REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: effectors; QTLs; GWAS; resistance; soybean-soybean aphid-soybean cyst nematode interactions
Online: 27 June 2019 (06:24:29 CEST)
The soybean aphid (SBA; Aphis glycines Matsumura) and the soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichninohe) are major pests of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Independent studies on these pests have made substantial progress in understanding the genetic basis of limiting these pests in both model and non-model plant systems. Classical linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified some major and minor QTLs in soybean. The studies on interactions of aphid and nematode effectors with host proteins allow us to identify molecular cues in various signaling components, including plant disease resistance and phytohormone genes. Here we review various resistance components of both SBA and SCN in terms of their effectors, their role in eliciting or attenuating host defense and update on findings on key quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes in soybean that could help in mitigating these widespread shifted virulent soybean aphid and SCN populations. We also provide an update on recent interaction studies of soybean-soybean aphid-SCN as well as interaction studies involving different aphids/nematodes and their host systems. PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) in soybean could possibly play a major role in providing resistance against both soybean aphid and SCN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0610.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: tempeh; soybean; fermentation; Rhizopus; isoflavones
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:03:03 CEST)
Tempeh is an Indonesian traditional food, made from white soybean seeds by fermentation with Rhizopus mold. Soybean seeds content high isoflavone glycosides. Isoflavones can act as phytoestrogen, antioxidant and improves memory. Isoflavone glycosides are poorly absorbed in the human body, but the aglycone isoflavones absorbed quickly. Rhizopus mold hydrolize isoflavone glycosides to be aglycone isoflavones during tempeh production. This research was aimed to know the best room temperature and time of fermentation for making soybean tempeh with high content of isoflavones. After rinsing and boiling, the soybean seeds than fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. Three conditions were applied: (a) ambient temperature (27-32oC) without air circulation, (b) 27±0.5 oC, and (c) 30±0.5 oC both with air circulations. Inner temperature of tempeh was recorded hourly. Total isoflavones were measured with UV spectrophotometer every 6 hours. Based on this study, fermentation at condition a caused the tempeh too hot and rotted quickly. Fermentation at condition b and c produced tempeh with good quality. Tempeh ripening was reached between 31-32 hours with inner temperature 32-33 oC. Fermentation for 72 hours at condition b was chosen because its high total isoflavones content (0.089% w/w), but decrease about 20% compare to soybean seeds (0.112% w/w).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: photosynthesis; rubisco; temperature; acclimation; soybean
Online: 25 September 2019 (11:45:22 CEST)
Recent in vivo assays of the responses of Rubisco to temperature in C3 plants have revealed substantial diversity. Three cultivars of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), Holt, Fiskeby V, and Spencer, were grown in indoor chambers at 15, 20, and 25 oC. Leaf photosynthesis was measured over the range of 15 to 30 oC, deliberately avoiding higher temperatures which may cause deactivation of Rubisco, in order to test for differences in temperature responses of photosynthesis, and to investigate in vivo Rubisco kinetic characteristics responsible for any differences observed. The three cultivars differed in the optimum temperature for photosynthesis (from 15 to 30 oC) at 400 µmol mol-1 external CO2 concentration when grown at 15 oC, and in the shapes of the response curves when grown at 25 oC. The apparent activation energy of the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco differed substantially between cultivars at all growth temperatures, as well as changing with growth temperature in two of the cultivars. The activation energy ranged from 58 to 84 kJ mol-1, compared with the value of 64 kJ mol-1 used in many photosynthesis models. Much less variation in temperature responses occurred in photosynthesis measured at nearly saturating CO2 levels, suggesting more diversity in Rubisco than in electron transport thermal properties among these soybean cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1286.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: 24-epicastasterone; salicylic acid; auxin; hormones; soybean
Online: 17 August 2023 (10:18:25 CEST)
Brassinosteroids (BR) are key phytohormones involved in the regulation of major processes of cell metabolism guiding plant growth. In the past decades, new evidence made it clear that BRs also play a key role in the orchestration of plant responses to many abiotic and biotic stresses. In the present work we analyzed the impact of foliar treatment with 24-epicastasterone (ECS) on the endogenous content of major phytohormones (auxins, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid) and their intermediates in soybean leaves 7 days following the treatment. Changes in the endogenous content of phytohormones have been identified and quantified by LC/MS. Obtained results point to a clear role of ECS in the upregulation of auxin content (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) and downregulation of salicylic, jasmonic, and abscisic acid levels. These data confirm that under optimal conditions ECS in tested concentrations of 0,25 µM and 1 µM might promote growth in soybean by inducing auxin contents. Benzoic acid (a precursor of salicylic acid (SA)), but not SA itself, has also been highly accumulated under ECS treatment which indicates an activation of the adaption strategies of cell metabolism to possible environmental challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0772.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: MiR159; Soybean; Phosphorus; NaCl; ABA; Gene function
Online: 12 June 2023 (05:45:34 CEST)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate plant growth and development and their responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although extensive studies show that miR159 family members regulate leaf and flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana, the roles of miRNAs in soybean (Glycine max) are poorly understood. Here, we identified six MIR159 genes in soybean, MIR159aMIR159f, and investigate their expression patterns in plants under low-phosphorus (low-P), NaCl, or abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. In soybean leaves, MIR159e and MIR159f expression was induced by low-P treatment, while in roots, MIR159b, MIR159c, MIR159e, and MIR159f expression was upregulated. In flowers, low-P led to upregulation of MIR159a, MIR159b, MIR159c, and MIR159f, but downregulation of MIR159d and MIR159e. In soybean nodules, MIR159b was upregulated but MIR159a, MIR159c, and MIR159d was downregulated under P deficiency. NaCl treatment induced MIR159a, MIR159b, MIR159c, and MIR159e expression in leaves, and MIR159aMIR159f expression in roots. ABA treatment upregulated MIR159a, MIR159b, and MIR159c but downregulated MIR159d, MIR159e, and MIR159f in leaves. These results suggest that miR159 family members function in plant abiotic stress responses. Moreover, total P content in leaves was significantly lower in plants overexpressing MIR159e than in the wild type, suggesting that miR159e may regulate P absorption and transport in soybean.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Characteristics; physical; processing; compounds; physicochemical; varieties; soybean
