ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0483.v1
Online: 29 June 2018 (11:36:18 CEST)
Gasca D herbal formulation is an antidiabetic medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus produced exclusively from natural ingredients. The level of some essential elements (Copper, chromium, Cobalt, Iron, Manganese, Nickel and zinc) and toxic (Cadmium, Arsenic, Mercury, and Lead) heavy metals were determined using microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES). The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic heavy metals and also identify bioactive compounds present in Gasca D herbal formulation. The result shows no traces of Lead, Mercury, Zinc, Arsenic and Zinc, Iron was found to have highest concentration 67.16 + 7.5 µg/g and Cadmium lowest concentration 0.4 + 0.03µg/g. GC-MS analysis of Gasca D herbal formulation revealed the presence of 14 biologically active compounds which include N-Formyl-beta-alanine, Paromomycin, 3,4-Altrosan, Benzamide, 1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2-amine, Carbamodithioic acid, Carbonic acid, alpha-D-Glucopyranoside, Ethyl isocyanide, 2-Propanesulfinic acid, Propanamide, 2-Butenenitrile, Dicyclopropyl carbinol, Isoxazolidine, 1,5-Hexadiene 10-Azido-1-decanethiol. Conclusion: The result indicates that the mean levels of toxic metals in Gasca D herbal formulation were below WHO permissible levels. Gasca D herbal formulation also contains various bioactive compounds that can have various medicinal application which can be used for the treatment of various diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0159.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: gynecological cancer; herbal medicines; alkaloid; piperine
Online: 8 December 2022 (11:00:08 CET)
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer in the world that causes death in women. It is mainly caused by persistent infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) that triggers a chronic inflammatory process. Therefore, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs is a potential treatment option. The effects of piperine, an amino alkaloid derived from Piper nigrum, are poorly understood in cervical cancer inflammation, making it a target of research. This work aimed to investigate the antitumor effect of piperine on cervical cancer and to determine whether this effect is modulated by the cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) pathway using in vitro model of cervical cancer (HeLa, SiHa, CaSki), and non-tumoral (HaCaT) cell lines. The results showed that, piperine reduces in vitro parameters associated with neoplastic evolution such proliferation, viability and migration by cell cycle arrest in the G1/G0 and G2/M phases, with subsequent induction of apoptosis. This action was modulated by downregulated of cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) pathway, which in turn regulates the secretion of cytokines and the expression of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), metalloproteinases (MMPs), and their antagonists (TIMPs). These findings indicate the phytotherapeutic potential of piperine as complementary treatment in cervical cancer.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0185.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Leishmaniasis; drugs; parasites; ; herbal plants; treatments
Online: 10 November 2022 (06:44:40 CET)
Leishmaniasis is considered one of the different neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization. Over the past few decades to tackle leishmaniasis, effective and novel drugs have progressed. But few are expensive some other medication shows poor effects and few drugs with long treatment lead to cause resistance. But it is very important to start a better medication against leishmania so researchers came to the front of the utilization of natural products which are considered a better option. Finding active compounds in medicinal plants is another alternative to currently accessible medications. Materials and methods: This study examined and reported the far more potential natural products used to treat disease caused by Leishmania spp. Leishmaniasis, plant metabolites, in vivo, in vitro, and treatment against leishmaniasis have been used as search terms in the Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct databases, and only papers published between 2015 and 2021 have been chosen for further analysis. Results: The use of novel natural compounds with leishmanicidal action as well as the leishmanicidal activity of natural compounds against promastigote, axenic, and intracellular amastigote forms were included in roughly 20 research papers that were reviewed.Conclusion: Due to their capacity to selectively target parasites without harming host cell viability, herbal plants are a possible source of new anti-leishmanial medication. Future leishmaniasis treatments will draw on the isolated compounds as a source, completing those already offered in clinics.
