ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0801.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: systematic review; meta-analysis; cohort; case-control; sugar sweetened beverages; artificial sweetened beverages; fruit juice; cancer.
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:41:25 CET)
The consumption of sweet beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juices (FJ) is associated with the risk of different cardiometabolic diseases and probably with some tumors as well. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies aimed at evaluating the association between sweet beverage intake and different types of cancer risk. Suitable papers published up to June 2020 were searched through PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS databases, using relevant keywords. Overall, 64 studies were identified for the systematic review, of which 27 were selected for the meta-analysis. This was performed by analyzing the multivariable-adjusted OR, RR or HR of the highest compared with the lowest sweet beverage intake categories. Random effects showed significant positive association between SSBs intake and breast (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.30) and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10 – 1.27), also between FJs and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.05). Associations between SSBs and colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk, FJs and breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk, ASBs and pancreatic cancer risk tended to be positive but did not reach the statistically significant threshold. This study supports the recommendation to limit the consumption of SSBs and FJs for cancer prevention and proposes to further investigate the potential harmful role of ASBs intake in cancer risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: urate; uric acid; cardiometabolic risk; fruit; sugar; sugar-sweetened soft drink; sugar-sweetened; beverage; dietary intake; dietary intervention; gout
Online: 18 December 2017 (14:18:33 CET)
High fructose and sugar-sweetened soft drink (SSSD) intakes are associated with elevated blood uric acid concentrations and increased risk of gout and cardiovascular disease. Fruits are naturally high in fructose but their effect on cardiometabolic risk is unknown. We examined the effect on serum uric acid and cardiometabolic risk factors of consuming fructose from either fruit or SSSD in overweight adults. 48 healthy, overweight (BMI≥ 28 kg/m2) men (n=21) and women (n=20) were randomised to either a fruit (n = 19) or SSSSD (n = 22) intervention for 4 weeks. The fruit group received 6 items of fresh and dried fruit per day and the SSSD group received 955ml of SSSD per day with treatments matched for energy and fructose content. Serum uric acid concentrations were significantly reduced in men in the fruit group compared to the SSSD group (difference 57.2 μmol/L [95% CI: 16.4, 98.0], p= 0.008) but there was no difference amongst women (1.3 μmol/L [95%CI: -9.5, 6.9], p= 0.295). There differences in weight change or other cardiometabolic risk factors. These findings suggest no need to restrict fruit intake in individuals with elevated serum uric acid concentrations, such as those with gout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0112.v1
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:11:24 CEST)
Soft drinks exist in various forms and brands and are marketed by different brewery industries across the country. Nigeria been an underdeveloped country were aforesaid health problems are common, people tends to consume them lots believing it gives more energy. This study was therefore set to assess the sugar content from different soft drinks sold in Nigeria. Ten (10) soft drinks registered and licensed in Nigeria by their respective companies were purchased from a supermarket in Ihumudumu environment of Ekpoma, Nigeria. The sugar contents were assessed using standard methods. Result showed significant differences (p<0.05) in ranges of 0.36g/100ml (Limca) to 3.88g/100ml (Teem Bitter Lemon). Conclusively, the sugar contents were all below recommended value and it can be consumed by those who need low sugar in the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0172.v1
Online: 13 February 2020 (12:54:49 CET)
The quality and shelf-life of NCS (Non-centrifugal sugar) mainly depend on the moisture content present in it. NCS formed by the current practice of open sun drying contains moisture substantially greater than the acceptable level of 3%. This paper presents the work taken up to design a tunnel dryer to attain require moisture content in granular NCS for various load conditions. Initially, an experimental investigation had been carried out on a laboratory scale dryer to achieve required moisture content (< 3%) for various load conditions. This experimental data was used for validating two drying models and found that one of the models is best suitable for designing an industrial-scale dryer. For various load conditions on each tray and dryer exit temperature, nine different cases were arrived at. The number of trucks, trays, drying time and energy requirements were computed using the suitable theoretical model. Tunnel dryer with a length of 18 m, a height of 1.2 m, a width of 1 m, number of trucks of 18 and 24 number of trays on each truck was found to be the suitable dryer to dry 1 tone of NCS based on the minimum energy requirement of 176.49 MJ, and a minimum drying time of 68 minutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0091.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Sweet taste; hedonics; individual differences; methodology; sugar
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:59:17 CET)
