ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Castor oil; Ascorbic acid; Bowel preparation; Polyethylene glycol
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:42:38 CEST)
Our aim was to evaluate efficacy and safety of 30mL CaO alone or plus Asc in bowel preparation before colonoscopy. Two hundred and forty six patients were allocated randomly to ingest 2L PEG with 30mL CaO, 1L PEG with 30mL CaO plus 5g Asc, or 3L PEG. We used Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) to evaluate bowel preparation efficacy. We also determined other outcomes such as procedure time, polyp or adenoma detection rate and adverse events (AEs). Of 282 patients recruited, 36 were excluded. Groups were matched for baseline characteristics except weight (P = 0.020) and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.003). Patient’s satisfaction were higher in 2L PEG-CaO (P = 0.016) and 1L PEG-CaO-Asc groups (P = 0·017). Patients’ compliance was 67.5%, 71.4% and 80.5% in 3L PEG, 2L PEG-CaO and 1L PEG-CaO-Asc groups (P = 0.014). Adequate bowel preparation rate was 75%, 78.57% and 53.66% in 3L PEG, 2L PEG-CaO and 1L PEG-CaO-Asc groups (P = 0.021). There were no differences in terms of remaining outcomes. Despite an increase in patients’ satisfaction and compliance, 1L PEG-CaO-Asc significantly decreased adequate bowel preparation rate. However, 2L PEG-CaO improved the patients' satisfaction and compliance and increased adequate bowel preparation rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Polyethylene glycol; Cellulose; Drug delivery; Vaccine delivery; Hydrogel; Immunogenicity.
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:46:08 CEST)
Due to their distinct physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, biopolymers, in particular Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) and Cellulose, are frequently used in biomedical medicine as drug or vaccine delivery systems. In this study, we have done a systematic review and a meta-analysis to compare current developments in many PEG and cellulose-based hydrogels, including double network hydrogels, injectable hydrogels, sliding hydrogels, conductive hydrogels, responsive hydrogels, and nanocomposite hydrogels. The pharmacokinetic properties, including physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, biodegradability, temperature, and pH, have been studied as these critical factors are to be considered for deciding the suitability of the drug for delivery. Moreover, the study has evaluated the controlled-release parameters such as half-life, circulation time, maximum release percentage of loaded drug released, burst release, maximum release, and drug-release kinetics. Finally, the efficacy and immune response of hydrogel was studied for future choice, including the cellulose hydrogel system in COVID-related long-term vaccine delivery. The finding revealed that cellulose-based hydrogel is effective for vaccine delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0231.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid); oligomer; polyethylene glycol; antimicrobial agent; synergistic antimicrobial effect
Online: 12 October 2020 (11:41:21 CEST)
We reported previously that poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) oligomer is an effective antimicrobial agent against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi and multi-drug resistant bacteria. In this work, it was further found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can promote the antimicrobial effect of PHB oligomer synergistically. Three hypothetic mechanisms were proposed, that is, generation of new antimicrobial components, degradation of PHB macromolecules and dissolution/dispersion of PHB oligomer by PEG. With a series of systematic experiments and characterizations of HPLC-MS, it was deducted that dissolution/dispersion of PHB oligomer dominated the synergistic antimicrobial effect between PHB oligomer and PEG. This work demonstrates a way for promoting antimicrobial effect of PHB oligomer and other antimicrobial agents through improving hydrophilicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0436.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Biomaterials; Bone; Bone regeneration; Critical Bone Defects; Hydroxy-apatite nanoparticles; Polycaprolactone; Polyethylene glycol diacrylate; Scaffolds
Online: 28 October 2022 (02:15:21 CEST)
Notwithstanding the advances achieved in the last decades in the field of synthetic bone substitutes, the development of biodegradable 3D scaffolds with ideal mechanical and biological properties remains an unattained challenge. In this work, a novel approach is explored to produce synthetic bone grafts mimicking the complex bone structure using additive manufacturing. For the first time, scaffolds were produced, using an extrusion technique, composed of a thermoplastic polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL), hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANp), and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). These scaffolds were further compared with two groups of scaffolds: one composed of PCL and another of PCL and HANp. After production, optimisation and characterisation of these scaffolds, an in vitro evaluation was performed using human dental pulp stem/stromal cells (hDPSCs). Through the findings it was possible to conclude that PEGDA scaffolds were successfully produced presenting networks of interconnected channels, presenting hydrophilic properties (15.15 4.06°), adequate mechanical performance (10.41MPa 0.934), and allowing a cell viability significantly superior to the other groups analysed. To conclude, findings in this study demonstrated that PCL, HANp and PEGDA scaffolds may have promising effects on bone regeneration and might open new insights for 3D tissue substitutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: PEGylation; safety; pediatric; biologics; polyethylene glycol; excipient; conjugation; polysorbate; hemophilia; rurioctocog alfa pegol
Online: 26 June 2018 (12:15:59 CEST)
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an inert, water soluble polymer, used for decades in pharmaceuticals. Although PEG is considered safe, concerns persist about the potential adverse effects of long-term exposure to PEG-containing therapies, specifically in children, following the introduction of PEGylated recombinant factor products used for the treatment of hemophilia. Given the absence of long-term surveillance data, and to evaluate the potential risk, we estimated PEG exposure in the pediatric population receiving US Food and Drug Administration-approved parenteral therapies with pediatric indications. We used a range of pediatric weights and doses based on prescribing information (PI) or treatment guidelines. PIs and reporting websites were searched for information about adverse events (AEs). For a child weighing 50 kg on the highest prophylactic dose of a FVIII product, the range of total PEG exposure was 40–21,840 mg/year; for FIX products, the range was 13–1342 mg/year; and for other products, the range was 383–26,743 mg/year, primarily as a derivative excipient. No AE patterns attributable to PEG were found for any of these products, including potential renal, neurological, or hepatic AEs. Our analyses suggest the pediatric population has had substantial exposure to PEG for several decades, with no evidence of adverse consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0792.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Microplastics; Artificial Ageing; Polymer Degradation; Artificial Ageing; Polyethylene; Polypropylene; Polystyrene; Polyethylene Terephthalate
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:29:00 CEST)
Up to 13 million tons of plastic waste are estimated to enter the oceans every year. A generally accepted picture based on an increasing number of environmental studies suggests that the largest fraction of it consists or is rapidly degraded into microplastics (MPs). Most of the analytical studies focused on MPs are based on the detection and identification of the polymers. On the other hand, plastic debris in the environment undergo chemical (mainly photoxidative) and physical degradation processes leading not only to fragmentation but also to the formation of leachable, soluble and/or volatile degradation products that are released in the environment. The formation of such low molecular weight species is generally neglected in the studies on MPs even if these compounds, released in the environment from the plastics debris, may pose even higher risks for the environment and for the biota than the MPs particles themselves, risks that are far from being understood and assessed. In this study we performed the analysis of reference MPs - polymer micropowders obtained by grinding a set of five polymer types down to final size in the 857-509 μm range, namely high- and low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE, respectively), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The reference MPs were artificially aged in a Solar-Box and their degradation products were analyzed to investigate their degradation processes. In particular, a systematic and thorough characterization of the aged (photo-oxidized) MPs and of their low molecular weight and/or highly oxidized fraction extractable in polar organic solvents was performed. For this purpose, the artificially aged MPs were subjected to selective extraction with organic solvent that are non-solvents for the virgin polymers, targeting selective recovery of the low molecular weight fractions generated during the artificial aging. Analysis of both the extractable fractions and the residues was carried out by a multi-technique approach combining evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). Up to 18 wt% of newly extractable, low molecular weight fraction was recovered from the photo-aged MPs, depending on the polymer type. The results highlight the need for more extensive studies about the potential harmfulness of the oxidation products (molecular and oxidized oligomeric species) that may leach out from plastic debris during their permanence in the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: turmeric; neem; antibacterial; antifungal; polyethylene
Online: 3 November 2020 (13:58:22 CET)
