ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0321.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic compact model; silicon photonic integrated circuit (PIC); photonic crystal cavity refractive index sensor; tunable sensing circuit; photonic layout rules
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:39:58 CEST)
Silicon-based photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is a research focus in producing high-density photonics. One of the potential applications of silicon PIC is the sensing and measurement system. In this work, we use the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PhC) cavity design which and utilize it at the PIC level design. The 1D PhC design used as the compact model has the same characteristics as experimentally demonstrated in previous works. The compact model is made from the S-parameter extraction of the 1D-PhC device which is done by using Lumerical FDTD software. The PIC design integrates the 1D-PhC device as a sensing component with a PN-phase shifter (PN-PS) to function as a refractive index (RI) sensor calibration or tuning circuit. A custom design of PN-PS device is used by simulating and extracting the bias voltage-effective index (bias-Neff) data by using Lumerical DEVICE and MODE into the circuit simulator. The circuit-level simulation is done by using Lumerical Interconnect software. Finally, we show the GDSII layout design of the 1D-PhC based photonic sensor calibration circuit with an analysis of generic silicon PIC design rules. The designed PIC is applicable for the bio-sensing applications and photonic SOC component. This work also shows the promise of PIC design approach for further PIC development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: PCF; PCF sensor; fiber sensor; photonic crystal.
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:31:51 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to create a sensor model based on optical crystal fibers (PCF). The aim of this model is to find and identify zinc cadmium. This thesis looked at three different categories of concentrations. For sensor architecture, PCF was generated using single-mode fiber-to-end split fusion (SM-PCF-SM). In this experiment, a specific wavelength spectrum was used to alter the concentration of materials covering the fiber in order to demonstrate the fiber's sensing capability. The 550nm wavelength has been used as the optical source for the fiber. The change in the output power of the external light was monitored and changes were observed for each concentration of the concentrations around the fiber. It has been found that the fiber is sensitive to small changes in concentrations. The absorption of the fiber has been calculated for the incoming capacity, as well as the losses in the capacity outside the fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0498.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: photonic crystal fiber, demultiplexer, dense wavelength division multiplexing
Online: 29 August 2018 (13:29:52 CEST)
A novel 8-channel demux device based on multicore photonic crystal fiber (PCF) structures that operate at C-band range (1530-1565nm) has been demonstrated. The PCF demux design is based on replacing some air-holes areas with lithium niobate and silicon nitride materials over the PCF axis alongside with the appropriate optimizations of the PCF structure. The beam propagation method (BPM) combined with Matlab codes were used to modeled the demux device and to optimized the geometrical parameters of the PCF structure. Simulation results show that 8-channel can be demultiplexing after light propagation of 5 cm with large bandwidth (4.03-4.69nm) and crosstalk ((-16.88)-(-15.93) dB). Thus, the proposed device has a great potential to be integrated in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology for increasing performances in networking systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0133.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Photonic crystal fiber; Gas; Sensitivity; Confinement loss; Characteristic
Online: 7 March 2023 (09:43:50 CET)
A total internal reflection photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based on hexagonal core is proposed for gas sensing in a specific wavelength range. The higher sensitivity and lower confinement loss were realized by the structure of the proposed PCF consists of two layers with circular holes rotated hexagonally around a core region and six slotted air-hole in the cladding based on numerical analysis. The simulation results show that the enhancement of the relative sensitivity has been done by enhancing the diameter of the hexagonal shape air-hole cladding (d1) and the hexagonal arranged holes around the central solid core (d0) in this design. Also, the confinement loss has been reduced by enhancing the ratio of length to width of slotted holes (l/w) and decreasing the cladding air-hole diameters (d1). As the refractive index increases, the wavelength shifts toward the long wavelength. And in a certain temperature range, the transmission characteristics of the device does not change with the temperature. The results are helpful for designing high performance PCF for gas sensing applications.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0587.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal; polarizer; multiplexer; polarization extinction ratio; communication channels; heterostructure
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:04:30 CEST)
Herein, we offer a numerical study on the devising of a unique 2D-heterostructure Photonic crystal (PC) that can split two orthogonally polarized light waves. The analysis is performed via a two-dimensional finite element method (2D-FEM) by utilizing COMSOL Multiphysics software. The device consists of two discrete designs of PC formation. The first PC formation is optimized so that it permits both TE and TM-polarization of light to transmit through it. Whereas the second PC formation possesses a Photonic Bandgap (PBG) only for TE-polarized light. These two formations are combined at an angle of 45 degrees, resulting in a reflection of self-collimated TE-polarized light at an angle of 90 degrees owing to the PBG present in the second PC formation. While permitting the self-collimated TM-polarized light wave to travel uninterrupted. The proposed device has a small footprint of ~10.5 μm2 offering low transmission loss and high polarization extinction ratio which makes it an ideal candidate to be employed as an on-chip polarization division multiplexing system.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal waveguide; Pulse acceleration; Self-steepening; Self-phase modulation
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:44:55 CEST)