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:12:19 CEST)
Abstract. Indonesia has developed several superior soybean varieties. Each soybean variety has different physical and chemical properties that can affect processed products and soybean quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical, chemical, and functional properties of three superior early-maturing soybean varieties. The research was conducted in Maros, Indonesia in 2022 by planting the Dega-1, Grobogan, and Gepak Kuning varieties and repeated them 6 times. The yields of the three soybean varieties Dega-1, Grobogan, and Gepak Kuning were taken at 1 kg each and 3 repeated, then further analysis of chemical compounds is carried out in the laboratory. The results showed that for physical characteristics, the largest seed size was in Dega-1 (18.57 g per 100 seeds) and the smallest in Gepak Kuning (8.29 g). The highest bulk density of soybean seeds was in the Grobogan and Dega-1 varieties (0.79 kg per m3) and the lowest was in Gepak Kuning (0.77 kg per m3 ), and the lowest number of damaged seeds was in Dega-1 (6.67%) and the highest in Grobogan (11.33). %). Chemical characteristics, highest protein content in Gepak Kuning (39.72%) and lowest in Dega-1 (36.62%), lowest fat content in Dega-1 (12.63%) and highest in Gepak Kuning (14.49%), highest phosphorus content in Gepak Kuning (0.59%) and the lowest was in Grobogan (0.53%), the highest calcium content was in Gepak Kuning (0.40%), and the highest FFA value was in Dega-1 (0.93) and the lowest in Gepak Kuning (0.81). Based on physical properties, Dega-1 is the best compared to the other two soybeans. Meanwhile, based on the size of starch granules, Gepak Kuning gave the best results. For chemical characteristics, in general, GepakKuning has the best quality compared to Grobogan and Dega-1. It can be concluded that Gepak Kuning has the most potential to be developed in supporting food and non-food products, especially in Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Crude protein content; Dry matter yield; Soybean
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:13:21 CET)
The experiment was conducted in three locations Jari, Chefa and Sirinka of Eastern Amhara to select the best performing varieties, in terms of biomass yield, chemical composition, haulm yield, seed yield and other agronomic characteristics of Glycine max (L.) Merrill grown under the rain- fed condition of lowland areas of Eastern Amhara in a randomized complete block design with tree replications. Twelve released soybean varieties were Afgat ,Belesa-95, Boshe , Cheri , Dhidhessa, Gishama , Gizo, Korme, Pawe-03, katta, Wegayen and Wollo were used as a treatments. The seeds were planted in 40 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants on a plot size of 3.2m*4m. Spacing between blocks and plots were 1 and 0.5m, respectively. The seed rate was 60 kg/ha and a fertilizer rate 100 kg/ha NPS was applied during seed planting. The combined analysis of variance over two years at location Jari for dry matter yield of varieties Afgat, Gizo, Pawe-03, Wogayen and Wollo were significantly higher as compared to other soybean varieties. The combined analysis across locations at Jari and Sirinka (2019-second year) showed that varieties Afgat, Gishama, Gizo, Pawe-03, Wogayen and Wollo had higher dry matter yield and varieties Gishama (3.97 t/ha), Gizo (3.60 t/ha), Pawe-03 (4.04 t/ha) and Wogayen (3.36 t/ha) had higher haulm yield as compared with other varieties. The combined analysis across locations at Jari and Sirinka (2019) showed that varieties Pawe-03(2951 kg/ha), Gizo (2862 kg/ha), Afgat (2859 kg/ha), Gishama (2654 kg/ha),Wollo (2461 kg/ha) and Wogayen (2404 kg/ha) had higher seed yield as compared with other varieties. The variety Wollo gave higher crud protein content in two locations (Jari and Sirinka) .Therefore, varieties Afgat, Pawe-03 and Wollo were recommends for the given areas of Jari , Chefa, Sirinka and could be produced in similar environments for the best of produced optimal amount of dry matter, haulm and seed yield and good protein supplement for production of ruminants.Thus, further researches will be needed to investigate on the utilization of livestock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0429.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: sugarcane; soybean; trash; soil N; waste management
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:49:00 CEST)
In no-tillage systems, there is an accumulation of crop residues (CR) which plays an important role in available of soil-N. A study was set up to provide information regarding the CR N credit, and the influence of N mineral fertilizer. An incubation was run in a loam soil with addition of a similar rate of residue (10 Mg ha-1; sugarcane, soybean, and brachiaria) and N mineral fertilizer (urea; 120 kg N ha-1). After the stabilization of biological activity, soil and remaining residues were collected, and N monitored. Results showed that the N credit was positive with application of soybean, sugarcane, and brachiaria. There was an expressive performance of soybean N credit represented by a positive balance, and a reduction from 2.49 to 0.9 g kg-1 of N in residue, with direct increase of 90% of soil-N. There is no need of N fertilizer to potentialize the soybean N credit, but it is requested to potentialize N credit of brachiaria and sugarcane. The urea demonstrated be a good enhancer of brachiaria N credit, but it was not adequate to sugarcane residues. Based in our result, the accumulation and incorporation of CR can be considered as a N credit with positive contribution in soil-N.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0387.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: climate change; soybean yields; technology; temperature; CO2
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:45:34 CET)
Soybean yields are often indicated as an interesting case of climate change mitigation due to the beneficial effects of CO2 fertilization. In this paper we econometrically study this effect using a time series model of yields in a multivariate framework for a main producer and exporter of this commodity, Argentina. We have to deal with the upward behavior of soybean yields trying to identify which variables are the long-run determinants responsible of its observed trend. With this aim we adopt a partial system approach to estimate subsets of long-run relationships due to climate, technological and economic factors. Using an automatic selection algorithm we evaluate encompassing of the different obtained equilibrium correction models. We found that only technological innovations due to new crop practices and the use of modified seeds explain soybean yield in the long run. Regarding short run determinants we found positive effects associated with the use of standard fertilizers and also from changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration which would suggest a mitigation effect from global warming. However, we also found negative climate effects from periods of droughts associated with La Niña episodes, high temperatures and extreme rainfall events during the growing season of the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: common bean; soybean; Argonaute5; legume-rhizobia symbiosis
Online: 18 October 2017 (03:20:37 CEST)