With the increased scientific interest in green technologies, many researches have been focused on the production of polymeric composites containing naturally occurring reinforcing particles. Apart from increasing mechanical properties, these additions can have a wide range of interesting effects, such as increasing the resistance to bacterial and fungal colonization. In this work, different amounts of two different natural products, namely neem and turmeric, have been added to polyethylene to act as a natural antibacterial and antifungal product for food packaging applications. Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization showed that fractions up to 5% of these products can be dispersed into low-molecular weight polyethylene, while higher amounts could not be properly dispersed and resulted in an inhomogeneous, fragile composite. In vitro testing conducted with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans showed a reduced proliferation of pathogens when compared to the polyethylene references. In particular, turmeric, resulted to be more effective against E. coli when compared to neem, while they had similar performances against S. aureus. Against C. albicans, only neem was able to show a good antifungal behavior, at high concentrations. Tensile testing showed that the addition of reinforcing particles reduces the mechanical properties of polyethylene, and, in the case of turmeric, it is further reduced by UV irradiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0519.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate; Microbial degradation; Sustainable development
Online: 21 June 2021 (14:52:03 CEST)
Plastics are extensively used due to their versatility, durability, and low cost. PET stands for Polyethylene terephthalate. PET plastic is widely used all over the world and has many applications ranging from water bottles to fabrics like polyester and many things in between. But its unrestrained use in every field is resulting in heaps and piles of non-biodegradable materials causing damage to the environment and causing pollution. The idea being proposed is to degrade the PET plastic biologically using different bacteria. The bacteria used in this process are Ideonella sakaiensis, Acetobacterium woodii, Pelotomaculum and Methanospirillum hungatei. PET plastic is degraded, yielding Terephthalic Acid (TPA) and Ethylene Glycol (EG) by the action of the bacterium I. sakaiensis. Degradation of EG by A. woodii results in the formation of acetate and ethanol. TPA is degraded by the action of the coculture of Pelotomaculum and M. hungatei thereby yielding methane and acetate. All these products formed have significant commercial uses in various industries. The complete process that is to be carried out can help in achieving sustainability by fulfilling various Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: nanomicelle; polyethylene glycol; tryptanthrin; water soluble
Online: 14 November 2019 (09:46:07 CET)
Tryptanthrin has not been widely applied in clinical practice due to its poor solubility and low bioavailability in spite of possessing several biological and pharmacological activities. Here, to improve the solubility of tryptanthrin, two types of novel tryptanthrin-loaded micelles were prepared. One was tryptanthrin physically encapsulated by distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG) and the other was pegylated tryptanthrin synthesized by acid-sensitive hydrazone bond and further prepared as micelles. Molecular imprinting technology was used to separate pegylated tryptanthrin and free mPEG-COOH in the preparation of PEGylated tryptanthrin micelles with considerably high separation efficiency. The solubility of tryptanthrin-loaded DSPE-PEG micelles (TDMs) and PEGylated tryptanthrin micelles (PTMs) was increased by 300 and 1493 fold compared with that of tryptanthrin, respectively. The PTMs increased the solubility of tryptanthrin more effectively and 95% of tryptanthrin was released from PTMs at pH 5.5 in 12 h. The cytotoxicity of PTMs decreased under physiological conditions compared with that of tryptanthrin, whereas at pH 5.5, the PTMs showed comparable cytotoxicity with that of tryptanthrin, indicating successful drug release from the carrier in response to tumor cell pH. Overall, we elucidated an efficient method to improve water solubility of tryptanthrin and indicated pegylated tryptanthrin is a promising prodrug.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0378.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: bio-based plastic; circular plastic economy; biorefinery; techno-economic analysis; polyethylene terephthalate; polyethylene furanoate; polytrimethylene terephthalate
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:09:03 CEST)
It is widely accepted that plastic waste is one of our most urgent environmental concerns the world is currently facing. Plastic has contributed greatly to innovation in all fields, but the raw material for its production (fossil fuels), as well as the linear economy in which it is currently produced and used, makes the material problematic from a sustainability and human health perspectives. The emergence of bio-based plastics provides an opportunity to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and transition to a more circular plastics economy. For polyethylene terephthalate (PET), one of the most prevalent plastics in packaging and textiles, there exist two bio-based alternatives that are similar or superior in material property and recyclability. These are polyethylene furanoate (PEF) and polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT). The overarching aim of this study was to examine the transition from fossil-based to renewable plastics, through the lens of PET upcycling into PEF and PTT. The process for the production of PEF and PTT from three feed streams (post-consumer PET waste, lignocellulosic biomass-derived cellulose and biodiesel-derived crude glycerol) was developed in the software SuperPro Designer and the economic viability assessed via a discounted cumulative cash flow (DCCF) analysis. This study represents a conceptual case study of the valorisation of existing plastic waste into new, recyclable bio-based plastics, for a more sustainable plastics production. A techno-economic analysis of the designed process revealed that the minimum selling price (MSP) of second generation-derived PEF and PTT is 3.13 USD/kg, and that utilities and the feedstock used for the production of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) needed in PEF synthesis contributed the most to the process operating costs. The effect of recycling PEF and PTT through the process at three recycling rates (42%, 50% and 55%) was investigated and revealed that increased recycling could reduce the MSP of the 2G bio-plastics (by 48.5%) to 1.61 USD/kg. This demonstrates that increasing recycling rates would have a beneficial effect on the economic viability of the plastic biorefinery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1981.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: polyamide; polypropylene; UHMW polyethylene; dust explosion; hazard
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:45:12 CEST)
Polymers and their processing by engineering production technologies (injection, moulding or additive manufacturing) are being increasingly used. An explosive atmosphere can be created by the powder form of these polymer materials, and introduction of preventive safeguards to control safety is required for their use. Determination of the fire parameters of powder samples of Polyamide PA12, Polypropylene, and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW Polyethylene) is the subject of the current article. The results showed? that one of the samples used was not flammable and thus safe for use in terms of explosiveness. Two samples were flammable and explosive. The lower explosive limit was 30 g.m-3 (Polyamide PA12) and 60 g.m-3 (UHMW Polyethylene). The maximum explosion pressure of the samples was 6.47 (UHMW Polyethylene) and 6.76 bar (Polyamide PA 12). The explosion constant Kst of the samples was 116.6 bar.m.s-1 (Polyamide PA 12) and 97.1 bar.m.s-1 (UHMW Polyethylene). Therefore, when using polymers in production technologies, it is necessary to know their fire parameters, and to design effective explosion prevention measures for flammable and explosive polymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: thermogravimetry; wastes; pyrolysis; polyethylene; polystyrene; coffee husks
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:57:14 CET)
Research abounds in the literature on kinetic analyses using thermogravimetric (TG) runs. Many of these studies use approximations of integral or derivative forms of the kinetic law and all of them use programmed temperature, not the actual temperature measured by thermocouples close to the sample. In addition, it is common to conduct a single run in order to perform the calculation. Nevertheless, many authors consider that numerical methods should be used to analyse the kinetics of decomposition. In such cases, the actual temperature is used and, generally, several runs are fitted using the same kinetic parameters, giving robustness to the results. In the present work, a numerical integration procedure was discussed and applied to different examples. We focused on materials presenting a single decomposition curve as well as other materials with more complex processes. Different examples were explored, and the methodology was applied to a number of wastes such as coffee husks, polystyrene and polyethylene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Black polyethylene, Mulches, Allium sativum, Growth, Grass
Online: 19 July 2017 (22:50:23 CEST)
A field experiment to assess the effect of mulch on growth (days to maturity, plant height, leaf length and leaf number) of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) was conducted in 2015 - 2016 at Addis Ababa University Selale campus, on demonstration field to identify optimum plant growth using different mulches for Garlic tested independently. The experiment was designed using randomized complete block. The analyzed result using ANOVA shows significance difference among the treatments. Plots treated with black polyethylene mulch and grass mulch enhanced maturity by about 114 and 116 days, respectively, while garlic in control showed slightly delayed maturity of 125 days. Maximum plant height (66.5 cm) was recorded in the plants mulched by black polyethylene mulch followed by grass mulch which records 62.3 cm and 52.3 cm, respectively. A highly significant variation (p<0.05) in the leaf length was observed at the different mulch treatments. Significantly maximum leaf number (15.3) was recorded in plants mulched with black polyethylene followed by grass mulch with 14.0 leaf number. Thus, black polyethylene and grass mulch performs better than control treatment in growth parameter evaluation of garlic plants under fiche condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1640.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: forensic sciences; crime scene; trace evidence; spectroscopy; polyethylene.