Based on the sensitive sum frequency generation cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (SFG-XFROG) measurement setup, besides the pulse broadening, blue shift, red shift and obvious pulse acceleration, we observed the soliton evolution when the low energy soliton pulse with wavelength of 1555nm transmit through the Si photonic crystal waveguide. The measurements were nicely matched with the simulation results, which are achieved with an optimized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) modeling. The effects of various parameters of the silicon photonic crystal waveguides and the incident pulses on the pulse transmission were also analyzed, including the nonlinear effects and dispersion such as the self-phase modulation (SPM), self-steepening (SS) and intra-pulse Raman scattering(IRS). The results help us understand further the ultra-fast nonlinear dynamics of soliton in silicon-based waveguides, and even open a novel way for soliton-based functional elements in CMOS-compatible platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0212.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal cavity; High Q-factor; loss reduction; SOI
Online: 8 February 2021 (13:25:38 CET)
Increasing the quality factor (Q) of an optical resonator device has been a research focus to be utilized in various applications. Higher Q-factor means light is confined in a longer time which will produce a shaper peak and higher transmission. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique to increase further the Q-factor of a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) cavity device by using an end loop-mirror (ELM). The technique utilizes and recycles the light transmission from the conventional 1D PhC cavity design. The design has been proved to work by using the 2.5D FDTD simulation with Lumerical FDTD and MODE softwares. By using the ELM technique, the Q- factor of a 1D PhC design has been shown to have increased up to 79.53 % from the initial Q value without the ELM. This novel design technique can be combined with any high Q-factor and very high Q-factor designs to increase more the Q-factor value of a photonic crystal cavity devices or any other suitable optical resonator devices. The experimental result shows that the device is measurable by adding a Y-branch component to the one-port structure and able to get the high-Q result.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0109.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: photonic crystal; nanocomposite; epsilon near zero material; Tamm plasmon polariton
Online: 6 July 2018 (08:18:21 CEST)
The spectral properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal bounded by a resonant absorbing nanocomposite layer with the near-zero permittivity have been studied. The problem of calculating the transmittance, reflectance, and absorptance spectra of such structures at the normal and oblique incidence of light has been solved. It is shown that, depending on the permittivity sign near zero, the nanocomposite is characterized by either metallic or dielectric properties. For the first time, the possibility of simultaneous formation of the Tamm plasmon polariton at the photonic crystal/metallic nanocomposite interface and the localized state similar to the defect mode with the field intensity maximum inside the dielectric nanocomposite layer is demonstrated. Specific features of field localization at the Tamm plasmon polariton and defect mode frequencies are analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0016.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: 1D magnetic photonic crystals; multilayer film modelling; modelling of Faraday rotation spectra; MPC optimization; exhaustive computation; materials characterization
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:57:49 CEST)
MPC (Magneto-Photonic Crystal) Optimisation is a feature-rich Windows software application designed to enable researchers to analyze the optical and magneto-optical spectral properties of multilayers containing gyrotropic constituents. A set of computational algorithms aimed at enabling the design optimization and optical or magneto-optical (MO) spectral analysis of 1D magnetic photonic crystals (MPC) is reported, together with its Windows software implementation. Relevant material property datasets (e.g., the optical spectra of refractive index, absorption, and gyration) of several important optical and MO materials are included, enabling easy reproduction of the previously published results from the field of MPC-based Faraday rotator development, and an effective demonstration-quality introduction of future users to the multiple features of this package. We also report on the methods and algorithms used to obtain the absorption coefficient spectral dispersion datasets for new materials, for which the film thickness, transmission spectrum, and refractive index dispersion function are known.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0386.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Nematic liquid crystal MBDA; core/shell QDs (CSQDs); Dielectric, electro optical parameters; photonic displays
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:41:41 CET)
We report the effect of doping Cd1-xZnxS/ZnS core/shell quantum dot (CSQDs) in nematic liquid crystal p-methoxybenzylidene p-decylaniline (MBDA) at 0.05 wt/wt%, 0.1 wt/wt%, 0.15 wt/wt%, 0.2 wt/wt%, 0.25 wt/wt% and 0.3 wt/wt% concentrations of CSQDs in MBDA. Dielectric parameters with and without bias with respect to frequency has been investigated. The change in electro - optical parameters with temperature has also been demonstrated. The increase in the mean dielectric permittivity has been found due to large dipole moment of CSQDs which impose stronger interactions with the liquid crystal molecules. The dielectric anisotropy changes sign on doping CSQDs in MBDA liquid crystal. It was concluded that the CSQDs doping noticeably increases the dielectric permittivity of nematic MBDA in the presence of electric field. The doping of CSQDs in nematic MBDA liquid crystal reduces the ion screening effect effectively. This phenomenon is attributed to the competition between the generated ionic impurities during assembling process and the ion trapping effect of the CSQDs. The rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystal decreases with increasing concentration of the CSQDs with faster response time observed for 0.05 wt/wt% concentration. The birefringence of the doped system increases with the inclusion of CSQDs in MBDA. These results find application in the field of display devices, phase shifters, industries and projectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0183.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: quasicrystals; photonic crystals; photonic bandgap materials
Online: 28 April 2017 (04:57:05 CEST)
The properties of photonic quasicrystals ultimate rely on their inherent long-range order, a hallmark that can be quantified in many ways depending on the specific aspects to be studied. We use the Lempel-Ziv measure, a basic tool for information theoretic problems, to characterize the complexity of the specific structure under consideration. Using the generalized Fibonacci quasicrystals as our thread, we adress the relation between the optical response and the associated complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0015.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonics; Testing; Integrated Photonic Switches; Photonic Integrated Circuits
