ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Pan-Cancer; somatic point mutations; cancer subtyping; biomarker discovery; driver genes; per-sonalized medicine; health data analytics
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:51:33 CET)
The advent of high throughput sequencing has enabled researchers to systematically evaluate the genetic variations in cancer, resulting in identifying many cancer-associated genes. Although cancers in the same tissue are widely categorized in the same group, they demonstrate many differences concerning their mutational profiles. Hence there is no “silver bullet” for the treatment of a cancer type. This reveals the importance of developing a pipeline to identify cancer-associated genes accurately and re-classify patients with similar mutational profiles. Classification of cancer patients with similar mutational profiles may help discover subtypes of cancer patients who might benefit from specific treatment types. In this study, we propose a new machine learning pipeline to identify protein-coding genes mutated in a significant portion of samples to identify cancer subtypes. We applied our pipeline to 12270 samples collected from the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), covering 19 cancer types. Here we identified 17 different cancer subtypes. Comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic analysis indicates distinguishable properties, including unique cancer-related signaling pathways, in which, for most of them, targeted treatment options are currently available. This new subtyping approach offers a novel opportunity for cancer drug development based on the mutational profile of patients. We also comprehensive study the causes of mutations among samples in each subtype by mining the mutational signatures, which provides important insight into their active molecular mechanisms. Some of the pathways we identified in most subtypes, including the cell cycle and the Axon guidance pathways, are frequently observed in cancer disease. Interestingly, we also identified several mutated genes and different rates of mutation in multiple cancer subtypes. In addition, our study on “gene-motif” suggests the importance of considering both the context of the mutations and mutational processes in identifying cancer-associated genes. The source codes for our proposed clustering pipeline and analysis are publicly available at: https://github.com/bcb-sut/Pan-Cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0343.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Prostate cancer; Somatic point mutations; Copy number variation; Regulatory variant, Hi-C; Per-sonalized medicine; Biomedical machine learning
Online: 19 January 2023 (02:10:02 CET)
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed non-skin cancer in the world. Previous studies showed that genomic alterations represent the most common mechanism for molecular alterations that cause the development and progression of PC. Great efforts have been done to identify common protein-coding genetic variations; however, the impact of non-coding variations including regulatory genetic variants is not still well understood. To gain an understanding of the functional impact of genetic variants, particularly, regulatory variants in PC, we developed an integrative pipeline (AGV) that used whole genome/exome sequences, GWAS SNPs, chromosome conformation capture data, and ChIP-Seq signals to investigate the potential impact of genomic variants on the underlying target genes in PC. We identified 646 putative regulatory variants, of which 30 of them significantly altered the expression of at least one protein-coding gene. Our analysis of chromatin interactions data (Hi-C) revealed that the 30 putative regulatory variants may affect 131 coding and non-coding genes. Interestingly, our study showed the 131 protein-coding genes are involved in disease-related pathways including Reactome and MSigDB in which for most of them targeted treatment options are currently available. Together, our results provide a comprehensive map of genomic variants in PC and revealed their potential contribution to prostate cancer progression and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainability reporting award (SRA), financial statements, value relevance, earnings per share (EPS), earnings per share change (CEPS), book value per share (BVPS)
Online: 27 February 2018 (05:26:26 CET)
This study examines whether information about the winners of the Sustainability Reporting Award (SRA) contributes to the usefulness of the information in the financial statements. This study used a sample consisting of 110 winners of SRA (SRA firms) and 110 companies that did not receive SRA (non-SRA firms) from 2008 to 2016. The study found that earnings per share (EPS), book value per share (BVPS), and earnings per share change (EPSC) are value relevant information. Results of comparison between SRA firms and non-SRA fimrs, this study found that EPS positive association with stock price and with returns for SRA firms is higher than that for non-SRA firms. Findings of this study also show that, value relevance of BVPS for non-SRA firms is higher than that for SRA firms. When mesures of Price and BVPS are transformed into natural logarithm, the value relevance of BVPS for SRA firms is higher than that for non-SRA firms. Thus, the results are sensitive to measures of the variables. The findings of this study indicate that information about the winners of SRA contributes to the usefulness of financial statements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0144.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Green Space; NDVI; Per Capita; Urbanization
