 65% and 950 µm, respectively, in the inner side to 75% and 650 µm, respectively, towards the periphery. The required dimensions of the unit structures, and the combinations of pore structure and strut diameter to obtain the target porosity and pore size were determined analytically. Suitable process parameters were identified to manufacture the model by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) using Ti6Al4V powder after carrying out a detailed experimental study to minimize the variation of surface roughness and warping over different build angles of the strut structures. A dual contour scanning was implemented to simplify the scan strategy. The minimum diameter of struts that could be manufactured using the selected scanning strategy and scanning parameters was found to be 375 µm. Finally, the model was built and from the micro-CT data, the porosities and pore sizes were found to be closely conforming to the designed values. The stiffness of the structures, as found from compression testing, was also found to be well matching with that of human trabecular bone. Further, the structure exhibited compliant bending-dominated behavior under compressive loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0531.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: stamping without die; precision positioning; micro-hole array
Online: 19 April 2023 (03:34:27 CEST)
Aluminum alloy (Al6061) sheet micro-hole processing is extensively used in smartphones, tablet PC, and smart wearable devices. The micro-hole processing is commonly performed using laser, micro drilling, microstamping, micro discharge, and chemical etching technologies. Micro-stamping technology is characterized by precision and rapid processing, but the precision positioning of the punch head and lower die is one of the major difficulties in micro-hole stamping, especially in manufacturing array micro-holes. This study used stamping without die technology. This technology uses an array punch head to punch the lower die holes on the base, then performs array micro-hole stamping. The experimental results show that a micro-hole array with 37 micro-holes were successfully manufactured and can be reproduced many times. Tapered array micro-holes with a high aspect ratio can be manufactured using this stamping without die technology; the micro-hole depth can be 260μm, the inlet diameter is 116μm, and the outlet diameter is 25μm. This study has successfully developed the feasibility of array micro-hole stamping technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0174.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Laser Powder Bed Fusion PBF-LB; Areal Surface Texture; Surface Features; Optical Surface Texture Measurement; AlSi7Mg0.6
Online: 15 March 2023 (01:57:29 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies show potential for the development of functionally integrated lightweight designs, biomimetic structures and material savings. Typically, as-built surfaces show powder particle agglomerations and re-entrant features, leading to rough surfaces, which are associated with poor fatigue performance. To benefit from the full range of advantages with special focus on aerospace applications, critical features for crack initiation when subjected to fatigue loading need to be identified and mitigated. A first step toward achieving this goal is the surface texture characterisation based on the quantification of surface features. In this paper, selected areal height, functional and feature parameters from ISO 25178-2:2022 are generated and process-specific features are examined for as-built AlSi7Mg0.6 from laser powder bed fusion (PBF-LB). A connection with the particle size distribution of the used powder is demonstrated. It is shown that surface feature analysis opens up opportunities to use physically meaningful surface characteristics in future quality assurance and part qualification processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0236.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Selective Paste Intrusion; Print Quality; Print Nozzle to Particle Bed Distance; Shape accuracy; 3D scanning
Online: 13 March 2023 (15:35:22 CET)
The Selective Paste Intrusion (SPI) method is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that allows for the production of complex geometries in concrete elements by selectively bonding aggregates with cement paste in a particle bed. To create reinforced concrete, the Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) process shall be integrated into SPI. This technique allows the production of almost free-formed reinforcement and thus complements the advantage of SPI to produce free-formed structures of almost any geometry. However, integration of WAAM into SPI poses a considerable challenge, as high temperatures are generated during the welding process. These temperatures can negatively affect the rheological properties of the cement paste, in turn the penetration behavior of the paste in the particle bed and, subsequently, the mechanical properties of the hardened concrete. A possible passive cooling strategy is to increase the protruding length of the reinforcement bars out of the particle-bed. This requires that the distance of the print nozzle to the particle bed is as well increased, since it must be possible to move it across the reinforcement. The objective was thus to investigate the effect of that distance on print quality and to quantify a maximum allowable distance for an adequate print quality (for the printer setting used) in terms of shape accuracy and concrete strength. Compressive and flexural strength tests as well as geometrical measurements using a 3D scanning method were performed on specimen, printed with varying print nozzle to particle bed distances. It can be stated that for the used SPI print-heads, nozzle-types and parameter settings, the distance between the nozzle and the particle bed should not exceed 50 mm to ensure sufficient print quality in both shape accuracy and mechanical strength.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: membrane operations; pulp and paper industry; lignin; hemicelluloses; wood extractives; carboxylic acids; biorefinery; integrated biorefinery