Online: 1 June 2021 (10:03:07 CEST)
We present a simulation library in Python 3 called Lumos. Different optimization routines areimplemented using multiple instruments. Automated measurements are implemented in this librarywhich lead to faster measurements as compared to manual sweeps. We elaborate on the experimentalmethods and also example usage is mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0229.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: analog-to-digital converter; ENOB; photonic time-stretch; optical sampling; photonic sampling; photonic ADC
Online: 14 November 2022 (02:14:56 CET)
Application of pulsed optical sources on the base of stable mode-locked lasers, which are known for their very low time jitter, provides the opportunity for creation a high precision photonic analogue to digital converters of signals in the microwave range. However, the repetition rate of modern commercially available mode-locked lasers is limited to a few gigahertz. The increase of repetition rate is possible using the schemes that implement a passive chirp of ultra-short pulses prior to electro-optic amplitude modulator, which is driven by the signal under test, and demultiplexing of modulated signal after a modulator. In the given article we analyzed a continuous time-stretch chirp using single mode fiber as dispersive element. The limitations of input signal bandwidth and source pulses energy are considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0278.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: photonic; plasmonic; surface plasmon; waveguide; resonator; optic
Online: 19 January 2022 (15:32:41 CET)
In this paper, a plasmonic refractive index sensor based on MIM waveguide (metal_insulation_metal) with two plasmonic waveguides and five rings and two teeth and four rectangular cavities is proposed and designed. The refractive index of the resonators as well as the resonant wavelengths will be investigated by the time difference finite difference method. To achieve an optical sensor with excellent quality and performance, we change the number and type of amplifiers and their dimensions. In each stage of the simulation, we will only change the refractive index of the middle ring located in the middle of the two waveguides, and the refractive index of the other amplifiers remains the same. This challenge will help to form a more appropriate structure for optical sensors. The sensor built in this simulation has a balanced and suitable function for integrated circuits and helps researchers to better understand the design of plasmonic structures. It also has important applications in medical research, health care, drug manufacturing, security monitoring and environmental protection, internal security of countries and the battlefield.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0024.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: photonic hook; terajet; oblique illumination; image contrast
Online: 1 September 2021 (14:32:47 CEST)
Microscopes based on dielectric mesoscale particles, using the effect of a photonic jet or terajet in the terahertz range, are a promising tool for overcoming the diffraction limit. However, the image they generate has limited contrast, which limits the application of this method. In this letter, we demonstrate that it is possible to increase the contrast of an image based on dielectric mesoscale particles that provide the formation of photonic hooks. In this case, the illumination of the object is carried out by an oblique incidence of subwavelength terajet, which significantly (more than 2 times) increases the contrast of the image.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0426.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Switching; Photonic Integrated Circuits; Optical Switching Devices
Online: 16 June 2021 (08:45:23 CEST)
We demonstrate a compact 4x4 wavelength selective switch with 50 % fewer electrical pads as compared with our previous generation. We report loss and crosstalk for different paths of the switch. We measure median loss of 5.32 dB and worst case crosstalk of -35 dB. The microring resonators tune by more than one free spectral range, which is an improvement over our previous generation of switches. This switch can support 8 channels at 400 GHz spacing. We conclude that it is not possible to drive both microring resonators with the same voltage and separate control is required because of fabrication variation of the current technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0202.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Switching; Photonic Integrated Circuits; Optical Switching Devices
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:31:30 CEST)
In this paper, we review devices used in silicon photonic switches. Devices in switches are divided into active and passive devices. Active devices consist of microring resonator, contra directional couplers, mach zhender switches. Passive devices consist of waveguide crossings and arrayed waveguide gratings. We also list the state of the art in devices in a comparison table.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: radio frequency; microwave; spectrum analyzer; integrated; photonic
Online: 26 January 2021 (09:57:01 CET)
We report an all-optical radio-frequency (RF) spectrum analyzer with a bandwidth greater than 5 terahertz (THz), based on a 50-cm long spiral waveguide in a CMOS-compatible high-index doped silica platform. By carefully mapping out the dispersion profile of the waveguides for different thicknesses, we identify the optimal design to achieve near zero dispersion in the C-band. To demonstrate the capability of the RF spectrum analyzer, we measure the optical output of a femtosecond fiber laser with an ultrafast optical RF spectrum in the terahertz regime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0500.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: optical switch; photonic hook; off-axis zone plate
Online: 30 August 2022 (03:41:44 CEST)
Optical switches are a key element in modern network communications. We present the results of experimental verification of a new theoretical concept proposed earlier for a full-optical wavelength-selective dual-channel switch based on the photonic hook effect, which is free from using any micro-mechanical devices or nonlinear materials. A large-scale laboratory prototype of such a device based on an off-axis Wood zone plate is considered and its main parameters in the millimeter wavelength range are investigated On the basis of the experiments, we show that the optical isolation of switched channels for a switch based on an off-axis zone plate can achieve 15 dB at a frequency difference of 25 GHz in frequency range from 93 to 136 GHz. Given the scaling, these results can be transferred to another range, including the optical one.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic; signal channelization; integrated optical frequency comb
Online: 26 March 2020 (02:19:45 CET)
