ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0504.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: science policy; technology policy; technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:45:25 CET)
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at understanding how technology maturity level influences the incidence of university technology transfer to the private sector. The study examined the topic from the perspective of private sector organizations. It used data from a random sample of patent applications filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and a theoretically guided sampling of multiple cases of private sector organizations that contemplated obtaining and assimilating technologies created at universities in the United States. The patent application data were analyzed using nonparametric statistical techniques and the case data were analyzed using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The findings of the study suggest that the typical maturity level of technologies created at U.S. universities is a TRL-5 or lower on as scale adapted from the NASA technology readiness level (TRL) scale. A technology maturity level of TRL-6 or higher is likely an insufficient but necessary part of at least one unnecessary but sufficient configuration of conditions that tends to result in the occurrence of university technology transfer. However, under certain circumstances, a technology maturity level of at least TRL-6 could be a sufficient but unnecessary condition for the occurrence of university technology transfer. These findings have several important implications. First, they provide support for the notion that university technology transfer is subject to causal complexity. Moreover, it may be possible to increase the incidence of university technology transfer in the United States by implementing public policy and practices that explicitly take technology maturity level into consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1771.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology transfer; gap fund; science and technology policy
Online: 29 November 2023 (04:51:41 CET)
Recently considered modifications to public policy and trends in technology transfer practices have underscored the need for validated instruments to assess the maturity of technologies. This paper details a study that aimed to develop and present a generalized technology readiness level (GTRL) scale that a variety of professionals and researchers could use to assess the maturity of technologies in a range of contexts. Of particular interest is developing and validating an instrument that technology transfer professionals in federal laboratories, universities, and the private sector in the United States of America can use to assess the maturity of technologies to facilitate their technology transfer efforts. The primary goal of the research study was to highlight the need for validated measurement instruments for assessing the maturity of technologies in these contexts, test methods for validating the GTRL scale and other readiness level scales, and fill the knowledge gap regarding methods for properly validating such instruments. This included producing insights to inform future efforts to validate the GTRL scale as well as efforts to develop and validate other instruments to measure technology maturity. The study provides specific recommendations relevant to determining the face validity, content validity, inter-rater reliability, and intra-rater reliability of the GTRL scale and other such instruments for assessing technology maturity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public policy; science policy; technology; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (09:33:38 CET)
This paper presents an alternative conceptualization and definition of technology in the context of university technology transfer. The ambiguity regarding the conceptualization of technology is apparent in the technology transfer literature. An expanded conceptualization of technology potentially opens new approaches to researching the topic of technology transfer. It may also cause policymakers to think more comprehensively about what it means to successfully transfer technologies derived from federally funded research to the private sector for use that benefits the public interest. This paper integrates constructs and ideas in the related literature to provide a new perspective of technology that can support future scholarly research and public policy formulation about technology transfer in general, and university technology transfer specifically. Although the paper focuses on university technology transfer to the private sector in the United States, the insights it presents are relevant to technology transfer more broadly and applicable in other geopolitical contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1196.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: CRISPR/Cas technology; Crop; Germplasm; Breeding technology
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:27:20 CEST)
Crop breeding is an important global strategy to meet sustainable food demand. CRISPR-Cas is a most promising gene-editing technology for rapid and precise generation of novel germplasm, and leads to revolutionary crop breeding innovation. In this review, we summarize recent advance of CRISPR/Cas technology in gene function analyses and generation of new germplasms with increased yield, improved product quality, and enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. We highlight their applications and breakthroughs in agriculture including crop de novo domestication, decoupling the gene pleiotropy tradeoff, crop hybrid seed conventional production, hybrid rice asexual reproduction, and double haploid breeding. Moreover, the challenges and development of CRISPR/Cas technology in crops are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0090.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: oscilloscope; 21st-century technology; measuring instrument technology
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:53:42 CEST)
Background: An oscilloscope is a basic tool for measuring electrical quantities, as well as studying all types of waveforms. Generally, measurement of a quantity is regarding peak voltage, frequency, phase difference, pulse width, delay time, etc. However, what about the oscilloscope technology that existed in the early the 21st-century? Purpose: Aim of this study is to identify and analyze the application and use of current oscilloscopes in the early 21st-century. Method: The research methodology used is qualitative research with a systematic literature review by taking journals from 2019-2020 on the IEEE, IOP, Science Direct, ArXiv, and Measurement Science Review journal databases. Results: The results obtained are a batch of 12 articles showing the application and use of oscilloscope technology at the beginning of the 21st century. Conclusion: The conclusions applied to the application of oscilloscope technology in the early 21st-century are centered on the field of education in the measurement of physical quantities and the use of measurement technology which has high efficiency and low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0503.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: political legitimacy; science policy; technology policy, technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:44:44 CET)
The underlying assumption of the discourse about technology transfer is that government intervention is legitimate. Little scholarship has examined whether this assumption is valid or not and on what basis. Legitimacy is an important construct in the context of public policy. Government intervention can only be sustained if the public views such action as legitimate. The creation and transfer of technologies to the private sector is an area where there is significant government intervention. This paper reconceptualizes political legitimacy in the context of technology transfer policy. The analysis illuminates several concerns and challenges regarding the traditional approach to understanding whether specific government interventions in technology transfer are legitimate. It subsequently applies social constructionism and the notion of morality tales to describe an alternative conceptualization of political legitimacy that integrates aspects of other frameworks. In doing so, it reimagines political legitimacy as less of an unattainable normative principle of limited practical value to policymakers and more of a descriptively understood social phenomenon that policymakers can apply while formulating not only technology transfer policy, but other kinds of public policy as well. The paper demonstrates that there is a broader basis for claims of political legitimacy for government intervention in technology transfer, there is likely a more expansive range of technology transfer problems with which the government can rightly concern itself as well as possible solutions that policymakers can justifiably consider for addressing those problems, and that the political consequences of potential overreach in technology transfer policy are likely minimal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: voice recognition technology; sustainable technology adoption; anthropomorphism; narcissism; machiavellianism
Online: 4 October 2023 (05:26:56 CEST)
Voice search technology has gained popularity in recent years, transforming the way individuals interact with digital devices. This study aims to explore the sustainable use intention of voice search, focusing on the psychological factors that influence new technology adoption. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and anthropomorphism theory, it provides insights for developers, marketers, and policymakers interested in voice search technology. Through an online survey targeting experienced voice search users in the U.S., the study examines the impact of TAM factors (perceived usefulness, ease of use, quality satisfaction) and anthropomorphism traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism) on sustainable use intention of voice search. Results from hierarchical regression analysis show that perceived usefulness, ease of use, and quality satisfaction positively affect sustainable intention of voice search. Additionally, narcissism and Machiavellianism predict sustainable intention of voice search. By merging TAM and anthropomorphism theory, this study enhances our understanding of voice search behavior and technology adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Assistive Technology; Accessible Technology; Consumer Technologies; Provision, Policy; Funding
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:57:38 CEST)
Estimates by the World Health Authority suggest that 1 billion people do not have access to the assistive technologies they require. Over the past decade, the design of products that empower people with a disability has shifted from specialised and dedicated products designed only for those with a disability to features and functions integrated into cost-effective consumer technologies for the benefit of all. The opportunity for expansion of the availability of such technologies is at risk of being ignored as a result of models of delivery that are founded in medical devices and which have failed to reflect trends in our understanding of technology and the choices and preferences expressed by persons with a disability. This research undertaken suggests that the opportunities of such expansion offer significant benefits to people with a disability and better both economic and social return on investment for authorities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Digitalization; sensor technology; block chain technology; data models; livestock
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:29:39 CEST)
As the global human population increases, animal agriculture must adapt to provide more animal products while also addressing concerns about animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health. The purpose of this review is to discuss the digitalization of animal farming with Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies, specifically biosensors, big data, and block chain technology. Biosensors are noninvasive or invasive sensors that monitor an animal’s health and behavior in real time, allowing farmers to monitor individual animals and integrate this data for population-level analyses. The data from the sensors is processed using big data-processing techniques such as data modelling. These technologies use algorithms to sort through large, complex data sets to provide farmers with biologically relevant and usable data. Blockchain technology allows for traceability of animal products from farm to table, a key advantage in monitoring disease outbreaks and preventing related economic losses and food-related health pandemics. With these PLF technologies, animal agriculture can become more transparent and regain consumer trust. While the digitalization of animal farming has the potential to address a number of pressing concerns, these technologies are relatively new. The implementation of PLF technologies on farms will require increased collaboration between farmers, animal scientists, and engineers to ensure that technologies can be used in realistic, on-farm conditions. These technologies will call for data models that can sort through large amounts of data while accounting for specific variables and ensuring automation, accessibility, and accuracy of data. Issues with data privacy, security, and integration will need to be addressed before there can be multi-farm databases. Lastly, the usage of blockchain technology in animal agriculture is still in its infancy; blockchain technology has the potential to improve the traceability and transparency of animal products, but more research is needed to realize its full potential. The digitalization of animal farming can supply the necessary tools to provide sustainable animal products on a global scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0027.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: appropriate technology, crowdfunding, UTAUT model, technology service acceptance factor
Online: 2 April 2018 (16:45:08 CEST)
The R&D and propagation of sustainable appropriate technology requires the provision of stable funding. Crowdfunding is a form of funding whereby small sums of investments or contributions are collected from among the general public and used to finance the development of goods or services. This method has been in use widely in arts and culture fields, and presents a useful alternative means for funding appropriate technology projects. The aim of this study is to identify the factors influencing the backers who participate in appropriate technology projects through crowdfunding platforms, analyzing the relationships between these factors, and thereby establishing the usefulness of crowdfunding as a viable new alternative. The analysis results indicate that key factors influencing user intention to crowdfund appropriate technology projects include social influence, effort expectancy, and perceived trust. In contrast to the findings of previous studies, performance expectancy was not found to have a significant effect. This reflects the fact that, compared to the crowdfunding conducted for other purposes, crowdfunding for appropriate technology is closer in nature to donations. These findings indicate that for funding to be successful, aggressive online exposure using the SNS of backers should be pursued from the early stages of funding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0433.v1
Online: 8 October 2023 (07:59:55 CEST)
This paper applies a theoretical model to analyze the ways that widespread use of generative AIs (GAIs) in education and, more broadly, in contributing to and reflecting the collective intelligence of our species, can and will change us. The model extends Brian Arthur’s insights into the nature of technologies as the orchestration of phenomena to our use by explaining the nature of humans participation in their enactment, whether as part of the orchestration (hard technique, where our roles must be performed correctly) or as orchestrators of phenomena (soft technique performed creatively or idiosyncratically). Education may be seen as a technological process for developing the soft and hard techniques of humans to participate in the technologies and thus the collective intelligence of our cultures. Unlike all earlier technologies, by embodying that collective intelli-gence themselves, GAIs can closely emulate and implement not only the hard technique but also the soft that, until now, was humanity’s sole domain: the very things that technologies enabled us to do can now be done by the technologies themselves. The consequences for what, how, and even whether we learn are profound. The paper explores some of these consequences and concludes with theoretically informed approaches that may help us to avert some dangers while benefiting from the strengths of generative AIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1008.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agricultural cooperatives; technology adopters; non-technology adopters; panel data regression
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:14:04 CEST)
In the current situation, the world is busy with technological advances, including Indonesia. Since its arrival, many business fields have competed with each other to take part as technology users. One business sector that cannot be separated from technological support is cooperatives. On the other hand, some cooperatives in the developing phase experience technological lag. At the same time, East Kutai Regency, which is the agricultural center in East Kalimantan Province, tends to rely on the cooperative sector to encourage small and medium-scale economies. This research aims to investigate the causality between access to computers (AC), internet networks (IN), digital administration skills (DAS), and financial literacy (FL) on profits (PFT). The objectivity of the study compares agricultural cooperatives that adopt technology with adopt non-technology. Using panel data regression from eighteen sub-districts in East Kutai, it is proven that technology adopting agricultural cooperatives were more prominent than non-technology adopting agricultural cooperatives during 2017–2022. However, there is a harmony in the statistical findings from both observations, where access to computers and financial literacy both have a significant effect on profits. Other analysis results show that internet networks and digital administration skills have an insignificant impact on profits. The study's implications provide valuable output for the future sustainability of agricultural cooperatives. The success of agricultural cooperatives depends greatly on the effectiveness of the application of technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0044.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental pollution; Sustainable development; Cost-effectiveness; Enzyme technology; Recombinant technology
