Wu, R.; Wang, M.; Xu, J.; Qi, J.; Chu, W.; Fang, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhou, J.; Qiao, L.; Chai, Z.; Lin, J.; Cheng, Y. Long Low-Loss-Litium Niobate on Insulator Waveguides with Sub-Nanometer Surface Roughness. Nanomaterials2018, 8, 910.
Wu, R.; Wang, M.; Xu, J.; Qi, J.; Chu, W.; Fang, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhou, J.; Qiao, L.; Chai, Z.; Lin, J.; Cheng, Y. Long Low-Loss-Litium Niobate on Insulator Waveguides with Sub-Nanometer Surface Roughness. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 910.
We develop a technique for realizing lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) waveguides of a multi-centimeter-length with a propagation loss as low as 0.027 dB/cm. Our technique relies on patterning a chromium (Cr) thin film coated on the top surface of LNOI into a hard mask with a femtosecond laser followed by the chemo-mechanical polishing for structuring the LNOI into the waveguides. The surface roughness on the waveguides is determined to be 0.452 nm with an atomic force microscope (AFM). The approach is compatible with other surface patterning technologies such as optical and electron beam lithographies or laser direct writing, enabling high-throughput manufacturing of large-scale LNOI-based photonic integrated circuits.
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