ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1810.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: RISC-V; PULPino; NDIR CO2 sensors; FPGA; energy efficiency; signal demodulation; power consumption
Online: 25 May 2023 (11:42:42 CEST)
In the field of embedded systems, energy efficiency is a critical requirement, particularly for battery-powered devices. RISC-V processors have gained popularity due to their flexibility and open-source nature, making them an attractive choice for embedded applications. However, not all RISC-V processors are equally energy-efficient, and it is important to evaluate their performance in specific use cases. This paper evaluates the energy consumption and resource utilization of a new RISC-V processor, RisCO2, and four existing processors - Zero-riscy, Micro-riscy, Ri5cy, and CV32E40P - in a signal demodulation application for NDIR CO2 sensors. The processors were implemented in the PULPino SoC and synthesized using Vivado IDE. The processor named RisCO2 is based on the RV32E_Zfinx instruction set and was designed from scratch by the authors specifically for low-power signal processing applications such as signal demodulation in CO2 NDIR sensors. The other processors are Ri5cy, Micro-riscy, and Zero-riscy, developed by the PULP Platform team, and CV32E40P (derived from Ri5cy) from the OpenHW Group, all of them widely used in the RISC-V community. Our experiments showed that RisCO2 had the lowest energy consumption among the five processors, with a 53.5% reduction in energy consumption compared to CV32E40P and a 94.8% reduction compared to Micro-riscy. Additionally, RisCO2 had the lowest FPGA resource utilization compared to the best-performing processors, CV32E40P and Ri5cy, with a 46.1% and a 59% reduction in LUTs, respectively. Our findings suggest that RisCO2 is a highly energy-efficient RISC-V processor for NDIR CO2 sensors that require signal demodulation. The results also highlight the importance of evaluating processors in specific use cases to identify the most energy-efficient option. This paper provides valuable insights for designers of energy-efficient embedded systems using RISC-V processors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0356.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: sustainability; recycling; water treatment sludge; construction materials; environmentally clean materials
Online: 20 March 2023 (12:46:15 CET)
This study evaluated the grain size and high organic content from drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) in the properties of ceramics. Samples were studied using raw and oven dried DWTS at 110 °C in two granulometries (0.180 mm and 0.075 mm), with and without calcination (550 °C), as partial replacement of two soils commonly used in ceramic production. Specimens were prepared with 5, 10, and 20% DWTS and calcined at 950 °C to determine their chemical, physical, mineralogical and mechanical properties. The DWTS reduced the density and increased the absorption and shrinkage of the specimens after calcination. An increase in strength with up to 10% sludge, driven by the presence of fluxing agents, was verified. The processing method had little influence on the properties of ceramic with above 10% of sludge. In conclusion, the use of raw DWTS obtained better results with low energy usage for its reuse.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0096.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG); brain computer interface (BCI); motor imagery (MI); wearable devices
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:48:24 CET)
In the last decades, the automatic recognition and interpretation of brain waves acquired by electroencephalographic (EEG) technologies have undergone remarkable growth, leading to a consequent rapid development of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs). EEG-based BCIs are non-invasive systems that allow communication between a human being and an external device interpreting brain activity directly. Thanks to the advances in neurotechnologies, and especially in the field of wearable devices, BCIs are now also employed outside medical and clinical applications. Within this context, this paper proposes a systematic review of EEG-based BCIs, focusing on one of the most promising paradigms based on Motor Imagery (MI) and limiting the analysis to applications that adopt wearable devices. This review aims to evaluate the maturity levels of these systems, both from the technological and computational points of view. The selection of papers has been performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), leading to 84 publications considered in the last ten years (from 2012 to 2022). Besides technological and computational aspects, this review also aims at systematically list experimental paradigms and available datasets in order to identify benchmarks and guidelines for the development of new applications and computational models.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0427.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Wearable Device; Dementia
Online: 29 January 2023 (09:29:03 CET)
The improvement of health and social care needs the introduction of shared solution at transnational level. The SI4CARE (Social Innovation for Integrated Health Care) project is a transnational initiative within the Adriatic-Ionian regions aiming to develop strategies to improve the current status of health and social care. The Municipality of Miglierina, a small rural town in Calabria, which is a member the project, is developing a pilot action related to the use of wearable device for monitoring people affected by dementia with the project partner Ra.Gi.. Ra.Gi. is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting people with dementia in day care centers and so-called dementia-friendly communities. The pilot is based on the use of smart wearable devices to monitor these patients during their daily lifetime. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of the system discussing the proposed application, the strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the possibility of extending the experiment to the other Adriatic-Ionian region is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0396.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Sensor/UAVs Networks; Localization; Multilateration; ultra-wideband (UWB) sensors; Gradient Descent Optimization