The establishment of the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia is finely regulated at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. Argonaute5 (AGO5), a protein involved in RNA silencing, is able to bind both viral RNAs and microRNAs to control plant-microbe interactions and plant physiology. For instance, AGO5 regulates the systemic resistance of Arabidopsis against Potato Virus X as well as the pigmentation of soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Here, we show that AGO5 is also playing a central role in legume nodulation based on its preferential expression in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean roots and nodules. We also report that the expression of AGO5 is induced after 1 hour of inoculation with rhizobia. Down-regulation of AGO5 gene in P. vulgaris and G. max causes diminished root hair curling, reduces nodule formation and interferes with the induction of three critical symbiotic genes: NUCLEAR FACTOR Y-B (NF-YB), NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) and FLOTILIN2 (FLOT2). Our findings provide evidence that the common bean and soybean AGO5 genes play an essential role in the establishment of the symbiosis with rhizobia in determinate legumes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Bt soybean; chemical control; defoliator species; sublethal effects
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:26:46 CEST)
An increase in Spodoptera species was reported in Bt soybean fields expressing Cry1Ac insecticidal proteins in Brazil, requiring additional management with chemical insecticides. Here, we evaluated the dose effects of flubendiamide and thiodicarb on Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858), Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782), Spodoptera albula (Walker, 1857) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) that survived on MON 87751 × MON 87708 × MON 87701 × MON 89788, expressing Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ac; MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean, expressing Cry1Ac; and non-Bt soybean. On unsprayed Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1Ac soybean, only S. frugiperda showed ~60% mortality after 10 d, whereas S. cosmioides, S. eridania and S. albula showed >81% mortality. Surviving larvae of all species on this Bt soybean showed >80% mortality when exposed to the field label dose of flubendiamide (70 mL/ha) or thiodicarb (400 g/ha) or at 50% of these doses. In contrast, all four species had <25% and <19% mortality on Cry1Ac and non-Bt soybean, respectively. Surviving S. cosmioides, S. eridania and S. albula on these soybean types presented >83% mortality post-exposure to both dose levels of flubendiamide and thiodicarb. Some S. frugiperda larvae surviving on Cry1Ac and non-Bt soybean sprayed with a 50% dose of either insecticide developed into adults. However, L1 larvae developing on Cry1Ac soybean leaves sprayed with flubendiamide and L2 larvae on this soybean sprayed with thiodicarb had a prolonged immature stage, and females lower fecundity, which are likely to impact its population growth on soybean.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1200.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: plant phenotype; soybean leaf; image segmentation; object detection
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:14:41 CEST)
Plant phenotype plays an important role in crop breeding and planting. Leaf phenotype is an important part of plant phenotype. In order to analyze the leaf phenotype, the target leaf is required to be segmented from the complex background image. In this paper, an automatic soybean leaf segmentation method based on object detection and interactive segmentation models is proposed. Firstly, the Libra R-CNN object detection algorithm is used to detect all soybean leaves in the image. Then, based on the idea that the target soybean leaf is located in the center of the image and the area is large, the detection bounding box of the target leaf is selected. In order not to destroy the segmentation result, the bounding box is optimized to completely enclose the whole leaf. Finally, according to the optimized bounding box, the prior channels of foreground and background are constructed using Gaussian model. The two channels together with the original image are as the input of the interactive object segmentation with inside-outside guidance model to segment the target soybean leaf. A large number of qualitative and quantitative experimental results show that the method has high segmentation accuracy and strong generalization capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0356.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Soybean; coping style; welfare; prebiotic; non-starch polysaccharides
Online: 10 July 2023 (14:20:33 CEST)
The aquaculture sector has become increasingly reliant on soybean meal (SBM) and soy-derived proteins, because of their large abundance, low price and favorable amino acid profile. However, for Atlantic salmon, a major aquaculture species, the inclusion of soybean meal, and soy protein concentrate (SPC) in certain combinations has adverse impacts on its gut health and welfare. This study evaluated two enhanced SBM targeting improved gut health for inclusion in freshwater phase salmon diets, enzyme pre-treatment (ETS) and addition of fructose oligosaccharide (USP), respectively in comparison to untreated soybean meal (US) and fish meal (FM). The impact on growth performance, gut microbiome, and behaviors relevant to welfare was investigated. Both enhancements of SBM were found to support comparable growth performance to FM. Both targeted treatments altered the gut microbiome community. Fish fed SBM showed a tendency for more reactive behavior compared to those fed the FM-based control. All fish had a similarly low response to elicited stress, although ETS fed fish responded more actively than those fed the US diet. SBM fed fish also had lower repeatability of behavior, which may have implications for welfare. Both enhancements provide a promising basis to optimize the application of this widely used protein source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: crop rotation; metabarcoding; soil-borne oomycetes; soybean; tillage
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:17:04 CEST)
Soil-borne oomycetes include devastating plant pathogens that cause substantial losses in the agricultural sector. To better manage this important group of pathogens, it is critical to understand how they respond to common agricultural practices, such as tillage and crop rotation. Here, a long-term field experiment was established using a split-plot design with tillage as the main plot factor (conventional tillage [CT] vs. no till [NT], 2 levels) and rotation as the subplot factor (monocultures of soybean, corn, or wheat, and corn-soybean-wheat rotation, 4 levels). Post-harvest soil oomycete communities were characterized over three consecutive years (2016-2018) by metabarcoding the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) region. The community contained 292 Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) and was dominated by Globisporangium spp. (85.1% in abundance, 203 ASV) and Pythium spp. (10.4%, 51 ASV). NT decreased diversity and community compositional structure heterogeneity, while crop rotation only affected the community structure under CT. The interaction effects of tillage and rotation on most oomycetes species accentuated the complexity of managing these pathogens. Soil and crop health represented by soybean seedling vitality was lowest in soils under CT cultivating soybean or corn, while grain yield of the three crops responded differently to tillage and crop rotation regimes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0428.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: soybean agroecosystem; Bradyrhizobium species; magnetic susceptibility; humic substances.