Sweetness drives consumption of added sugars, so understanding how individuals differ is important for developing strategies to lower sugar intake. However, methods to assess hedonic response to sweetness vary, making results across studies difficult to integrate. We compared methods to measure optimal sucrose concentration in 21 healthy adults (1) using paired-comparison preference tracking vs. ratings of liking, (2) with participants in the laboratory vs. at home, and (3) using aqueous solutions vs. vanilla milk. Tests were replicated on separate days to assess test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was similar between laboratory and home testing, but tended to be better for vanilla milk and preference tracking. Optimal sucrose concentration was virtually identical between laboratory and home, slightly lower when estimated via preference tracking, and about 50% lower in vanilla milk. However, individual optimal sucrose concentration correlated strongly between Methods, test Locations, and Stimuli. More than 50% of the variability in optimal sucrose concentration could be attributed to consistent differences among individuals while much less variability was attributable to differences in Methods, test Locations or Stimuli. These results demonstrate convergent validity between measures of preference and liking, support testing at home to lower participant burden, and suggest that aqueous solutions can be useful proxies for some commonly consumed beverages for measuring individual differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0263.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Insoluble phosphate; Biosolubilizing; Biofertilizer; Actinobacteria; Sugar beet
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:34:01 CEST)
In this research, we isolated and characterized Streptomyces strains, endemic from sugar beet fields of the Beni-Mellal region, able to use natural rock phosphate (RP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), as sole phosphate source. Ten Streptomyces isolates yielded a comparable biomass in the presence of these two insoluble phosphate sources, indicating that they were able to extract similar amount of phosphorus (P) from the latter for their own growth. Interestingly, five strains released soluble P in large excess from TCP in their culture broth whereas only two strains, BP, related to Streptomyces bellus and BYC, related to Streptomyces enissocaesilis, released a higher or similar amount of soluble P from RP than from TCP, respectively. This indicated that the rate of P released from these insoluble phosphate sources exceeded its consumption rate for bacterial growth and that most strains solubilized TCP more efficiently than RP. Preliminary results suggested that the solubilization process of BYC, the most efficient RP and TCP solubilizing strain, involves both acidification of the medium and excretion of siderophores. Actinomycete strains possessing such interesting RP solubilizing abilities may constitute a novel kind of intrans beneficial for plant nutrition and more environmentally friendly than chemical fertilizers in current use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0051.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: algae; Euglena; biotechnology; carbohydrates; N-glycan; sugar nucleotide
Online: 17 December 2017 (08:55:09 CET)
Euglena gracilis is an alga of great biotechnological interest and extensive metabolic capacity, able to make high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and β-glucan. Previous work has shown that Euglena expresses a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an unexpectedly high capacity for the synthesis of complex carbohydrates for a single-celled organism. Here, we present an analysis of some of the carbohydrates synthesised by Euglena gracilis. Analysis of the sugar nucleotide pool showed that there are the substrates necessary for synthesis of complex polysaccharides, including the unusual sugar galactofuranose. Lectin- and antibody-based profiling of whole cells and extracted carbohydrates revealed a complex galactan, xylan and aminosugar based surface. Protein N-glycan profiling, however, indicated that just simple high mannose-type glycans are present and that they are partially modified with putative aminoethylphosphonate moieties. Together, these data indicate that Euglena possesses a complex glycan surface, unrelated to plant cell walls, while its protein glycosylation is simple. Taken together, these findings suggest that Euglena gracilis may lend itself to the production of pharmaceutical glycoproteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0696.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Gustation; sugar aversion; German cockroach; olfactory learning; memory; foraging
Online: 30 July 2021 (10:49:30 CEST)
An association of food sources with odors prominently guides foraging behavior in animals. To understand the interaction of olfactory memory and food preferences, we used glucose-averse (GA) German cockroaches. Multiple populations of cockroaches evolved a gustatory polymorphism where glucose is perceived as a deterrent and enables GA cockroaches to avoid eating glucose-containing toxic baits. Comparative behavioral analysis using an operant conditioning paradigm revealed that learning and memory guide foraging decisions. Cockroaches learned to associate specific food odors with fructose (phagostimulant, reward) within only a 1 hr conditioning session, and with caffeine (deterrent, punishment) after only three 1 hr conditioning sessions. Glucose acted as reward in wild type (WT) cockroaches, but GA cockroaches learned to avoid an innately attractive odor that was associated with glucose. Olfactory memory was retained for at least 3 days after three 1 hr conditioning sessions. Our results reveal that specific tastants can serve as potent reward or punishment in olfactory associative learning, which reinforces gustatory food preferences. Olfactory learning therefore reinforces behavioral resistance of GA cockroaches to sugar-containing toxic baits. Cockroaches may also generalize their olfactory learning to baits that contain the same or similar attractive odors even if they do not contain glucose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Overweight; Obesity paradox; Physical activity; Nutrition; Sugar-sweetened beverages