Online: 3 July 2023 (10:00:02 CEST)
Industrial effluents contain contaminants that pose threats to the environment and human health. Bioremediation is an environmentally friendly, sustainable, and cost-effective approach to degrade or transform pollutants using microbial enzymes. Laccase is a versatile enzyme that oxidizes a wide range of substrates, such as dyes, phenolic compounds, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the consumption of molecular oxygen. Laccase can also remove heavy metals by forming complexes with organic ligands or reducing them to fewer toxic forms. However, the application of laccase in bioremediation is limited by its low production, stability, and specificity. Recombinant technology has been employed to enhance the expression, activity, and stability of laccase in various bacterial hosts. Immobilization techniques have been developed to improve the reusability and stability of laccase in different environmental conditions. This review summarizes the recent developments in the production optimization of recombinant laccase enzymes and their role in the bioremediation of industrial effluents. It also discusses the challenges of laccase-based biocatalytic systems for environmental cleanup.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0219.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Continuance intention, Technology continuance theory, Task technology fit, Restaurant Industry
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:43:48 CEST)
The development in information technology has played an influential role in transforming the restaurant industry services. Therefore, this research’s main agenda is to investigate factors that motivate employees to adopt and continue using information technology services by integrating two famous information system (IS) theories, namely, task technology fit (TTF) and technology continuance theory (TCT). The extant integrative perspective model details the cause-effect relationship between technology adoption and continuance intention. The positivist paradigm forms the basis of this research design, and the approach followed is quantitative research. Using the stratified random sampling technique, the empirical data was collected from 417 restaurant industry employees in the US (United States) on a five-point Likert scale. The PLS-SEM technique was utilized to analyze data while using Smart PLS 3 because of its suitability and wider application currently in the hospitality sector. Results suggest that the recently developed integrated technology continuance research model has considerable influence on predicting pre- and post-adoption behavior with continuance intention for technology usage within the restaurant industry. All hypotheses were found significant except one for the direct association of hedonic motivation and continuance intention of technology adoption. Moreover, the results revealed that factors like perceived security & information privacy and assisting conditions were the most important factors in determining the usage of information technology with continuance intention. Unlike previous research studies that focus majorly only on issues before adoption of informational technology usage, the current focus on investigating continuance intention toward information technology usage by focusing on factors that can also boost post-adoption behavior and pre-adoption usage information technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0967.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Decision-Making; Devolved functions; Devolved Government; Technology Acceptance Model; Technology; Innovations
Online: 16 October 2023 (16:26:13 CEST)
This study is grounded on evidence-based decision-making in the implementation of devolved functions in Kenya. Promulgation of the constitution of Kenya 2010 set stage for devolution of functions, power, resources, and representation closer to the people. The researcher applies principles of technology acceptance modelling to investigate the extrinsic factors, Perceived-Ease-Of-Use, Perceived-Usefulness, attitudes, behavioural-intention and actual use of Research findings, Innovations and Technologies. Furthermore, the researcher applies contingent valuation technique to investigate cost-benefit analysis of using research findings, innovations and technologies. Multi-stage cluster sample of 156 managers from ten counties, randomly distributed in the six devolved functions that were randomly selected, including: agriculture, county health service, early childhood education and village polytechnic, natural resources and environment, county administration and governance, and county public works and services, took part in this study. Building on basic statistical analysis, structural equation modelling was employed to explain the adoption process. Results proved that all TAM model constructs were decisive in the adoption process. Furthermore, managers were willing to pay extra to optimize decision making and for accrued benefits on service delivery. Findings from this study are critical for stimulating the uptake of research findings, innovations, and technologies in making informed decisions for improved service delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0151.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Health Information Technology; Adoption; Assimilation; Technology; Organisation and Environment; TOE; TAM
Online: 11 October 2021 (08:45:06 CEST)
The adoption of health information technology (HIT) has increased considerably, contributing to better communication between physicians and patients and providing technological bases for learning and institutional improvement. This type of technology brings many challenges; therefore, understanding its adoption and assimilation is important to assess its potential for engendering desirable outcomes in health management. The assimilation of health information systems should be highlighted as their importance in health organisations is now recognised as a key facilitator assisting in providing better health outcomes. Thus, this study aimed to analyse HIT adoption based on models such as Technology, Organisation and Environment (TOE), which analyses at the organisational level, with other models, such as the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which analyses at the individual level, and the assimilation of the adopted technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0039.v1
Online: 13 February 2017 (09:49:55 CET)
It is postulated in this research that the paradox of “advances in technology and management not keeping pace with the ever-increasing urban problems” is due to the poor understanding of person-focused governance of societal, environmental and economic entities. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an adaptive institutional model of person-driven effectiveness and ineffectiveness. The model proposes that human, ecologic and economic outcomes are heavily influenced by a complex system of systems, spanning from individually unique “non-physical influencers” to a broader set of social and environmental influencers that have a common impact on the larger society-environment-economy (SEE) system. At the heart of the model is an analytic formulation that explains the phenomena of non-physical blocker, enhancer and indifferent that are responsible for the adaptation and maladaptation of social agents, and accordingly for the sustainability and unsustainability of SEE systems. Examples are provided to illustrate the model applications: (a) the non-physical and maladaptive syndromes as antecedents of multi-morbidity and (b) the broadened and narrowed minds as sources of sustainability and unsustainability at the SEE system level within the context of emerging technologies such as engineered nanomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: climate change; environmental sound technology; international technology transfer; post Paris-Agreement Era
Online: 19 October 2023 (07:52:14 CEST)
The measures related to climate change and international technology transfer have been closely intervened as most international environmental instruments, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol as well as Paris Agreement which contain the provisions concerning environmentally friendly technology transfer. However, technologies have not been transferred adequately owing to the flaws in the relevant provisions and due to the fact that most technologies are possessed by transnational corporations and other private sectors. In order to undertake the commitment by the governments of developed countries and at the same time, to conform the commercial activities of their respective private sectors to the level of promised international obligation, an uniform international technology transfer agreement needs to be established separately, particularly under the World Trade Organization regime in Post Pairs-Agreement era. This paper first explores the defects and challenges found in provisions related to technology transfer in existing environmental agreements, and examines the possibilities of concluding an international technology transfer agreement both from theoretical and practical perspectives. climate change;environmentally sound technology;international technology transfer;Post Paris-Agreement Era
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: ethics of technology; emerging technologies; disruptive technology; systemic disruption; ethics of disruption
Online: 13 August 2021 (22:53:28 CEST)
Disruptive technologies can be conceptualized in different ways. Depending on how they are conceptualized, different ethical issues come into play. This article contributes to a general framework to navigate the ethics of disruptive technologies. It proposes three basic distinctions to be included in such a framework. First, emerging technologies may instigate localized “first-order” disruptions, or systemic “second-order” disruptions. The ethical significance of these disruptions differs: first-order disruptions tend to be of modest ethical significance, whereas second-order disruptions are highly significant. Secondly, technologies may be classified as disruptive based on their technological features or based on their societal impact. Depending on which of these classifications one adopts and takes as the starting point of ethical inquiry, different ethical questions are foregrounded. Thirdly, the ethics of disruptive technology raises concerns at four different levels of technology assessment: the technology level, the artifact level, the application level, and the society level. The respective suitability of approaches in technology ethics to address concerns about disruptive technologies co-varies with the respective level of analysis. The article clarifies these distinctions, thereby laying some of the groundwork for an ethical framework tailored for assessing disruptive technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Sustainability; Urban Planning; Climate Change; Technology; Urban Technology; Urban Development; Density; Congestion
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:12:05 CET)
We have an aversion to density in America. Density is a continual trope in this country, blamed for all of the ills of urban life, from crime and racial unrest in the middle of the 20th century to public health concerns today. In the early stages of the COVID pandemic density was the culprit, even though we’ve subsequently seen outbreaks in rural areas and sprawling cities across the United States. This paper will look into the root of America’s problems with density and argue that density is not the problem but the solution to the challenges of today’s and tomorrow’s cities. As we deplete the resources of the planet, density is our most direct pathway to recover some balance with nature. Dense living is more efficient, less carbon intensive and more environmentally sustainable. As geospatial differentiations matter less due to advances in communication technology, it's the density of people and ideas that will continue to fuel innovation. Finally, in a world that is increasingly dominated by pluralism, denser living promotes openness, tolerance and diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0401.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Modern Technology; Traditional Technology; Technology Renascence; E-Banking; Ecommerce; Education; Energy; Economy and Other E-Technologies; Artificial Intelligence; Business Intelligence
Online: 17 July 2020 (16:14:26 CEST)
Abstract: The human race has always innovated, and in a relatively short time went from building fires and making stone-tipped arrows to creating smartphone apps and autonomous robots. Today, technological progress will undoubtedly continue to change the way we work, live, and survive in the coming decades. Since the beginning of the new millennium, the world has witnessed the emergence of social media, smartphones, self-driving cars, and autonomous flying vehicles. There have also been huge leaps in energy storage, artificial intelligence, and medical science. We are facing immense challenges in global warming and food security, among many other issues. While human innovation has contributed to many of the problems we are facing, it is also human innovation and ingenuity that can help humanity deal with these issues “New directions in science are launched by new tools much more often than by new concepts. The effect of a concept-driven revolution is to explain old things in new ways. The effect of a tool-driven revolution is to discover new things that have to be explained”. (F. Dyson, 1997 In this article, we review the impact of technology as evolving at beginning of 21st Century on future prospect of Energy demand either renewable or non-renewable form, Economy, to Ecommerce, Education and any other E-related of Modern Technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0243.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: green growth; green technology; technology diffusion; climate change adaptation; sustainable development; panel data
Online: 4 May 2023 (09:03:36 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the influence of various economic, environmental, and social factors on sustainable development, with a specific focus on the impact of green technology and climate change adaptation. A panel dataset comprising 38 OECD member countries from 1990 to 2020 is employed, and a series of dynamic panel data models are estimated using the system generalized method of moments (GMM) approach. Numerous covariates, such as globalization, socio-economic conditions, economic and political values, climate and technological progress, and environmental determinants, are examined. The empirical findings highlight the significant role played by macroeconomic, institutional, social, and government policy-related factors in sustainable development. More importantly, our results provide novel and robust evidence that the diffusion of green technology and climate change adaptation positively affect green growth. The study's empirical outcomes are demonstrated to be robust to misspecification errors and statistically significant at traditional significance levels. These findings carry substantial policy implications for the development and implementation of strategies that promote climate change adaptation and green innovation. Consequently, policymakers should prioritize the integration of green technology and adaptive measures in their sustainable development agendas to foster a greener, more resilient future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0459.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare; digital healthcare; healthcare technology
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:58:09 CEST)
Healthcare sector is a truly dynamic and multidisciplinary system. Progressive practice of computational technologies in healthcare has enhanced electronic therapeutic measures in the care units. The healthcare decision-makers are accenting on the operational usage of digital technology in the system, to improve the health service by reducing human error and excessive load also by increasing possibility to attend more patients simultaneously. Sophisticated medical instruments are using advanced robotics, artificial intelligence to enhance their efficacy. Virtual treatments, self-diagnostics is increasing over time with the advancement of technical support in health. Electronic Health Records (EHR) of patients has created huge medical data (clinical information), which is undoubtedly a good resource for health professionals to take critical decisions and implement them accordingly. The aim of this article is to elucidate how technological developments are associated with clinical improvements in terms of constructing an upgraded health ecosystem. It is imperative to analyze how recent digital paradigms in health are helping to tackle regular and rare clinical challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0807.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: airfoil; morphing technology; Shape optimization
Online: 12 July 2023 (09:28:09 CEST)
An airfoil is the geometric shape of a cross-section of a wing. When it is exposed to the flow of a fluid over its surface, it generates both lift and drag forces through a pressure distribution. Designing an efficient airfoil for aerodynamic applications is a complex challenge in the field of aerodynamic engineering, with the aim of achieving an optimal lift-to-drag ratio. The success of airfoil design hinges on the effective reduction of drag force under specific conditions, while simultaneously attaining the desired lift without encountering significant flow separation, such as boundary layer shedding. Furthermore, the design must adhere to lifting force limitations and meet structural requirements. In the field of airfoil design and optimization, literature review articles provide a valuable resource by offering an overview of the latest advancements in specific areas. These areas encompass a wide range of topics including the design and testing of adaptive geometry wings, such as morphing wing technology as well as the application of shape optimization techniques to enhance airfoil performance. Our goal is to provide researchers with an in-depth review of relevant articles published to date, examining the applied approaches utilized to tackle the complex problem of airfoil design and explore the methodology employed to address it, from a broad perspective on the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0411.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: FinTech, Innovations, Technology, Banks, Theory
Online: 23 January 2023 (10:38:05 CET)