Online: 29 December 2016 (16:04:18 CET)
Green spaces take part a vital role in reducing the harmful effects occurred through the process of rapid urbanization. This study focuses on evaluating the change of green space and per capita green space in Colombo District, Sri Lanka in between 2008 and 2015 using Landsat images. The NDVI differencing method and classification method were used to detect the change of land cover. According to the results, a gradual decline of green space from 629.1km2 to 591.16km2 with a rate of 6.03% can be depicted. The change is considerable in Kaduwela, Moratuwa and Maharagama DSDs and quite better in the areas such as Avissawella, Homagama and Padukka. The per capita green space has been decreased from 272.361 m2 to 248.811 m2. Though these rates are very well higher than the UN, EU and WHO standards for the district, Colombo DSD do not comply with UN and EU standards. The case would turn into worst in 2025, as the predictions with current rates. Therefore, the study recommends taking immediate actions to make a greener city. Further, a tax system is proposed to get the attraction of the general public.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0256.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: PAPR; HPA; OPS-SAP; PER; fading models
Online: 19 December 2019 (09:13:40 CET)
Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is one of the main problems in wireless communications using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Its behavior is random and can produce problems for the hardware implementation, directly influencing the Packet Error Rate (PER). In this article, the PER is obtained for channels with Rayleigh and Rician fading. In the simulation, a High Power Amplifier (HPA) is added to the transmitter and for PAPR reduction Simple Amplitude Predistortion-Orthogonal Pilot Sequences (OPS-SAP) technique is used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Virtual water; Agriculture; Staples; Water resources per capita
Online: 8 June 2017 (18:06:51 CEST)
Lack of water resources in Iran, especially in recent years, has faced the agricultural sector as the most important consumer of water resources, with serious challenges. In Iran, the agricultural sector accounted for more than 90% of water consumption. However, the focus on domestic production and self-sufficiency policy in staples (wheat, barley, maize and rice) has been emphasized in general agriculture's policy. This study was conducted to estimate the imported virtual water from the imports of basic products in Iran using defined indicators during 1961-2013. Also this study investigated the possibility of achieving self-sufficiency due to the limited water resources in Iran. The results of this study showed with the increase in cereal imports, virtual water imports from 0.28 billion cubic meters in 1961 increased to 17.6 billion cubic meters in 2013 and on average about 60% of virtual water imports in strategic products is related to wheat imports during the past 53 years. Other products in cereal (barley, maize and rice) are also indicative of the general trend of increasing imports of virtual water in development plans. The estimated long-run elasticity of virtual water imports in the cereal group compared with the country's water resources also showed that with a one percent reduction in renewable water resources of the country, the virtual water import in the main cereal group will increase equivalent to 2.89 percent and the determination coefficient more than 90 percent also confirms this negative relationship. According to this result and the emphasis on the fact that renewable water resources per capita in the country is falling increasingly, it cannot be expected that domestic production could compensate for the imports of the cereal group and virtual water imports with current technology, without increasing the water productivity and without additional harm to water resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0093.v1
Online: 8 October 2022 (04:38:48 CEST)
Africa is expected to have a lion’s Share in the world’s population growth by 2050. At the same time, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that roughly 3.4 percent (1/25) of African adults live with HIV making the contient the most severely affected by the HIV pandemic. Consequently, this study, the first of its kind, investigates the impact of population growth and HIV incidence on economic growth and economic development in Africa by utilizing the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator on data from 1990 to 2020 across 29 countries. The results show that population growth has a postive long run impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) but has a negative long run impact on per capita GDP, albeit the effects are insignificant in the short run. The incidence of HIV has a negative long run impact on both GDP and per capita GDP although its effect is not significant in the short run. The study, therefore, calls for the advancement of family planning practices and the usage of contraceptives to simultaneously control population growth and curb the spread of HIV incidence. The study futher calls for African governments to increase budgetary allocations to the health and education sectors, as these policy perspectives have the potential of increasing the human capital stock and at the same time enhancing the health status of the work force for sustained growth and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0159.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Afghanistan; food security; cereal per capita production; cereal self-sufficiency.