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:43:07 CET)
Fleets of drones have attracted a lot of attention from the research community in recent years. One of the biggest challenges in deploying such systems is localization. While GNSS localization systems can only be effective in open outdoor environments, new solutions based on radio sensors (e.g., ultra-wideband) are increasingly being used for localization in various situations and environments. However, self-localization without prior knowledge of anchor positions remains an open problem which, for example, makes it impossible to track a moving target. In this article, we provide a comparison of different variants of gradient descent-based algorithms, with a new improved variant, for solving the localization problem using relative distance measurements and multilateration. It is applied to self-localization of anchors and tracking targets using ultra-wideband distance sensors. A realistic simulation of drone tracking and anchors’ localization is performed to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0001.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: smart attendance system; attendance monitoring system; students’ absenteeism; Bluetooth Low Energy technology; beacon-based application
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:07:13 CET)
Student attendance serves many other important purposes aside from monitoring. In certain universities, the attendance of students in a course is also used as one of the requirements for students to be allowed to sit for the final examination. Traditionally, among most Malaysian Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL), attendance recording is usually done using pen and paper, or uses simple web-based system that is time consuming and difficult for faculty periodic monitoring. To address the identified drawbacks, this research aims to develop a Smart Attendance for Faculty Monitoring System using the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology to assist faculty in recording, managing and monitoring students’ attendance and class schedules effectively. The system is developed for Android-based devices using an agile methodology consists of iteration and incremental approaches. Thus, to evaluate the effectiveness of the system, a survey was conducted on 140 respondents involving lecturers and students of Kolej Universiti Poly-Tech MARA (KUPTM). Respondents were selected using purposive sampling. The descriptive analysis showed that 87.9% of the respondents strongly agreed that the system is effective in assisting lecturers to record attendance, manage class schedules and student attendance as well as to assist faculty in monitoring students’ absenteeism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0067.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Rotor Dimensions; Complex Networks; Crossing Centrality; Rotor; Pump Sizing; Progressive Cavity Pump
Online: 6 October 2022 (14:45:22 CEST)
Pump Sizing is the process of dimensional matching an impeller and stator to provide a satisfactory performance test result and good service life during the operation of progressive cavity pumps. In this process, historical data analysis and dimensional monitoring are done manually, consuming a large amount of man-hours and requiring a deep knowledge of progressive cavity pump behavior. This work presents the use of complex networks in the construction of a prototype to recommend interference during the Pump Sizing process in a Progressive Cavity Pump. For this, data from different expert applications were used in addition to individual control Excel spreadsheets to build the database used in the prototype. From the pre-processed data, complex network techniques and the Betweenness Centrality metric were used to calculate the degree of importance of each order confirmation, as well as to calculate the dimensionality of the rotors. The model was evaluated using the mean squared error (MSE), obtaining a MSE of 0.28 for the cases where there were recommendations for order confirmations. Based on the results obtained, it was realized that there is a similarity with the dimensional defined by design engineers during the Pump Sizing process.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0431.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Formal Specification; Microgrid; Battery Energy Storage Systems; Software Engineering; Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle; Modeling; Renewable Energy; Safety-Critical systems; Microgrid Community
Online: 30 June 2022 (15:55:17 CEST)