Online: 30 July 2021 (10:04:43 CEST)
This survey was conducted on 4 tribes (Ababda, Bisharia, Nubian and Rashayda) live in the south of the Nile and the Eastern Desert of Egypt with the aim to document and compare the traditional herbal medicines and assess the relationships among these tribes. A total of 180 interviews were conducted with the Bedouins and herb healers. Thirty-nine species belonged to 36 genera and 27 families were employed. Fabaceae and Poaceae and Rutaceae were the species-rich families. The used wild species comprised 43.6%, cultivated species (38.5%) and the imported from herbalist shops (17.9%). The leaves were the most used parts (31%), followed by stems and fruits with about 22% each. Distinct species included Acacia nilotica is used in the treatment of dental pain with use value 33.3%, Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus in treatment of both cough or headache with use values 35 and 30.6% and a combination of Acacia nilotica with Lawsonia inermis in the treatment of sore throat with use value 22.2%. The highest similarity was recorded between Nubian and Rashayda tribes (55.3%), Ababda and Bisharia (46.8%). Diarrhea and headache were the most popular diseases with 7 different treatments, cough and dental pains with 6 treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: BNO 1016; antibiotics; herbal medicine; sinusitis; phytotherapy
Online: 19 December 2022 (04:05:48 CET)
(1) Background: To substantiate the clinical efficacy and investigate the real-world effectiveness of the herbal medicinal product BNO 1016 in acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) in the context of antibiotic stewardship. (2) Methods: Clinical efficacy: We performed a meta-analysis of the clinical trials ARhiSi-1 and ARhiSi-2 comprising 676 patients, analysing the reduction of the Major Symptom Score (MSS) and improvement of SNOT-20. Real-world effectiveness: In addition, we performed a retrospective cohort study including 203,382 patients, comparing the real-life effectiveness of BNO 1016 in reducing ARS-related adverse outcomes in comparison to antibiotics and several other established therapies. (3) Results: Clinical efficacy: Treatment with BNO 1016 ameliorated symptoms of ARS by reducing MSS by 1.9 points (p<0.0001) and improved quality of life (QoL) for patients by improving SNOT-20 by 3.5 points (p=0.001) in comparison to placebo. In patients with moderate/severe symptoms, the positive effects of BNO 1016 were even more pronounced (MSS: –2.3 points (p<0.0001); SNOT-20: –4.9 points (p=0.0158)) compared to placebo. Real-world effectiveness: Treatment with BNO 1016 was as effective or significantly more effective in reducing the risk for adverse ARS-related outcomes such as follow-up antibiotic prescriptions, sick leave ≥7 days or medical appointments due to ARS, especially when compared to antibiotics. (4) Conclusions: BNO 1016 is a safe and effective treatment for ARS that can help reduce the overuse of antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Antimicrobial activities; Medicinal plants; Herbal medicines; WHO
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:40:36 CET)
Medicinal plants have antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. More or less all plants have medicinal properties. In this research article, we have selected four economically important plants (three fruit plants and an economically important plant), Malus domestica Borkh., Prunus persica L., Ricinus communis L., and Carica papaya L. found in several areas of Indian state Uttarakhand. Using the methanolic extract of leaves, we have screened those four plants against four human pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. For our experiment we have screened the methanolic leaf extracts of four plants against the above-mentioned bacteria. Statistical analysis was also performed for validation. Result revealed the said bacteria have potential antibacterial activities. So, these leaves can be used for clinical trial. These plants can also be used for making herbal medicines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: therapeutic cannabis; cannabidiol; aromatherapy; NegEnt; Herbal Neurocare
Online: 9 June 2020 (13:44:33 CEST)
The article describes a research project that included the conception, development, testing and dissemination of a new drug, based on cannabidiol and called NegEnt (registered name and trademark).In this contribution, the author fully describes a new product for Aromatherapy that was developed and how it can be used for significant progress on various treatments for different conditions in psychiatry, neurology, and medicine. It also presents completed work for new herbal medicines at affordable costs worldwide.The clinical research program launched and the organizational and legal solutions identified are described to scientifically evaluate in accordance with a single case research study design. NegEnt's pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, pharmacodynamics, therapeutic efficacy, and tolerability is examined.In the last part of the article there is an outline of the project formulated for the development in Sicily in the province of Enna where NegEnt is produced in accordance with an innovative project of regional social promotion and based on the cultivation of cannabis Sativa Light, otherwise known as Progetto Demetra. This project established an operational module that is managed by a non-profit social enterprise called the Higher Institute for Cognitive Sciences, the ALETEIA LAB for Therapeutic cannabis, and as an ethical enterprise, which is called Herbal Neurocare (registered name and trademark). It contributes to improved health as well as promoting the economic and social development of this economically depressed area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0284.v1