Online: 8 March 2023 (02:30:49 CET)
The pulp and paper industry is one of the biggest industry sectors worldwide, whose market growth is expected to reach 370.12 billion USD by 2028. However, as a water-intensive process, the pulp and paper production generate huge volumes of contaminated effluents, some of which contain dissolved high-value chemical compounds, such as lignin, hemicellulose, or carboxylic acids. These compounds can be recovered using membrane operations. Thus, membrane operations represent a method to valorize effluents and byproducts from this industry sector and narrow the gap between biorefinery models and the pulp and paper production as an integrated biorefinery. The present review reviews the state-of-the-art-research and the state-of-the-art applications of membrane operations in the pulp and paper industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Furniture design; Multidimensional scaling; Kansei engineering; Modeling imagery; Factor analysis; Triangular fuzzy theory
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:02:30 CET)
With the continuous improvement of people's quality of life and aesthetics, furniture products have higher requirements. Excellent solid wood chairs are the most representative products in furniture to enhance space and taste and whose design may significantly impact consumers' emo-tional experience and purchase decisions. This study aims to evaluate how the modeling imagery of solid wood chairs affects user preferences and emotional experiences. The development of the current era is inseparable from the analysis of big data. Firstly, a representative sample was ob-tained by multidimensional scaling (MDS), and the sample was analyzed and evaluated by fac-tor analysis. Moreover, five groups of adjective vocabulary were selected to describe the model-ing imagery of solid wood chairs, such as "balanced and coordinated", "unique and novel", "prac-tical and simple", "quality and detailed" and "traditional and plain". Further, the triangular fuzzy theory was applied to analyze and discuss the 12 types of solid wood chairs in the five groups of adjective vocabulary. Then the study verified that the differences in the evaluations of the 12 sam-ples in the "unique and novel" and "quality and detailed" groups were significant, but more minor differences in the groups of "traditional and plain", "balanced and coordinated" and "practical and simple". Through comprehensive comparison, five groups with similar modeling imagery were created, and solid wood chairs with different modeling imagery should be placed in suita-ble spaces. According to the results of this study, the evaluation of the modeling imagery of solid wood chairs can not only rely on subjective judgments but can be reasonably described through data analysis and mathematical algorithms. It can scientifically and effectively reflect the poten-tial perception needs of consumers on the modeling imagery of solid wood chairs, as well as help to improve the design efficiency of the furniture product development stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: disaster management; household preparedness prediction; machine learning; Monte Carlo Simulation
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:45:05 CET)
Effective household and individual disaster preparedness can minimize physical harm and property damage during catastrophic events. To assess the risk and vulnerability of affected areas, it is crucial for relief agencies to understand the level of public preparedness. Traditionally, government agencies have employed nationwide random telephone surveys to gauge the public’s attitudes and actions towards disaster preparedness. However, these surveys may lack generalizability in certain affected locations due to low response rates or areas not covered by the survey. To address this issue and enhance the comprehensiveness of disaster preparedness assessments, we develop a framework that seamlessly integrates machine learning and simulation. Our approach leverages machine learning algorithms to establish relationships between public attitudes towards disaster preparedness and demographic characteristics. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we generate datasets that incorporate demographic information of the affected location based on government-provided demographic distribution data. The generated dataset is then input into the machine learning model to predict the disaster preparedness attitudes of the affected population. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by applying it to Miami-Dade County, where it accurately predicts the level of disaster preparedness. With this innovative approach, relief agencies can have a clearer and more comprehensive understanding of public disaster preparedness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Metal Additive Manufacturing; Laser Powder Bed Fusion; Surface Texture Characteri-zation; Optical Metrology; Confocal Microscopy
Online: 3 March 2023 (02:04:59 CET)
Surfaces of additively manufactured metal parts from powder-based processes typically show powder particle agglomerations and other features, resulting in high surface roughness. Proper characterization of those surfaces is necessary in order to assess part quality with respect to coatability, mechanical performance or corrosion resistance for use in aerospace, automotive, medical and more industrial applications. Optical surface texture measurement allows for collection of areal surface data, while the established contact stylus method only captures line profile data. When applying optical methods for surface topography measurements, proper data acquisition and post-processing in order to assess surface texture may be complex. A number of variables can be adjusted, such as different measurement settings, approaches to outlier removal, evaluated area size or form removal. This work shows the influence of selected z-range prior to measurement and the influence of choosing pre-defined outlier removal settings in MountainsMap 9.2 on selected ISO 25178-2:2022 parameters calculated from data obtained from confocal microscopy for as-built Ti6Al4V from laser powder bed fusion. The aim is to show the influence of variation in measurement and post-processing on calculated surface texture parameters and stress the importance of proper documentation in order to achieve reproducibility of data for quality management.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0442.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Laser Powder Bed Fusion; Mechanical Testing; Tensile Strength; AlSi7Mg0.6; Surface Quality; Bulk Quality; Areal Surface Texture Parameters