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:31:46 CEST)
Forensic assessments may involve the sampling of textile fibers when examining crime scenes. The need to characterize and identify those fibers is crucial as they can provide extensive information relating to a crime, linking a suspect to a location. Fibers in particular may contain issues in terms of both size and quantity of sample, and micro Fourier transform Infrared in attenuated total reflectance mode (micro FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy presents a non-destructive method to identify those fibers. In this study we carried out a rapid forensic assessment via micro FTIR-ATR of sixty textile fibers recovered from twenty white fabrics relying on tape lifting method, in order to discriminate those materials. Two dimensional principal component analysis and radar chart were applied to enhance the visual comparison of the fibers. Results of infrared spectra revealed that the technique allows the discrimination of textile fibers according to their spectral composition (cellulose, polyamide, polyester, or mixture of these composites) and to some characteristics, as number and width of peaks, peak position according to the wavenumber, absorbance index related to peak sharpness, etc. The technique was deemed useful in the forensic assessment of the fibers, presenting rapid and enlightening results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0356.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEG; viability; osteoblasts; fibroblasts; pH; polyurethane; polyethylene glycol
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:52:52 CEST)
Grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) on polymers surface is widely used to improve biocompatibility by reducing protein and cell adhesion. Although PEG is considered to be bioinert, its incorporation to biomaterials has shown to improve cell viability depending on the amount and molecular weight (MW) used. This phenomenon was studied here by grafting PEG of three MW onto polyurethane (PU) substrata at three molar concentrations to assess their effect on PU surface properties and on the viability of osteoblasts and fibroblasts. PEG formed a covering on the substrata which increased the hydrophilicity and surface energy of PUs. Among the results it was observed that osteoblast viability increased for all MW and grafting densities of PEG employed compared with unmodified PU. However, fibroblast viability only increased at certain combinations of MW and grafting densities of PEG, suggesting an optimal level of these parameters. PEG grafting also promoted a more spread cell morphology than that exhibited by unmodified PU; nevertheless, cells became apoptotic-like as PEG MW and grafting density were increased. These effects on cells could be due to PEG affecting culture medium pH, which became more alkaline at higher MW and concentrations of PEG. Results support the hypothesis that surface energy of PU substrates can be tuned by controlling the MW and grafting density of PEG, but these parameters should be optimized to promote cell viability without inducing apoptotic-like behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0510.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate; PET; glycolysis; recycling; oligoesters; reactive oligomers
Online: 19 April 2021 (16:56:10 CEST)
In this work, oligoesters with terminal hydroxyl groups were obtained by directed glycolytic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate. The possibility of obtaining bifunctional reactive oligomers with an average molecular weight of 865 g mol-1 by directed glycolytic destruction via a dissolution-degradation strategy in dimethyl sulfoxide at a low concentration of ethylene glycol (32.3 mass parts per 100 mass parts of polyethylene terephthalate) was shown. This process allows us to partially solve the urgent problem of recycling post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0264.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Activation; Catalyst; Catalytic pyrolysis; Fuel oil; Hydrocarbon fuel; Municipal wastes; Plastics wastes; Polyethylene; Pyrolysis; Thermal pyrolysis
Online: 27 January 2020 (10:13:24 CET)
Plastics have become an indispensable part of modern life today. The global production of plastics has gone up to 299million tones in 2013, which is believed to be increasing in the near future. The utilization of plastics and its final disposal pose a tremendous negative significance impacts on the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis for production of fuel oil from the polyethene plastic wastes. Catalysts used in the experiment were acid activated clay mineral and aluminum chlorides on activated carbon. The clay mineral was activated by refluxing it with 6M Sulphuric acid for 3hours. The experiment was conducted in three different phases: the first phase of the experiment was done without a catalyst where 88mL oil was obtained at a maximum temperature of 39 and heating rates of 12.5, reaction time of 4hours. The second phase involves the use of acid activated clay mineral where 100mL of oil was obtained and heating rates of 12.5 and reaction time of 3hours 30minutes. The third phase was done using aluminium chlorides on activated carbon and 105ml oil was obtained at a maximum temperature of 400 and heating rates of 15.5 reaction time of 3hours 10minutes. From the results, catalytic pyrolysis is more efficient than purely thermal pyrolysis and homogenous catalysis (aluminum chlorides) shows a better result than solid acid catalyst (activated clay minerals) hence saving the energy needed for pyrolysis and making the process more economically feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0062.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate; PET plastic; depolymerization; biocatalys; biodegradation; glycolysis; recycling
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:33:58 CEST)
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) pollution poses significant environmental consequences, and thus new degradation methods must be explored to mitigate this problem. We previously demonstrated that a consortium of three Pseudomonas and two Bacillus species can synergistically degrade PET in culture. The consortium more readily consumes Bis(2-Hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET), a byproduct made in PET depolymerization, compared to PET, and can fully convert BHET into metabolically usable monomers terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG). Because of its crystalline structure, the main limitation of the biodegradation of post-consumer PET is the initial transesterification from PET to BHET, depicting the need for the transesterification step in the degradation process. Additionally, there have been numerous studies done on the depolymerization reaction of PET to BHET, yet few have tested the biocompatibility of that product with a bacterial consortium. In this report, a two-step process was implemented for sustainable PET biodegradation, where PET is first depolymerized to form BHET using an Orange Peel Ash (OPA) catalyzed glycolysis reaction, followed by complete degradation of the BHET glycolysis product by the bacterial consortium. Results show that OPA-catalyzed glycolysis reactions can fully depolymerize PET, with an average BHET yield of 92% (w/w) and that the reaction product is biocompatible with the bacterial consortium. After inoculation with the consortium, 19% degradation of the glycolysis product was observed in 2 weeks, for a total degradation percentage of 17% when taking both steps into account. Furthermore, the 10-week total BHET degradation rate was 35%, demonstrating that the glycolysis products are biocompatible with the consortium for longer periods of time, for a total two-step degradation rate of 33% over 10 weeks. While we predict complete degradation is achievable using this method, further experimentation with the consortium can allow for a circular recycling process, where TPA can be recovered from culture media and reused to create new materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: polyethylene; friction; wear; hardness; surface free energy; stress; strain
Online: 8 August 2019 (17:54:11 CEST)
Polymer materials are increasingly being used for sliding machine elements due to their numerous advantages. They are used even where they are deformed and in such a state they interact frictionally e.g. in machine hydraulics or lip seals. Few publications deal with the influence of deformation, which is the effect of e.g. assembly on tribological properties of polymeric material. This deformation can reach up to ε ≈ 20% and is achieved without increasing the temperature of the polymer material. The paper presents the results of investigations in which high-density polyethylene (PE-HD) was maintained in deformation by means of a special grip (holder). The wear of the sample was significantly higher than that of the undeformed sample. This effect persisted even after partial relaxation of the stress in the sample after 24 hours. Additional investigations were carried out to explain the obtained results. There were the microscopic observations of the surface after friction, measurements of microhardness and free surface energy. Changes in the value of surface free energy and a significant decrease in microhardness with deformation under tension were observed. Strained material had a different surface appearance after friction and a different size and form of wear products. It was indicated that it is probable that the cohesion of the material will decrease and that the character of the wear process will change as a result of tension. Tension without heating of polymeric material (PE-HD), e.g. as a result of assembly, has been qualified as a hazard to be taken into account when designing and analysing polymeric sliding elements.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: polyethylene; crystallinity; breakdown strength; conduction mechanism; SCLC; Field strength.
