Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Role of Membrane Transporters in Plant Growth and Development, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

Version 1 : Received: 18 August 2021 / Approved: 20 August 2021 / Online: 20 August 2021 (11:43:31 CEST)

How to cite: Gill, R.A.; Ahmar, S.; Ali, B.; Saleem, M.H.; Khan, M.U.; Zhou, W.; Liu, S. The Role of Membrane Transporters in Plant Growth and Development, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Preprints 2021, 2021080411 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0411.v1). Gill, R.A.; Ahmar, S.; Ali, B.; Saleem, M.H.; Khan, M.U.; Zhou, W.; Liu, S. The Role of Membrane Transporters in Plant Growth and Development, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Preprints 2021, 2021080411 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0411.v1).

Abstract

Membrane transporters (MTs) are mainly localized at the plasma membrane (PM), tonoplast and vacuolar membrane (VM) of cells in all plant organs. Their work is to maintain the cellular homeostasis by controlling ionic movements across PM channels from roots to upper plant parts, xylem loading and remobilization of sugar molecules from photosynthesis tissues in the leaf (source) to roots, stem and seeds (sink) via phloem loading. The plant’s whole source-to-sink relationship is regulated by multiple transporting proteins in a highly sophisticated manner and driven based on different stages of plant growth and development (PG&D), and environmental changes. The MTs play a pivotal role in PG&D in terms of increased plant height, branches/tiller numbers, enhanced numbers, length and filled panicles per plant, seed yield and grain quality. Dynamic climatic changes disturbed the ionic balance (salt, drought and heavy metals) and sugar supply (cold and heat stress). Due to poor selectivity, some of the MTs also uptake toxic elements in the roots that negatively impact on PG&D, later on also exported to upper parts and then deteriorate the grain quality. As an adaptive strategy, in response to salt and HMs plants activated PM and VM localized MTs that export toxic elements into vacuole, and also translocate in the root’s tips and shoot. However, in case of drought, cold and heat stresses, MTs increased the water and sugar supply to all organs. In this review, we mainly reviewed recent literature from Arabidopsis, halophytes, and major field crops such as rice, wheat, maize and oilseed rape to argue on the global role of MTs in PG&D and abiotic stress tolerance. We also discussed the gene expression level changes and genomic variations within a species as well as within a family in response to developmental and environmental cues.

Keywords

abiotic stresses; gene-expression; genomics; ion homeostasis; plant growth and development; plasma membrane; sugar translocation

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