We report a broadband radio frequency (RF) channelizer with up to 92 channels using a coherent microcomb source. A soliton crystal microcomb, generated by a 49 GHz micro-ring resonator (MRR), is used as a multi-wavelength source. Due to its ultra-low comb spacing, up to 92 wavelengths are available in the C band, yielding a broad operation bandwidth. Another high-Q MRR is employed as a passive optical periodic filter to slice the RF spectrum with a high resolution of 121.4 MHz. We experimentally achieve an instantaneous RF operation bandwidth of 8.08 GHz and verify RF channelization up to 17.55 GHz via thermal tuning. Our approach is a significant step towards the monolithically integrated photonic RF receivers with reduced complexity, size, and unprecedented performance, which is important for wide RF applications ranging from broadband analog signal processing to digital-compatible signal detection.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: TiO2 nanotubes; photonic crystals; optical engineering; theory and simulation
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:41:49 CET)
Two-dimensional arrays of hollow nanotubes made of TiO2 are a promising platform for sensing, spectroscopy and light harvesting applications. Their straightforward fabrication via electrochemical anodization, growing nanotube pillars of finite length from a Ti foil, allows precise tailoring of geometry and, thus, material properties. We investigate these photonic crystal structures with respect to reduction of front surface reflection, achievable field enhancement, and photonic bands. With the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA), we study the optical response of photonic crystals made of thin-walled nanotubes relative to the bare Ti foil substrate, including under additional charge carrier doping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0098.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Quantum Rayleigh emission; Phase-sensitive amplification; Integrated photonic devices
Online: 10 December 2018 (11:34:56 CET)
Despite multiple classical outcomes arising from the quantum Rayleigh conversions of photons underlying the propagation of optical waves through dielectric media and the ensuing light-matter interactions, this quantum process has been largely ignored. Several of its outcomes are considered in this article from a physical perspective, e.g., inter-quadrature coupling of photons, phase-dependent amplification in optical directional couplers and related polarization rotation, phase-shifting of weak signals in the optically linear regime, location-dependent coupling coefficient for refractive index gratings, etc. A correct identification of these effects will enable useful design and operation of integrated photonic functional devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0111.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: random fiber laser; Lévy statistics; photonic spin-glass behavior
Online: 15 May 2017 (11:59:43 CEST)
The interest in random fiber lasers (RFLs), first demonstrated one decade ago, is still growing and their basic characteristics have been studied by several authors. RFLs are open systems that present instabilities in the intensity fluctuations due to the energy exchange among their non-orthogonal quasi-modes. In this work, we present a review of the recent investigations on the output characteristics of a continuous-wave erbium-doped RFL, with emphasis on the statistical behavior of the emitted intensity fluctuations. A progression from the Gaussian to Lévy and back to the Gaussian statistical regime was observed by increasing the excitation laser power from below to above the RFL threshold. By analyzing the RFL output intensity fluctuations, the probability density function of emission intensities was determined, and its correspondence with the experimental results was identified, enabling a clear demonstration of the analogy between the RFL phenomenon and the spin-glass phase transition. A replica-symmetry-breaking phase above the RFL threshold was characterized and the glassy behavior of the emitted light was established. We also discuss perspectives for future investigations on RFL systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0180.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Waveguide; photonic crystal; optical fiber; Bragg gratings; temperature; sensor; COVID
Online: 10 February 2023 (04:46:18 CET)
Current generation witnesses a huge interest in optical waveguide due to their salient feature such as low cost, immune to electromagnetic interference, easy to multiplex, compact size, etc. These features of the optical fibers makes it an useful tool for various sensing applications including medicine, automotive, biotechnology, food quality control, aerospace, physical and chemical monitoring etc. Among all the reported application, the device has been widely exploited to measure the physical and chemical variation in surrounding environment. Optical fiber based temperature sensor plays a crucial role in this decade to detect high fever and tackle COVID like pandemic. Recognizing the major developments in the field of the optical fibers, this article aims to provide recent progress in temperature sensor utilizing several sensing configuration including standard fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and Bragg grating fibers. Additionally, the article also highlights the advantages, limitations, and future possibilities in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0470.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: optical neural network; photonic multiplexing; optical computing operation; integrated optics
Online: 29 August 2022 (07:20:07 CEST)
The simultaneous advances in artificial neural networks and photonic integration technologies have spurred extensive research in optical computing and optical neural networks (ONNs). The potential to simultaneously exploit multiple physical dimensions of time, wavelength and space give ONNs the ability to achieve computing operations with high parallelism and large-data throughput. Different photonic multiplexing techniques based on these multiple degrees of freedom have enabled ONNs with large-scale interconnectivity and linear computing functions. Here, we review the recent advances of ONNs based on different approaches to photonic multiplexing, and present our outlook on key technologies needed to further advance these photonic multiplexing/hybrid-multiplexing techniques of ONNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0186.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Microring Resonators; Photonic Integrated Circuits; Optical Switching Devices; Silicon Photonics
Online: 7 June 2021 (14:06:07 CEST)
We report a micro-ring resonator with adiabatic bends, non contact waveguide heaters and small bend radius. The ring has the lowest reported off resonance loss and can support 8 wavelength division multiplexed channels at 200 GHz spacing. We measure 0.49 nm/mW tuning efficiency and 0.085 dB off resonance loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0113.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Surface plasmon, Airy beam, photonic hook, curved wave, ﬂatland photonics