Online: 22 December 2022 (11:37:56 CET)
In this study, the influence of the environment on soil conditions, e.g. heavy metals and soil magnetic susceptibility, on the total number of bacteria and the species of Bradyrhizobium in the field cultivation of the soybean variety Lissabon, the seeds of which had been inoculated with HiStick®Soy, were evaluated. Field experiments were carried out with the random plot method on the Cambisol with a texture of silt loam. The experiment consisted of 24 objects in six combinations and four replications using sewage sludge and fly ash. In the soil samples, the total number of bacteria and the number of the species of Bradyrhizobium were determined using the culture-plate method. The total content of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Hg, Fe) in the analyzed objects, compared to the limit values, allowed them to be classified as uncontaminated soils despite the application of sewage sludge and fly ash according to the experimental scheme, showed a significant difference between them. The study of the magnetic parameter χ indicated a significant differentiation between objects from 34.0 to 65.8 × 10-8m3kg-1. High correlation coefficients between χ and Fe (r = 0.789), Zn (r = 0.653), Cr (r = 0.617) and TOC (r = 0.949) indicated that the source of these elements was external organic matter. Biological tests (total content of bacteria and species of Bradyrhizobium) in different experimental variants indicated significant relationships between them and showed the resistance of the microbial community in the field cultivation of Lissabon soybean to heavy metal contamination from sewage sludge and fly ash.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Flowering; Gene expression; Pod elongation; Soybean; Water deficit
Online: 10 November 2022 (08:34:45 CET)
Drought stress on soybean is a research-demanding matter for negative influence that agricultural drought brings about. This study was designated to evaluate the effect of drought stress on some gene expression in flowering and pod elongation stages in soybean. This experiment was carried out in split-plot format with RCBD design with four replicates. Drought stress as the main factor included three levels (irrigation after 50, 100, and 150 millimeters evaporation from the A-class evaporation pot) of which 50 millimeters evaporation is considered as control. The sub-factor included a factorial combination of 3 varieties (DPX, Sari and WE6) and two sampling stages (flowering and pod elongation). The gene expression analysis was carried out by using the QRT-PCR technique. According to our results, all genes have shown overexpression in drought stress despite this result was not the same for all genotypes and stress levels. Some genes have up-regulated in mediate stress (treatment 100) level (like as Gmdreb 2, Gmdreb 5, GmRD20A, GmaxACD2) and other genes up-regulated in serve stress (treatment 150) level. Between genotypes, DPX cultivar and WE6 line were better than of the sari cultivar for all genes up-regulated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Soybean biodiesel; Engine performance; Engine emission; Nano-additives
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:45:16 CET)
The present study examines the effect of SiO2 nano-additives on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with soybean biodiesel. Soybean biofuel was prepared using the transesterification process. Nano-additives characterisations were done using different tests such as FESEM, XRD, EDS, etc., to study the morphology of nano-additives. For proper blending of nano-additives with biodiesel, the ultrasonication process was used. Surfactant was used for the stabilisation of nano-additives. After making all the combinations of nano fuel blends, physicochemical properties were measured as per ASTM standards. Performance and emissions readings were taken at different load conditions. It was found that with the addition of SiO2 nano-additives, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was increased by 3.48-6.39% and 5.81-9.88%, respectively. Significant reduction of CO, CO2, NOx, and smoke emissions were also observed compared to baseline fule due to better combustion efficiency with the use of SiO2 nano-additive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0200.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: farmland change; soybean; production potential; GAEZ; Western Jilin
Online: 12 June 2018 (16:01:54 CEST)
In recent 40 years, the quantity and spatial patterns of farmland in Western Jilin have changed dramatically, which had great impact on soybean production potential. This study used one of the most advanced crop production potential models, the Global Agro-cological Zones model, to calculate the soybean production potential in Western Jilin based on meteorological, terrain, soil and land use data, and analyzed impact of farmland change on soybean production potential during 1975-2013. The main conclusions were the following. First, the total soybean production potential in Western Jilin in 2013 was 89.22 thousand tons. The production potential of eastern area was higher than the other areas of Western Jilin. Second, farmland change led to a growth of 33.03 thousand tons in soybean production potential between 1975 and 2000, and a decrease of 10.30 thousand tons between 2000 and 2013. Third, taking account of two situations of farmland change, the conversion between dryland and other categories, and the change of irrigation percentage led to the total soybean production potential in Western Jilin increased by 23.13 and only 2.87 thousand tons respectively between 1975 and 2000, and increased by 1.13 and 2.81 thousand tons respectively between 2000 and 2013. In general, the increase of soybean potential production was mainly due to grassland and woodland reclamation. The results of this study would be a good reference for protecting safe baseline of farmland, managing land resources, and ensuring continuity and stability of soybean supply and food security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0187.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: GmUFOs; knockout; floral organ number; floral organ shape; soybean
Online: 11 April 2023 (04:10:00 CEST)