Online: 17 July 2019 (10:20:59 CEST)
In order to study the crystallinity of different density polyethylenes, the experimental study on the transformation of the conductance mechanism under high electric field was carried out. The X-ray Diffraction(XRD), Different Scanning Calorimeter(DSC), Direct Current(DC) breakdown of Low-density polyethylene(LDPE), Linear low density polyethylene(LLDPE), Medium density polyethylene(MDPE) and High-density polyethylene(HDPE) and the electric field of 5-200kV/mm were tested. Conductivity characteristics experiments, in addition, using the mathematical formula of a variety of conductance mechanisms, the electric field-current density curves of the four kinds of polyethylene were fitted to analyze the conductance transition of the above four kinds of polyethylene in non-ohmic regions under different high field strengths. mechanism. The experimental results show that as the density of polyethylene increases, the crystallinity increases continuously, and the continuous increase of crystallinity causes the electric conduction flow under the same field strength to decrease significantly. The field strength corresponding to the two turning points in the conductance characteristic curve increases simultaneously. Large, the breakdown field strength increases; through analysis, it is found that in the high field, as the electric field increases, the conductance mechanism develops from the ohmic conductance of the low field strength region to the bulk effect of the high field strength region (Poole-Frenkel). Then the electrode effect to the high field strength (Schottky), and the threshold field strength of this conductance mechanism transition increases with the increase of crystallinity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0272.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Chemical Physics Keywords: polyethylene glycol; monodisperse PEG; reversed-phase chromatography; thermodynamic analysis; modelling
Online: 19 October 2022 (07:39:14 CEST)
Separation of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) into single homologs by reversed-phase chromatography is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The used core-shell column is shown to achieve baseline separation of PEG homologs up to molar weights of at least 5000 g/mol. A detailed study is performed elucidating the role of the operating conditions temperature, eluent composition, and degree of polymerization of the polymer. Applying Martin's rule yields a simple model for retention times that holds for a wide range of conditions. In combination with relations for column efficiency, the role of the operating conditions is discussed and separations are predicted for analytical-scale chromatography. Finally, the approach is included in an efficient process model based on discrete convolution, which is demonstrated to predict with high accuracy also advanced operating modes with arbitrary injection profiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0561.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polyethylene; blend; long-chain branch; thermorheological complexity; activation energy spectrum
Online: 22 January 2021 (13:06:37 CET)
Long-chain branched metallocene-catalyzed high-density polyethylenes (LCB-mHDPE) were solution blended to obtain blends with varying degrees of branching. A high molecular LCB-mHDPE was mixed with low molecular LCB-mHDPE are varying concentrations, whose rheological behavior is similar but whose molar mass and molar mass distribution is significantly different. Those blends were characterized rheologically to study the effects of concentration, molar mass distribution, and long-chain branching level of the low molecular LCB-mHDPE. Owing to the ultra-long relaxation times of the high molecular LCB-mHDPE, the blends started behaving clearly more long-chain branched than the base materials. The thermorheological complexity showed an apparent increase in the activation energies Ea determined from G’, G”, and especially δ. Ea(δ), which for LCB-mHDPE is a peak function, turned out to produce even more pronounced peaks than observed for regular LCB-mPE and also LCB-mPE with broader molar mass distribution. Thus, it is possible to estimate the molar mass distribution from the details of the thermorheological complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0620.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Super-hydrophobic; Polyethylene glycol (PEG); Hydroxyl; Stable; lauryl methacrylate (LMA)
Online: 24 November 2020 (14:43:02 CET)
In order to obtain stable super-hydrophobicity, suitable hydrophobic treatment agent should be selected according to different materials. In this paper, cotton and poly (-ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was respectively coated by dodecyl methacrylate (LMA) via argon combined capacitively coupled plasma (CCP), and the surface hydrophobicity and durability of treated cotton and polyester fabrics were also discussed. An interesting phenomenon was happened that LMA coated cotton fabric (Cotton-g-LMA) had better water repellency and mechanical durability than LMA coated PET fabric (PET-g-LMA), and LMA coated hydroxyl grafted PET fabrics (PET fabrics were successively coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and LMA, PET-g-PEG&LMA) had similar performance to those of cotton fabrics. The water contact angle (WCA) of Cotton-g-LMA, PET-g-LMA and PET-g-PEG&LMA was 156 °, 153 ° and 155 °, respectively, and after 45 washing cycles or 1000 rubbing cycles, the corresponding WCA was decreased to 145 °, 88 °, 134 °and 146 °, 127 °, 143 °, respectively. Also, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polyamides-6 (PA6) fabrics were all exhibited the same properties to PET fabric. Therefore, the grafting of hydroxyl can improve the hydrophobic effect of LMA coating and the binding property between LMA and fabrics effectively without changing the wearing comfort..