The purpose of this article is to address two questions that will aid researchers in understanding FinTech’s inception, development, and potential impact on the stability of the financial system. First, it explains why financial technology is a current phenomenon. While many of the underlying technology for FinTech breakthroughs have been around for some time, it is only recently that financial institutions and entrepreneurs have begun to apply them to financial goods and services. Supply and demand factors in "conventional" financial innovation have been studied, and they have been found to converge, leading to a high rate of innovation. And second, this article explains why FinTech is being covered in greater depth than other types of innovation. This study introduces the concept of "depth" of innovation as a means of answering this question. The more fundamental the innovation, the more it will affect the financial sector. In this paper, we demonstrate that many recent developments in the field of financial technology (FinTech) are truly revolutionary advances, with far-reaching implications for the financial services industry. In addition to the benefits of more adaptability, higher transformational potential might bring increased risk to economic security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0283.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: information technology; impact; society; future
Online: 13 September 2022 (08:27:14 CEST)
As we are aware Information Technology had its cutting-edge lifestyle from the overdue sixties of the remaining century whilst the Arpanet become introduced, funded with the aid of using the branch of protection of the USA. After that, the IT enterprise has come a protracted manner to its cutting-edge form in which its miles gambling a dominant function in each sphere of life. It has made innovative modifications in facts amassing and dissemination and worldwide communication. It is growing into a surely paperless painting environment. Also, we can now ship a message very without difficulty to everywhere withinside the international in seconds. From a schooling factor of view, we can have a digital elegance in which the teacher ought to take a seat down in any part of the arena and his college students scattered in all exceptional elements of the arena via video convention with the presentation of look at substances in addition to query and solution sessions. A health practitioner now sitting in any part of the arena ought to carry out a surgical procedure in which the affected person is mendacity in some other part of the arena. These work examples display where we stand these days compared to what has become 1/2 of a century back. But as we recognize, nothing on this international is only correct as the whole thing has a darkish side. In this paper, we might speak about the deserves and demerits of enforcing IT globally and in which we are heading withinside the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0418.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Relativity; Nano Technology; Magnetic materials
Online: 27 December 2021 (09:59:50 CET)
In a recent paper discussing Newton’s third law in the framework of special relativity for charged bodies, it was suggested that one can construct a practical relativistic motor provided high enough charge and current densities are available. As on the macroscopic scale charge density is limited by the phenomena of dielectric breakdown, it was suggested to take advantage of the high charge densities which are available on the microscopic scale. A preliminary analysis of this option denoted "nano relativistic scale" is studied in the current paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0059.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; cryptocurrency; distributed ledger technology
Online: 8 January 2020 (03:35:14 CET)
Blockchains such as the bitcoin blockchain depend on reaching a global consensus on the distributed ledger; therefore, they suffer from well know scalability problems. This paper proposes an algorithm that avoids double-spending in the short term with just O(√n) messages; each node receiving money off-chain performs the due diligence of consulting k√n random nodes to check if any of them is aware of double-spending. Two nodes receiving double-spent money will in this way consult at least one common node with very high probability, due to the ‘birthday paradox’, and any common honest node consulted will detect the fraud. Since the velocity of money in the real world has coins circulating through at most a few wallets per day, the size of the due diligence communication is small in the short term. This `k-root-n’ algorithm is suitable for an environment with synchronous or asynchronous (but with fairly low latency) communication and with Byzantine faults. The presented k-root-n algorithm should be practical to avoid double-spending with arbitrarily high probability, while feasibly coping with the throughput of all world commerce. It is resistant to Sybil attacks even beyond 50% of nodes. In the long term, the k-root-n algorithm is less efficient. Therefore, it should preferably be used as a complement and not a replacement to a global distributed ledger technology.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Health information technology in Nepal
Online: 14 October 2019 (10:38:53 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to review a two year long implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) system at the outpatient department of a private hospital in Kathmandu, possibly a first implementation of its kind in Nepal. Procedures: The strategy designed for EHR implementation was based on Professor John P. Kotter's work on successful change management. Main findings: We found that keeping a close watch on the social dynamics affecting adoption decisions among users of the system was crucial for implementing the EHR; this was partly because the project received limited support from an erratically changing hospital leadership and lacked an EHR system suited to the needs of the users. Conclusions: The implementation described in this article is a good lesson on moving from control to drift in information systems implementation, and we hope this work will be useful to health IT professionals working in the space of digital transformation in resource-constrained environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: technology transfer; anthropotechnology; offset policy
Online: 24 August 2018 (05:45:03 CEST)
This research aimed, within the scope of the anthropotechnological approach, analyze the technology transfer, performed via the offset policy in the field of public health, called the Radiotherapy Expansion Plan, from the Health Ministry. The objective of this policy is to create and improve accredited organizations, concerning the oncological treatment, specifically in the insertion of radiotherapeutic equipment. This process is divided into two stages: the insertion of the radiotherapy equipment, and the compensations provided for in the commercial agreement. To meet this purpose, the research started from understanding the theoretical and methodological approaches of the fields of study of anthropotechnology, technology transfer and offset policy. In this sense, there was used the methodological strategy of the case study, supported by applied research, with a qualitative and exploratory approach. External and internal environments of a specific situation were analyzed, located in the State of Paraná, which received the radiotherapy equipment. It was verified that the initiatives of insertion of radiotherapeutic equipment in the context of the Expansion Plan have undergone numerous confrontations, inserted in the contextual and organizational particularities that affect its development and effectiveness. There are challenges that require responses from a set of organizations involved, in order to implement the trade agreement established by the offset policy, highlighting the first stage as a process of technology transfer. Thus, the situation located in the State of Paraná consistently consolidated the insertion of the radiotherapy equipment. It allowed its disclosure as a reference situation, and based on the dimensions and indicators analysis provided by anthropotechnology, made possible the comprehensionof the technology transfer involved in the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0112.v1
Online: 22 December 2016 (09:48:05 CET)
This paper advances privacy theory through examination of online shaming, focusing in particular on persecution by internet mobs. While shaming is nothing new, the technology used for modern shaming is new and evolving, making it a revealing lens through which to analyze points of analytical friction within and between traditional conceptions of privacy. To that end, this paper first explores the narrative and structure of online shaming, identifying broad categories of shaming of vigilantism, bullying, bigotry and gossiping, which are then used throughout the paper to evaluate different angles to the privacy problems raised. Second, this paper examines shaming through three dominant debates concerning privacy - privacy’s link with dignity, the right to privacy in public places and the social dimension of privacy. Certain themes emerged from this analysis. A common feature of online shaming is public humiliation. A challenge is to differentiate between a humbling (rightly knocking someone down a peg for a social transgression) and a humiliation that is an affront to dignity (wrongly knocking someone down a peg). In addition, the privacy concern of shamed individuals is not necessarily about intrusion on seclusion or revelation of embarrassing information, but rather about the disruption in their ability to continue to participate in online spaces free from attack. The privacy interest therefore becomes more about enabling participation in social spaces, enabling connections and relationships to form, and about enabling identity-making. Public humiliation through shaming can disrupt all of these inviting closer scrutiny concerning how law can be used as an enabling rather than secluding tool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: CAD/CAM; dental ceramics; dental technology; digital dentistry; dental education; dental innovation; disruptive technology
Online: 25 November 2021 (20:06:23 CET)
Digital dentistry, including CAD/CAM dentistry, is perhaps the most disruptive innovation in dentistry to date. The rapid development of digital dentistry technologies over the past several decades has enabled clinicians to improve patient care by significantly reducing the time necessary for the restorative phase of treatment. Advancements in intra-oral scanning and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM), in conjunction with new dental CAD/CAM ceramic materials, have simplified patient care and made same-day dentistry a reality. This review aims to present the most recent advancements described in current literature as well as to document the successful implementation of digital dentistry into a predoctoral program. The overall process of CAD/CAM same-day dentistry and the accompanying advancements in software and materials were presented and discussed. Implementation of technology and personnel requirements were reviewed. CAD/CAM dentistry has been influential in shaping and improving dental practice and education, and this influence will only continue with time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Coronaviruses; Blockchain Technology; COVID-19; Smart Contracts; Data Exchange; Secure; Distributed Ledger Technology; Healthcare
Online: 7 May 2020 (10:10:00 CEST)
WHO was informed on 31 December 2019 of cases of unknown cause pneumonia in Wuhan City, China. On 7 January 2020 Chinese authorities reported a novel coronavirus as the cause and was temporarily labeled "2019-nCoV." Coronaviruses (CoV) are a wide family of viruses which cause diseases ranging from common cold to more serious illnesses. A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain not previously found in humans. Countries around the globe have stepped up their surveillance to quickly detect any new 2019-nCoV cases. Blockchain is developing into a safe and efficient network for secure data sharing in applications such as the financial industry, operations management, food industry, energy market, the Internet of Things and healthcare. In this paper, we are using blockchain technology as a mean to share authentic data, tracking of relevant information and help speed up the treatment process. At the same time it will preserve person’s identity. Timely deployment and suitable implementation of the proposed model have the opportunity to curb COVID-19 transmissions and associated mortality, especially in environments with inadequate access to testing facilities. This work will also facilitate in the treatment of other infectious diseases. Smart contract have been designed and implemented using the ethereum blockchain platform which has been presented in this paper. This work would facilitate multiple stakeholders who are involved within the medical system to curb the transmission of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Indoor Positioning Technology; Bluetooth 4.0; Manufacturing Private Cloud; Internet of Things; Indoor Positioning Technology;
Online: 1 June 2018 (08:15:12 CEST)
To enhance industrial competitiveness and increase productivity, every country has strived to create a smart factory by introducing technologies such as Internet of Things, big data and artificial intelligence into production line and build cyber-physical system for the purpose of promoting manufacturing efficiency. For mission assignment, production line management or manufacturing field analysis, the location information of employee, machine and material is very essential. To promote manufacturing efficiency, of course, the location information became more important. A Bluetooth low energy (BLE) positioning system for the manufacturing is developed in this research. A "Tag tracking" mechanism is addressed and adopted, which uses Beacon to catch the location information and a BLE receiver is also used to receive the broadcasting information from Beacon. The position information from the BLE receiver will be compared with the data in the database for calculating the location of the target. The status of the target may also be obtained by using the data from the BLE receiver. Comparing with the mobile device, this method can reduce energy consumption and make the maintenance simple and easy. In the real applications, the target may not be limited to human. The "Regional label positioning technology" is also investigated in this research. Defining a suitable zone location and arranging BLE receiver location, and positioning analysis theory are the key factors included in this developed technology. The developed system will be tested for real industry applications. The test results show that the feasibility of this technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0786.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Precision agriculture; Intention to adopt a technology; Attitudes towards the use of technology; Technology acceptance model; Variable rate irrigation; Fruit production; Grapevine production
Online: 31 December 2020 (10:10:50 CET)
Irrigated agriculture determines large blue water withdrawals, and it is considered a key intervention area to reach sustainable development objectives. Precision agriculture technologies have the potential to mitigate water resource depletion that often characterizes conventional agricultural approaches. This study investigates the factors influencing farmers' intentions to adopt variable rate irrigation (VRI) technology. The Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM-3) was employed as a theoretical framework to design a survey to identify the factors influencing farmers' decision-making process when adopting VRI. Data were gathered through quantitative face-to-face interviews with a sample of 138 fruit and grapevine producers from the Northeast of Italy (Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli-Venezia Giulia). Data were analyzed using partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM). The results highlight that personal attitudes, such as perceived usefulness and subjective norm, positively influence the intention to adopt VRI. Also, the perceived ease of use positively affects intention, but it is moderated by subject experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: blockchain; public services; governance approach; technology
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:13:56 CET)
Blockchain is considered a technological trend with a unique and unprecedented foundation of ways of working, and has the potential to fundamentally change society in conducting activities related to the public or private sector. Although the academic literature on blockchain is generally focused on cryptocurrencies, in recent years, literature with different perspectives has begun to emerge regarding the use of blockchain in the context of the public sector. The unique characteristics of how blockchain technology works make it an innovation that is expected to change many activities, structures, and processes related to the implementation of public sector activities, especially in public services such as administrative processes, welfare provision, and regulatory practices. This article discusses through a systematic literature review about the potential use of blockchain in public services. This literature review identifies the types of public services most likely affected by the introduction of blockchain. In addition, this article highlights the benefits, potentials, and challenges and risks of blockchain for governments and citizens/society in general. Governments, in general, can optimize efficiency and tracking through the use of blockchain, but regulatory uncertainty and scalability capabilities being major challenges, which are still poorly researched in the literature, can benefit from reduced bureaucracy and improved coordination through blockchain adoption, despite the lack of blockchain knowledge and skills being significant barriers to its implementation. For citizens or the public, security and transparency are key benefits, while the main risk lies in data security concerns. The article closes by noting a number of limitations in the existing literature and providing suggestions and recommendations for future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: artificial Intelligence; medicine; advances; challenges; technology