Electrical microgrids are deemed to be the future of modern power systems. Microgrids are sophisticated, decentralized, and self-sufficient small-scale power systems consisting of various resources ranging from wind turbines, solar photovoltaics, electric vehicles, smart energy storage, and complex communication infrastructure. However, renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics and wind-based generators are highly intermittent, and if not appropriately planned, they can compromise the stability of the grid. Formal methods can define and analyze the functionality and behavior of any system and show if the system design is correct before the actual system is implemented. Although formal methods have been around for many years, it is surprising that little to none are utilized in the design of safety-critical electrical power systems. Currently, in modeling microgrids, few to no attempts of formalization are being used to improve the design reliability and reduce system operating costs and time. This work demonstrates how complex systems such as microgrids can be modeled elegantly using a formal specification method. In this work, the Z state-based formal specification language (Z-Method) is used to model and verify microgrid designs. In this work, 3-interconnected microgrid systems with a high penetration level of solar and wind-based renewable energy sources with plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) as battery energy storage systems (BESS) are modeled using the Z-method. To the best of authors, the knowledge presented formal method is one of the first reported attempts in modeling microgrid communities using Software Engineering formalism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0249.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: motion capture; artifact classification; artifact detection; reconstruction
Online: 17 March 2022 (09:32:22 CET)
Optical motion capture systems are prone to the errors connected with markers recognition – occlusion, leaving the scene or mislabelling – all these errors are then corrected in the software, but still, the process is not perfect, resulting in artifact distortions. In the article, we examine four existing types of artifacts, then propose the method for detection and classification of the distortions. The algorithm is based on the derivative analysis, low-pass filtering, mathematical morphology and loose predictor. The tests involved multiple simulations using synthetically distorted sequences, comparison of performance to the human operators on real life data and applicability analysis for the distortion removal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0351.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Finite Element Models; C++; Electrical Impedance Tomography; Diffuse Optical Tomography; Mesh Generation
Online: 22 May 2020 (10:32:56 CEST)
EIT-MESHER (https://github.com/EIT-team/Mesher) is C++ software, based on the CGAL library, which generates high quality Finite Element Model tetrahedral meshes from binary masks of 3D volume segmentations. Originally developed for biomedical applications in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to address the need for custom, non-linear refinement in certain areas (e.g. around electrodes), EIT-MESHER can also be used in other fields where custom FEM refinement is required, such as Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT).
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: smart grid; SDGs; sustainable energy; smart meters; energy access; sustainability; utilities; development
Online: 17 January 2020 (08:02:49 CET)
Because of the significant enabling role smart meters can play in securing the transition towards sustainable energy distribution, the paper provides insights to support smart meters implementation projects. Energy utilities must propose adequate solutions to manage grid-upgrading projects and, in the meantime, increase efficiency levels. Based on empirical data analysis the paper provides insights aimed at maximize probability of success of smart meters projects. Results show common patterns of variables that may support project undertakers, policymakers and scholar when it comes to analyze projects to predict to maximize opportunities. For smart meters projects to succeed, regulatory stability is essential as long-period investments grids produce benefits for energy utilities, and for society.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: bioelectrical signals; biorthogonal wavelet; approximation coefficients; detail coefficient; smartwatch; m-health monitoring
Online: 5 January 2020 (16:36:48 CET)
The World Health Organization(WHO) in 2016 considered mHealth as: “the use of mobile wireless technologies including smart devices such as smartphones and smartwatches for public health” as an important resource for health services delivery and public health given their ease of use, broad reach and acceptance. WHO emphasizes the potential of this technology to increase access to health information, services and skills as well as promoting positive changes in health behaviors and management of diseases. In this regard, the capability of smartphones and smartwatches for m-health monitoring as well as verification of the patient the signal has become an important component of mHealth system. Most of the smartwatches could extract more than one bioelectrical signal therefore, therefore they provide suitable platform for extracting health data for e-monitoring. The existing approaches have not considered the integrity of data obtained from these smart devices. Therefore, it is important that the integrity of the collected data be verified continuously through user authentication. This could be done using any of the bioelectrical signals extracted and transmitted for e-monitoring. In this article, a smartwatch is used for extracting bioelectrical signal before decomposing the signal into sub-bands of Detail and Approximation Coefficient for user authentication. To select suitable features using biorthogonal wavelet decomposition of signal from a non-intrusive extraction, a detailed experiment is conducted extracting suitable statistical features from the bioelectrical signal from 30 subjects using different biorthogonal wavelet family. Ten features are extracted using Biorthogonal wavelet to decompose the signal into three levels of sub-band Detail and Approximation Coefficient and features extracted from each level the decomposed Detail and Approximation Coefficients. Comparison analysis is done after the classification of the extracted features based on the Equal Error Rate (EER). Using Neural Network (NN) classifier, Biorthogonal Wavelet Detail Coefficient Sub-band level 3 of bior1.1 achieved the best result of EER 13.80% with the fusion of the best sub-band three levels of bior1.1 achieving a better result of 12.42% EER.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1030062