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: plastics; biodegradation; sustainability; upcycling; biotransformations; polyethylene tepththalate; terephthalate; ethylene glycol
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:46:57 CEST)
Plastics have become an important environmental concern due to their durability and resistance to degradation. Out of all plastic materials, polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are amenable to biological degradation due to the action of microbial polyester hydrolases. The hydrolysis products obtained from PET can thereby be used for the synthesis of novel PET as well as becoming a potential carbon source for microorganisms. In addition, microorganisms and biomass can be used for the synthesis of the constituent monomers of PET from renewable sources. The combination of both biodegradation and biosynthesis would enable a completely circular bio-PET economy beyond the conventional recycling processes. Circular strategies like this could contribute to significantly decrease the environmental impact of our dependence on this polymer. Here we review the efforts made towards turning PET into a viable feedstock for microbial transformations. We highlight current bottlenecks in the degradation of the polymer and the metabolism of the monomers and we showcase fully biological or semisynthetic processes leading to the synthesis of PET from sustainable substrates.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: polyethylene; nanocomposites; silver nanoparticles; Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles; antibacterial activity
Online: 19 March 2019 (07:54:54 CET)
We report here the synthesis of uniform nanospheres-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 5-10 nm) and the dumbbell-like Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles (FeAgNPs, 8-16 nm) by the use of seeding growth method in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants. The antibacterial activity of pure nanoparticles and nanocomposites by monitoring the bacterial lag–log growth has been investigated. The electron transfer from AgNPs to Fe3O4NPs which enhances the biological of silver nanoparticles has been proven by nanoscale Raman spectroscopy. The lamellae structure in the spherulite of FeAgNPs/PE nanocomposites seems play the key role to the antibacterial activity of nanocomposites, which has been proven by nanoscale AFM-IR. An atomic force microscopy coupled with nanoscale infrared microscopy (AFM-IR) is use to highlight the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of nanocomposite at the nanoscale. The presence of FeAgNPs in PE nanocomposites has a better antibacterial activity than that reinforced by AgNPs due to the faster Ag+ release rate from the Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles and the ionization of AgNPs in hybrid nanostructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chemical treatment; cantala fiber; mechanical properties; recycled high-density polyethylene
Online: 20 October 2017 (03:19:47 CEST)
The improvement of mechanical properties of cantala fiber and its composites. Treatments including alkali, silane, and the combination of both were carried out to modify the fiber surface. The influence of chemical treatments on fiber properties such as the degree of crystallinity and tensile strength was investigated. A variety of short cantala fiber reinforced rHDPE composites were produced by hot press, and the effect of fiber treatment on the flexural strength of composites was observed. SEM observations also carried out to highlight these changes. The result shows that alkali treatment improves tensile strength and tensile modulus of alkali treated fiber (NF12) which was predicted as a result of the enhancement of the cellulose crystallinity. In contrast, the tensile strength and tensile modulus of silane (SF05) and alkali-silane treated fiber (NSF05) decreased compared to untreated fiber (UF) which is caused by the addition of amorphous material. The tensile strength of alkali-silane treated fiber (NSF05) was lower than alkali treated fiber (NF12), but the composites prepared with NSF05 showed the highest increment of flexural strength of 25.9%. This may be due the combination of alkali and silane treatment helped in the better formation of fiber-matrix interface adhesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1929.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Recycling; polyethylene; tire fibers; ground tire rubber; injection molding; compression molding
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:46:52 CEST)
Recycled tire fibers (RTF) are currently one of the most abundant waste not being recovered due to several processing hurdles and the presence of high amounts of residual ground rubber particles (GR). Therefore, this study proposes a simple approach to separate most of rubber particles from fibers and to determine their rubber content using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/calcination. Afterwards, clean fiber (CF) and GR are used as fillers for recycled post-consumer low density polyethylene (rLDPE), and their effects on the physical properties are investigated. Accordingly, a series of composites with CF and GR is prepared at different filler concentrations (0-30%) via extrusion compounding before using compression molding and injection molding for comparison. In all cases, injection molding leads to higher strength and modulus, but lower elongation at break. The results show that incorporating 30 wt.% of CF into rLDPE yields a remarkable improvement in tensile strength (15%), tensile modulus (192%) and flexural modulus (142%). On the other hand, the incorporation of up to 30 wt.% of GR results in a reduction of both tensile strength and flexural modulus by 15%, confirming the critical role of the cleaning process for RTF in achieving the best results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0618.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Asphalt mixes; moisture damage; indirect tensile strength; polyethylene terephthalate; international standards
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:56:04 CEST)
Water damage is one of the main causes of roads’ deterioration throughout their service life. This effect harms the adhesion and cohesion parameters of the asphalt mix, which leads to a decrease in the structural and functional characteristics of the road surface. This research focuses on studying the water susceptibility of hot mix asphalt mixtures using three different procedures: (1) UNE-EN 12697-12, (2) ASTM D4867, and (3) AASHTO T-283. The tests are carried out on reference mixtures and mixtures modified with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles as an additive. The results indicate that the incorporation of 6% PET allows the limits established by the UNE-EN 12697-12 standards to be exceeded, reaching 86% of the tensile strength ratio (TSR). However, for the ASTM D4867 and AASHTO T-283 standards, the results obtained concerning the water susceptibility of the bituminous mixtures were not as satisfactory because the established minimum limits were not reached (< 75%), which indicates that the procedure applied in a test can significantly modify the results of a later application.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Carbon fiber; recycling; nonwoven; carding; hot pressing; Polyamide 6; Polyethylene terephthalate
Online: 27 May 2021 (07:40:49 CEST)
Nonwovens made of recycled carbon fibers (rCF) and thermoplastic (TP) fibers have excellent economic and ecological potential. In contrast to new fibers, recycled carbon fibers are significantly cheaper and the CO2 footprint is mostly compensated by energy savings in the first product life cycle. The next step for this promising material is its industrial serial use. Therefore the process chain from fiber to composite material is analyzed. Initially rCF length at different positions during the carding process is measured. Thereafter the influence of the TP fibers onto processing, fiber shortening and mechanical properties is evaluated. At last several nonwovens with different TP fibers and fiber volume contents between 15 vol.-% and 30 vol.-% are produced, consolidated by hot pressing and tested by 4-point bending to determine the mechanical values. The fiber length reduction ranges from 20.6 % to 28.4 %. TP fibers cushion the rCF against mechanical stress but hold rCF fragments back due to their crimp. The resulting bending strength varies from 301 MPa to 405 MPa and the stiffness from 16.3 GPa to 30.1 GPa. Design recommendations for reduced fiber shortening are derived as well as material mixtures which offer better homogeneity and higher mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030066
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: coordination polymers; spin crossover; thermochromism; polyethylene; blends; uniaxial solid-state drawing
Online: 20 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The coordination polymer [Fe(NH2trz)3](2ns)2 exhibits the rare phenomenon of spin crossover in an attractive temperature range, i.e., somewhat above room temperature. Spin crossover in [Fe(NH2trz)3](2ns)2 is manifest by thermochromism, which is accompanied by a magnetic transition from diamagnetism to paramagnetism. However, [Fe(NH2trz)3](2ns)2 is brittle and difficult to process, which limits its use. In this study, we show that [Fe(NH2trz)3](2ns)2 can be co-processed with ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), which possesses outstanding mechanical properties, particularly when tensile drawn. Therefore, [Fe(NH2trz)3](2ns)2–UHMWPE blends were gel-processed by extrusion, employing a relatively poor solvent, which has recently been shown to offer advantages compared to good solvents. Uniform and flexible films, ribbons and fibers with [Fe(NH2trz)3](2ns)2 fractions as high as 33.3% m/m were obtained that could be readily drawn. Spin crossover in the coordination polymer is retained in these materials, as evident from their thermochromism. The tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the blends exceed those of typical commodity polymers. Thus, the films, ribbons and fibers constitute a special class of multifunctional materials that combine the flexibility and excellent mechanical properties of drawn UHMWPE with the spin crossover behavior of [Fe(NH2trz)3](2ns)2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0715.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: plastic conversion; catalytic pyrolysis; low density polyethylene (LDPE); zinc oxide (ZnO); exergy
Online: 11 July 2023 (12:09:09 CEST)