The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is an essential regulatory factor of class B genes and plays a vital role in the process of inflorescence primordial and flower primordial development. We investigated the role of UFO genes in soybean to better understand the development of floral organs through gene cloning, expression analysis, and gene knockout. In situ hybridization demonstrated predominant expression of the GmUFO1 gene in the flower primordium. Phenotypic observation of GmUFO1 knockout mutant lines (Gmufo1) showed obvious alteration in floral organ number and shape, and mosaic organ formation. In contrast, GmUFO2 knockout mutant lines (Gmufo2) showed no obvious difference in floral organs. However, the GmUFO1 and GmUFO2 double knockout lines (Gmufo1ufo2) showed a more severe mutant phenotype than the Gmufo1 lines. Gene expression analysis also showed differences in the expression of major ABC function genes in the knockout lines. Based on the phenotypic and expression analysis, our results suggest the major role of GmUFO1 in the regulation of flower organ formation in soybean and that GmUFO2 does not have any direct effect, but it might have an interaction role with GmUFO1 in the regulation of flower development. In conclusion, the present study identified UFO genes in soybean and improved our understanding of floral development that could be useful for flower design in hybrid soybean breeding.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: water use efficiency; soybean; stomatal conductance; photosynthesis; carbon isotope
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:39:46 CEST)
High intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi), the ratio of leaf photosynthesis to stomatal conductance, may be a useful trait in adapting crops to water-limited environments. Carbon isotope ratios can be a useful indicator of WUEi, but might not be well correlated with it if the plants compared differ substantially in mesophyll conductance. In this study, six cultivars of soybeans previously shown to differ in WUEi in indoor experiments were grown in the field in Beltsville, Maryland, and mid-day WUEi was measured on nine clear days during mid-seasons of two years. Measurement dates were chosen for diverse temperatures, and air temperatures ranged from 21 to 34 oC on the different dates. Corrected carbon isotope delta values for 13C (CID) were determined on mature, upper canopy leaves harvested during early pod filling each year. WUEi differed among cultivars both years and the differences were consistent across measurement dates. Correlations between mean WUEi and CID were not significant in either year. It is concluded that consistent cultivar differences in WUEi exist in these soybean cultivars under field conditions, but that carbon isotope ratios may not be useful in identifying them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: organic pollutants; enzymatic remediation; sulforhodamine B; soybean peroxidase; chloroperoxidase
Online: 6 March 2017 (07:45:32 CET)
Enzymatic degradation of organic pollutants is a new and promising remediation approach. Peroxidases are one of the most commonly used classes of enzymes to degrade organic pollutants. However, it is generally assumed that all peroxidases behave similarly and produce similar degradation products. In this study, we conducted detailed studies of the degradation of a model aromatic pollutant, Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB dye), using two peroxidases—soybean peroxidase (SBP) and chloroperoxidase (CPO). Our results show that these two related enzymes had different optimum conditions (pH, temperature, H2O2 concentration...etc.) for efficiently degrading SRB dye. High-performance liquid chromatography and LC-mass spectrometry analyses confirmed that both SBP and CPO transformed the SRB dye into low molecular weight intermediates. While most of the intermediates produced by the two enzymes were the same, the CPO treatment produced at least one different intermediate. Furthermore, toxicological evaluation using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds demonstrated that the SBP-based treatment was able to eliminate the phytotoxicity of SRB dye, but the CPO-based treatment did not. Our results show, for the first time, that while both of these related enzymes can be used to efficiently degrade organic pollutants, they have different optimum reaction conditions and may not be equally efficient in detoxification of organic pollutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1806.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: phenol-formaldehyde resin; soybean meal; soy-based adhesives; curing; plywood
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:55:13 CEST)
To develop a lower-cost, excellent performance, and environmentally friendly phe-nol-formaldehyde (PF) resin, soybean meal was used to modify PF resin, and soybean meal-phenol-formaldehyde (SMPF) resins were prepared. Their physicochemical properties and curing performance were investigated, showing that SMPF resins have higher curing tempera-tures than PF resin. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that the cross-linking reaction occurred between the amino groups of soybean protein and the hy-droxymethyl phenol. Moreover, with the addition of soybean meal, the viscosity of SMPF in-creased while the gel time decreased. It is worth mentioning that SMPF-2 resin has favorable viscosity, short gel time, low curing temperature (135.78 °C), and high water resistance and bonding strength (1.01 MPa). Finally, all the plywoods bonded with SMPF resins have good water resistance and bonding strength, which could meet the Standard (GB/T 17657-2013, type I) for plywood. The optimized SMPF resins showed the potential application to replace part of PF resin in the wood industry.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; strigolactones; biosynthesis and signaling genes; expression patterns; salt stress
Online: 3 October 2019 (14:01:36 CEST)
Strigolactones (SLs) are a novel emerging plant hormones, which play important roles in regulating plant organ development and environmental stress tolerance. Even though the SL related genes have been identified and well characterized in some plants. The information of SL related genes in soybean is not fully established yet, especially in response to salt stress. In this study, we identified nine SL biosynthesis genes: two D27, two CCD7, two CCD8, and three MAX1, and seven SL signaling genes: two D14, two MAX2 and three D53 in soybean genome. We found that SL biosynthesis and signaling genes are conserved during evolution in different species. Syntenic analysis of these genes revealed their location on nine chromosomes as well as existence of ten pairs of duplication genes. Moreover, plant hormone and stress-responsive elements were identified in the promoter regions of SL biosynthesis and signaling genes. By using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we confirmed that SL genes have different tissue expression in roots, stems and leaves. Further, we also explored the expression profiles of SL biosynthesis and signaling genes under salt stress. These results suggested that SL signaling genes may play important regulatory roles in response to salt stress. In conclusion, we identified and provided valuable information on the soybean SL biosynthesis and signaling genes, and established a foundation for further functional analysis of soybean SL related genes in response to salt stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1687.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: endophytic bacteria; soybean seedlings; salt stress; SOD; CAT; resistance; repair capability