Online: 6 September 2018 (11:05:48 CEST)
It is well-known that surface plasmon wave propagates along a straight line, but this common sense was broken by the artificial curved light – plasmon Airy beam. In this paper, we introduce a new class of curved surface plasmon wave - the photonic hook plasmon. It propagates along wavelength scaled curved trajectory with radius less than surface plasmon polariton wavelength, and can exist despite the strong energy dissipation at the metal surface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0367.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Graphene oxide; 2D materials; integrated optics; nonlinear optics; photonic integrated circuits
Online: 20 December 2022 (10:28:11 CET)
As a derivative of graphene, graphene oxide (GO) was initially developed by chemists to emulate some of the key properties of graphene, but it was soon recognized as a unique material in its own right, addressing an application space that is not accessible to chemical vapor deposition based materials. Over the past decade, GO has emerged as a new frontier material with tremendous advances in its material fabrication and quality control over its properties. These in turn have led to rapid progress in GO based photonics, electronics, and optoelectronics concepts and devices, evoking new science and paving the way for many technological breakthroughs with exceptional performance. Here, we review the unique fundamental characteristics of GO, its thin film fabrication methods, patterning techniques, and mechanisms for tuning its material properties. This latter capability in particular has enabled novel advanced functional photonic, electronic, and optoelectronic devices. Understanding these insights is essential for designing and tailoring GO properties for state-of-the-art applications including solar energy harvesting, energy storage, medical diagnosis, image displays, and optical communications. We conclude by discussing the open challenges and exciting opportunities of this field, together with future prospects for major technological advancements and breakthroughs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0013.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic Optical Field, Pure and Mixed Quantum States, Quantum Rayleigh Scattering
Online: 3 May 2021 (16:25:56 CEST)
Any photon, regardless of its origin, carries the same optical field profile. This feature and the quantum Rayleigh emissions generate temporally discrete groups of several photons in a resonant cavity incorporating one single quantum dot. A periodic stream of single photons is distorted by high-finesse optical cavities and the quantum Rayleigh spontaneous emission in a beam splitter. Groups of photons emerge from interferometric filters because of multiple internal reflections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0253.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: lithium niobate; waveguide; photonic integrated circuit; optical lithography; chemo-mechanical polish
Online: 23 July 2019 (10:03:57 CEST)
We demonstrate fabrication of single-mode optical waveguides on lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) by optical patterning combined with chemo-mechanical polishing. The fabricated LNOI waveguides have a nearly symmetric mode profile of a mode field size of ~2.5 µm (full-width at half maximum). We develop a high-precision measurement approach by which the single mode waveguides are characterized to have a propagation loss of ~0.042 dB/cm.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: lithium niobate; waveguide; photonic integrated circuit; optical lithography; chemo-mechanical polish
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:09:54 CEST)
We report fabrication of a multifunctional photonic integrated chip on lithium niobate on insulate (LNOI), which is achieved by femtosecond laser assisted chemo-mechanical polish. We demonstrate a high extinction ratio beam splitter, a 1 × 6 optical switch, and a balanced 3 × 3 interferometer on the fabricated chip by reconfiguring the microelectrode array integrated with the multifunctional photonic circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0520.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Strong coupling; plasmonic-photonic coupling system; surface lattice resonance; Fabry-Pérot resonance
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:42:38 CET)
We report the strong coupling between plasmonic surface lattice resonances (SLRs) and photonic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) resonances in a microcavity embedded with two-dimensional periodic array of metal-insulator-metal nanopillars. For such a plasmonic-photonic system, we show that the SLR can be strongly coupled to the F-P resonances of both the odd- and even orders, and that the splitting energy reaches as high as 138 meV in the visible regime. We expect that this work will provide a new scheme for strong coupling between plasmonic and photonic modes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0057.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: birefringence; confinement loss; photonic crystal fibre; relative dispersion slope; single mode operation
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:45:04 CEST)
This article reveals a best possible design for hybrid dispersion compensating fiber (HyDCF) with high birefringence established on modified broadband compensating structure through S, C and L telecommunication bands. The simulation outcome exhibits relatively higher birefringence of 3.76×10-2 at wavelength of 1550 nm. The suggested fiber also has dispersion compensation characteristics in an inclusive series of wavelengths which covers 1400-1625 nm. The reported design can achieve dispersion quantity of – 606 ps/ (nm.km) at 1550 nm effective wavelength. The reported fiber design matches the relative dispersion slope (RDS) 0.003694 nm-1 similar to single mode fiber at 1550 nm operating wavelength. This fiber demonstrates negatively flattened effective dispersion of – 2.703 ± 0.734 ps/ (nm.km) within 180 nm flat band ranging from 1460-1640 nm wavelength. It is also convenient to optical high bit rate communication systems. The low confinement loss is found 3.756×10-10 dB/m at the operating wavelength. This design also achieves highly nonlinear coefficient of 50.34 W-1km-1. In some cases, it can also be used in sensing applications.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: temperature sensor; fiber optic sensor; photonic sensor; atomic layer deposition; microsphere; temperature; ZnO
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:24:14 CET)