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:43:19 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a disruptive technology in various areas, and medicine is no exception. In the last decade, there has been rapid progress in the application of AI in healthcare, from diagnosing and prognosticating diseases to improving operational efficiency in hospitals. This literature review explores the advances of artificial intelligence in the field of medicine, discusses its benefits, and discusses the ethical and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed to maximize its potential.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1220.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Neural networks, Microscopy, Imaging, Tracking, Technology
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:50:04 CEST)
This article explores the transformative role of neural networks in the realm of biology, particularly within microscopy image processing and illustrations. Neural networks have revolutionized cell segmentation and analysis, enabling precise delineation of cell boundaries and tracking of cellular behaviours. They excel in detecting subcellular structures, unravelling intricate organelle interactions. In 3D image reconstruction, neural networks navigate volumetric datasets, enhancing our understanding of spatial cellular architecture. These networks enhance disease diagnosis by identifying anomalies and irregularities, potentially revolutionizing early detection and classification. Moreover, neural networks restore and enhance microscopy images, unveiling hidden details. Lastly, they bridge art and science, fostering captivating biological art and enriching science communication. As neural networks evolve, they promise a future of limitless possibilities, weaving together technology, science, and art to illuminate the microscopic realm in unprecedented ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0188.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Accounting; Environment; Information Technology; Innovation; Sustainability
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:10:06 CEST)
This study explores the role of information technology (IT) in supporting sustainability efforts in Saudi Arabia. Through an analysis of four case studies, we examine how technology has been implemented by Saudi Arabian companies to advance sustainability goals. The findings demonstrate a notable shift towards green initiatives in the country, with the adoption of technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), blockchain, and artificial intelligence. These technologies have been instrumental in enhancing energy efficiency and waste reduction. The study highlights the significance of policy interventions and public-private partnerships in achieving both environmental sustainability and economic growth. To ensure widespread adoption of sustainable practices, it is crucial for the government to focus on building digital capacity in companies and removing technological barriers. The case studies of four companies serve as illustrative examples of sustainable practices and the corresponding technological support in Saudi Arabia. The research underscores the importance of leveraging information technology and collaboration to accelerate progress towards the nation's sustainability goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0055.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Strategic Management; Planning; Airport; Technology; Innovation
Online: 2 May 2023 (04:41:15 CEST)
The Aviation industry in Malaysia is categorized as highly regulated and dominated by Government Linked Companies (GLCs) via monopolistic concessions due to its nature of strategic national importance and security. Connectivity is an essential component of economic activity and a catalyst for business growth. Since the invention of aircraft, air connectivity has expanded businesses and markets, facilitating trade, encouraging Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and enabling tourism. This case study aims to provide a holistic analysis of the Malaysia Airport Holdings Berhad (MAHB) strategic planning framework and discuss its effectiveness towards its strategy formulation to address its market dynamics, both domestically and abroad. From military superiority to economic connectivity, aviation, one of humanity's greatest inventions, has advanced human civilization over the past 150 years. With the emergence of low-cost carriers, air travel patterns have shifted dramatically, with the increase of travel and trade, due to its time efficiency. With the trend of globalization and the liberation of airspace in recent decades, aviation enables the movement of people and goods that foster a borderless marketplace at an exponential growth rate. With technological innovation, pressure over climate change and the shift in travelers' behavior and patterns, strategic planning becomes more crucial and complex for aerodrome operators to create a sustainable competitive advantage among their regional rivals. However, strategic planning is dependent on several critical success factors. The role of management leadership and an inclusive strategy to adapt to the changes in market dynamics are essential for survival in business competition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0783.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Online banking; Digital security; Technology implementation
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:36:13 CEST)
This research study aims to explore how during COVID-19, the adoption of online banking is impacted by various factors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived security, and trust. The data were collected using the primary questionnaire with 98 respondents. The study investigates the direct effect using the PLS-SEM method, and the indirect effects are analyzed using mediation analysis. The study indicates that perceived security is an important factor that impacts the adoption of online banking by self-help groups in India. Trust in online banking without allaying the fears of banking online does not lead to the adoption of technology. Perceived ease of use and ease of usage directly impact the adoption of online banking by the members of self-help groups in India. The study is the first-ever study to measure the indirect impact of trust on the intention to use online banking by the members of self-help groups in India This study has far-reaching implications for policymakers and banks. To increase the adoption of online banking, it is important to allay the fears of security among the members of self-help groups in India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0571.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Business intelligence; gender gap; information technology.
Online: 24 May 2021 (13:31:05 CEST)
In the early 1990s, cyberfeminism emerged as an area of knowledge to discuss the connection between gender and technology. According to UNESCO, women are underrepresented in the field of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and less than a third of women worldwide work in scientific research and development. However, this number has grown and this reality is constantly changing. In this context, using business intelligence techniques, this study analyzes data from the computer and information and communication technology market to characterize the impact of the performance of women in these areas. It is expected to show that this performance in the highlighted fields is still a challenge in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0562.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Virtual reality; higher education; technology; immersion
Online: 24 February 2021 (17:21:35 CET)
This paper explores benefits of using VR technologies in higher education. Theoretical part investigates classical education system and its features in order to compare advantages of using VR systems in education. VR technologies and its current state in industry and in education were explored as well as which branches of higher education uses these systems. Survey was conducted through online questionnaire where respondents (N = 55) gave their opinion on VR and the implementation of VR technologies in education. Three hypotheses related to the use of VR technology, student interest, and learning outcomes as well as the effectiveness, immersiveness and the effect of VR systems on the users were tested through 27 questions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0309.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cheating; plagiarism; paraphrasing; technology; academic; student
Online: 14 October 2020 (13:39:23 CEST)
Cheating is a kind of fraud or attempts to get dishonest advantages in an academic institution, it has been increasing dramatically for the last 50 years with the growth of technology. In some countries, this phenomenon has changed to a problematic factor in schools. Plagiarism is also considered as a type of cheating if it occurs intentionally. More efforts are made to mitigate the severity of cheating in an academic institution using technological-based devices. Besides, technology has an effective role in the detection of plagiarism by several detection platforms, however, still, there are some types of plagiarism which cannot be detected by these platforms efficiently, that authors should treat honestly during his/her scientific writing. This work aims to conceptualize and characterize cheating and plagiarism in an academic institution, also it is tried to indicate the relationship of cheating and plagiarism that in which cases, plagiarism becomes cheating. To achieve the purposes, relevant literature including scientific papers, monographs, reports, and authorized website were reviewed, and the literature output are integrated with the observation and experience of author during the teaching and learning in academic institutions.The findings and direct observation from close contact of classrooms show that cheating is felt mostly in classes with large numbers of students, that institution policy, instructor control, and using of technology have the most effect on the controlling cheating. Plagiarism as academic dishonesty is a widespread phenomenon among the students and even the authors. In some cases, the poor understanding of students and authors in scientific writing rules causes plagiarism and is measurable by some available detection platforms.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0330.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital footprint; exploit; identity theft; technology
Online: 20 May 2020 (11:14:36 CEST)
As technology evolves, our digital footprint keeps increasing. Now, everything we do is largely related to us being online, connected and logged. Therefore, if someone’s online data is exposed, then their life will be compromised. This is called identity theft and in this era of technology, it has become one of the most serious forms of crime. When someone’s data is compromised, there is a huge chance of harming the person financially, morally and socially. New technology and the knowledge gap it creates when it first comes out is perfect for identity thieves to exploit. If we are not cautious, our future will be very different than what we dream of due to the very technology created to make it better. Hence, we need to understand the technology, identify the loopholes and educate ourselves to avoid being held captive by our digital footprint.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0120.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar; technology adoption; demographics; mixed methods
Online: 30 November 2018 (15:47:46 CET)
Despite a global push in the development and implementation of widespread alternative energy use, significant disparities exist across given nation-states. These disparities, frequently referred to as the local-national gap, reflect both technical and economic factors, as well as the social, political, and ecological gaps between how communities see energy development and national/global policy goals. This dataset is an attempt to bridge the local-national gap regarding solar PV adoption in the state of Georgia (U.S.A.). This dataset is an aggregation of variables from seven different publicly-available sources that was designed to help researchers interested in the context underlying solar adoption on the local scale of governance (e.g. the county level). The SolarView database includes information necessary for informing policymaking activities such as solar installation information, a historical county zip code directory, county-level census data, housing value indexes, renewable energy incentive totals, PV rooftop suitability percentages, and utility rates. As this is a database from multiple sources, incomplete data entries are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: irrigation; technology adoption; farmers’ innovation; diffusion
Online: 15 August 2018 (04:08:07 CEST)
In 2013, thirty-eight treadle pumps (TPs) were installed as low-cost technology introduction for small-scale irrigation in eastern Ethiopia. This pilot project also trained six farmers on tube well excavation, installation and maintenance of pumps. In June 2015, researchers visited nine of the 38 TP villages, and found only two functional TPs. The rest were replaced with a new technology developed by the trained farmers. Adopters of the new technology stated that the limited water output and high labor demand of the conventional TP did not optimally fulfil their irrigation water requirements. The new technology had spread quickly to more than one hundred households due to three key factors. First, farmers’ innovative modifications of the initial excavation technique addressed the discharge limitations of the conventional TP by excavating boreholes with wider diameter. Second, local ownership of the new technology, including skills used in well drilling and manufacturing excavation implement, made the new irrigation technology affordable and accessible to the majority of households. Third, this innovation spread organically without any external support, confirming its sustainability. Farmers, empowered by training, gained more control in developing technology options tailored to local needs and conditions of their communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: web-based GIS; application; architectures; technology
Online: 18 August 2016 (06:07:05 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Blockchain Technology-enabled Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Uncertain Demand; Supervised Learning algorithms; Evolutionary Computation algorithms; Blockchain Technology
Online: 1 October 2023 (10:14:31 CEST)
This paper provides a new multi-function Blockchain Technology-enabled Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (BT-enabled PSC) mathematical cost model, including PSC costs, BT costs, and uncertain demand fluctuations. The purpose of this study is to find the most appropriate algorithm(s) with minimum prediction errors to predict the costs of the BT-enabled PSC model. This paper also aims to determine the importance and cost of each component of the multi-function model. To reach these goals, we combined four Supervised Learning algorithms (KNN, DT, SVM, and NB) with two Evolutionary Computation algorithms (HS and PSO) after data generation. Each component of the multi-function model has its own importance, and we applied the Feature Weighting approach to analyse their importance. Next, four performance metrics evaluated the multi-function model, and the Total Ranking Score determined predictive algorithms with high reliability. The results indicate the HS-NB and PSO-NB algorithms perform better than the other six algorithms in predicting the costs of the multi-function model with small errors. The findings also show that the Raw Materials cost has a stronger influence on the model than the other components. This study also introduces the components of the multi-function BT-enabled PSC model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1898.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Digital Divide; Empowerment; Assistive Technology; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:24:09 CET)
Digital literacy is the ability to use digital technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information. People with disabilities benefit from having these skills because they allow them to access various opportunities in the digital world. To ensure that they can fully participate in the digital realm, digital literacy efforts should prioritize inclusive design principles. People with disabilities often rely on assistive technologies such as screen readers, alternative input devices, voice recognition software, or specialized hardware to navigate digital platforms. Digital literacy programs should not only focus on consuming content but also on creating and sharing it through documents, multimedia, and online platforms. Peer support and collaboration are important for enhancing their learning experience. Additionally, digital literacy programs address cybersecurity or online safety considerations specific to such people and provide them training and support for using assistive technologies effectively while educating them about potential risks, privacy settings, and safe online practices. This narrative review highights the meaning and levels of digital literacy, digital divide, history, before expanding on the quantative metrics in the available research on the theme of people with disabilities. Retrieved data from freely accessible internet search engines revealed 196 publications, including books, chapters in books, original research articles, proceedings of seminars, and reviews, which were classified into harvest plots to be analyzed by their format, timelines, topics, or themes, respectively. While results indicate an upward curve in the quantity of publications, especially in the post-millennium era, the topics addressed are unevenly distributed, leaving scope for the future to focus empirical and evidence based research on themes related to measurement as well as training on digital literacies for both teachers and students with disabilities. By promoting digital literacy in people with disabilities, we can bridge the digital divide and empower them to participate fully in today's increasingly digital society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Environmental regulation; Green technology innovation; Spatial spillovers
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:14:32 CEST)