Online: 6 April 2021 (09:56:39 CEST)
Afghanistan is overwhelmed with food insecurity that is a large percentage of the population lacks reliable access to food supplies. Grains play a vital role in the country's food security due to their importance in terms of consumption and production quantity. This paper estimates cereal self-sufficiency and then makes a food balance forecast of the three major food crops cultivated in Afghanistan over six-decades. Descriptive statistics and coarse metric techniques were employed to determine cereal self-sufficiency and food balance forecast. The econometric analysis demonstrated that (1) Afghanistan is not yet self-sufficient in meeting grain consumption, and the production and consumption ratio declined from 0.9 to 0.55 from 1979 to 2030. (2) The gap of theoretical food imbalance will increase, and by the year 2030, cereal production will likely be sufficient for only 49.8 percentage of inhabitants, leaving a high shortage equivalent to the amount required by 24.4 million people. By evaluating the quantitative food balance and the growing population change, this study presents an analysis of the emerging threat to Afghanistan's food security and suggests a solution for food security, should increase the size of public agricultural expenditure, improve the level of agriculture infrastructure, and continue to introduce a policy to achieve higher yield.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: cold nuclear fusion; maximum binding energy per nucleon; nuclear experiment
Online: 11 March 2021 (14:15:22 CET)
Following the concept of strong interaction, theoretically, fusion of proton seems to increase the binding energy of final atom by 8.8 MeV. Due to Coulombic repulsion, asymmetry effect, pairing effect and other nuclear effects, final atom is forced to choose a little bit of binding energy less than 8.8 MeV and thus it is able to release left over binding energy in the form of internal kinetic energy or external thermal energy. Thus, in cold fusion, heat release to occur, binding energy difference of final atom and base atom seems to be less than 8.8 MeV. Qualitatively, energy released during cold fusion seems to be approximately equal to 8.8 MeV minus the difference of binding energy of final and base atoms. Based on this idea, under normal conditions, for the case of 2He4, fusion of four protons can liberate (35.2-28.3)=6.9 MeV and it is 3.5 times less than the current estimates. Point to be understood is that, lesser the binding energy of final atom, higher the liberated thermal energy and vice versa. With a suitable catalyst and sufficient hydrogen under suitable pressure, if reactor’s temperature is maintained at (1000 to 1500) 0C, there seems a lot of scope for a chain reaction of cold fusion in which light isotopes transform to their next stage with increased proton number or mass number and liberate safe and clean heat energy continuously. By arranging 4 to 6 reactors and charging them periodically in tandem, required thermal energy can be produced continuously. In this new direction, by carefully selecting the base isotope and its corresponding catalyst, experiments can be conducted and ground reality of cold fusion can be understood at various temperature and pressure conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0217.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Mass per area; biological structures; gravitational self-energy; dark energy
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:11:29 CEST)
For a hierarchy of large scale structures, like galaxies, galaxy clusters, super-clusters, etc. the requirement that their gravitational (binding) self-energy density must at least equal or exceed the background repulsive dark energy density implies a universal mass-radius relation given by M/R2 ~ 1g/cm2. Here we point out that this mass-radius relation also holds for important individual biological structures, and even various organisms as a whole such as humans, trees, and to behemoths like whales, even though the physics is different. Here we try to understand this universality from two different physical considerations. We also point out the coincidence that the densities of most biological entities are close to that of water, and that the average density of main-sequence stars and giant planets are close to this density. We give a physical basis for the same.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0370.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: deep assessment; fractional calculus; least squares; modeling; GDP per capita; prediction
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:16:07 CET)
In this study, by using Least Square Method, the dataset for the Gross Domestic Product per capita is modeled as a function satisfying the fractional differential equation. The function itself is assumed to be the finite summation of its previous values and the derivatives with unknown coefficients. Then, the prediction for the upcoming years is done by having an approach dividing the dataset into 4 regions corresponding to four different tasks. The mathematical model of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of the countries (and union) which are Brazil, China, European Union (EU), India, Italy, Japan, UK, the USA, Spain, and Turkey is constructed with a new methodology called as the deep assessment method which comes from the expressing an arbitrary function modeling the dataset as the finite summation of its previous values and the derivatives with unknown coefficient. The method uses the fractional calculus properties combining with Least Square Method and is compared to Long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm which is a special type of neural network used for time sequences in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0352.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Per-pixel classification confidence; spatial pattern; image classification; accuracy assessment; interpolation method
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:53:46 CET)