Online: 18 March 2021 (11:03:09 CET)
Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. However, it is not fully understood which lifestyle factors are associated with MUO in youth. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MUO and lifestyle patterns in youth. 7-17 years old youth with overweight (N=48; 60.4% girls) and obesity (N=71; 56.3% girls) were recruited in the Pediatric Clinic, Luxembourg (cross-sectional study). Eating and sedentary habits, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) were assessed. 72.3% of the participants had MUO. Multivariable logistic regressions showed that MUO is most likely to be associated with moderate to low weekly levels of MVPA [OR: 2.09 (95% CI: 1.07 – 4.09; p = 0.030)] and moderate to high weekly soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.92 (95% CI: 1.32 – 6.48; p = 0.008)]. After adjustment for age, gender and Tanner stages, MUO was most likely to be associated with moderate to high soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.72 (95% CI: 1.21– 6.12; p = 0.016)] and with Tanner stages [OR: 2.06 (95% CI: 1.08– 3.94; p = 0.029)]. We support the promotion of MVPA and the moderation in the sugar-sweetened beverages consumption to manage cardiometabolic health in youth with obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building materials; sugar cane bagasse; Portland cement; Concrete; water absorption
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:36:55 CEST)
The main goal of this study was to evaluate sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement replacement material. Sugarcane bagasse ash is a by-product of fuel blending in the sugar industry. Yet all economic sugar is obtained after extraction from the cane. The disposal of the discharged waste in agriculture causes environmental problems in the sugar industry. The cement industry also creates environmental problems due to carbon dioxide emissions during cement manufacturing. Initially, bagasse ash samples were collected from the rubble of the Arjo Didessa sugar factory. The crude bagasse ash was sieved with a sieve size of 250µm. The strength of grade C-25 concrete was designed using five different concrete mixture proportions ranging from 5 to 20% cement by weight, including a water-cement ratio of 0.45. Impact strength tests were conducted at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age for each replacement ratio. For the experimental work, a total of 60 cubic concrete specimens were cast for compressive strength tests, and 15 cylindrical concrete specimens were cast for water absorption tests. Working compressive strength results indicated that bagasse ash could replace up to 5% of ordinary Portland cement concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0600.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: heparan sulfate; glycosaminoglycan; carbohydrate biosynthesis; azido sugar; small molecule inhibitor
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:17:59 CEST)
The glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulphate (HS), orchestrates many developmental processes. Yet its biological role has not yet fully been elucidated. Small molecule chemical inhibitors can be used to perturb HS function and these compounds pro-vide cheap alternatives to genetic manipulation methods. However, existing chemical inhibition methods for HS also interfere with chondroitin sulphate (CS), complicating data interpretation of HS function. Herein, a simple method for the selective inhibition of HS biosynthesis is described. Using endogenous metabolic sugar pathways, Ac4GalNAz produces UDP-GlcNAz, which can target HS synthesis. Cell treatment with Ac4GalNAz resulted in defective chain elongation of the polymer and decreased HS expression. Conversely, no adverse effect on CS production was observed. The inhibition was transient and dose-dependent, affording rescue of HS expression after removal of the unnatural azido sugar. The utility of inhibition is demonstrated in cell culture and in whole or-ganisms, demonstrating that this small molecule can be used as a tool for HS inhibition in biological systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0698.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: sugar; ultraprocessed food; addiction; toxicity; public health; non-communicable disease
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:08:24 CEST)
Past public health crises (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, opioids, cholera, HIV, lead, pollution, venereal disease, even COVID-19) have been met with interventions targeted both at the individual and all of society. While the healthcare community is very aware that the global pandemic of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) has its origins in our Western ultraprocessed food diet, society has been slow to initiate any interventions other than public education, which has been ineffective, in part due to food industry interference. This article provides the rationale for such public health interventions, by compiling the evidence that added sugar, and by proxy the ultraprocessed food category, meets the four criteria set by the public health community as necessary and sufficient for regulation — addiction, toxicity, ubiquity, and externalities (how does your consumption affect me?). To its credit, some countries have recently heeded this science and have instituted sugar taxation policies to help ameliorate NCD’s within their borders. This article also supplies scientific counters to food industry talking points, in order to guide both scientists and policy makers in instituting further appropriate public health measures to quell this pandemic.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0144.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Alaria marginata; common garden; mariculture; ribbon kelp; sugar kelp; Saccharina latissima