This study empirically examines the spatial spillover effect of various environmental regulations on green technology innovation using panel data from 284 county-level cities in China between 2007 and 2019. A geographical-economic spatial weight matrix is constructed, and the spatial Durbin model is employed to identify the specific characteristics of this spillover effect. The findings indicate that the spatial spillover effect of green technology innovation primarily occurs through geographical transmission. However, there is no significant spatial autocorrelation when using the economic distance weight matrix. Various types of environmental regulations influence the spatial spillover effect of green technology innovation in distinct ways. Specifically, Market-motivated environmental regulation exhibits a U-shaped relationship with the spatial spillover effect, while Command-controlled environmental regulation demonstrates an inverted U-shaped relationship, suggesting a complementary effect. Additional research shows that the upgrading of industrial structure acts as a mediator between command environmental regulation and the spatial spillover effect of green technology innovation. Government departments should comprehensively coordinate Market-motivated environmental regulation and Command-controlled environmental regulation, accurately assess the intensity of Command-controlled measures, and prevent the migration of green technology innovation elements caused by excessive regulatory measures within enterprises.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1236.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: wearable technology; autism spectrum disorder; physiological signals
Online: 17 August 2023 (12:59:38 CEST)
Research on wearable solutions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been conducted to detect stress. However, studies on stress detection for an individual with ASD have been limited, especially on how it should design for individuals with ASD. Wearable solutions may be a tool for parents and caregivers for emotional monitoring for individuals with ASD who have a high risk of experiencing very stressful. However, wearable solutions for individuals with ASD may differ from those without ASD. Individuals with ASD have sensory sensitiveness; therefore, they do not tolerate any accessory type or discomfort to use. We used the Scopus, PubMed, WoS, and IEEE-Xplore databases to answer different research questions related to wearable solutions for individuals with ASD, physiological parameters, and algorithms of artificial intelligence used for stress detection studies found from 2013 to 2023. Our review found 34 articles; not all the studies considered individuals with ASD or were out of the scope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1126.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Complexity theory, Emergence, Biology, Technology, Agency, Symmetries
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:46:46 CEST)
This paper discusses complexity theory, that is, the many theories that have been proposed for emergence of complexity from the underlying physics. Our aim is to identify which aspects have turned out to be the more fundamental ones as regards the emergence of biology, engineering, and digital computing, as opposed to those that are in fact more peripheral in these contexts. In the cases we consider, complexity arises via adaptive modular hierarchical structures that are open systems involving broken symmetries. Each emergent level is causally effective because of the meshing together of upwards and downwards causation that takes place consistently with the underlying physics. Various physical constraints limit the outcomes that can be achieved. The underlying issue concerns the origin of consciousness and agency given the basis of life in physics, which is structured starting from symmetries and variational principles with no trace of agency. A possible solution is to admit that consciousness is an irreducible emergent property of matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1007.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Space Science Keywords: interplanetary trave; Relativity; Nano Technology; relativistic engine
Online: 14 July 2023 (11:10:20 CEST)
Current spacecraft mass are mostly fuel, this is dictated by the lack of fueling stations in space and also by the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation which defines the mass ratio needed to escape earths gravity. The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation gives a relationship between the mass ratio and the final velocity in multiples of the exhaust speed, and dictates a high mass ration for current exhaust speeds. A relativistic motor exchanging momentum and energy with the electromagnetic field may mitigate such considerations, enabling efficient interplanetary travel. In this paper we will discuss the advantages and challenges of this novel mover for space transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0737.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: disruptive technology; financial innnovation; social innovation; MNCs
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:03:36 CEST)
This study aims to assess and identify the role of disruptive/digital technologies in financial innovation strategies as part of social innovations at both firm and country level. There are few studies of this type that "cross-examine" technical/social innovative capacity at the firm level vs. the same innovative capacity at the level of the world's major countries. Our proposed study brings some novel elements to the literature on this topic. First, the study synthesizes the factors/variables explaining technical/social innovative capacity as ranked by the GCI (Global Competitiveness Index) and GII (Global Innovation Index) at the country level and then correlates these variables with the factors explaining innovative capacity for the 50 companies in the BCG (Boston Consulting Group) ranking. Second, the study identifies three "driving forces" (digital technologies, managers and the market) as the main variables determining financial innovativeness at firm level. Third, based on the "cross" analysis of the information/data provided by the BCG study vs. the GII and GCI studies, the study suggests some ways to delineate and quantify financial innovation as part of social innovation (e.g., it is argued that 80% of the social innovation achieved annually by a firm relates to the financial relationships engaged by the firm with various categories of stakeholders). Finally, the study is also important from a pragmatic point of view as it suggests/proposes a number of principles that can be considered by managers for building a KM (knowledge management) and continuous innovation strategy. From a theoretical perspective, the study provides a starting point for further research aimed at explaining firm-level financial innovation through the massive use of disruptive technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0766.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Hot air-frying; Food; Technology; Oil intake
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:27:36 CEST)
Hot air frying is a new method of frying food, where the use of a small amount of oil is optional but recommended. The objective of this review was to know the state of the art of hot air frying technology, focusing on trends, and thus obtain new ideas for future work in this area of food. In conclusion, the availability of advanced devices will increase the demand for hot air fryers as demonstrated by the trend generating a great economic and social impact. This new technology not only provides health benefits, but also has environmental advantages. In addition, work focusing on food (i.e. tortilla chips, plantain chips, eggs and meats) is recommended, since there are not enough studies on the subject. Currently, research is being conducted on home fryers, so the use of fryers and their impact at the industrial level is a developing area that will require further research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0223.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavioral nudges; water conservation; technology; water efficiency
Online: 11 August 2022 (13:37:12 CEST)
Growing water shortages for large regions of the arid regions of the world, are likely to become more recurrent as climate change impacts grow. Countries across the world are facing water security difficulties that stem from population growth, urbanization, and rapid industrialization. The use of behavioral nudges methods implemented to encourage a socially desired behavior at a low to zero cost, has been an effective method at reducing water consumption in places where they have been deployed. For example, studies in California USA, Barcelona Spain, and Australia indicate that adoption of nudges give significant positive results in water consumption reduction. We describe some of the barriers that make it difficult to implement behavioral nudges to address the water crises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigate the literature available in Sub-Saharan Africa and discover that the application of behavioral nudges has been sparingly used for reasons that are not obvious at first glance. Second, we find that the potential impediments to the use of behavioral nudges in SSA to be awareness, inadequate access to science and technology, political systems that are poorly suited for implementing nudging, abundance of multiple ethnic groups that speak different languages, along with other barriers that could challenge implementation of behavioral nudges. In light of those barriers, we present a conceptual model with a potential to address these barriers to behavioral nudging a workable solution in SSA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0259.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Blockchain Technology; Cryptocurrency; Applications; Challenges; Opportunities
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:10:46 CEST)
Blockchain innovation stands out enough to be noticed and adopted in various countries and organizations around the world. Many businesses, including finance, medical services, inventory networks, security, libraries, and the internet of things, are currently under attack. For the benefit of the blockchain, many businesses incorporate blockchain technology into their frameworks. Despite its solidarity, blockchain faces a few challenges in security, protection, adaptability, and other areas. This paper examines the forward leap in blockchain innovation, as well as its applications and challenges. While many blockchain papers focus on digital currencies, IoT, and security, this paper focuses on the overall best in a class of blockchain innovation, its new twists and turns, and choices, particularly in areas other than cryptographic forms of money. The investigators' goal is to provide a thorough audit of the cryptography underlying blockchain to better understand the innovation. The examiners also conduct general research on people and venture blockchains, as well as future exploration opportunities and their implications for blockchain innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0337.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: agrometeorology; irrigation; information technology; statistics; water management
Online: 24 June 2022 (09:53:45 CEST)
Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is a key agrometeorological index for rational irrigation management. The standard method for ETo estimation, proposed by FAO, is based on a complicated Penman-Monteith equation, requires great number of meteorological inputs thus making it difficult for practical use by farmers. To the moment, there are many alternative simplified approaches for ETo estimation, most of them are directed to cutting the number of required meteorological inputs for calculation. Among them, special attention should be paid to various temperature-based methods of ETo assessment. One of the temperature-based models for ETo computation was realized in free mobile app ETo Calculator (Ukraine). The app gives Ukrainian farmers an opportunity to assess ETo values on daily or monthly scale using mean air temperature as the only input. The goal of the study was to test the app accuracy comparing to FAO-based calculations in five key regions of Ukraine, each of which representing a particular climatic zone of the country. It was established that the app provides relatively good accuracy of ETo estimation even in raw (not adjusted to windspeed and relative air humidity) run; the results of statistical comparison with the FAO-calculated values are: R2 within 0.82-0.87, RMSE within 0.74-0.81 mm, MAE within 0.60-0.70, MAPE within 18.07-25.50% depending on the region. ETo Calculator (Ukraine) is a good alternative for complicated Penman-Monteith method and could be recommended for Ukrainian farmers to be used for irrigation management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: physics teacher; perception; judgment; differentiated instruction; technology
Online: 21 June 2022 (04:46:53 CEST)
There is a national shift in the new Indonesian curriculum to employ differentiated learning approach in addressing diversity of students’ needs and abilities. Teachers’ judgment obviously corresponds to the duty that takes physics teachers to monitor their students at individual level. Within Indonesian physics education research (PER) context, empirical study that has addressed this subject is still lacking. To fill this gap, eight Indonesian physics teachers’ experiences and limitations about their judgment within differentiated learning environment has been investigated through phenomenological study. Physics teachers were voluntarily recruited after they have declared their endorsement and personal consent to participate in the study. Our participants were distributed over several teaching experiences, geographic regions, and ICT experiences. The latter experience might be taken into account since, through this study, we would project upcoming developmental research about engaging recent technological approaches to cope limitations of teachers’ judgment. Online semi-structured interviews (~ 50 min) were conducted by the first author (P.H.S.) to all physics teachers. Other authors contributed in reviewing the interview protocol (E.I. and H) and training the first author’s pilot interview (H.R.). Model of teachers’ thought and action was implemented to uncover physics teachers’ experiences and limitations in making judgment within diverse students. Findings revealed that physics teachers have conceded that they should adapt learning process in order to meet heterogeneous students’ needs. Personal observation has mainly informed teachers to identify students’ differences. After students have been identified, they creatively designed learning transformations to accommodate spectrum of students’ abilities. Nevertheless, we discovered several limitations encountered by teachers particularly in terms of judgments’ equity, accuracy, and their workload. To overcome this, teachers indicated various and supportive attitudes about technology implementation to assist their judgment. Implications for technological development was provided to address obstacles during the teachers’ judgment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0047.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Rehabilitation; new technology; validation; study design; methods
Online: 3 June 2022 (11:12:44 CEST)
Important current limitations of the implementation of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in the rehabilitation field are related to the validation process of new technologies and interventions. Indeed, most of the strict guidelines that have been developed for the validation of new drugs (i.e., double or triple blinded, strict control of the doses and intensity) cannot – or only partially – be applied in rehabilitation. Well powered high quality randomized controlled trials are more difficult to organize in rehabilitation (e.g., longer duration of the intervention in rehabilitation, more difficult to standardize the intervention compared to drugs’ validation studies, limited funding’s since not sponsorized by big pharma companies), which reduces the possibility of conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses, as currently high level of evidence is sparse. The current limitations of EBP in rehabilitation are presented in this paper and innovative solutions are suggested such as: technology-supported rehabilitation systems, continuous assessment, pragmatic trials, rehabilitation treatment specification systems, and advanced statistical methods, to tackle the limitations to increase the quality of the research in rehabilitation. The development and implementation of new technologies should increase the quality of research and the level of evidence supporting rehabilitation provided some adaptation in our research methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0039.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: powder technology; mechanochemical synthesis; absorber materials; chalcostibite
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:36:38 CEST)
One of the areas of research on materials for thin-film solar cells focuses on replacing In and Ga with more earth-abundant elements. In that respect, chalcostibite (CuSbS2) is being considered as a promising environmentally friendly and cost-effective photovoltaic absorber material. In the present work, single CuSbS2 phase have been synthesized directly by a short duration (2 h) mechanochemical synthesis step starting from mixtures of elemental powders. X-ray diffraction analysis of the synthesized CuSbS2 powders revealed a good agreement with the orthorhombic chalcostibite phase, space group Pnma, and a crystallite size of 26 nm. Particle size characterization revealed a multimodal distribution with a median diameter ranging from of 2.93 m to 3.10 m. The thermal stability of the synthesized CuSbS2 powders was evaluated by differential thermal analysis. No phase change was observed by heat treating the mechanochemically synthesized powders at 350 C for 24 h. By UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy the optical bandgap was determined to be 1.41 eV, suggesting that the mechanochemically synthesized CuSbS2 can be considered suitable to be used as absorber materials. Overall, the results show that the mechanochemical process is a viable route for the synthesis of materials for photovoltaic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0034.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Blockchain technology; security; Machine learning; Smart System
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:53:16 CET)
Blockchain and Machine Learning gives the best solutions together in performing various tasks in the Smart Health care system. With these two new emerging technologies, that have materialized in the last decade. In this paper, we proposed secure, transparent and intelligent methods in the Internate of medical things industry using Machine learning models and blockchain technology to enhance security level and train our models to improve diagnostic, prevention, treatment of the patient, patient rights, patient autonomy and equality in the health care system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Invasive weeds; Organic Fertilizers; Vermicomposting Technology; Ethiopia.