Online: 25 July 2019 (08:12:19 CEST)
Reducing carbohydrates digestion by having low glycaemic index (GI) foods has been linked to weight loss. Inhibiting related enzymes is an alternative way to decrease carbohydrate digestion. RCM-107, an eight-herb formula that is modified from the RCM-104, has indicated significant weight-loss action in clinical trials. However, no research has been conducted to study its effect on the activity of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), which is involved in carbohydrate absorption. In this paper, we used fluorescence PPA inhibition assay to investigate the inhibitory effects of RCM-107 and the individual herbs present in this herbal mixture on amylase activity. Subsequently, molecular docking predicted the key active compounds that may be responsible for the enzyme inhibition. According to our results, both the RCM-107 formula and several individual herbs displayed α-amylase inhibitory effects. Also, marginal synergistic effects of RCM-107 were also detected. In addition, alisol B, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and plantagoside have been predicted as the key active compounds that may be responsible for the α-amylase inhibition effect of RCM-107 according to inter-residue contact analysis. Finally, Glu233, Gln63, His305, Asp300 and Tyr151 are predicted to be markers of important areas with which potential amylase inhibitors would interact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: dental caries; prevention; clinical trials; herbal; scoping review
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:57:04 CET)
It is currently recognized that an injudicious strategy in the last decades has been not only focusing of research typically on caries in children, but also the narrow focusing on fluoride, because despite sufficient availability of fluoride in water and oral healthcare products, caries levels escalate steadily as people get older and caries remain a main public health issue to be settled. In the last two decades the scientific community intensified efforts of exploring other products for caries prevention, herbal products being one of these approaches. Because preliminary evidence indicated that clinical trials for caries prevention with herbal products are heterogeneous in design, quality and products evaluated, we performed a scoping review intended to explore the main characteristics of such clinical trials. From an initial collection of 1986 unique papers from different literature databases, 56 articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The species investigated, dosage forms, study designs, duration of intervention, controls, endpoints, quality of reporting and risk of bias are discussed. 85.71% of the trials reviewed here reported positive results but given the methodological flaws and biases affecting them, it is difficult to conclude on the efficacy of those products based on the studies published thus far.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: phytochemical; heavy metals; flavoured alcoholic beverages; herbal extract
Online: 23 May 2018 (05:15:55 CEST)
There is proliferation of alcoholic beverages flavoured with herbal-extracts perceived to have medicinal values. Information on the phytochemical and heavy metal contents of these products is scarce. This study assessed the phytochemical properties and heavy metal contents of herbal-extract flavoured alcoholic beverages in major motor parks in Ibadan, Nigeria. The phytochemical properties of the beverages were determined in triplicate using standard methods while the heavy metal contents were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and means were compared using ANOVA at p<0.05. The pH range of the beverages was 3.28-6.57 and the alcohol content was 34.0-51.5%. Detected major phytochemicals and concentration ranges were phytic acid (0.72-2.37 mg/g), alkaloids (0.42-4.11 mg/g), flavonoids (0.22-3.64 mg rutin equivalents/g), total phenols (1.13-3.66 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), anthraquinones ((0.74-1.93 mg/g) and triterpenoids (0.74-1.93 mg/g). The phytochemical contents were within the acceptable limits while the heavy metals were: Pb (2.13-4.70 mg/L), Cd (0.06-0.07 mg/L), Co (0.12-0.23 mg/L), Zn (0.14-0.40 mg/L) and Fe (0.72-4.22 mg/L); all except Pb and Cd were within permissible limits. The herbal-extract flavoured alcoholic beverages contain beneficial phytochemicals and traces of heavy metals. Safety awareness of these products for improved consumers’ health would be of public health importance.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Canephron, antibiotic, urinary tract infections, cohort study, herbal treatment
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:11:11 CEST)