Online: 10 March 2022 (10:35:01 CET)
An increasing body of evidence shows that seaweeds, including kelp, can be used as a tool to neutralize or remove excess nutrients and metals from the water column. Here we report on a preliminary field assessment showing potential nutrient and carbon removal differences by sugar kelp and ribbon kelp grown in common gardens. Seawater and tissue samples were collected systematically from two farms in Alaska. Results show differences between % N and % C content between ribbon kelp (Alaria marginata) and sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima). Results also show that tissue nitrogen in ribbon kelp varies sharply due to nitrogen availability in the water column. In contrast, the percentage of tissue N in sugar kelp remains comparatively stable. Our outcomes provide insight into potential differences in nutrient removal and harvest timing for different kelp species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0512.v6
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Coronavirus; Virus; sugar transporter; SemiSWEET; Membrane glycoprotein, Pandemic
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:48:05 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the disease COVID-19 that has decimated the health and economy of our planet. The virus causes the disease not only in people but also in companion and wild animals. People with diabetes are at risk of the disease. As yet we do not know why the virus is highly successful in causing the pandemic within 3 months of its first report. The structural proteins of SARS include, membrane glycoprotein (M), envelope protein (E), nucleocapsid protein (N) and the spike protein (S). The structure and function of the most abundant structural protein of SARS-CoV-2, the membrane (M) glycoprotein is not fully understood. Using in silico analyses we determined the structure and potential function of the M protein. The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 is 98.6% similar to the M protein of bat SARS-CoV, maintains 98.2% homology with pangolin SARS-CoV, and has 90% homology with M protein of SARS-CoV; whereas, the similarity was only 38% with the M protein of MERS-CoV. In silico analyses showed that the M protein of SARS-CoV-2 has a triple helix bundle, form a single 3-transmembrane domain (TM), and are homologous to the prokaryotic sugar transport protein semiSWEET. SemiSWEETs are related to the PQ-loop family that function as cargo receptors in vesicle transport, mediates movement of basic amino acids across lysosomal membranes, and is also involved in phospholipase flippase function. The advantage and role of the M protein having a sugar transport-like structure is not clearly understood. The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 interacts with S, E and N protein. The S protein of the virus is glycosylated. It could be hypothesized that the sugar transporter-like structure of the M protein influences glycosylation of the S protein. Endocytosis is critical for the internalization and maturation of RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Sucrose is involved in endosome and lysosome maturation and may also induce autophagy, pathways that help in the entry of the virus. Overall, it could be hypothesized that the semiSWEET sugar transporter-like structure of the M protein may be involved in multiple functions that may aid in the rapid proliferation, replication and immune evasion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Biological experiments would validate the presence and function of the semiSWEET sugar transporter.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0354.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Acer saccharum; sugar maple; phenolics; chebulate derivatives; antioxidant; α-glucosidase inhibitory
Online: 28 November 2019 (05:30:31 CET)
To elucidate the chemical compositions of the sugar fall maple leaves, the methanol extracts were firstly fractionated by ethyl acetate and n-butanol respectively. The phenolic acids-rich fractions (ethyl acetate extracts) were further purified by various chromatographic columns including XAD macroporous resin, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and semi-preparative HPLC to yield the compounds. The isolated compounds were characterized by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), 13C-NMR, and high resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectral (HR-ESI-MS) spectroscopy. Twenty eight phenolics including fourteen flavonoids (1-14), five quinic acid derivatives (15-19), five galloyl tannins (20-24) and four other phenolic acids (25-28) were isolated and their structures were identified. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. All of the phenolics constituents showed DPPH scavenging antioxidant activities. While, glycosides of quercetin and myricetin, galloyl tannins were showed promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. All of the compounds except 4, 11, 12 and 28 were isolated from sugar maple for the first time. Moreover, Compounds 9, 10, 14, 20, 21, 23, 25 and 26 were isolated from the Acer species for the first time.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: clothianidin; sugar beet; soil; bees; pollen; Phacelia tanacetifolia; Sinapis alba; Vicia faba