Online: 21 October 2021 (22:53:58 CEST)
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian and a key sector of its economy. However, Lack of productive and environmentally friendly technology is not widely applicable elsewhere. Likewise, the vermicomposting technology is a recently emerging science which not effectively transferred to the users across the country. Thus, this review is aimed to shine the importance, unexploited opportunities and the challenges hindered for further expansions in Ethiopian context. Vermicompost is among the powerful organic fertilizers which enhance soil Fertility and productivity. As agrarian society; there are plenty of raw byproducts and weed species which are not center of focus (i.e cattle waste, crop residues and invasive weeds like P.Juliflora, P.hysterophorus and E.crassipes respectively). However, there are many constraints there like policy issue, handling problems and sensitivity of the worms for different environmental factors which hindered to invest on a wide range. Generally, the number and weight of vermiculture as well as amount of produced casts are promised and every possible ways were recommended to entertain on the large scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0259.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain technology; Process authenticity; Tokens; Anchors; Oracles
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:54:39 CEST)
In the last four years, the evolution and adoption of blockchain and, more generally, distributed ledger systems have shown the affirmation of many concepts and models with significant differences in system governance and suitable applications. This work aims to update the critical analysis of blockchain technologies carried out by our previous contribution to this journal, extending the focus to distributed ledger components and systems. Starting from the topical concept of decentralization, we introduce concepts and building blocks currently adopted in the available systems centering on their functional aspects and impact on possible applications. We present some conceptual framing tools helpful in the application context, and we will propose the concept of process authenticity, which we will discuss through two use cases: blockchain document dematerialization and e-voting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Chatbot technology; Artificial intelligence; Computer Science Education
Online: 18 August 2021 (13:57:15 CEST)
The number of AI applications in education is growing every day. One recent AI application in the educational sector is Chatbot technology, which is used to support teaching and administrative tasks. This document presents the design and implementation of a Chatbot called Tashi-Bot that helps applicants and university students to obtain information from an educational institution about certain academic and administrative processes. Among these are processes related to well-being, tuition, costs, admission, and other services. In order to design the Chatbot, an analysis of the state of the art, methodologies, and suitable tools was carried out, and a survey was conducted to discover the needs of users and their preferences in the use of a Chatbot for this specific purpose. Tashi-Bot was implemented on the SnatchBot platform and later deployed on a Telegram channel. In its evaluation, a final survey was carried out to check on the satisfaction of the users. The results suggest that Tashi-Bot could help applicants and university students to find information on academic and administrative processes with great certainty and without the need for human interaction. Tashi-Bot can be found at: https://web.telegram.org/#/im?p=@TashiE_Bot..
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: obesity; dropout; mobile technology; attrition; pediatric; lifestyle
Online: 7 December 2020 (08:26:08 CET)
Pediatric obesity management strategies suffer from a high rate of dropout and persistence of weight excess, despite the use of new tools, such as the automated mobile technology (MT). We aimed to compare the efficacy of two personalized MT protocols with/without monthly in-presence recalls in terms of better adherence to follow-up, and improved anthropometric and lifestyle parameters. MT contacts consisted in three not automated messages per week, inserted between three-monthly in-presence regular visits with (PediaFit 1.2) or without (PediaFit 1.1) monthly in-presence recalls. The sample included 103 children (mean age 10 years, range 6-14) recruited in the Pediatric Obesity Clinic between January 2017 and February 2019, randomized in Intervention group (IG) (n=24 PediaFit 1.1; n=30 PediaFit 1.2) and Control group (CG) (total n=49). Both IGs achieved significantly better results than the CGs for all considered parameters. Comparison of the two IGs at the 6th month showed that IG 1.2 had a statistically significant lower drop-out rate (10% vs. 62%), along with improved body mass index z-score, systolic blood pressure, sleep duration and physical activity. The study suggests that the hybrid association of messaging through personalized/not automated MT plus monthly in-presence recalls may be considered for a favorable outcome of pediatric obesity programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: telehealth; telemedicine; NCOVID-19; technology; management; regulations
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:09:18 CEST)
Telehealth has been playing a progressively major role in the management of the NCOVID-19 crisis. The enforcement of social distancing measures has had the consequence of reduced technology distance in almost every walk of life. In this paper, based primarily on the still unfolding experiences of deploying it during the current situation, we argue that telehealth has finally come of age and that it is time to move it from the peripheries to the center of the 21st century healthcare. To provide a live context to the discussion, several instances of how telehealth strengthened our healthcare systems during the NCOVID-19 crisis are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Organ-on-Chip, tissue engineering, microfluidic technology
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:11:22 CET)
Organ-on-Chip is a game-changing technology born from the convergence of tissue engineering and microfluidic technology. Organ-on-Chip devices (OoCs) are expected to offer effective solutions to persisting problems in drug development and personalized disease treatments. This opinion paper surveys the current landscape in research, development, application and market opportunities for OoCs to help establishing a global and multi-stakeholder OoC ecosystem. Based on a bibliometric study, a market analysis, expert interviews, and panel discussions held at the ORCHID Vision Workshop (Stuttgart, 23 May 2018), we outline presently unmet needs, key challenges, barriers and perspectives of the field, and finally propose recommendations towards the definition of a comprehensive roadmap that could render OoCs realistic models of human (patho)physiology in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0387.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: climate change; soybean yields; technology; temperature; CO2
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:45:34 CET)
Soybean yields are often indicated as an interesting case of climate change mitigation due to the beneficial effects of CO2 fertilization. In this paper we econometrically study this effect using a time series model of yields in a multivariate framework for a main producer and exporter of this commodity, Argentina. We have to deal with the upward behavior of soybean yields trying to identify which variables are the long-run determinants responsible of its observed trend. With this aim we adopt a partial system approach to estimate subsets of long-run relationships due to climate, technological and economic factors. Using an automatic selection algorithm we evaluate encompassing of the different obtained equilibrium correction models. We found that only technological innovations due to new crop practices and the use of modified seeds explain soybean yield in the long run. Regarding short run determinants we found positive effects associated with the use of standard fertilizers and also from changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration which would suggest a mitigation effect from global warming. However, we also found negative climate effects from periods of droughts associated with La Niña episodes, high temperatures and extreme rainfall events during the growing season of the plant.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: long-term care, technology, therapy, virtual reality
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:34:02 CEST)
In this study, 6 residents of a long-term care facility were asked to try on Virtual Reality glasses and report their first experiences with Virtual Reality. The results show that Virtual Reality is of great interest to elderly residents of in-patient long-term care facilities. The wearing period was longer than expected and no symptoms of cyber sickness occurred. For the residents it was exciting to explore the virtual environments. Austrian destinations, nature scenes in the mountains and forests but also trips to the zoo, the museum, in churches or even densely populated areas like shopping streets or train stations would be places for the residents, they would like to explore virtually. Far-off destinations such as Rio de Janeiro or the Caribbean are more of an exception. Biographically relevant places such as the parental home or the location of their wedding were not named. Concerning the usability, an adjustment of the VR glasses is necessary for a longer-term use in any case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0114.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: marginal technology; power grid; consequential LCA; China
Online: 28 September 2016 (11:49:30 CEST)
Electricity consumption is often the hotspot of life cycle assessment (LCA) of products, industrial activities, or services. The objective of this paper is to provide a consistent, scientific, region-specific electricity-supply-based inventory of electricity generation technology for national and regional power grids. Marginal electricity generation technology is pivotal in assessing impacts related to additional consumption of electricity. China covers a large geographical area with regional supply grids; these are arguably equally or less integrated. Meanwhile, it is also a country with internal imbalances in regional energy supply and demand. Therefore, we suggest an approach to achieve a geographical subdivision of the Chinese electricity grid, corresponding to the interprovincial regional power grids, namely the North, the Northeast, the East, the Central, the Northwest, and the Southwest China Grids, and the China Southern Power Grid. The approach combines information from the Chinese national plans on for capacity changes in both production and distribution grids, and knowledge of resource availability. The results show that nationally, marginal technology is coal-fired electricity generation, which is the same scenario in the North and Northwest China Grid. In the Northeast, East, and Central China Grid, nuclear power gradually replaces coal-fired electricity and becomes the marginal technology. In the Southwest China Grid and the China Southern Power Grid, the marginal electricity is hydropower towards 2030.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: UAV Technology; Information Processing; Machine Learning; IR Technology; Covid-19; Multi-modal machine learning; Machine vision; Computer vision
Online: 26 September 2022 (05:46:03 CEST)
Tracking and early identification of suspected cases are essential to control and prevent potential COVID-19 outbreaks. One of the most popular techniques used to track this disease is the use of Infrared cameras to identify individuals with elevated body temperatures. However, they are limited by their inability to be implemented in open public settings such as public parks or even outdoor recreational centers. This limits their ability to effectively track possible COVID-19 patients as open public recreational places such as parks, concert venues and other public venues are hotspots for the spreading of the virus. Other technological solutions such as thermal scanners require an individual to perform the actual testing as they are not individual standalone technologies. This method of testing can potentially cause the transmission of the virus between the tester and the individual getting tested. As can be seen, an alternative solution is essential to solving this issue. In this study, we aim to present the system, design and potential scope of a non-invasive system that can diagnose and identify potential COVID-19 patients using thermal and optical images of the individual using drone technology. The proposed system (COVIDRONE) combines multi-modal machine intelligence, computer vision and real-time monitoring to enable scalable monitoring. The system will also involve the use of machine learning algorithms for better and more accurate diagnosis. We envisage that development of such technologies may help in developing technological solutions to combat infectious disease threats in the future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Offshore Wind power; Operation and maintenance management; Intelligent operation and maintenance robot; Smart wind farm technology; 5g technology
Online: 27 April 2022 (08:57:55 CEST)
With the rapid development of global offshore wind power, the demand for offshore wind power operation and maintenance is also increasing. Wisdomization of offshore wind farms is a practical need to improve the operation level and benefit of offshore wind farms. This paper first introduces the current development situation and characteristics of global offshore wind power, and expounds the current situation and main challenges of offshore wind power operation and maintenance market. Therefore, our paper discusses the innovation of offshore wind power operation and maintenance from the aspects of operation and maintenance management of offshore wind power, monitoring and analysis technology of units, far-reaching wind field monitoring and operation and maintenance risks. Then, combined with information technology and lean management concept, a smart operation and maintenance management platform for wind farms in far-reaching sea areas is built to explore centralized and intelligent operation and maintenance management mode, improve operation and maintenance efficiency of wind farms in far-reaching sea areas, and minimize operation and maintenance costs. Finally, through the research on the characteristics of 5G technology, combined with the practical experience of operation and maintenance, and in view of the characteristics of offshore wind farms, we analyze and propose several typical application scenarios of 5G technology in the intelligent operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms, which provides a new solution for the efficient operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: information technology; construction project management; cost management; impact factor model; progressive technology; construction industry, life cycle cost management.
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:12:55 CET)
Construction project management and cost management is a difficult process that affects the overall success of construction projects. The success of a construction project can be assessed according to key performance indicators (KPIs). Cost savings and cost optimization over the life of a construction project is one of these KPIs. Cost management is largely performed through intelligent information technology in the construction industry. Information systems and information technologies have seen an increase in use in the management of construction projects. The same goes for cost management. Several studies mentioned in the paper point to this increase in use in recent years also in the management of costs at various stages. Many studies point to the use of information technology and software applications in the field of cost management. Still, to a large extent, there are no surveys focused on the analysis of the impact and impact factor of information technology on cost savings or cost optimization in various phases of construction projects. The research discusses the issue of the impact of information technology on cost management in various phases of a construction project. The main goal of the research is to analyze the influence of information technology factors on cost savings and optimization in individual phases of a construction project. Several statistical methods were used in the research. The resulting model of information technology impact factor was created based on data processing and the use of the AHP method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: blockchain; distributed ledger technology; physical internet; logistics; supply chain management; research framework; innovation; information technology; triple bottom line; sustainability
Online: 1 February 2019 (04:00:54 CET)
Integrating triple bottom line (TBL) goals into supply chains (SCs) is a challenging task which necessitates the careful coordination of numerous stakeholders’ individual interests. Recent technological advancements can impact TBL sustainability by changing the design, structure and management of modern SCs. Blockchain technology enables immutable data records and facilitates a shared data view along the supply chain. The Physical Internet (PI) is an overarching framework that can be applied to create a layered and comprehensive view of the SC. In this conceptual paper I define and combine these technologies and derive several high-level research areas and research questions to investigate adoption, management as well as structural SC issues. I suggest a theory-based research agenda for the years to come that exploits the strengths of rigorous academic research, while remaining relevant for the industry. Furthermore, I suggest various well-established theories to tackle the respective research questions and provide specific directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1631.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: VR; Technology; Physical activity; Physical fitness; Exercise adherence.