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: indoor localization; Ultra WideBand (UWB); range estimation
Online: 31 October 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Many applications in the context of Industry 4.0 require precise localization. However, indoor localization remains an open problem, especially in complex environments such as industrial environments. In recent years, we have seen the emergence of Ultra WideBand (UWB) localization systems. The aim of this article is to evaluate the performance of a UWB system to estimate the position of a person moving in an indoor environment. To do so, we implemented an experimental protocol to evaluate the accuracy of the UWB system both statically and dynamically. The UWB system is compared to a ground truth obtained by a motion capture system with a millimetric accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0116.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: mixed-reality; perception; scale; color; HMD
Online: 9 August 2019 (04:25:07 CEST)
With continued technological innovation in the fields of mixed reality (MR), wearable-type MR devices, such as helmets, have been released and are frequently used in various fields, such as entertainment, training, and education. However, because each product has different parts and specifications in terms of the design and manufacturing process, users feel that the virtual objects overlaying real environments in MR are visualized differently depending on the scale and color used by the MR device. In this paper, we compare the effect of scale and color parameters on users’ perception in using different types of MR devices to improve MR experience. We conducted two experiments (scale and color), and our experimental study showed that the subjects who participated in the scale perception experiment clearly tended to underestimate virtual objects, compared with real objects, and overestimate color in MR environments. [MM1]Please confirm meaning.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: cloud computing, software-defined, networking, network management, resource management, topology.
Online: 14 May 2019 (13:39:44 CEST)
Cloud infrastructure provides computing services where computing resources can be adjusted on-demand. However, adoption of cloud infrastructures brings concerns like reliance on service provider network, reliability, compliance for service level agreements (SLAs) etc. Software-defined networking (SDN) is a networking concept which suggests the segregation of a network’s data plane from control plane. This concept improves networking behavior. In this paper, we present a SDN-enabled resource aware topology framework. The proposed framework employs SLA compliance, Path Computation Element (PCE) and share fair loading to achieve better topology features. We also present an evaluation, showcasing the potential of our framework.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Forensics, digital forensics, wearable, law
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:06:29 CET)
Digital Evidence is considered as an important type of evidence in many legal cases. Many legislations have dedicated laws to the collection, handling and admissibility of digital evidence. New technologies and new devices are rapidly being developed, which creates new sources of digital evidence. This presents a challenge to law enforcement agencies and digital investigators to stay up to date with the rapid development in the digital field. This paper discusses a relatively new source of digital evidence which is the evidence extracted from Wearable devices. A Fitbit fitness tracker is one of the most common wearable devices used by many people today. This paper presents a case study whereby data extracted from a Fitbit was used as a digital evidence. The admissibility and the challenges of using Wearables as digital evidence is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0081.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Active and Assisted Living; smart speakers; information support system; health care system; sufferer monitoring system; dementia
Online: 6 March 2019 (12:21:55 CET)
Age-in-place can reduce the progress of dementia syndrome and improve the quality of life of the sufferers and their families. This work proposes an innovative information home support system to be established at the houses of people suffering from dementia. The main innovation of the system are its transparent character that overcomes the need for training of the sufferer, as well as the exploitation of a well-known technique for dementia, namely music therapy. It addresses the need of people suffering from dementia as well as their familiars to be recognized by them and have better interaction and collaboration. The system offers a ubiquitous recognition system, just by using smart devices like smart-phones or smart-wristbands. When a familiar person is detected in the house, then a sound file is reproduced on smart speakers placed in the house, in order to trigger the memory, based on the principles of music therapy. The system reproduced the appropriate time at 100% of the cases and the benefits of music therapy are evident daily. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first system of its kind ever reported in the literature.