Plastics are highly beneficial for the day-to-day activities of human beings; however, their decomposition is limited due to their strong covalent bonding. The concept of degradation of these big molecules into smaller ones or monomers was attempted by several researchers in the preceding decades with limited success. Pyrolysis is one of the ideas used to convert plastics into fuel, rather than small molecules, compared to the crowded structure of polymers. Among these plastics, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is largely used as carry bags throughout the world, and, herein, the results of catalytic pyrolysis of the conversion of LDPE into fuel are reported. Different dosages of zinc oxide (ZnO) were used as a catalyst to do the pyrolysis at a specific temperature in a batch reactor specially designed at our laboratory. 0.6 g of ZnO was found to be the optimal dosage for a 50 g waste LDPE batch to get the maximum oil yield. The yielded oil was analyzed chemically through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Reformulyzer M4 Hydrocarbon Group Type Analyzer. Evaluation of physical and chemical exergy along with exergetic efficiency of the process was done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Multiobjective optimization; Grey relational analysis; Taguchi Technique; Weight reduction process; Polyethylene Terephthalate; NaOH
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:07:46 CEST)
The weight loss process variables of alkali-treated micropolyester woven fabric were optimized and reported in this study. The grey relational analysis (GRA) with the help of the Taguchi technique was efficiently used to optimize the key variables of this process. The caustic soda concentration, treatment temperature, and weight loss machine speed were considered the control or design parameters. The weight reduction percentage, air permeability, tensile strength, and thermal resistance of alkali-treated woven polyester fabrics were also considered as responses in this study. The experiments were implemented according to a 33 full factorial design. The levels of the control parameters which yield the maximum weight reduction, tensile strength, air permeability, and minimum thermal resistance of the treated polyester fabrics were found to be NaOH concentration and treatment temperature with the highest levels, and machine speed with the lowest level. This means that a 27% caustic soda concentration, treatment temperature of 125 OC, and machine speed of 40 m/min exhibited the optimum properties of the treated micropolytester fabrics. It is also proved that the treatment temperature is the most influential factor affecting the micropolyester fabric’s properties. The confirmation test which was carried out in this study confirmed that the GRA improved the alkali-treated polyester fabric properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Green pavement; Polyethylene Terephthalate; Limestone and Basalt Aggregates; Modified Asphalt mixtures; Mixture properties
Online: 3 August 2023 (05:24:28 CEST)
The global environmental impact of plastic waste is significant, with only 9% being recycled, causing pollution and harming the environment and humans. Due to increased traffic, limited funding, and dwindling natural resources, Jordan's road network is deteriorating rapidly. Pavement performance can be improved through high-quality materials and sustainable construction practices. The research investigates using Polyethylene Terephthalate as a polymer additive in asphalt mixtures to enhance their properties. Basalt and limestone mixtures were applied to asphalt mixtures. The optimal binder content for the control mixture was 4.8% for basalt and 4.93% for limestone. When modified with 10% PET, the basalt mixture showed slightly better stability than the control mix, while higher PET proportions led to reduced strength. PET-modified mixtures consistently displayed higher flows and bulk densities, with a more pronounced impact on the basalt mixture. PET increased the air-void ratio in basalt but had minimal effect on VMA. PET offers economic and environmental advantages, saving 8.4% of the original bitumen cost. As a result, limestone mixture properties, which are inferior to basalt mixture properties, improved significantly compared to basalt mixture properties. PET has the potential to create sustainable and high-performing asphalt mixtures, providing valuable insights for road construction and environmental management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: biodegradation; poly(ethylene)terephthalate (PET); low-density polyethylene (LDPE); plasticizers; mixed-plastics; pangenomes
Online: 30 April 2022 (04:22:11 CEST)
Global use of single-use non-biodegradable plastics, like bottles made of polyethylene tereph-thalate (PET), have contributed to catastrophic levels of plastic pollution. Fortunately, microbi-al communities are adapting to assimilate plastic waste. Previously, our work showed a full consortium of five bacteria capable of synergistically degrading PET. Using omics approaches we identified key genes implicated in PET degradation within the consortium’s pangenome and transcriptome. This analysis led to the discovery of a novel PETase, EstB, discovered to hydrolyze oligomer BHET, and polymer PET. Besides genes implicated in PET degradation, many other biodegradation genes were discovered. Over 200 plastic and plasticizer degrada-tion related genes were discovered through the Plastic Microbial Biodegradation Database (PMBD). Diverse carbon source utilization was observed by a microbial community-based as-say, which paired with an abundant number of plastic and plasticizer degrading enzymes in-dicates a promising possibility for mixed plastic degradation. Using RNAseq differential analysis, several genes were predicted to be involved in PET degradation including aldehyde dehydrogenases and several classes of hydrolases. Active transcription of PET monomer me-tabolism was also observed, including the generation of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) bi-opolymers. These results present an exciting opportunity for the bio-recycling of mixed plastic waste with upcycling potential.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: drought stress; drought models; drought tolerance; oxidative stress; phytohormones; polyethylene glycol (PEG); stress markers
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:19:35 CET)
Drought is one of the major stress factors affecting growth and development of plants. In this context, drought-related losses of crop plant productivity impede sustainable agriculture all over the world. In general, plants responses to water deficit by multiple physiological and metabolic adaptations at the molecular, cellular and organism levels. To understand the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance, adequate stress models and arrays of reliable stress markers are required. Therefore, in this review we comprehensively address currently available models of drought stress, based on culturing plants in soil, hydroponic or agar culture. These experimental setups give access to different aspects of plant response to drought, like decrease of tissue water potential, reduction of stomata conductance and photosynthesis efficiency, accumulation of low-molecular weight solutes (metabolic adjustment) and drought protective proteins. Till now, this pattern of markers was successfully extended to the methods of enzyme chemistry, molecular biology and omics techniques. Thus, conventional tests can be efficiently complemented by determination of phytohormone and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as comprehensive profiling of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1292.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: rheological model; polymer melts; non-equilibrium thermodynamics; multiple modes; normal stress coefficients; high-density polyethylene
Online: 19 July 2023 (07:13:08 CEST)
Based on the Generalized bracket, or Beris-Edwards, formalism of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we have recently proposed [Stephanou et al. Materials, 13, 2867 (2020)] a new differential constitutive model for the rheology of entangled polymer melts and solutions. It has amended the shortcomings of a previous model that was too strict in the values of the convective constraint release parameter for the model not to violate the second law of thermodynamics and has been shown capable of predicting a transient stress undershoot (following the overshoot) at high shear rates. In this work, we wish to further examine this model’s capability of predicting the rheological response of industrial polymer systems by extending it to its multiple-mode version. The comparison against industrial rheological data (High-Density Polyethylene resins), as compared against available experimental data in (a) Small Amplitude Oscillatory shear, (b) start-up shear, and (c) start-up uniaxial elongation, is noted to be good.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0518.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: polystyrene; polyethylene; worms; Hermetia illucens; Tenebrio molitor; Zophobas morio; plastic; bioremediation; food-waste; circular economy
Online: 29 November 2021 (09:47:04 CET)
The negative impact of the modern-day lifestyle on the environment is aggravated during the COVID-19 pandemic through the increased use of single-use plastics from food takeaways to medical supplies. Similarly, the closure of food outlets and disrupted supply chains have also resulted in significant food wastage. As the pandemic rages on, the aggravation of increased waste becomes an increasingly urgent problem that threatens the biodiversity, ecosystems, and human health worldwide through pollution. While there are existing methods to deal with the organic and plastic waste, many of the solutions also cause additional problems. Increasingly proposed as a natural solution to man-made unnatural problems, there are insect solutions for dealing with the artificial and organic waste products towards a circular economy, making the use of natural insect solutions commercially sustainable. This review discusses the findings and how some of these insects, particularly the Hermetia illucens, Tenebrio molitor, and Zophobas morio, can play an increasing important role in food and plastics, with a focus on the latter.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0725.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mRNA vaccine; viral vector vaccine; Spike protein; antigen presentation; polyethylene glycol; platelet factor 4; thrombosis
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:46:15 CEST)
Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has reached pandemic proportions. A number of effective vaccines have been produced, including mRNA vaccines and viral vector vaccines, which are now being implemented on a large scale in order to control the pandemic. The mRNA vaccines are composed of the Spike S1 protein encoding mRNA, incorporated in a lipid nanoparticle, stabilized by polyethylene glycol (PEG). mRNA vaccines are novel in many respects, including cellular uptake, the intracellular routing, processing, and secretion of the viral protein. Viral vector vaccines have incorporated DNA sequences encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein into (attenuated) adenoviruses. The antigen presentation routes in MHC class I and class II, in relation to induction of virus neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes will be reviewed. In rare cases, mRNA vaccines induce unwanted immune mediated side effects. mRNA based vaccines may lead to an anaphylactic reaction. This reaction may be triggered by PEG. The intracellular routing of PEG, and potential presentation in the context of CD1 will be discussed. Adenovirus vector based vaccines have been associated with thrombocytopenic thrombosis events. The anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies found in these patients could be generated due to conformational changes of relevant epitopes presented to the immune system.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: molecular dynamics simulations; gold; nanoparticles; core-shell; grafted; structural and dynamical properties of polymers; polyethylene
Online: 7 December 2020 (09:27:17 CET)
Metal nanoparticles are used to modify/enhance the properties of a polymer matrix for a broad range of applications in bio-nanotechnology. Here, we study the properties of polymer/gold nanoparticle (NP) nanocomposites through atomistic molecular dynamics, MD, simulations. We probe the structural, conformational and dynamical properties of polymer chains at the vicinity of a gold (Au) NP and a functionalized (core/shell) Au NP, and compare them against the behavior of bulk PE. The bare Au NPs were constructed via a systematic methodology starting from ab-initio calculations and an atomistic Wulff construction algorithm resulting in the crystal shape with the minimum surface energy. For the functionalized NPs the interactions between gold atoms and chemically adsorbed functional groups change their shape. As a model polymer matrix we consider polyethylene of different molecular lengths, from the oligomer to unentangled Rouse like systems. By computing the different properties the concept of the interface, and the interphase as well, in polymer nanocomposites with metal NPs are critically examined. Results concerning polymer density profiles, bond order parameter, segmental and terminal dynamics show clearly that the size of the interface / interphase, depends on the actual property under study. In addition, the anchored polymeric chains change the behavior/properties, and especially the chain density profile and the dynamics, of the polymer chain at the vicinity of the Au NP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0071.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: review; biomaterials; polyethylene; UHMWPE; ACL; Ligament; tendon; plasma treatment; surface modification; synthetic graft; bioactive glass
Online: 4 August 2020 (03:27:46 CEST)
The selection of biomaterials for biomedical application is a significant challenge. In the last few decades, various bioabsorbable and stable biopolymers have been applied for use as biomedical devices in orthopedic applications. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been extensively used in medical implants, notably in the bearings of hip, knee, and other joint prostheses, owing to its biocompatibility and high wear resistance. For the ACL graft, synthetic UHMWPE is an ideal candidate due to its biocompatibility and its extremely high tensile strength. Despite the appeal of new advanced materials such as carbon fiber, poly-ether-ether ketone, and other load-bearing materials, UHMWPE remains a primary load-bearing candidate material for ACL reconstructions because of its extremely high strength, the simplicity of the fabrication process, its biocompatibility, and low friction. However, some significant problems are observed in UHMWPE based implants, such as wear debris, and oxidative degradation due to the generation of free radicals when exposed to irradiation with gamma rays for grafting or sterilization. Various innovative methodologies have been developed to resolve those problems and enhance the properties of UHMWPE. In this review, we will explore in detail the methods for surface functionalization of UHMWPE and will apply these findings to the case study of UHMWPE for Anterior Cruciate Ligament repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0500.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: activated carbon; thymol; low-density polyethylene; active packaging; control release; kinetics; pork fillets; heme iron; shelf life
Online: 7 June 2023 (07:09:07 CEST)
Nowadays, bioeconomy and nanotechnology trends push food packaging sector in the re-placement of food additives by biobased antioxidant/antibacterial compounds and their inclusion in nanocarriers to control their release. Herein by following this trend, a rich in thymol-(TO) activated carbon (AC) nanostructure (TO@AC) was prepared and physiochemically characterized with various technics. This TO@AC nanostructure as well as pure AC were extruded with low density polyethylene (LDPE) to develop novel active packaging LDPE/TO@AC and LDPE/AC films. X-ray diffractometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy measuraments shown high dispersity and capability of both AC and TO@AC in LDPE matrix which was resulted in enhanced tensile and water/oxygen barrier properties of obtained LDPE/AC and LDPE/TO@AC films. LDPE/TO@AC films shown higher elongation at break values and water/oxygen barrier than LDPE/AC films and significant antioxidant activity. TO release kinetics studies shown that by increasing TO@AC content the total TO amount released increased and the constant release rate decreased. Pork fillets wrapped with the optimum active film containing 15 wt.% TO@AC and succeed to prevent lipid oxidation and heme iron loss during storage. Estimation of microbial population of pork fillets shown that this active film could ex-tend the microbiological shelf-life of pork fillets by 2 days
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0506.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mamiellophyceae; Chlorophyta; polyethylene glycol; copy number; random insertional mutagenesis; unknown sequences; structural variations; DNA repair; NHEJ; NGS
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:37:10 CET)
Ostreococcus tauri is a simple unicellular green alga representing an ecologically important group of phytoplankton in oceans worldwide. Modern molecular techniques must be developed in order to understand the mechanisms that permit adaptation of microalgae to their environment. We present for the first time in O. tauri a detailed characterization of individual genomic integration events of foreign DNA of plasmid origin after PEG-mediated transformation. Vector integration appears to be random, occurring mainly at a single locus, and thus confirming the utility of this technique for insertional mutagenesis. While the mechanism of double-stranded DNA repair in the O. tauri model remains to be elucidated, we clearly demonstrate by genome resequencing that the integration of the vector leads to frequent structural variations (deletions/insertions and duplications) and some chromosomal rearrangements in the genome at the insertion loci, and often within the vector sequence itself. From these observations, we speculate that a non-homologous end joining-like mechanism is required during random insertion events, as described in plants and other freshwater algal models. PEG-mediated transformation is therefore a promising molecular biology tool, not only for functional genomic studies, but also for biotechnological research in ecologically important marine algae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1304.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: green high density polyethylene mulch; microbial activity; nematode; open-field; soil chemical composition; topsoil; Vaccinium cv. Centra Blue
Online: 20 September 2023 (05:09:03 CEST)
Agriculture uses plastic products for containers, packaging, tunnels, drip irrigation tubing, mulches. Large amounts of plastics are used as mulches on the soil surface for vegetable production (tomato, cucumber, watermelon, strawberry, vine) to reduce the weed competition, increase water and fertilizer use efficiency and enhance crop yield. Portugal uses around 4,500 t/year of plastic to cover approximately 23,000 ha of agricultural land and only a scarce amount is recovered for recycling or secondary uses because of contamination with soil, vegetation, pesticide and fertilizers. Most plastic mulch is composed of polyethylene that degrades slowly and produces a large quantity of residues in soil with negative impact in the environment. In the present study, the effects of long-term cultivation of blueberry with green plastic mulch, at south Portugal, were evaluated for soil chemical and biological changes. High density green plastic mulch did not contaminate the topsoil with di(2-Ethylhexyl) phtalate and heavy metals. In the planting row with mulch a reduction of total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration, cation exchange capacity and microbial activity in topsoil compared with bare soil. Apparently, the presence of film did not affect negatively the presence of nematodes but the Rhabditida (bacterial feeders) increased in the planting row.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0184.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: unentangled systems; constitutive modeling; materials functions; non-affine parameter; slip parameter; conformation tensor; NEMD simulations; atomistic simulations; polyethylene
Online: 14 September 2022 (02:54:18 CEST)
Since its introduction, back in the late 1970s, the non-affine or slip parameter, ξ, has been routinely employed by numerous constitutive models as a constant parameter. However, the evidence seems to imply that it should be a function of polymer deformation. In the present work, we phenomenologically modify a constitutive model for the rheology of unentangled polymer melts [P. S. Stephanou et al. J. Rheol. 53, 309 (2009)] to account for a non-constant slip parameter. The revised model predictions are compared against newly accumulated rheological data for a C48 polyethylene melt obtained via direct non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations in shear. We find that the conformation tensor data are very well predicted; however, the predictions of the material functions are noted to deviate from the NEMD data, especially at large shear rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ground tire rubber (GTR); anti stripping agents (ASA); stone matrix asphalt (SMA); waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET); rutting; fatigue