Online: 26 October 2023 (09:44:56 CEST)
It was of great practical significance to repair the toxicity of salt stress environment to soybean seedlings and maintain the balance between agricultural production and ecological environment in the Yellow River valley of China. ‘Xudou 20’ was used as the experimental material, a large-scale planting variety in the old Yellow River basin. Endophytes 131 and 137 isolated from soybean root nodule were taken as the research objects, and the soybean plants were cultivated by pot culture in intelligent artificial incubator. Salt stress group, bacteria suspension group and control group were set up to study the effects of inoculation treatments on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of soybean seedlings under different NaCl stress. The results showed that when inoculated with endophyte 131 bacterial suspension and cultured for 14 days, the SOD activity was the highest (14.89 U•g−1•FW) at the salt concentration 50 mmol•L-1. When inoculated with 131 bacterial suspension (2:1) and cultured for 28 days, the SOD activity reached the highest (0.94 ug-1FW) at the salt concentration of 50 mmol•L-1, and the CAT activity amounted to the highest (1910 U•g−1•min−1). The 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the most similar strain of strain 137 was Bacillus cereus, and the most similar strain of strain 131 was Enterobacter ludwigii. Therefore, the activities of SOD and CAT in soybean seedlings inoculated with endophytes 131 and 137 increased at different degrees under salt stress, which could effectively alleviate the damage of salt stress environment to plants, and thus improve the stress resistance of plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Biochemical traits; Colchicine; Glycine max; Morphology; Oryzalin; Polyploidy; Salinity stress; Soybean
Online: 7 March 2023 (09:29:33 CET)
Polyploidy induction is recognized as one of the major evolutionary processes presenting remark-able morphological, physiological, and genetic variations in plants. Soybean (Glycine max L.), also known as soja bean or soya bean, is an annual leguminous crop of the pea family (Fabaceae) that shares a paleopolypoidy history, dating back to approximately 56.5 million years ago with other leguminous crops such as cowpea and other Glycine specific polyploids. This crop has been documented as one of the polyploid complex species among legumes whose gene evolution and result-ant adaptive growth characteristics, following induced polyploidization has not been fully explored. Furthermore, there are no successfully established in vivo or in vitro based polyploidy in-duction protocols that have been reported so far, particularly, with the intention to develop mutant plants showing strong resistance to abiotic salinity stress. This review, therefore, describes the role of synthetic polyploid plant production in soybean for the mitigation against high soil salt stress levels, and how this evolving approach could be used to further enhance nutritional, pharmaceutical and economic industrial value of soybeans, including addressing challenges involved during the polyploidization process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Korean soybean varieties; nsSNP; Biomarker; SIFT; Polyphen; PANTHER; I-mutant 2.0
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:25:22 CET)
Soybean is a highly nutritious legume grown globally as a food and feed crop. An examination of a collection of 10 cultivated and 6 wild Korean soybean varieties showed that there is phenotypic variability notable in different soybeans. Therefore, to develop a list of biomarker candidates useful for growing soybeans of better quality and quantity, the genes of 16 Korean soybean varieties were compared with those of the reference Glycine max var. Williams 82. The comparison was made through gene sequencing to facilitate selection of nsSNPs. The objective of the study was to find out the structural and functional variations caused by nsSNPs and discuss whether the collection of Korean soybean varieties qualifies as biomarkers based on their phenotypic traits. Analysis of the data collected was done using four software: SIFT, Polyphen, PANTHER, and I-mutant 2.0, which are designed to detect the rate of functional and structural variations caused by the nsSNPs in cultivated and wild soybean varieties. Genotypic information obtained in the analysis was used to develop a core collection of biomarkers based on whether nsSNP content was found in more than half of the 16 samples. Therefore, the list of biomarker candidates developed from this study showed that Korean soybean could provide valuable information needed in both future crop genetic research and identification of biomarkers.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: soybean (Glycine max L.); NPQ; photoinhibition; bioinformatics; subcellular localization; qRT-PCR
Online: 10 February 2020 (09:47:05 CET)
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop that serves as a source of edible oil and protein. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism of adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Based on the Arabidopsis thaliana sequence database and Phytozome, a soybean gene that was highly homogenous with the reduced induction of the non-photochemical quenching2 (AtRIQ2) gene, GmRIQ2-like (accession NO.: Glyma.04G174400), was identified in this study. The gene structure analysis revealed that GmRIQ2-like encoded a transmembrane protein. Elements of the promoter analysis indicated that GmRIQ2-like participated in the photosynthesis and abiotic stress pathways. The subcellular localization results revealed that the protein encoded by GmRIQ2-like was located in chloroplasts. The quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR results revealed that GmRIQ2-like-overexpression (OE) and -knock-out (KO) transgenic soybean seedlings were cultivated successfully. The relative chlorophyll (Chl) and zeaxanthin contents and Chl fluorescence kinetic parameters demonstrated that GmRIQ2-like dissipated excess light energy by enhancing the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and reduced plant photoinhibition. These results suggested that GmRIQ2-like was induced in response to strong light and depressed Chl production involved in soybean stress tolerance. These findings indicate that the transgenic seedlings of GmRIQ2-like could be used to enhance strong light stress tolerance and protect soybean plants from photoinhibition damage. This study will serve as a reference for studying crop photoprotection regulation mechanisms and benefits the research and development of new cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; RIL; Forrest; Williams 82; linkage map; RFOs; sucrose; raffinose; stachyose; SNP
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:50:41 CEST)