LETTER | doi:10.3390/sci1010006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: B3M-IR; Trace gases; SFIT2; Remote Sensing; Olympic Games
Online: 5 December 2018 (00:00:00 CET)
A portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer (B3M-IR) is built and used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the city of Beijing during Olympic Games in 2008. A short description of the instrument is first provided in this paper. A detailed spectral analysis is then presented. The total columns of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are retrieved from the ground-based solar absorption spectra recorded by the B3M-IR during the Olympic Games. Lacking validation data, only the retrieved total column of O3 is compared with that retrieved by MAX-DOAS, which is deployed at the same station. The mean difference between the two methods of measurement is 6.5%, demonstrating the performance and reliability of B3M-IR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0136.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: GSM Module; Arduino; SMS; Relay; MQ-2; HC-SR04; LM35
Online: 6 November 2018 (10:50:10 CET)
Home Security Systems are very important features of modern residential and office setups. This system is used to keep home safe from harmful gases, fire and intruders. It must be affordable, reliable and effective. In this paper, a GSM based home security system has been designed and implemented. The system consists of a GSM Module, MQ-2 smoke detector, Ultrasonic sonar sensor, LM35 temperature sensor, Arduino Uno and relay module. The MQ-2 smoke detector is used to detect harmful gases i.e. LPG, CH4, CO, Alcohol, Smoke or Propane. Any of the harmful gases stated above is detected it will warn the owner by activating the buzzer and displaying a warning message on the LCD display. It will also send a SMS to the owner. Our system can also measure temperate and if the temperature is increased above a certain range it will compensate it by activating Air Conditioner through the relay module. The system will also send a SMS to the owner. It can also detect intruders using Ultrasonic sensor and warn us through buzzer, SMS and displaying message on the LCD. Our system is reliable as it has very fast response and cost effective and it has been developed using our own technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0664.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: RGB-D sensors; empirical analysis; sensors in agriculture; phenotyping; microsoft kinect; Intel D-435; Intel SR300; ORBBEC ASTRA S
Online: 29 October 2018 (09:15:45 CET)
Phenotyping is the task of measuring plant attributes for analyzing the current state of the plant. In agriculture, phenotyping can be used to make decisions concerning the management of crops, such as the watering policy, or whether to spray for a certain pest. Currently, large scale phenotyping in fields is typically done using manual labor, which is a costly, low throughput process. Researchers often advocate the use of automated systems for phenotyping, relying on the use of sensors for making measurements. The recent rise of low cost, yet reasonably accurate, RGB-D sensors has opened the way for using these sensors in field phenotyping applications. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of 4 different RGB-D sensors for this task. We conduct an outdoor experiment, measuring plant attribute in various distances and light conditions. Our results show that modern RGB-D sensors, in particular, the Intel D435 sensor, provides a viable tool for close range phenotyping tasks in fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0594.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: augmented reality; Microsoft HoloLens; AR application; user experience; user satisfaction
Online: 25 October 2018 (05:50:50 CEST)
With the recent developments in augmented reality (AR) technologies comes an increased interest in the use of smart glasses for hands-on training. Whether this interest is turned into market success or not depends at the least on whether the interaction with smart AR glasses satisfies users, an aspect of AR use that so far has received little attention. With this contribution, we seek to change this. The objective of the article, therefore, is to investigate user satisfaction in AR applied to three cases of practical use. User satisfaction of AR can be broken down into satisfaction with the interaction and satisfaction with the delivery device. A total of 142 participants from three different industrial sectors contributed to this study, namely, aeronautics, medicine, and astronautics. In our analysis, we investigated the influence of different factors, such as age, gender, level of education, level of Internet knowledge, and the roles of the participants in the different sectors. Even though users were not familiar with the smart glasses, results show that general computer knowledge has a positive effect on user satisfaction. Further analysis using two-factor interactions shows that there is no significant interaction between the different factors and user satisfaction. The results of the study affirm that the questionnaires developed for user satisfaction of smart glasses and the AR application performed well, but leave room for improvement.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0473.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Java Cards; Security; Fingerprint Match-on-Card
Online: 28 August 2018 (10:34:20 CEST)