Online: 6 April 2020 (13:50:00 CEST)
The current study assessed the influence of Anti Stripping Agents (ASA), Ground Tire Rubber (GTR) and waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on performance behavior of binder and Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) mixtures. Through this paper, the 85/100 penetration grade bitumen was utilized as original bitumen. Also, three liquid ASA’s (ASA (A), ASA (B), ASA (C)) were used as a mixture modifier. For this purpose, softening point, penetration, rotational viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer, Multi Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS) tests were implemented to investigate the rheological properties of modified bitumen. For evaluating the behavior of modified mixtures several tests such as; Resilient Modulus, Tensile Strength, dynamic creep, wheel track and four-point beam fatigue tests were implemented. Based on MSCR test results, utilization of mentioned polymers enhanced the elasticity of bitumens and therefore the permanent deformation resistance of binders increases. Also by the addition of PET percentage, the rutting resistance improves. Results indicated that utilization of ASAs, PET and Crumb Rubber (CR) enhance the Resilient Modulus (Mr), Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), rutting resistance, fatigue life and Fracture Energy (FE) of asphalt mixtures. Also based on results, modification of binder by PET/CR with a ratio of 50%/50% and ASA (B) have the highest fatigue life which indicates that this mixture has highest resistance against fatigue cracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0261.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: composite; waste plastic; distributed recycling; LDPE; low density polyethylene; plastic sand composites; tensile strength; compressive strength; West Africa; economic development
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:27:25 CEST)
In many developing countries, plastic waste management is left to citizens. This usually results in hazardous landfilling or open-air burning, leading to emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment. An easy, profitable, and clean method of processing and transforming the waste into value is required. In this context, this study provides an open-source methodology to transform low-density polyethylene drinking water sachets, into pavement blocks by using a streamlined do-it-yourself approach that requires only modest capital. Two different materials, sand, and ashes are evaluated as additives in plastic composites and the mechanical strength of the resulting blocks are tested for different proportion mix of plastic, sand, and ash. The best composite had an elastic modulus of 169MPa, a compressive strength of 29MPa, and a water absorptivity of 2.2%. The composite pavers can be sold at 100% profit while employing workers at 1.5X the minimum wage. In the West African region, this technology has the potential to produce 19 million pavement tiles from 28,000 tons of plastic water sachets annually in Ghana, Nigeria, and Liberia. This can contribute to waste management in the region while generating a gross revenue of 2.85 billion XOF (4.33 million USD).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0329.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: face shield; facial protective equipment; SARS-CoV-2; phi 6; MRSA; MRSE; polyethylene terephthalate; benzalkonium chloride; COVID-19; multidrug-resistant bacteria
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:38:49 CEST)
Transparent materials used for facial protection equipment provide protection against microbial infections caused by viruses and bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. However, transparent materials used for this type of application are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. They just avoid direct contact between the person and the biological agent. Therefore, healthy people can get infected through contact of the contaminated material surfaces and this equipment constitute an increasing source of infectious biological waste. Furthermore, infected people can transmit microbial infections easily because the protective equipment do not inactivate the microbial load generated while breathing, sneezing, or coughing. In this regard, the goal of this work consisted of fabricating a transparent face shield with intrinsic antimicrobial activity that could provide extra-protection against infectious agents and reduce the generation of infectious waste. Thus, a single-use transparent antimicrobial face shield composed of polyethylene terephthalate and an antimicrobial coating of benzalkonium chloride has been developed for the next generation of facial protective equipment. The antimicrobial coating was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis. This is the first facial transparent protective material capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 in less than one minute of contact, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial infections contribute to severe pneumonia associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Our extra protective broad-spectrum antimicrobial composite material could also be applied for the fabrication of other facial protective tools such as such as goggles, helmets, plastic masks and space separation screens used for counters or vehicles. This low-cost technology would be very useful to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic and protect health care workers from multidrug-resistant infections in developed and underdeveloped countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: 3D printing (3DP), Construction processes, Architectural design, Concrete Engineering, Numerical Modelling, Arch-Roof, High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Additive manufacturing (AM), Computer-aided design (CAD), Manufacture, Design, Sustainability
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:39:43 CET)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies are transforming the design and manufacture of components and products across a variety of disciplines, however their application in the construction industry is still limited. Material deposition processes can achieve infinite geometries and have advanced from rapid prototyping and model-scale markets to their application in fabricating functional products, large objects and the construction of full-scale buildings. Many international projects have recently been realized and the construction industry is beginning to utilise these dynamic technologies. The potential advantages for integrating 3D printing into house construction are significant, these include the capacity for mass customization of designs and parameters for functional and aesthetic purposes, reduction in construction waste from highly precise material placement, and the use of recycled waste products in layer deposition materials. With the ultimate goal of improving construction efficiency and decreasing building costs, applying Strand7 Finite Element Analysis software, a numerical model was designed specifically for 3D printing in a cement mix incorporated with recycled waste product High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and found that construction of an arched truss-like roof was structurally feasible without the need for steel reinforcements. The lab sizes prototypes were manufactured based on the destined numerical model by using a 3D printing technology. Currently available 3D printing technologies can be adopted for building construction and this paper discusses the applications, advantages, limitations and future directions of 3D printing as an innovative and viable solution for affordable house construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0429.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Microplastics; Polyethylene Ocean Water; Microplastics identification; Microorganisms identification; Ocean Water quality; Drinking water; Food quality; Cancer and microplastics; plastic and ocean; particle physics; particle accelerators in environmental studies.
Online: 18 September 2020 (11:03:59 CEST)
The study presented hereafter shows a new methodology to reveal traces of polyethylene (the most common microplastic particles, known as a structure of C2H4) in a sample of ocean water by the irradiation of a 50 keV, 1 µA electron beam. This is performed by analyzing the photon (produced by the electrons in water ) fluxes and spectra (i.e. fluxes as a function of photon energy) at different types of contaminated water with an adequate device and in particular looking at the peculiar interactions of electrons/photons with the potential abnormal atomic hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), carbon (C), phosphorus (P) compositions present in the water, as a function of living and not living organic organisms with a PO4 group RNA/DNA strands in a cluster configuration through a volumetric cells grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0369.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high-density polyethylene (HDPE); reactor powder; small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS); wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); long period; crystallinity; lamella; shish-kebab
Online: 4 August 2023 (08:28:30 CEST)
The morphology of virgin reactor powder (RP) of high-density polyethylene HDPE with MW = 160,000 g/mol was investigated with the help of DSC, SEM, SAXS and WAXS methods. The morphological SEM analysis showed, that the main morphological units of RP are macro- and micro-shish kebab structures with significantly different geometric dimensions, as well as individual lamellae of folded chain crystals. Quantitative analysis of an asymmetric SAXS reflection made it possible to reveal the presence of several periodic morphoses in the RP with long periods from 20 nm to 60 nm and to correlate them with the observed powder morphology. According to the DSC crystallinity data, the thickness of the lamellae in each long period was estimated. Their surface energy was calculated in the framework of the Gibbs-Thompson theory. The presence of regular and irregular folds on the surface of the different shish-kebab lamellae is discussed. The percentage of identified morphoses in the RP was calculated. It has been suggested that the specific structure of HDPE RP is due to the peculiarity of polymer crystallization during suspension synthesis in a quasi-stationary regime, in which local overheating and inhomogeneous distribution of shear stresses in a chemical reactor are possible.