Online: 1 December 2020 (12:24:09 CET)
Intercropping cover crops have become mandatory in areas at risk of nitrogen leaching to groundwater. These covers include several attractive late-flowering entomophilous species. They can therefore represent crucial floral resources (pollen and nectar) for pollinating insects in early autumn. Pesticides used in previous crops, however, represent a potential risk for pollinators when they are transferred to the intercropping cover plants and their floral resources. We studied the potential transfer of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide), applied two years earlier in a beet cultivation, from soil to plants and to the floral resources of three common cover species: Phacelia tanacetifolia, Sinapis alba, and Vicia faba. Soils, entire plants, flowers, and nectar were collected from plants grew in greenhouses, and soils and pollen were collected on a treated field. Our results showed that clothianidin was still present in soils (4.5 ng g−1). The residues accumulated in plants (5-15 times higher concentrations than in soils) and were present in pollen of both Vicia faba (0.07 ng g−1) and Sinapis alba (1.7 ng g−1) and in nectar of both Sinapis alba and Phacelia tanacetifolia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0036.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: foraging activity; food exploitation; sugar nectar concentration; tropical species; meliponiculture; bee farming
Online: 3 July 2018 (11:08:42 CEST)
Stingless bee beekeeping provides new opportunities to improve the incomes of many households in Malaysia through the sale of honey and other bee products. While Heterotrigona itama is one of the most commonly cultured species of stingless bees, its behavior is not very well understood. Hence, we conducted this study to investigate the behavior of H. itama in exploiting food sources by ascertaining the nectar sugar concentration preferred by the bee. We also aimed to determine the preferred distance of food source from the bee hive. Our results suggest that H. itama prefers high sugar concentrations of 35% and above, and they would fly up to 7 m from the hive to collect food. We discuss how nectar concentration and food distance influence the number of bees exploiting food sources and the overall foraging pattern of H. itama.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0048.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Taste; Sugar-aversion; German cockroach; Glucose; Saliva; Salivary digestion; Feeding behavior; Bait; Pest control
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:14:36 CET)
Saliva has diverse functions in feeding behavior of animals. However, the impact of salivary digestion of food on insect gustatory information processing is poorly documented. Glucose-aversion (GA) in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is a highly adaptive heritable behavioral resistance trait that protects the cockroach from ingesting glucose-containing-insecticide-baits. In this study, we confirmed that GA cockroaches rejected glucose, but they accepted oligosaccharides. However, whereas wild-type cockroaches that accepted glucose also satiated on oligosaccharides, GA cockroaches ceased ingesting the oligosaccharides within seconds, resulting in significantly lower consumption. We hypothesized that saliva might hydrolyze oligosaccharides, releasing glucose and terminating feeding. By mixing artificially collected cockroach saliva with various oligosaccharides, we demonstrated oligosaccharide-aversion in GA cockroaches. Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, prevented the accumulation of glucose and rescued the phagostimulatory response and ingestion of oligosaccharides. Our results indicate that pre-oral and oral hydrolysis of oligosaccharides by salivary alpha-glucosidases released glucose, which was then processed by the gustatory system of GA cockroaches as a deterrent and caused the rejection of food. We suggest that the genetic mechanism of glucose-aversion support an extended aversion phenotype that includes glucose-containing oligosaccharides. Salivary digestion protects the cockroach from ingesting toxic chemicals and thus could support the rapid evolution of behavioral and physiological resistance in cockroach populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cholesterol; BMI; blood sugar; psychosis; LDL; HDL; antidepressants; antipsychotics; metabolism; metabolic abnormalities, platelet aggregation
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:03:41 CEST)
Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to an inherited predisposition, a sedentary life style and the use of antipsychotic medications. Several approaches have been taken to minimize this risk but results continue to be unsatisfactory. A potential alternative is prescribing Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs decrease platelet aggregation and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in patients with depression. We therefore aim to investigate whether there is evidence that supports the use of SSRIs to reduce the risk for CVD in SCZ. A systematic review of the literature revealed five published reports relating to the impact of SSRIs on CV risk in SCZ. Three trials assessed the influence on metabolic parameters of fluvoxamine when combined with clozapine. Two of those studies found improvements with fluvoxamine. Of the other two reports, one indicates SSRIs as a group caused minimal but statistically significant increments in total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride. The second report suggests that when SSRIs are combined with antipsychotics, the metabolic impact depends on the antipsychotic prescribed. While there are promising results, further studies are needed to establish the impact of SSRIs on CV risk in SCZ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0471.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biodegradable lubricating grease; friction; energy; penetration; sugar cane filter cake mud oil; temperature and wear