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:18:31 CET)
Outdoor exercise is beneficial for psychophysical well-being. Limited studies have compared outdoor and virtual reality (VR) indoor physical activities, especially in coastal settings. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of outdoor coastal walking and indoor walking in a VR simulation with a similar environment on physiological and psychological variables in healthy adults. Twenty-six subjects (14M and 12F; age 25.2 ± 2.5 years) voluntarily participated in this crossover randomized controlled and counterbalanced study and were allocated under three conditions: VR indoor walking (INVR), outdoor walking (OUT) and standard indoor walking (IN). IN and INVR conditions were performed on a treadmill (speed 4.5 Km/h) and the OUT was per-formed on a seaside pedestrian road. The same outdoor environment was displayed in the visor during the INVR. Heart rate (HRmean/max), Physical Activity Enjoyment (PACES-It) and State of Mindfulness for Physical Activity (SMS-PA) were assessed at the end of each condition. The OUT condition showed significantly greater PACES-It scores and HRmean than IN and INVR (p<0.001) and greater SMS-PA scores and HRmax than IN (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No significant dif-ferences were found between OUT and INVR regarding HRmax and SMS-PA scores (p>0.05). Findings suggest that physical activity in an immersive technology may lead to physiological loads comparable to the outdoor environment. OUT is more enjoyable than IN and INVR but exhibits a mindfulness response comparable to INVR. Therefore, INVR could be an alternative to OUT for those who cannot engage in outdoor activities for various reasons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0547.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: stakeholder; perception; biometric data protection; face recognition technology
Online: 8 September 2023 (02:42:47 CEST)
This research aims to thoroughly understand the delicate interplay between stakeholders' perspectives, biometric data protection policies, and the deployment of face recognition technologies in Indonesia's dynamic digital world. Adopting a qualitative methodology, the study conducts Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with various stakeholders, including government agencies, technology developers, regulatory agencies, civil society groups, and data subjects as end-users. Face-to-face group discussions facilitate an in-depth exploration of participants' perspectives, yielding rich qualitative data that reveals nuanced insights into the delicate balance between technological innovation, ethical considerations, and socioeconomic repercussions associated with implementing face recognition technology. The research comprehensively explains the difficulties and opportunities associated with responsible technological progress and biometric data security. The findings from the FGDs influence the development of strategies that effectively balance technical advancement with individual rights, privacy, and social well-being within the growing digital landscape of Indonesia. The regulatory function of the government seeks to bridge the gap between public expectations and technological advancements. Collaboration between academic institutions, government agencies, the private sector, and data subjects as end-users emerges as a crucial element, fostering an all-encompassing strategy integrating research, law, technology deployment, and user empowerment. This holistic approach is necessary to ensure that biometric data and facial recognition technology are utilized responsibly, thereby laying the way for Indonesia's technologically sophisticated and ethically aware digital future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0019.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: rainwater ingress; sewer channels; wastewater management; sensor technology
Online: 1 September 2023 (13:40:14 CEST)
Rainwater infiltration presents substantial challenges for urban wastewater management systems. This article delves into enhancing the quality of wastewater systems by proposing a novel device designed to tackle this issue comprehensively. The focal point of our research revolves around the conceptualization, construction, rigorous testing, and the potential multifaceted applications of this innovative wastewater device. Our study is dedicated to assessing the viability of a cutting-edge apparatus that empowers municipal entities in swiftly identifying rainwater ingress points within channels during precipitation events. Our findings vividly showcase the device's remarkable capability to directly measure moisture levels along the channel's path, eliminating the arduous need for manual data input, extensive data collection, and intricate water analysis procedures. To ensure the seamless flow of both sewage and water within the sewer channel, the use of a relatively slender strap is conventionally favored. However, factoring in the requisite structural robustness, we recommend a minimum thickness of 4 mm for 3D printing applications. For instances where maintaining the channel's cross-sectional area integrity is paramount, opting for a armlet with wet circuit measurement thickness of up to 7 mm is prudent. In the realm of material selection, our investigation advocates for the utilization of PC/ABS (polycarbonate/ Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), ABS, ASA (Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate), or HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene) for the strap housing. For sewer diameters surpassing 315 mm, the application of thin-walled PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) emerges as a practical recommendation. Notably, the incorporation of PVC flat bars is discouraged, as their presence might potentially hinder the fluidity of sewage flow, thereby compromising the precision of wet circuit measurements. The pivotal innovation lies in the armlet with wet circuit measurement system, harboring immense potential for broad-scale integration across municipal facilities. This solution emerges as a streamlined and efficient strategy, offering a comprehensive avenue for continuously monitoring, fine-tuning, and optimizing the structural soundness and operational efficacy of sewer systems.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1309.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: ultrafiltration; rose petal by-product; polyphenols; green technology
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:02:03 CEST)
One main objective of this study was to increase the utilization of the raw material in the rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) essential oil industry by application of membrane technologies. A new ultrafiltration-based process for green recovery of polyphenols from distilled (de-aromatized) rose petals, the primary by-product in essential oil production, was created. The process includes enzyme-assisted extraction and subsequent membrane separation for partial concentration. Following a green membrane technology strategy, the newly developed process proposes an environmentally-friendly alternative to the conventional processing, comprising organic solvent ex-traction and adsorber resin purification. The results showed that the permeate flux decreased with volume reduction ratio’s rise and increased with the transmembrane pressure and feed flow rate rises. At the beginning of the process the highest flux was with UF1-PAN membrane, but at the end of the process with UF10-PAN membrane. Total polyphenols of the retentates in-creased by 27-39% and 26-67% during ultrafiltration with UF1-PAN and UF10-PAN membrane, respectively, with the highest value obtained for UF10-PAN membrane at VRR 6. The highest concentration factor and rejection of total solids, total polyphenols, redox-active antioxidants and radical scavenging antioxidants were obtained at VRR 6 with UF10-PAN membrane. This membrane and concentration level at transmembrane pressure of 0.4 MPa and feed flow rate of 330 dm3/h are recommended to be used for application of ultrafiltration of rose-petals by-product for potential use in the food industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1698.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Trauma; Electrospinning technology; Polydopamine modification; Thrombin; Hemostatic method
Online: 25 June 2023 (02:08:31 CEST)
Hemorrhagic shock is the primary cause of death in patients with severe trauma, and the development of rapid and efficient hemostatic methods is of great significance in promoting the life-saving of trauma patients. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber membrane was prepared by electrospinning technology. The PCL-PDA loading system was developed by modifying the surface of polydopamine (PDA) inspired by mussel adhesion protein, and the efficient and stable loading of thrombin (TB) was realized on the premise of ensuring the bioactivity of TB. The new thrombin loading system overcomes the disadvantages of harsh storage conditions, poor strength, easy to fall off, and can use thrombin to start rapid coagulation cascade reaction, which has the characteristics of fast hemostasis, good biocompatibility, high safety and wide range of hemostasis. The physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of PCL-PDA-TB membrane were verified by scanning electron microscopy, cell proliferation test, cell adhesion test and extract cytotoxicity test. Red blood cell adhesion, platelet adhesion, dynamic coagulation time and animal models all verified the coagulation effect of PCL-PD-TB membrane. Therefore, PCL-PDA-TB membrane has great potential in wound hemostasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: virtual concert; audiences’ attitude; player experience; technology acceptance
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:13:58 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to investigate and validate the influencing factors of audiences’ attitude toward virtual concerts. To address this issue, the current study proposes a conceptual model integrating player experiences’ factors (autonomy, relatedness, and engagement) and the technology acceptance model (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment). An online questionnaire on virtual concert experiences was distributed to Chinese audiences who had attended virtual concerts. Structural equation modeling was then used to establish the relationship between variables. The results suggested autonomy, relatedness and engagement positively impacted perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment. Furthermore, the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment were significant predictors of audiences’ attitude. The findings of this study can provide a reference for relevant virtual entertainment providers and can also serve as a point of development and exploration for technology acceptance model and player experience in the field of virtual concerts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1159.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Industry 4.0; technology; green taxes; green energy; sustainability.
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:09:12 CEST)
Technological development has profoundly marked the evolution of the economy. The constant changes brought about by scientific and technological advances have been decisive in the transition from an analogue to a digital world. In this context, the impact of the fourth industrial revolution (or Industry 4.0.) manifests itself in many ways. Environmental impact is one of these. The energy sector has been evolving and changing just like the economy and society. Therefore, a study of this sector, and of the other related elements, is of interest to better understand the 4.0 concept. The promotion of sustainability at both political and social levels has led to changes in different areas, such as the productive vision, the use of green energies or the implementation of green taxes. Energy as a key factor in Industry 4.0. involves studying it both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is to under-stand the lights and shadows that the concept currently presents. Therefore, this work aims to bring the reality of the energy sector closer to reality, both in its positive and negative aspects, considering the main factors of incidence, in order to show the strengths and weaknesses that can be deduced.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0953.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Antibacterial Agents; Antibiotics; Cyclodextrins; Inclusion Complex; Technology; Treatments
Online: 26 April 2023 (04:09:37 CEST)
Antibiotics have become a widely used drug classes worldwide. Its indiscriminate use in the clini-cal-hospital environment ended up causing antibiotic-resistance genes. Pharmaceutical technology is an essential ally for new formulation development in the antibacterial field. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are ap-proaches that can potentially improve the effectiveness of antibacterial drugs. Thus, this study aimed to review experimental models using CDs as inclusion complexes to improve antibacterial drugs’ physi-cochemical characteristics and biological activities. The review was carried out using the three online journals database PubMed, Scopus, and Embase, limited to Medical Subjects Headings Index. The search protocol was registered in the Open Science Framework database. The following terms and their com-binations were used: cyclodextrins and antibacterial agents in title or abstract, and a total of 1580 studies were identified in a period up to October 2022. Finally, 27 articles were selected for discussion in this review. The biological results reveal that the antibacterial effect of the compounds, complexed with CDs, was extensively improved when compared to the free drugs. CDs can improve the therapeutic effects of antibiotics, already existing on the market, natural products, and synthetic molecules. Therefore, these inclusion complexes using CDs increase the new pharmaceutical products development for clinical ap-plication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0746.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cardiotoxicity, childhood cancer, chemotherapeutics agents, biomarkers, omics technology
Online: 24 April 2023 (04:06:08 CEST)
Improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer have considerably enhanced survival rates over the last decades, to over 80% as per today. However, this great achievement has been accompanied by the occurrence of several early and long-term treatment-related complications major of which is the cardiotoxicity. The chemotherapeutic agents that have been implicated as a cause of cardiotoxicity, are mostly anthracyclines and mitoxantrone, alkylating agents, proteasome inhibitors and to a lesser extent anti-microtubule agents, cisplatin, monoclonal antibodies, small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and nucleotide synthesis inhibitors. Routine diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity rely on electrocardiography and echocardiography. For the early detection of cardiotoxicity, in recent years, major studies have been conducted using biomarkers such as troponin, N-terminal pro b-natriuretic peptide, etc. Despite refinements in diagnostics still severe limitations exist, due to the increase of the above-mentioned biomarkers, only after significant cardiac damage has occurred. Lately, research has been expanded by introducing new technologies and finding new markers by omics approach. These new markers could be used not only for early detection, but also for early prevention of cardiotoxicity. The omics science, which includes genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, offers new opportunities for biomarker discovery in cardiotoxicity and may provide understanding of mechanisms of cardiotoxicity, beyond traditional technologies. This article reviews the contemporary definition of cardiotoxicity, older and newer chemotherapeutic agents mainly involved in cardiotoxicity and the methods of early and preventive diagnosis, using omics technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Pedagogic Technology; Inclusive Schools; Children with Special Needs
Online: 23 January 2023 (04:02:43 CET)
Educators' subject-matter knowledge and their understanding of the many ways in which technology may be used to enhance student learning can both benefit from the usage of pedagogical technology, which is the primary goal of this kind of technology. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which kids with special needs might benefit academically by adopting various forms of technology into their daily routines. This work makes use of descriptive qualitative research together with the methodology and processes that come with case study research. The emphasis of this study was placed on three institutions that welcome students of all abilities. According to the results of the qualitative research, inclusive schools do not universally possess the resources necessary to successfully incorporate technology into the classroom. The results suggest that this teacher occupies a position that is about equivalent to the center of the acceptable range. This displays the instructor's existing proficiency in the use of technology to enhance the results for their students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0042.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Technology; Law; Society; Economics; Business Strategy; Globalisation; Deglobalisation
Online: 3 June 2022 (10:11:01 CEST)