Online: 27 February 2023 (04:47:27 CET)
Metal additive manufacturing technologies have large potential for future use in load bearing aerospace applications, requiring a deeper understanding of mechanical performance and influencing factors. The objective of this study is to manufacture fatigue specimens by laser powder bed fusion with comparable bulk and different as-built surface quality (without post-processing). This goal was pursued by using identical bulk/hatch scan parameters while varying contour scan parameters. The bulk quality was evaluated by density measurements according to Archimedes’ principle and tensile testing. The surfaces were investigated using the optical fringe projection method and surface quality was assessed by the areal surface texture parameters Sa (arithmetic mean height) and Sk (core height, derived from material ratio curve). The resulting mean values of max (ultimate tensile strength) were between 375 and 405 MPa, which is a variation of roughly 8%, for seven different surface conditions. It could be confirmed that the influence of contour scan variation on bulk quality is insignificant for the assessed samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0385.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: minimum miscibility pressure (MMP); swelling factor; carbondioxide (CO2); slimtube
Online: 22 February 2023 (10:52:06 CET)
Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) and oil swelling are two important factors of carbondioxide (CO2) gas displacement mechanism occurred in the reservoir relate to application of CO2 injection in the field to enhance oil recovery. In this paper determination of minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) between crude oil samples with carbondioxide gas conducted using two methods, i.e. correlation methods and laboratory experiment using slimtube. While, determination of swelling factor was conducted using PVT cell, where recombined fluid injected and conditionally at the reservoir temperature. The results of MMP using empirical equation (2807 Psig) and Holm & Josendal correlation (2750 Psig) is more approximate to the result of laboratory analysis (2805 Psig). The result of swelling test during injection CO2 gas processes until 46.82% mole, shows that bubble point pressure is increasing gradually from 410 psig through 2200 psig, and swelling factor was also increase from 1.0 through 1.442. Based on the value of fracture pressure of Layer F in the KHL Field is 2200 Psig and MMP is 2805 Psig, hence the application of CO2 gas injection in the field only could be conducted as immiscible flooding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Company performance; Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo; environmental dynamism; inno-vativeness; manufacturing companies
Online: 20 February 2023 (09:18:21 CET)
Research has shown that innovativeness is a key factor leading to company performance. However, the business environment can play a detrimental effect on company performance by undermining the company’s internal strategic efforts in terms of innovativeness. To test this, 344 questionnaires were sent to manufacturing companies owners and managers. 178 of them were returned and usable to test the study hypotheses. Though a hierarchical regression analysis, it was found that innovativeness has positive and significant effect on company performance, but business environmental dynamism has a negative and significant effect in innovativeness-company performance relationship. Recommendations and other research perspectives are suggested
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: beer dealcoholization; nanofiltration; polyelectrolyte multilayer membrane; Layer-by-Layer membrane; membrane-based food processing; membrane modification
Online: 10 February 2023 (07:17:28 CET)
Membrane-based beverage dealcoholization is a successful process for producing low- and non-alcoholic beer and represents a fast-growing industry. Polyamide NF and RO membranes are commonly applied for this process. Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) NF membranes are emerging as industrially relevant species and their unique properties (usually hollow fiber geometry, high and tunable selectivity, low fouling) underlines the importance of testing them in the food industry as well. To test PEM NF membranes for beer dealcoholization, at small pilot scale we dealcoholized filtered and unfiltered lager beer with the tightest available commercial polyelectrolyte multilayer NF membrane (NX Filtration dNF40), which has a MWCO=400Da which is quite high for these purposes. Dealcoholization is possible with a reasonable flux (10 LMH) at low pressures (5-8.6 bar) with a real extract loss of 16-18% and an alcohol passage of ~100%. Inorganic salt passage is high (which is typical for PEM NF membranes), which greatly affected beer flavor. During the dealcoholization process, the membrane underwent changes which substantially increased its salt rejection values (MgSO4 passage decreased 4-fold) while permeance loss was minimal (less than 10%). According to our sensory examination, the process yielded an acceptable flavored beer which could be greatly enhanced by the addition of the lost salts and glycerol.