This study presents of the microsphere-based fiber-optic sensor with the ZnO ALD coating thickness of 100 nm and 200 nm for temperature measurements. Metrological properties of the sensor were investigated over the temperature range of 100°C to 300°C, with a 10°C step. The interferometric signal is used to control whether the microstructure is intact. Spectrum shift of a reflected signal is used to conclude changes in measured parameter for the sensor with a 100 nm coating, while the reflected signal intensity is an indicator during measurements executed by a sensor with a 200 nm coating. With changing temperature, the peak position or intensity of a reflected signal also changes. The R2 coefficient of the presented sensors indicates a linear fit of over 0.99 to the obtained data. The sensitivity of the sensors, investigated in this study, equals 103.5 nW/°C and 0.019 nm/°C for ZnO thickness of 200 nm and 100 nm, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0611.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: nonlinear optics; CMOS compatible photonic platforms; graphene oxide; Kerr nonlinearity; four-wave mixing
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:29:51 CET)
We report enhanced nonlinear optics in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible photonic platforms through the use of layered two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films. We integrate GO films with silicon-on-insulator nanowires (SOI), high index doped silica glass (Hydex) and silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides and ring resonators, to demonstrate an enhanced optical nonlinearity including Kerr nonlinearity and four-wave mixing (FWM). The GO films are integrated using a large-area, transfer-free, layer-by-layer method while the film placement and size are controlled by photolithography. In SOI nanowires we observe a dramatic enhancement in both the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear figure of merit (FOM) due to the highly nonlinear GO films. Self-phase modulation (SPM) measurements show significant spectral broadening enhancement for SOI nanowires coated with patterned films of GO. The dependence of GO’s Kerr nonlinearity on layer number and pulse energy shows trends of the layered GO films from 2D to quasi bulk-like behavior. The nonlinear parameter of GO coated SOI nanowires is increased 16 folds, with the nonlinear FOM increasing over 20 times to FOM > 5. We also observe an improved FWM efficiency in SiN waveguides integrated with 2D layered GO films. FWM measurements for samples with different numbers of GO layers and at different pump powers are performed, achieving up to ≈7.3 dB conversion efficiency (CE) enhancement for a uniformly coated device with 1 layer of GO and ≈9.1 dB for a patterned device with 5 layers of GO. These results reveal the strong potential of GO films to improve the nonlinear optics of silicon, Hydex and SiN photonic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0747.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: gas sensor; photonic crystal fiber; tunable laser; fiber Bragg Grating; carbon dioxide monitoring
Online: 31 October 2018 (10:16:13 CET)
A realistic implementation of an all-fiber CO2 sensor, using 74 cm of hollow core PCF fiber as the cavity for light/gas interaction, has been implemented. It is based on CO2 absorbance in the 2 μm region. The working range is from 2% to 100% CO2 concentration at 1 atm total pressure. The response time obtained was 10 min. The use of an FBG tuned fiber ring laser, specifically designed for this application, is discussed and preliminary results with this laser are also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0119.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: lithium niobate; waveguide; photonic integrated circuit; propagation loss; optical lithography; chemo-mechanical polishing
Online: 7 October 2018 (10:34:27 CEST)
We develop a technique for realizing lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) waveguides of a multi-centimeter-length with a propagation loss as low as 0.027 dB/cm. Our technique relies on patterning a chromium (Cr) thin film coated on the top surface of LNOI into a hard mask with a femtosecond laser followed by the chemo-mechanical polishing for structuring the LNOI into the waveguides. The surface roughness on the waveguides is determined to be 0.452 nm with an atomic force microscope (AFM). The approach is compatible with other surface patterning technologies such as optical and electron beam lithographies or laser direct writing, enabling high-throughput manufacturing of large-scale LNOI-based photonic integrated circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0103.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Field enhancement; strong coupling; plasmonic-photonic coupling system; surface lattice resonance; Fabry-Pérot resonance.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:05:33 CET)
Metal nanoparticles supporting plasmons are widely used to enhance electromagnetic fields, resulting in strong light-matter interactions at the nanoscale in a diverse range of applications. Recently, it has been shown that when metal nanorods are periodically arranged with proper lattice periods, surface lattice resonances (SLRs) can be excited and near fields can be greatly enhanced over extended volumes. In this work, we report significant near field enhancement over even larger volumes by placing the metal nanorod array within a Fabry-Pérot (F-P) microcavity. Results show that taking advantage of strong coupling between the SLR and the photonic F-P resonances, the electric field intensity of the bonding split mode can be enhanced by up to 1935 times, which is about three times of the enhancement of the SLR, and the greatly enhanced field can extend over most of the F-P microcavity. We further show that the F-P resonances of both odd and even orders can strongly couple to the SLR by varying the nanorods position from the middle of the microcavity. We expect that the proposed plasmonic-photonic coupling system will find promising applications in nanolasers, nonlinear optics and sensing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: fiber Bragg grating; photonic crystal fiber; photosensitivity; FBG magnetic field sensor; olive oil; optical adhesive
Online: 17 November 2016 (10:44:44 CET)
In this project, four of fibers Bragg gratings were fabricated by injecting different volumes of liquids (star line Glass Mechanix optical adhesive material, olive oil diluted with ethanol) into the hollow core fiber. The amplitude splitting interferometric technique with a high resolution specially designed translation stage was used for the fabrication process. The fabrication was done using ultraviolet laser operated at wavelength 405nm. The fabricated Bragg length of the four fibers is equal to 3.8 cm. The results presented fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with successful fabrication at 653.3 nm Bragg reflected wavelength.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0282.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Environmental monitoring; optical waveguide; optical fiber; photonic sensors; gas sensing; water quality monitoring; volatile organic compounds
Online: 15 November 2022 (08:56:24 CET)