Obtaining classification confidence at the pixel level is a challenging task for accuracy assessment in remote sensing image classification. Among the various methods for estimating classification confidence at the pixel level, interpolation-based methods have drawn special attention in the literature. Even though they have been widely recognized in the literature, their usefulness has not been rigorously evaluated. This paper conducts a comprehensive evaluation of three interpolation-based methods: local error matrix method, bootstrap method, and geostatistical method. We applied each of the three methods to three representative datasets with different spatial resolutions, spectral bands, and the number of classes. We then derive the estimated classification confidence and true classification confidence and compared the results with each other using both exploratory data analysis (bi-histogram) and statistical analysis (Willmott's d and Binned classification quality). The results indicate that the three interpolation methods provide some interesting insights on various aspects of estimating per-pixel classification confidence. Unfortunately, the interpolation assumes that classification confidence is smooth across the space, which is usually not true in practice. In other words, interpolation-based methods have limited practical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0472.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Online misinformation; COVID-19 vaccination; fully vaccinated; Intelligence Quotient; per capita income
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:12:19 CEST)
The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with lower COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States. The study evaluated the effect of red-blue political affiliation and the effect of the US state's average educational aptitude score and per capita income on states' vaccination rates. The study found that states with concomitantly lower income along with lower educational aptitude scores are less vaccinated while the states with higher income have higher vaccination rates even among those with lower educational aptitude scores. These findings stayed significant after adjusting for red-blue political affiliation where states with red political affiliation have lower vaccination rates. Further study is needed to evaluate how to stop online misinformation among states with low income and low educational aptitude scores; and whether such an effort will increase overall vaccination rates in the United States.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep Learning; Reducing Training Annotations per Image; Object Detection; Object Counting; Asymmetric Loss Function
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:44:51 CET)
Annotating training data is a time consuming and labor intensive process in deep learning, especially for images with many objects present. In this paper, we propose a method to allow deep networks to be trained on data with reduced numbers of annotations (per image) in heatmap regression tasks (e.g. object detection and counting), by applying an asymmetric loss function. In a real scenario, this reduction of annotations can be imposed by the researchers (e.g. ask the annotators to label only 50% of what they see in each image), or can potentially counteract unintentionally missing labels from the annotators. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we conduct experiments in two domains, crowd counting and wheat spikelet detection, using different deep network architecture. We drop various percentages of instance annotations per image in training. Results show that an asymmetric loss function is effective across different models and datasets, even in very extreme cases with limited annotations provided (e.g. 90% of the original annotations reduced). Whilst tuning of the key parameters are required, we find that setting conservative parameter values can help more realistic situations, where only small amounts of data have been missed by annotators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: CCM; CINR; Cost per Gbps in orbit; Multibeam Satellite Communications; System Optimization; VCM; VHTS
Online: 18 February 2020 (08:53:14 CET)
The concept of geostationary VHTS (Very High Throughput Satellites) is based on multibeam coverage with intensive frequency and polarization reuse in addition to the use of larger bandwidths in the feeder links, in order to provide high capacity satellite links at a reduced cost per Gbps in orbit. The dimensioning and design of satellite networks based on VHTS imposes the analysis of multiple trade-offs to achieve an optimal solution in terms of cost, capacity and figure of merit of the user terminal. In this paper, we propose a new method for sizing VHTS satellite networks based on an analytical expression of the forward link CINR (Carrier-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio) that is used to evaluate the trade-off of different combinations of system parameters. The proposed method considers both technical and commercial requirements as inputs including the constraints to achieve the optimum solution in terms of the user G/T, the number of beams and the system cost. The cost model includes both satellite and ground segments. Exemplary results are presented with feeder links using Q/V bands, DVB-S2X and transmission methods based on CCM and VCM (Constant and Variable Coding and Modulation, respectively) in two scenarios with different service areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: six sigma; lean six sigma; DMAIC; DMADV; agile; defect per million opportunities(DPMO); SPC
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:22:42 CET)