Existing research has focused on discussing various issues in isolation, e.g., climate change or deglobalisation, without capturing the geo-political, legal, socio-economic, and technological implications in a holistic manner, especially in China and Southeast Asia. This has hindered the derivation of clear guidelines to navigate the business environment in the next decade, thus leaving the business world with fragmented theories and concepts that are hard to amalgamate and turn into tangible business strategies. Thus, this study illustrates the key challenges that are likely to influence the stability and sustainability of the global business environment by 2030, as well as suggests the main business strategies to leverage to mitigate them. This contribution, for the first time, proposes an alternative holistic approach by highlighting the key threats to global business in the next decade, as well as suggesting clear action points to account for the main ones from geo-political, legal, socio-economic, and technological standpoints in a unified theory. Local and more tailored strategies are described and discussed as referred to various industries to help in navigating a deglobalised and more competitive market by 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes Technology; CGM; Accuracy; Type 1 Diabetes; Sustainability
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:58:57 CET)
Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usability of a novel continuous glucose moni-toring (CGM) system designed for needle-free insertion and reduced environmental impact. We assessed sensor performance of two GlucoMen® Day CGM systems worn simultaneously in eight participants with type 1 diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was performed reg-ularly over 14 days at home. Participants underwent two standardized 5-hour meal challenges with frequent plasma glucose (PG) measurements using a laboratory reference instrument at the research center. When comparing CGM to PG the overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was 9.7 [2.6-14.6]%. The overall MARD of CGM vs SMBG was 13.1 [3.5-18.6]%. In the consensus error grid (CEG) analysis, 98% of both CGM/PG and CGM/SMBG pairs were in the clinically acceptable zones A and B. The analysis confirms that GlucoMen® Day CGM meets the clinical requirements for state-of-the-art CGM. The needle-free insertion technology is well toler-ated by users and reduces medical waste compared to conventional CGM systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0380.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Micro-Datacenters; information and communications technology (ICT); Efficiency
Online: 6 October 2021 (15:59:04 CEST)
The rapid growth of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector requires additional infrastructure, such as more micro-datacenters and telecom stations, to support the higher internet speeds and low latency requirements of 5G net-works. The increased power requirements of the new ICT technologies necessitate the proposal of new power supplies in an attempt to retain the increase in energy demand and running costs. This work provides an in-depth theoretical analysis on the losses of the individual stages of commercially available PSU and proposes a new multicell PSU, Buck-PFC converter, which offers a higher overall efficiency at varying load levels. The theoretical results are verified using simulation results, via PSIM Thermal Module, and using experimental data. The results indicate that multi-cell structures can improve the overall PSU ef-ficiency by 1.2% at 50% rated power and more than 2.1% at full power. Finally, taking into consideration the economic implica-tions of this study, it is shown that the proposed multicell structure may increase the PSU costs by 10.78% but the payback pe-riod is in the order of just 3.3 years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0246.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: food safety; sustainability; RFID; technology; fisheries; consumption; traceability
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:35:05 CEST)
At present, sustainability and emerging technology are the most expressed issues in any supply chain management (SCM) sector. At the same time, pandemic makes consumers more concerned regarding health, and safe food with a sustainable way to access the current market. Thus, supervision and monitoring of product quality with symmetric traceability information in fresh food and fisheries SCM is significant. Research on food safety and traceability systems based on blockchain, internet of service (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSN), and radio frequency identification (RFID) provides the solution of constancy from production to consumption. This review focused on the RFID-based traceability systems in fisheries SCM, which have been employed globally in the last fifteen years to ensure fish quality and security. Additionally, a summarized comparison study has presented different sectors’ traceability systems using RFID and their advantages over real-time applications. The outcome of this study will help future researchers to solve the crisis in terms of trust between consumers and the fisheries SCM. Thus, this review would be a guideline and solution for enhancing the reliability of RFID-based traceability in food SCM systems to ensure the integrity and reducing the opacity and asymmetry in the product information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0288.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Agricultural technology; Adoption; Multinomial Logit; Poverty; Rural Amhara
Online: 10 June 2021 (11:14:06 CEST)
The adoption of agricultural technology is an important path for raising agricultural productivity, and thereby for reducing food insecurity and poverty. Despite the efforts to promote adoption in most of the rural areas of Ethiopian farmers, the adoption rate has always been very low. So, it is essential to understand the barriers to adoption. As a result, this study examined the determinants of adoption of multiple agricultural technologies in rural Amhara region of Ethiopia. The study is based on Ethiopian socio-economic survey of 2015/16. A sample of 656 farm households was considered. The paper used multinomial logit model to assess the factors affecting adoption. The result shows that farmers with more educational level, family size, off-farm participation, livestock, extension contact, credit access, advisory service, and farmers closer to plot, all-weather road, zonal town, and farmers with lower remittance income are more likely to adopt new or improved agricultural technology. Therefore, the study recommends the need of policies and interventions on adoption of agricultural technology should pay attention and move along with those variables significantly influencing adoption of agricultural technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: COVID-19; Clubhouse; Social Media; Auditory Learning; Technology
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:35:30 CEST)
Clubhouse is an auditory app that allows users to host various rooms surrounding a diverse range of topics from Artificial Intelligence to Philosophy. Along with its educational and serene approach, it is known for its popularity amongst celebrities, including Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerburg, CEO of Shopify, and its elusive invite and ios-only pass into gaining access into Clubhouse. Waiting lists are available in the case of not achieving an invite, but to further speed the process, various sellers on eBay, Reddit, Twitter, etc., charging invites from $10-$200. This research paper covers the phenomenon of Clubhouse and the emergence of audio-only rooms, along with a hypothesis of why Clubhouse and other apps of a similar kind are experiencing a harsh downfall despite its seemingly successful business model.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: peer group support; peer group education and technology
Online: 15 April 2021 (10:28:41 CEST)
AbstractBackground: the development of nursing, especially related to the nursing intervention approach, is running so fast. This can be seen from the use of peer group support in nursing interventions in individual humans. The purpose of this literature is to find the impact of implementing nursing interventions using a peer group support approach.Method: this literature review method uses JBI and Prisma on 120 articles taken from journal databases, namely Scopus, PubMed and Sciendirect.Result: From the articles analyzed, it was found that the application of peer groups can improve individual abilities both in psychological and behavioral aspects.Conclusion: the application of the peer group approach is able to be one of the approaches in the world of nursing in carrying out nursing actions today.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0257.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Mobile-based mentoring; girl-child; mentoring; mobile technology
Online: 10 February 2021 (12:44:24 CET)
In some parts of Nigeria, many girls do not attend school, and among those sent to school, many still drop out early. This and other socio-cultural factors affect girls psychologically. There is no doubt that girls need consistent love and tutoring to guide them through the turbulent teen years and beyond. They need a mentor who acts as a friend and a role model. The Mobile-based Mentoring Platform seeks to leverage on mobile technology's affordances to focus on the needs of the girl-child, such as improvement in academic achievement, guidance in career choice, development of self-concept, and esteem. The girl-mentees comments revealed that using the platform provided them frequent access to mentors and access to learning opportunities. The challenges they faced include epileptic internet network, intrusions by parents, and others. Therefore, this paper examined the challenges and benefits of mentoring girls via a mentoring platform.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: health care; hospital; blockchain technology; security and privacy
Online: 20 October 2020 (15:04:03 CEST)
One of the special trends in health care is the increasing availability of data and services to the cloud, especially for convenience (for example, providing a complete patient medical record without interruption) and savings (for example, economic issues). Management of health care data). However, there are limitations to using common cryptographic prototypes and access control models to address security and privacy concerns in an increasingly cloudy environment. In this paper, we explore the potential and capacity of using China's Blockchain technology to protect health care data hosted in the cloud. We also explain the real challenges of such an approach and further research is needed. Health care is a highly data-dependent domain, with large amounts of data being created, published, stored and accessed daily. For example, data are created when a patient undergoes a number of examinations (such as computed tomography or computed tomography scans) and the data need to be sent to the radiologist and then to a physician. The visit results are then stored in the hospital, and then need to be accessed later by another physician at another hospital within the network. It is clear that technology can play an important role in improving the quality of care for patients (for example, using data analytics to make informed medical decisions) and potentially costing more by allocating resources more efficiently in terms of personnel, equipment, etc. , Reduce. For example, paper-based data extraction is difficult to extract into systems (for example, it is costly and may involve data entry errors), archiving them and accessing them as needed is costly. These challenges may cause medical decisions to be incomplete, requiring repeated tests for missing information or missing data stored in another hospital in another state or country (at the expense of increased costs and no convenience). (For patients) and so on. Because of the nature of the industry, it is important to ensure the security, privacy and integrity of health care data. As a result, there is definitely a need for a secure and secure data management system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0461.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: information and communication technology; mobile phones; dependence; youth
Online: 29 February 2020 (09:41:22 CET)
The use of mobile devices facilitates access to knowledge and is at the base of the education of the future. Although the digital society has contributed a number of benefits, however, it has also been associated with worrying behaviours. The study design consisted of a quantitative approach that was descriptive, inferential and ex post-facto in nature. Its purpose was to better understand the opinion of young people regarding mobile phone use and describe dependence deriving from regular use. The sample was formed of 420 students from the Faculty of Education at the University of Granada. Results indicate that mobile phone use has displaced use of other technologies such as the television, and is associated with communication and recreational activities. In addition, a profile was identified for young people at greater risk of developing a dependence on their mobile devices. This profile constituted females, mobile phone users with recreational motives and individuals who exceeded mobile phone use by more than six hours a day. To improve the educational use of mobile phone, prevention and intervention plans must be designed which ensure correct management of this device, taking advantage of the benefits it offers whilst avoiding problems derived from inappropriate use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0071.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Blockchain; Distributed Ledger Technology; Blockchain Trilemma; Scalability; Interoperability
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:24:44 CEST)
With the interest and attention that the Blockchain and the Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) have recently demanded, the technology is advancing at a very high rate. With investors and applications in a wide variety of fields, a lot of funding and efforts are being driven into bringing the technology to everyday use. The community and companies are coming up with new ways to collaborate, which makes the blockchain ecosystem evolve at full tilt. Consequently, this paper’s aim is to review the academic and grey literature and to provide readers with information about the evolution, benefits and challenges of the Public Distributed Ledger Technologies and to discuss the latest solutions, which are being developed for bringing decentralization closer to the mainstream. The paper reviews the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structured distributed ledgers with focus on the Hedera Hashgraph, a novelty DLT bringing a unique consensus algorithm with new use-cases enabled by new cryptoeconomic mechanisms as well as vital services, such as Solidity smart contracts and distributed file storage. Lastly, we are going to explore second-layer network protocols, a major topic for solving the scalability issues, empower Bitcoin and DLTs and also disrupt cryptocurrency exchanges focusing on the Lightning Network.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: surface decontamination; UVC; UV light technology; environmental disinfection
Online: 25 August 2019 (16:55:50 CEST)
Evidence has shown that the state of the patient care environment has a direct impact in heightening the risks of hospital acquired infections among patients admitted in hospitals. And in view of the sub-optimal standard of cleanings by housekeeping staff, the quest for a better approach to reliably disinfect environmental surfaces in healthcare facilities. The ultraviolet light has been known for its antimicrobial property, and have been used in water treatment, food processing and in-duct cleaning of ventilations. A recent introduction of its use for surface decontamination has raised interest among hospitals.However, studies have shown that, in spite of its relative success in other applications, there is doubt in its efficacy in decontaminating shadowed areas of the room, and therefore, would not be seen as justifying its capital intensiveness.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Risk analysis, Information Technology, Hospitals, Human Resource Risks.
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:30:38 CET)
Objective:The application of information technology (IT( is fundamental in the hospitals to stay competitive.In this regard, recognizing the main risks to the implementation of IT in hospitals can provide vastopportunities to improve its efficiency and help to make strategic decisions. This study aimed tosearch for the main risks of implementation of IT projects in the hospitals of Tehran. Methods: This was a practical and cross-sectional study which was conducted in the 18 hospitals of Tehran,Iran, 2018; in which a sample of 65 members were studied. The required data were collected using a questionnaire to examine seven main risks, including market, project management, human resources, technical, organizational, financial, strategic risks. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Additionally, the method used to test the risks in this study was structural equation modeling, which was ran using LISREL 9.30. Results: The results showed that among the seven main risks of to the implementation of IT in hospitals, the highest and lowest means were related to the human resource risks and the market risks, respectively. Also, according to the SEM, human resource risks and market risks had the highest and lowest effects, respectively. Conclusion: Announcing the use of IT in the hospitals, holding conferences about new IT developments with employees, suitable training, encouraging them to use IT tools, providing a motivating atmosphere to use IT tools for employees, are a few effective ways of overcoming the human resource risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; SLM technology; porosity research; microhardness research
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:09:54 CEST)
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique. It allows to produce elements with very complex geometry using metallic powders. A geometry of manufacturing elements bases only on 3D CAD data. The metal powder is melt selectively layer by layer using ytterbium laser. The paper contains results of porosity and microhardness analysis made on specimens which were manufactured during specially prepared process. Final analysis helped to discover connections between changing hatching distance, exposure speed and porosity. There was no significant differences in microhardness and porosity measurement results in the planes: perpendicular and parallel to the machine building platform surface.