Online: 30 September 2022 (02:28:30 CEST)
Environment approachable products such as fuels and lubricants are among the best choices in several countries that contain renewable products as alternatives. To protect human life, alternative methods of saving the environment and production balance is needed to reduce the effects of the crisis and the contamination of the Environment. This research concentrated on the Manufacturing and testing of bio- grease from sugar cane filter mud vegetable oil as a lubricant for friction reduction and determining the properties of both bio grease and Mineral oil grease with environmental problems. SC filter mud oil as an alternative use for bio-grease preparation in addition to mineral oil grease. The Testing was accepted to determine the quality of the eco-friendly grease produced. For the preparation of this bio- grease, the SC Filter cake sample is taken from different sugar factory which found in Ethiopia. The sample has a moisture content of 78%. Using this sample first oil is extracted by Soxhlet apparatus, n-hexane solvent and temperature for extraction from 42 -68℃. The maximum temperature and time for extraction of oil were 68 and 7hrs respectively. The extracted oil's physical properties include color, acid value, specific graphite, saponification value, iodine value, density, and viscosity. Finally, the friction behavior in function of time for both grease at identical load, the friction coefficient vs time for SC filter Cake Grease_ Na_ MoS2 and industrial mineral one (I_ Greasily _ MoS2), grease was determined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0411.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: abiotic stresses; gene-expression; genomics; ion homeostasis; plant growth and development; plasma membrane; sugar translocation
Online: 20 August 2021 (11:43:31 CEST)
Membrane transporters (MTs) are mainly localized at the plasma membrane (PM), tonoplast and vacuolar membrane (VM) of cells in all plant organs. Their work is to maintain the cellular homeostasis by controlling ionic movements across PM channels from roots to upper plant parts, xylem loading and remobilization of sugar molecules from photosynthesis tissues in the leaf (source) to roots, stem and seeds (sink) via phloem loading. The plant’s whole source-to-sink relationship is regulated by multiple transporting proteins in a highly sophisticated manner and driven based on different stages of plant growth and development (PG&D), and environmental changes. The MTs play a pivotal role in PG&D in terms of increased plant height, branches/tiller numbers, enhanced numbers, length and filled panicles per plant, seed yield and grain quality. Dynamic climatic changes disturbed the ionic balance (salt, drought and heavy metals) and sugar supply (cold and heat stress). Due to poor selectivity, some of the MTs also uptake toxic elements in the roots that negatively impact on PG&D, later on also exported to upper parts and then deteriorate the grain quality. As an adaptive strategy, in response to salt and HMs plants activated PM and VM localized MTs that export toxic elements into vacuole, and also translocate in the root’s tips and shoot. However, in case of drought, cold and heat stresses, MTs increased the water and sugar supply to all organs. In this review, we mainly reviewed recent literature from Arabidopsis, halophytes, and major field crops such as rice, wheat, maize and oilseed rape to argue on the global role of MTs in PG&D and abiotic stress tolerance. We also discussed the gene expression level changes and genomic variations within a species as well as within a family in response to developmental and environmental cues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0058.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Aedes aegypti; Acyrthosiphon pisum; Myzus persicae; Vicia faba; honeydew; honeydew odorants; mosquito sugar feeding; microbe-emitted odorants; mosquito olfaction
Online: 8 January 2019 (10:13:01 CET)
Plant sugar is an essential dietary constituent for mosquitoes, and hemipteran honeydew is one of the many forms of plant sugar important to mosquitoes. Many insects rely on volatile honeydew semiochemicals to locate aphids or honeydew itself. Mosquitoes exploit volatile semiochemicals to locate sources of plant sugar but their attraction to honeydew has not previously been investigated. Here we report the attraction of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, to honeydew odorants from the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, feeding on fava bean, Vicia faba. We used solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry to collect and analyze headspace odorants from honeydew of A. pisum feeding on V. faba. An 8-component synthetic blend of these odorants and synthetic odorant blends of crude and sterile honeydew that we prepared according to literature data all attracted female A. aegypti. The synthetic blend containing microbial odor constituents proved more effective than the blend without these constituents. Our study provides the first evidence for anemotactic attraction of mosquitoes to honeydew and demonstrates a role for microbe-derived odorants in the attraction of mosquitoes to essential plant-sugar resources.