The main purpose of this research is to use “DMAIC” and “DMADV” framework of six sigma to reduce cost of projects, increase yields, improve performance and reduce defects. This study conclude that the sigma level of cement bag production in four production lines is “4.7 DPMO” values of 710 and the possibility of defects per unit of 11 possibilities this situation was handled by using six sigma. Any business or industry run only to satisfy customer and increase their profits, this can be attained as development of quality product..For the ranking of newly established universities the certification of those institutes is very important and also a critical process. For this process we used Lean six sigma approach that can identify the wastes that affect this process.Six sigma can be applied to any work field such as education, power optimization and other types of industries Six sigma “DMAIC” approach is also used for the testing of EDA tools that occurs due to the complex coding or configurations, flows and platforms they support. To improve the process quality of SDLC it’s necessary to remove the defects of system in advance along with thorough valuation of size and it also makes project accordant with real time environment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0204.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Carbon emissions; infant mortality rate; per capita income; nonrenewable energy; Asia and the Pacific region
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:54:26 CEST)
This study aligns with the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals- 3 which aim to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. It contributes to the nascent literature stream on energy-health dynamics by introducing a holistic theoretical model to empirically examine the mediation effect of carbon emissions on the relationship between nonrenewable energy and infant mortality rates. Using an unbalanced panel data on 42 Asia and the Pacific countries from 2005 to 2015 and deploying the structural equation modeling approach, the empirical results are surmised as follows: (i) in regard to the full sample of countries, nonrenewable energy indirectly increases infant mortality rates through increasing carbon emissions. In other words, carbon emissions play a partial mediation role between nonrenewable energy and infant mortality rates; and (ii) for the different income groups, carbon emissions show varying mediation effects. For example, the mediation effects of carbon emissions in lower-middle and upper-middle income countries are found to be similar to those of the full sample of countries. Therefore, based on these findings, we conclude that nonrenewable energy is an essential determinant of infant mortality rates. Policy recommendations are put forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0133.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: soil organic carbon; long-term experiments; RothC model; climate change; "4 per 1000" initiative; Retisols
Online: 7 December 2020 (09:36:42 CET)
Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in arable soils is a challenging goal for soil management. Multiple factors should be considered for the prediction of the soil capacity to fix atmospheric carbon. In this study, we focused on the effect of crop rotation and previous land use for future carbon sequestration on two experimental fields with identical soils (Retisols) and input of organic fertilizers. We analyzed the SOC dynamics and used the Roth C model to forecast SOC changes under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Our experimental and modelling results indicated a consistent increase in SOC stocks and the stable fractions of soil organic matter (SOM). The increase in SOC was higher in the experiment with the crop-grassland rotation that in the experiment with a rotation of row crops and barley. With similar total SOC stocks, the efficiency of soil management differed as reflected by the contrasting composition of SOM, as fields with a long cultivation history showed higher SOM stability. The goal of 4‰ annual increase of SOC stocks may be reached under crop- grassland rotation in 2020-40 and 2080-90 when applying mineral or organic fertilizer system for scenario RCP4.5, and mineral fertilizer system in 2080-2090 for scenario RCP8.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: normalized indicators; correlation analysis; Source Normalized Impact per Paper; SNIP; Field-Weighted Citation Impact; FWCI
Online: 1 August 2018 (05:57:55 CEST)
Recently, more and more countries are entering the global race for university competitiveness. On the one hand, global rankings are a convenient tool for quantitative analysis. On the other hand, their indicators are often difficult to quickly calculate, they often contradict each other. We thought about using widely available indicators for a quick analysis of the University's publication strategy. We opted for the normalized citation indicators available in SciVal analytical tool, i.e. Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) and Field-Weighted Citation Impact (FWCI). We have demonstrated the possibility of applying the correlation analysis to the impact indicators of a document and a journal on the sample of the social and humanitarian fields at Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Particular attention was paid to the application of the results in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: GDP per capita; Gender parity index (GPI); higher education expansion; trend analysis; gross enrollment ratio (GER)
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:37:40 CEST)