Environmental monitoring is an important topic and serves a vibrant scientific role by revealing long-term trends that can lead to new knowledge and understanding. Globally, there is active development of photonic sensors incorporating multidisciplinary research. The ultimate objective is to develop small, low-cost, sensitive, selective, quick, durable, remote-controllable sensors that are resistant to electromagnetic interference. Different photonic sensor designs and advances in photonic frameworks have shown the possibility to realize these capabilities. In this review paper, the latest developments in the field of optical waveguide and fiber-based sensors which can serve for environmental monitoring are discussed. Several important topics such as toxic gas, water quality, indoor environment, and natural disaster monitoring are reviewed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: addressed fiber Bragg structure; fiber Bragg grating; fiber-optic sensor; microwave photonics; microwave-photonic sensor systems
Online: 9 October 2022 (08:10:39 CEST)
Five years ago, the concept of addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) was proposed, which simultaneously perform the functions of a two-frequency radiation shaper, the difference frequency of which is the AFBS address, and a sensitive element, since the value of the difference frequency is invariant to measured physical fields, and the set of difference frequencies, moreover, is orthogonal in the array of such sensors, enabling their address multiplexing. In this article, we provide an overview of the theory and technology of AFBS, including the structures with three or more spectral components with various combinations of difference frequencies, symmetrical and asymmetric, performing the functions of the address and converting information signals to the low-frequency range at the same time, along with other functions. The subjects of interrogation of these structures, their fabrication and calibration are discussed as well. We also consider a wide range of applications in which AFBS can be used, covering such areas as oil and gas production, power engineering, transport, medicine, etc. In addition, the prospects of AFBS further development are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Coating; Light extraction; Nanostructure; Optical interface; Packing fraction; PET; Photonic crystals; Radioactive source; Scintillators; Thin films
Online: 4 March 2021 (12:28:18 CET)
Scintillators play a key role in the detection chain of several applications which rely on the use of ionizing radiation, and it is often mandatory to extract and detect the generated scintillation light as efficiently as possible. In positron emission tomography (PET), for example, both energy resolution and coincidence resolving time, two of the key detection parameters, depend strongly on the total amount of light which reaches the photodetector surface as well as its spatial and temporal distribution. Typical inorganic scintillators do however feature a high index of refraction, which impacts light extraction efficiency in a negative way. Furthermore, several applications such as preclinical PET rely on pixelated scintillators with small pitch. In this case, applying reflectors on the crystal pixel surface, as done conventionally, can have a dramatic impact of the packing fraction and thus the overall system sensitivity. This paper presents a study on light extraction techniques, as well as combinations thereof, for two of the most used inorganic scintillators (LYSO and BGO). Novel approaches, employing distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), metal coatings, and a modified Photonic Crystal (PhC) structure, are described in detail and compared with commonly used techniques. The nanostructure of the PhC is surrounded by a hybrid organic/inorganic silica sol-gel buffer layer which ensures robustness while maintaining its performance unchanged. We observed in particular a maximum light gain of about 41% on light extraction and 21% on energy resolution for BGO, a scintillator which has gained interest in the recent past due to its prompt Cherenkov component and lower cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0410.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Photonic quantum ring (PQR); MQW; ACTIRS; WGM; whispering cave mode; secondary brain injury (SBI); breast cancer
Online: 20 October 2020 (11:58:11 CEST)
Noninvasive and portable diagnoses via angle-resolved coherent spectral data are presented. ACTIRS (Angle- resolved coherent tomographic IR spectroscopy) through angle-coherent return spectra from photonic quantum ring laser of whispering gallery modes, which is not photocurrent-converted after the cortical, vascular or muscular diffuse paths, can be a new method for brain/heart studies. Also it will be eligible for frequent do-it-yourself diagnoses of breast cancer before hospital visits. The unique angle-coherent multi-spectra will eventually lead to study ionic or protein contents of cranial, arterial or lactiferous ducts that have been obtained only from uncomfortable biopsy, NMR, CT or mammography. The spectral data can be spatially or temporally improved and correlated for extracting more meaningful diagnostic conclusions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic sensor system; numerical simulation; addressed fiber Bragg structures; load sensing bearings; vehicle dynamics control
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:11:45 CEST)
The work presents an approach to instrument the load sensing bearings for automotive applications for estimation of the loads acting on the wheels. The system comprises fiber-optic sensors based on addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) with two symmetrical phase shifts. A mathematical model for load-deformation relation is presented, and the AFBS interrogation principle is described. The simulation includes (i) modeling of vehicle dynamics in a split-mu braking test, during which the longitudinal wheel loads are obtained, (ii) the subsequent estimation of bearing outer ring deformation using a beam model with simply supported boundary conditions, (iii) the conversion of strain into central wavelength shift of AFBS, and (iv) modeling of the beating signal at the photodetector. The simulation results show that the estimation error of the longitudinal wheel force from the strain data acquired from a single measurement point was 5.44% with root-mean-square error of 113.64 N. A prototype load sensing bearing was instrumented with a single AFBS sensor and mounted in a front right wheel hub of an experimental vehicle. The experimental setup demonstrated comparable results with the simulation during the braking test. The proposed system with load-sensing bearings is aimed at estimation of the loads acting on the wheels, which serve as input parameters for active safety systems, such as automatic braking, adaptive cruise control, or fully automated driving, in order to enhance their effectiveness and safety of the vehicle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0191.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Quantum Rayleigh emissions, photonic beam splitters and interference filters, photon coincidence counting, HOM dip with independent photons.