Soybean seed sugars are among the most abundant beneficial compounds for human and animal consumption in soybean seeds. Higher seed sugars such as sucrose are desirable as it contributes to taste and flavor in soy-based food. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to use ‘Forrest’ by ‘Williams 82’ (F×W82) recombinant inbred line (RIL) soybean population (n=309) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes that control seed sugar (sucrose, stachyose, and raffinose) contents in two environments (North Carolina and Illinois) over two years (2018 and 2020). A total of 26 QTL that control seed sugars contents were identified and mapped on 16 soybean chromosomes (chrs.). Interestingly, five QTL regions were identified in both locations, Illinois and North Carolina, in this study on chrs. 2, 5, 13, 17, and 20. Amongst 57 candidate genes identified in this study, 16 were located within 10 Megabase (MB) of the identified QTL. Amongst them a cluster of four genes involved in the sugars’ pathway was collocated within 6 MB with two QTL that were detected in this study on chr. 17. Further functional validation of the identified genes could be beneficial in breeding programs to produce soybean lines with high beneficial sucrose and low raffinose family oligosaccharides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0884.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: commodity market; production costs; cost trends; agricultural inputs, corn production, soybean production
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:22:43 CEST)
In Brazil, the production of corn and soybeans has been growing significantly in recent years. Considering that the strategies for investing in the production of these crops are conditioned by production costs and risk, the objective of this article is to propose a simulation model that indicates the trend of production costs for these commodities, considering the dispersion and correlation of selected key variable prices and corn and soybean production costs practiced between the years of 2018 and 2022. Fifty specialized companies in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided data for this study, and Monte Carlo simulations showed that the total cost of corn production/ha is between USD 600.00 and USD 1150.00, with a level of certainty of 84.7%, and soybeans are in the range of USD 260.00 to USD 420.00, with a level of certainty of 86.4%. The model evidenced a trend of decreasing production costs for the crops for the 2023/24 and 2024/25 harvests, as the input with the greatest impact (fertilizer) is showing a downward trend. On the other hand, costs related to labor, soybean seed, and fungicides are showing an upward trend, while dolomitic limestone corrective remains stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0951.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: N cycling bacteria genes, wheat-soybean cropping, tall fescue pasturing, spatial distribution
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:52:54 CEST)
Soil nitrogen (N) is a common limiting factor where soil N cycling is a key component of agro-ecosystems. Soil N transformation processes are largely mediated by microbes and understanding bacteria involvement in soil N cycling in agricultural systems has both agronomic and environmental importance. This 2-yr field scale study examined the abundances and spatial distributions of total bacterial community (16s RNA), bacterial involved in nitrification (amoA), and de-nitrification (narG, nirK, and nosZ) and soil physicochemical properties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – soybean (Glycene max L.) double cropping with 2-3 weeks of spring grazing (WGS) and without grazing (WS) and of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea (L.) Schreb.) pasture (TF) managed to near natural conditions with similar grazing. The TF had a significantly higher abundance of 16S rRNA, amoA, narG, nirK, and nosZ genes than the WS and WGS, which had similar levels between themselves. Soil organic matter (OM) and soil pH had a stronger effect on the N-cycling bacteria gene abundance. All bacterial gene concentrations and soil pH showed non-random distribution patterns with 141-186 m range autocorrelation. These results indicate that biological N transformation processes are more important in natural agricultural systems and the abundance of N-cycling bacteria can be manipulated by field scale management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Bacteria; community composition; growth stage; rhizosphere; root nodule; soybean; 16S rRNA gene
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:13:15 CEST)
Bacterial communities in rhizosphere and root nodules have significant contributions to the growth and productivity of the soybean (Glycine max L.). In this report, we analyzed the physiological properties and dynamics of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere and root nodules at different growth stages using BioLog EcoPlate and high-throughput sequencing technology, respectively. The BioLog assay found that the metabolic capability of rhizosphere is in increasing trend in the growth of soybeans as compared to the bulk soil. As a result of the Illumina sequencing analysis, the microbial community structure of rhizosphere and root nodules was found to be influenced by the variety and growth stage of the soybean. At the phylum level, Actinobacteria were the most abundant in rhizosphere at all growth stages, followed by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes showed the greatest change. But, in the root nodules Alphaproteobacteria were dominant. The results of the OTU analysis exhibited the dominance of Bradyrhizobium during the entire stage of growth, but the ratio of non-rhizobial bacteria showed an increasing trend as the soybean growth progressed. These findings revealed that bacterial community in the rhizosphere and root nodules changed according to both the variety and growth stages of soybean in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Fusarium spp.; genetic diversity; pathogenicity; phylogenetic analyses; resistance; root rot; Sanger sequencing; soybean
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:06:49 CET)
Fusarium spp. are commonly associated with the root rot complex of soybean (Glycine max). Previous surveys identified six common Fusarium species from Manitoba, including F. oxysporum, F. redolens, F. graminearum, F. solani, F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum. This study aimed to determine their pathogenicity, assess host resistance and evaluate the genetic diversity of Fusarium spp. isolated from Canada. Pathogenicity was tested on two cultivars, ‘Akras’ (moderate resistance) and ‘B150Y1’ (susceptible), under greenhouse conditions. The virulence of the fungal isolates varied, with root rot severities ranging from 1.5 to 3.3 on a 0-4 scale. The six species were used to screen a panel of 20 Canadian soybean cultivars for resistance in a greenhouse. Cluster and principal component analyses were conducted based on the same traits as for the pathogenicity study. Two of the cultivars, ‘P15T46R2’ and ‘B150Y1’, were consistently found to be tolerant to F. oxysporum, F. redolens, F. graminearum and F. solani. To investigate the incidence and prevalence of Fusarium spp. in Canada, fungi were isolated from 106 soybean fields surveyed across Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec. Two-hundred twenty-one Fusarium isolates were identified, with phylogenetic analyses indicating diversity of the isolates in the major soybean production regions of Canada.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0527.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; nodulation; in vitro nodule development; phytohormones; ABA; JA; auxins; cytokinins; GA; BR