Ensuring equal access to affordable higher education for women and men has become a crucial target of UNESCO’s SDG4-Education 2030. Currently, about one-third of the world's college-age population participates in higher education, while the gender disparity persists in various systems. This study employed GDP per capita, gross enrollment ratio (GER), and the gender parity index (GPI) to demonstrate how the education systems have expanded resulting in the transformation of gender parity. We selected Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the UK as research targets using a cross-correlation function and trend analysis to detect concurrent relationships and future trends with GDP per capita, GER, and GPI. The findings suggest Japan, Korea, and the UK continue to show gender disparity and need to respond to this issue in their policy intervention for SDG4-Education 2030. The results reveal a potential problem in the UK when GPI growth might become unlimited with females dominated. This study suggests the higher education expansion phenomenon and gender diversity in mass and universal systems can be detected by the trend analysis with GDP per capita, GER, and GPI in different settings. The design of the study provides an example to explore the gender diversity patterns in higher education systems for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: carnosine; glioblastoma; fibroblasts; imidazole-containing compounds; cell viability; high per-formance liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry
Online: 3 March 2022 (10:31:32 CET)
The naturally occurring dipeptide carnosine (β alanyl L histidine) specifically attenuates tumor growth. Here, we asked whether other small imidazole containing compounds also affect viability of tumor cells without affecting non-malignant cells, and whether formation of histamine is involved. Patient-derived fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells were treated with carnosine, L alanyl L histidine (LA-LH), ß alanyl L alanine, L histidine, histamine, imidazole, β alanine and L alanine. Cell viability was assessed by cell-based assays and microscopy. The intracellular release of L histidine and formation of histamine was investigated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled Mass Spectrometry. Whereas carnosine and LA LH inhibited tumor cell growth with minor effects on fibroblasts, L-histidine, histamine and imidazole affected viability in both cell types. Compounds without imidazole moiety did not diminish viability. In the presence of LA LH but not in the presence of carnosine a significant rise of intracellular amounts of histidine was detected in all cells. Formation of histamine was not detectable in the presence of carnosine, LA LH or histidine. In conclusion, the imidazole moiety of carnosine contributes to its anti-neoplastic effect, which is also seen in the presence of histidine and LA LH. Despite histamine had a strong effect on cell viability, formation of histamine is not responsible for the effects on cell viability of carnosine, LA LH and histidine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Benefit matrix; Benefit transfer method; Benefit per ton; Health; Social cost of carbon; Value of statistical life
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:42:35 CEST)
This is the first study to provide a systematic monetary benefit matrix, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction benefits and air pollution reduction health co-benefits, for a change in on-the-road transport to low-carbon types. The benefit transfer method is employed to estimate the social cost of carbon and the health co-benefits via impact pathway analysis in Taiwan. Specifically, the total emissions reduction benefits from changing all internal combustion vehicles to either hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or electric vehicles would generate an average of US$760 million from GHG emissions reduction and US$2,091 million from health co-benefits based on air pollution reduction, for a total benefit of US$2,851 million annually. For a change from combustion scooters to light- or heavy-duty electric scooters, the average GHG emissions reduction benefits would be US$96.02 million, and the health co-benefits from air pollution reduction would be US$1,008.83 million, for total benefits of US$1,104.85 million annually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0208.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: soil organic carbon; soil health; long-term experiments; RothC model; climate change; "4 per 1000" initiative; Podzols
Online: 8 December 2020 (17:30:04 CET)
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an essential condition for soil health and a potential sink for greenhouse gases. SOC dynamics in a long-term field experiment with mineral and organic fertilization on loamy sand Podzol in Vladimir Region, Russia, was traced with the dynamic carbon model RothC since 1968 until the present time. During this period, C stock increased 21% compared with the initial level in the treatment with the application of manure in an average annual rate of 10 t·ha-1. The model was also used to forecast SOC changes until 2090 for two contrasting RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climatic scenarios. Until 2090, the steady growth of SOC stocks is expected in all compared treatments for both climate scenarios. This rate of growth was the highest until 2040, decreased in 2040-2070 and increased again in 2070-2090 for RCP4.5. The highest annual gain was within 21-27‰ under RCP4.5 and 16-21‰ in 2020-2040 in 0-20 cm soil layer. The expected accumulation of C allows increasing current C stock 1.6-1.7 times for RCP4.5 and 2.0-2.2 times for RCP8.5 scenario. Modelling demonstrated potentially more favourable conditions for SOC stability in arable Podzols than in Retisols in Central Russia in the 21st century.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0104.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Method validation; droplet digital PCR; orthogonal factorial design; variance components; Poisson assumption; cloglog model; target DNA copies per droplet; Monte Carlo; prediction interval
Online: 12 April 2022 (08:46:49 CEST)