Online: 2 February 2023 (11:24:04 CET)
The presence of the quantum Rayleigh scattering, or spontaneous emission, inside a dielectric medium such as a beam splitter or an interferometric filter, prevents a single-photon from propagating in a straight-line. Modelling a beam splitter by means of a unitary transformation is physically meaningless because of the loss of photons. Additional missing elements from the conventional theory are: 1) the quantum Rayleigh stimulated emission which can form groups of photons of the same frequencies, and 2) the unavoidable parametric amplification of single-photons in the original parametric crystal. An interference filter disturbs, through multiple internal reflections, the original stream of single-photons, thereby confirming the existence of groups of photons being spread out to lengthen the coherence time. The approach of modelling individual, single measurements with statistical ensemble probability amplitudes leads to the counterintuitive explanations of the experimental outcomes and should be replaced with pure states describing instantaneous measurements which are afterwards averaged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0100.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genomic DNA; probability; matrices; tensor product; Hadamard product; antenna arrays; photonic crystals; liquid crystals; biophotonics; quantum informatics
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:30:56 CEST)
The article continues the author's publications about the matrix-tensor study of universal rules of stochastic (probabilistic) organization of long single-stranded DNA sequences in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. The author reveals that corresponding matrices of probabilities of n-plets in n-textual representations of each genomic DNA are numerically interrelated each with other in such algebraic form, which has analogies with formalisms of the known tensor-matrix theory of digital antenna arrays. These arrays combine many separate antennas into a single coordinated ensemble with unique emergent properties, due to which antenna arrays are widely used in devices of medicine, astrophysics, avionics, etc. The noted analogies allow putting forward the author's hypothesis that the stochastic organization of genomic DNAs is connected with bio-antenna arrays. From the point of view of this hypothesis, many known facts about using principles of antenna arrays in inherited physiological phenomena are collected in a single grouping with genomic DNAs. This new topic about the biological meaning of profitable properties of antenna arrays includes problems of biological evolution, the origin of the genetic code, regenerative medicine, and the development of algebraic biology. These issues are discussed jointly with the author's results of quantum information analysis of stochastic features of genomic DNAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0196.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Quantum Rayleigh emissions; spatial fields of photons; photonic beam splitters and filters; photon coincidence counting; HOM dip with unity visibility
Online: 10 August 2022 (15:42:34 CEST)
Three physical elements are missing from the conventional formalism of quantum photonics: 1) the quantum Rayleigh spontaneous and stimulated emissions; 2) the unavoidable parametric amplification; and 3) the mixed time-frequency spectral structure of a photonic field which specifies its duration or spatial extent. As a single photon enters a dielectric medium, the quantum Rayleigh scattering prevents it from propagating in a straight-line, thereby destroying any possible entanglement. A pure dynamic and coherent state composed of two consecutive number states, delivers the correct expectation values for the number of photons carried by a photonic wave front, its complex optical field, and phase quadratures. The intrinsic longitudinal and lateral field profiles associated with a group of photons for any instantaneous number of photons are independent of the source. These photonic properties enable a step-by-step analysis of the correlation functions characterizing counting of coincident numbers of photons or intensities with unity visibility interference, spanning the classical and quantum optic regimes
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0150.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: silicon photonics; evanescent optical field sensor; label-free SOI biosensor; Mach-Zehnder interferometer; ring resonator; photonic crystal; Bragg grating; sub-wavelength grating; lab-on-a-chip; microfluidics
Online: 10 October 2018 (08:45:49 CEST)
Thanks to advanced semiconductor microfabrication technology, chip-scale integration and miniaturization of lab-on-a-chip components, silicon-based optical biosensors have made significant progress for the purpose of point-of-care diagnosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in evanescent field biosensing technologies including interferometer, microcavity, photonic crystal, and Bragg grating waveguide-based sensors. Their sensing mechanisms and sensor performances, as well as real biomarkers for label-free detection, are exhibited and compared. We also review the development of chip-level integration for lab-on-a-chip photonic sensing platforms, which consist of the optical sensing device, flow delivery system, optical input and readout equipment. At last, some advanced system-level CMOS-chip packaging examples are presented, indicating the commercialization potential for the low cost, high yield, portable biosensing platform leveraging CMOS processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0163.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: optical metamaterials; fundamental concepts in photonics; light-matter interactions at the subwavelength and nanoscale; fundamental understanding of linear and nonlinear optical processes in novel metamaterials underpinning photonic devices and components; advancing the frontier of nanophotonics with the associated nanoscience and nanotechnology; nanostructures that can serve as building blocks for nano-optical systems; use of nanotechnology in photonics; nonlinear nanophotonics, plasmonics and excitonics; subwavelength components and negative index materials; slowing, store, and processing light pulses; materials with such capabilities that could be used for optical sensing, tunable optical delay lines, optical buffers, high extinction optical switches, novel image processing hardware, and highly-efficient wavelength converters
Online: 26 February 2018 (11:24:39 CET)
Backward electromagnetic waves are extraordinary waves with contra-directed phase velocity and energy flux. Unusual properties of the coherent nonlinear optical coupling of the phase-matched ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves with contra-directed energy fluxes are described which enable greatly-enhanced frequency and propagation direction conversion, parametrical amplification, as well as control of shape of the light pulses. Extraordinary transient processes that emerge in such metamaterials in pulsed regimes are described. The results of the numerical simulation of particular plasmonic metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion are presented, which prove the possibility to match phases of such coupled guided ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves. Particular properties of the outlined processes in the proposed metamaterial are demonstrated through numerical simulations. Potential applications include ultra-miniature amplifiers, frequency changing reflectors, modulators, pulse shapers, and remotely actuated sensors.