Online: 27 September 2018 (03:59:07 CEST)
Legumes develop root nodules that harbour endosymbiotic bacteria, rhizobia. These rhizobia convert nitrogen to ammonia by biological nitrogen fixation. A thorough understanding of the biological nitrogen fixation in legumes and its regulation is key to develop sustainable agriculture. It is well known that plant hormones affect nodule formation; however, most studies are limited to model legumes due to their suitability for in vitro, plate-based assays. Specifically, it is almost impossible to measure the effects of exogenous hormones or other additives during nodule development in crop legumes such as soybean as they have huge root system in soil. To circumvent this issue, the present research develops suitable media and growth conditions for efficient nodule development under in vitro, soil free conditions in an important legume crop, soybean. Moreover, we also evaluate the effects of all major phytohormones during soybean nodulation under identical conditions. This versatile, inexpensive, scalable and simple protocol provides several advantages over previously established methods. It is extremely time-and resource-efficient, does not require special training or equipment, and produces highly reproducible results. The approach is expandable to other large legumes as well as for other exogenous additives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: green synthesis; soybean leaf extract; nematotoxic efficacy; plant-parasitic nematodes; migratory endoparasitic nematode; nanotechnology
Online: 8 November 2023 (07:42:57 CET)
This study explores an eco-friendly approach to synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using soybean leaf extracts, employing a reaction with silver nitrate at 65°C for 2.5 h. Optimal results were achieved at extract concentrations of 3.12 and 6.25 mg leaf mL-1, termed 3.12AgNP and 6.25AgNP, respectively. UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis between 350-550 nm exhibited a peak at 410-430 nm, along with a color transition in the suspensions from pale yellow to brown, indicating successful synthesis. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) further delineated favorable properties of these AgNPs, including nanometric dimensions (73–104 nm), negative charge, and moderate polydispersity, portraying stable and reproducible synthesis reactions. The bioreduction mechanism, possibly expedited by leaf extract constituents such as amino acids, phenolic acids, and polysaccharides, remains to be fully elucidated. Notably, the study underscored the potent nematicidal effectiveness of the biosynthesized AgNPs, especially 6.25AgNP, against Pratylenchus brachyurus, a common plant parasitic nematode in tropical soybean cultivation regions. In vitro tests illustrated significant nematicidal activity at concentrations above 25 µmol L-1, while in vivo experiments displayed pronounced nematode population diminishment in plant roots, particularly with a 6.25AgNP rhizosphere application at concentrations of 500 µmol L-1 or twice at 250 µmol L-1, attaining a reproduction factor below 1 without any morphological nematode alterations. The research highlights the potential of 6.25AgNPs derived from soybean leaf extracts in forging sustainable nematicidal solutions, marking a significant stride towards eco-friendly phytonematode management in soybean cultivation. This novel methodology signals a promising avenue in harnessing botanical resources for nematode control, propelling a greener agricultural horizon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0003.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Conventional agriculture; sustainable agriculture; compost tea; bacteria; biodiversity; Illumina MiSeq sequencing; plant growth; soybean
Online: 1 July 2021 (07:59:55 CEST)
Soil bacteria drive key ecosystem functions, including nutrient mobilization, soil aggregation and crop bioprotection against pathogens. Bacterial diversity is thus considered a key component of soil health. Conventional agriculture reduces bacterial diversity in many ways. Compost tea has been suggested as a bioinoculant that may restore bacterial community diversity and promote crop performance under conventional agriculture. Here, we conducted a field experiment to test this hypothesis in a soybean-maize rotation. Compost tea application had no influence on bacterial diversity or community structure. Plant growth and yield were also unresponsive to compost tea application. Combined, our results suggest that our compost tea bacteria did not thrive in the soil, and that the positive impacts of compost tea applications reported elsewhere may be caused by different microbial groups (e.g., fungi, protists, nematodes) or by abiotic effects on soil (e.g., contribution of nutrients and dissolved organic matter). Further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanisms through which compost tea influences crop performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0280.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hyperspectral Technology; Non-destructive Testing; Soybean; Machine Learning; Support Vector Machine; Extreme Gradient Boosting; Tree-structured Parzen Estimator
Online: 19 July 2022 (07:12:32 CEST)
Soybean with insignificant differences in appearance have large differences in their internal physical and chemical components, therefore follow-up storage, transportation and processing require targeted differential treatment. A fast and effective machine learning method based on hyperspectral data of soybean for pattern recognition of categories is designed as a non-destructive testing method in this paper. A hyperspectral-image dataset with 2299 soybean seeds in 4 categories is collected; Ten features is selected by extreme gradient boosting algorithm from 203 hyperspectral bands in range 400 to 1000 nm; A Gaussian radial basis kernel function support vector machine with optimization by the Tree-structured Parzen Estimator algorithm is built as TPE-RBF-SVM model for pattern recognition of soybean categories. The metrics of TPE-RBF-SVM are significantly improved compared with other machine learning algorithms. The accuracy is 0.9165 in the independent test dataset which is 9.786% higher for vanilla RBF-SVM model and 10.02% higher than the extreme gradient boosting model.