For the in-house validation of a droplet digital PCR method, a factorial experimental design was implemented. This design serves different purposes. On the one hand, it is an efficient design in relation to the workload involved in achieving a desirable level of reliability of variance estimates. On the other hand, it allows a partitioning of total variance into different components, thus providing information regarding the dominant sources of random variation. The statistical modelling reflects the actual measurement mechanism, establishing relationships between nominal target DNA copies per well, the range of variation of copy numbers per droplet, probability of detection values, and estimated numbers of copies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0299.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: dispersion management; mid-span spectral inversion; dispersion map; optical phase conjugator; residual dispersion per span; random distribution; chromatic dispersion; nonlinear Kerr effect; wavelength division multiplexed
Online: 17 August 2022 (04:17:45 CEST)
The weakness of the dispersion-managed link combined with optical phase conjugation to compensate for optical signal distortion caused by chromatic dispersion and nonlinear Kerr effect of standard single mode fiber is its limited structural flexibility. We propose dispersion map that can simultaneously compensate for the distorted wavelength division multiplexed signal while increasing the configurational flexibility. Each residual dispersion per span (RDPS) in the former half of the proposed link is randomly determined, and in the latter half, the arrangement order of RDPS is the same as or inverted in the former half. We confirm that the dispersion maps in which the RDPS distribution pattern in the latter half is opposite to the arrangement order in the former half are more effective in compensation, and rather, the compensation effect is better than in the dispersion map of the conventional scheme. The notable result of this paper is that the increase of flexibility can be achieved through random arrangement of RDPS in the former half, and the compensation improvement can be achieved by through inverse arrangement in the latter half which make the distribution profile of each half link roughly symmetric with respect to the midway optical phase conjugator.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0192.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: convolutional ceural network; Gaofen 2 remote sensing image; remote sensing image segmentation; convolutional encode neural networks model (CENN); categorical learning; per-pixel segmentation; farmland; woodland
Online: 28 December 2017 (02:54:12 CET)
It is very difficult to accurately divide farmland and woodland in Gaofen 2 (GF-2) remote sensing image, because their single plant coverage is very small, and their spectra are very similar. The ratio of spatial resolution and one plant’s coverage area must be fully taken into account when designing the Convolutional Neural Network structure for extracting them from GF-2 image. We establish a Convolutional Encode Neural Networks model (CENN), The first layer has two sets of convolution kernels to learn the characteristics of farmland and woodland respectively, while the second layer is the encoder to encode the characteristics by transfer function, which can map the results to the corresponding category number. In the training stage, samples of farmland, woodland, and other categories are categorically used to train CENN, as soon as training is accomplished, CENN would acquire enough ability to accurately extract farmland and woodland from remote sensing images. The final extraction result is obtained by implementing per-pixel segmentation of images used to train the CENN. CENN is compared and analyzed with others such as Deep Belief Network (DBN), Full Convolutional Network (FCN), Deeplab Model. The results of experiments show that CENN can more accurately mine the characteristics of farmland and woodland, and it achieves its goal of extracting farmland and woodland with high precision from GF-2 images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: engine weight; engine power; engine/generator power; engine RPM; cylinder number; power-RPM ratio; power-RPM ratio per cylinder; low-speed; medium-speed; high-speed; standard deviation; correlation coefficient; coefficient of multiple determination; F-statistic
Online: 7 May 2021 (14:17:36 CEST)
During the conceptual and preliminary design stage of a ship, designers need to ensure that the selected principal dimensions and parameters are good enough to deliver a stable ship (statically and dynamically) besides deadweight and speed. To support this, the initial intact stability of the proposed ship is required to be calculated, and in doing so, the lightship weight and its detailed breakdown are necessary to be known. After hull steel weight, machinery weight, mainly, marine propulsion and power generation machinery, play a vital role in the lightship weight estimate of a ship due to its robustness. The correct estimation of respective weights improves the accuracy of calculating a ship's initial stability typically to be designed and built. Hence, it would be advantageous for the designer to convince the ship owner. A total of 3006 marine propulsion (main marine diesel) engines and 348 power generation (auxiliary marine diesel) engines/generators of various power output (generators output for auxiliary engines), engine RPM and cylinder number of different engine makers are collected. These are analyzed and presented in both tabular and graphical forms to demonstrate the possible relationship between marine propulsion engine weight and power generation engine weight, and their respective power output, RPM, cylinder number, power-RPM ratio and power-RPM ratio per cylinder.In this article, the authors have attempted to investigate the behavior of marine propulsion engine weight and power generation engine/generator weight regarding engine power output, generator power output, engine RPM and cylinder number (independent variables). Further attempts have been made to identify those independent variables that influence the weight of the marine propulsion engine and power generation engine/generator (dependent variables), and their interrelationships. A mathematical model has thus been developed and proposed, as a guiding tool, for the designer to estimate the weight of main and auxiliary engines more accurately during the conceptual and preliminary design stage.