Biometric based access control system acts as a weapon against the challenges for reliable authentication mechanism. Although there are many advantages of biometric system, still it is vulnerable to attacks, which decline its security. This leads to propose a new approach to address these open issues and challenges for biometric data security. Smart card have been already used in past with various degree of success to store biometric credentials. Match-on-card biometric framework locks the biometric data inside the microcontroller of the smart card, which leads to minimal risks if card is lost or stolen. It is fast and accurate, balancing security and convenience by never exchanging user data outside the system of smart card and performs fingerprint enrollment as well as matching within a tamperproof environment of smart card.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0238.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Multiple object tracking; Airborne video; Tracklet confidence; Hierarchical association framework
Online: 13 July 2018 (14:27:22 CEST)
Multi-object tracking (MOT) in airborne videos is a challenging problem due to the uncertain airborne vehicle motion, vibrations of the mounted camera, unreliable detections, size, appearance and motion of the moving objects as well as occlusions due to the interaction between the moving objects and with other static objects in the scene.To deal with these problems, this work proposes a four-stage Hierarchical Association framework for multiple object Tracking in Airborne video (HATA). The proposed framework combines data association-based tracking (DAT) methods and target tracking using a Compressive Tracking approach, to robustly track objects in complex airborne surveillance scenes. In each association stage, different sets of tracklets and detections are associated to efficiently handle local tracklet generation, local trajectory construction, global drifting tracklet correction and global fragmented tracklet linking. Experiments with challenging airborne video datasets show significant tracking improvement compared to existing state-of-art methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0367.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: kinect; depth calibration; RGB-D; media art; skeletal joint data
Online: 24 June 2018 (11:19:41 CEST)
Kinect is a device that has been widely used in many areas since it was released in 2010. Kinect SDK was announced in 2011 and used in many other areas than its original purpose, which was a controller for gaming. In particular, it has been used by a number of artists in digital media art since it is inexpensive and has a fast recognition rate. However, there is a problem. Kinect create 3D coordinates with a single 2D RGB image for x, y value - single depth image for z value. And this creates a significant limitation on the installation for interactivity of media art. Because the Cartesian XY coordinate and the spherical Z coordinate system are used in combination, depth error depending on the distance is generated, which makes real-time rotation recognition and coordinate correction difficult above coordinate system. This paper proposes a real-time calibration method of Kinect recognition range expansion for useful application in the digital media art area. The proposed method can recognize the viewer accurately by calibrating a coordinate in any direction in front of the viewer. 3,400 datasets witch acquire from experiment were measured as five stances: the 1m attention stance, 1m hands-up stance, 2m attention stance, 2m hands-up stance, and 2m hands-half-up stance, which were taken and recorded every 0.5 sec. The experimental results showed that the accuracy rate was improved about 11.5% compared with front measurement data according to Kinect reference installation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0074.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: energy; KNL; MCDRAM; memory; Lattice Boltzmann; HPC; DVFS
Online: 6 April 2018 (10:46:23 CEST)
Energy consumption of processors and memories is quickly becoming a limiting factor in the deployment of large computing systems. For this reason it is important to understand the energy performance of these processors and to study strategies allowing to use them in the most efficient way. In this work we focus on computing and energy performance of the Knights Landing Xeon Phi, the latest Intel many-core architecture processor for HPC applications. We consider the 64-core Xeon Phi 7230, and profile its performance and energy efficiency using both its on-chip MCDRAM and the off-chip DDR4 memory as the main storage for application data. As a benchmark application we use a Lattice Boltzmann code heavily optimized for this architecture, and implemented using several different arrangements of the application data in memory (data-layouts, in short). We also assess the dependence of energy consumption on data-layouts, memory configurations (DDR4 or MCDRAM), and number of threads per core. We finally consider possible trade-offs between computing performance and energy efficiency, tuning the clock frequency of the processor using the Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0119.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: lightweight stream cipher; A5/1; Trivium
Online: 15 January 2018 (07:12:23 CET)
This paper deals with the merger of the two lightweight stream ciphers—A5/1 and Trivium. The idea is to make the key stream generation more secure and to remove the attacks of the individual algorithms. The bits generated by the Trivium cipher (output) will act as the input of the A5/1 cipher. The registers used in the A5/1 cipher will be filled by the output bits of the Trivium cipher. The three registers will then be connected to generate an output which will be our required key stream.