Objective: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the treatment with Canephron® after the diagnosis of acute cystitis or urinary tract infection (UTI) with regards to the risk of a sporadic recurrent UTI, frequent recurrent UTIs, UTI associated sick leave, additional antibiotic prescriptions, and renal complications (pyelonephritis) compared to standard antibiotic treatment. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was based on data from the IMS® Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA), and included outpatients in Germany with at least one diagnosis of acute cystitis or UTI with a prescription of either Canephron® or standard antibiotics between January 2016 and June 2019 in general practitioner (GP), gynecologist, or urologist practices from which data were obtained. Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the association between Canephron® prescription and the amount of sporadic or frequent recurrent UTIs, as well as the duration of UTI associated sick leave, amount of additional antibiotic prescriptions, and cases of pyelonephritis. The effects of Canephron® were adjusted for age, sex, insurance status, and Charlson Comorbidity Score (CCI). Results: 2,320 Canephron® patients and 158,592 antibiotic patients were available for analysis. Compared to antibiotic prescription, Canephron® prescription was significantly associated with less sporadic recurrences of UTI infections 30-365 days after the index date (odds ratio [OR]: 0.66; 95% conﬁdence interval [CI]: 0.58–0.72), as well as with less frequent recurrences of UTI infections (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.88), and with minor additional antibiotic prescription within 31-365 days (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.52-0.63). No significant differences were observed between the Canephron® and antibiotic cohorts with regard to the likelihood of sick leave (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.86–1.14), new antibiotic prescription within 1-30 days (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.87-1.16) and occurrences of pyelonephritis (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.00; 95% CI: 0.67-1.48). Conclusion: These real world data show that Canephron® is an effective and safe symptomatic treatment for acute cystitis or UTI. It should be considered as an alternative treatment in particular also to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Bone healing; , bone fracture; bone graft; herbal medicine; osteogenesis; plants
Online: 26 January 2023 (02:58:19 CET)
Objectives Bone fractures are very common diseases, which can be caused by impact injuries or physiological disorders. Thus, the present review aimed to study the use of medicinal plants in the healing mechanism of bone fractures. Evidence acquisition Through research in the PubMed, Google Academic, and Scielo databases, this article reviews 11 ethnopharmacological studies and 34 preclinical studies on the biological actions of different plants in bone fracture healing mechanism. Results Indian tribes have highlighted in the plants ethnopharmacological study for various diseases, including bone fractures. However, despite the large citations of traditional use, technical-scientific studies are still scarce in the literature. Chenopodium ambrosioides, Piper sarmentosum, quadrangular Cissus, Ricinus communis and Radix salvia miltiorrhiza plants were the most studied in the literature regarding their osteogenic, angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and remodeling effects, acting on bone receptors, stimulating bone metabolism, increasing minerals uptake, and assisting in free radicals breakdown. Conclusion Thus, the medicinal plants use is promising in the field of bone regeneration, as well as being alternative when conventional therapies are unfeasible, increasing herbal medicines demand and popularity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: herbal drugs; gut microbiota; antibiotic stewardship, uncomplicated infection, NSAID, homeostasis.
Online: 1 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Epithelial surfaces in humans are home to symbiotic microbes (i.e., microbiota) that influence the defensive function against pathogens depending on the health of the microbiota. Healthy microbiota contribute to the well-being of their host in general (e.g., via the gut-brain-axis), and their respective anatomical site in particular (e.g., oral, urogenital, skin or respiratory microbiota). Despite efforts towards a more responsible use of antibiotics, they are often prescribed for uncomplicated, self-limiting infections and can have a substantial negative impact on the gut microbiota. Treatment alternatives such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may also influence the microbiota and thus can have lasting adverse effects. Herbal drugs offer a generally safe treatment option for uncomplicated infections of the urinary or respiratory tract. Additionally, their microbiota preserving properties allow for a more appropriate therapy of uncomplicated infections without contributing to an increase in antibiotic resistance or disturbing the gut microbiota. Here, herbal treatments may be a more appropriate therapy with a generally favorable safety profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Herbal Informatics; Ayurveda; Lung Cancer; Ethnopharmacology; Natural Compounds; Alternative Medicine
Online: 7 December 2020 (09:35:10 CET)
The incidence of lung cancer has increased in recent years and causes major mortalities across the globe. Besides, the availability of the several chemotherapeutics modalities in the management, there is still a challenge to find out an efficient remedy with lesser or no toxic effects. Hence, there is a necessity to employ complementary research to establish effective management for lung cancer. In this study, we have implemented a novel herbal informatics model to find out the alternative remedy in the treatment of lung cancer. This model utilizes five major steps of the bioprospection process based on the classical surge followed by the binary index and rationale-based selection of herbal products targeting the cancer-causing factors which are explained in detail in the methodology section of this model. This study revealed 07 herbals such as Withania somnifera (Ws), Berberis vulgaris(Bv), Glycyrrhiza glabra(Gg), Andrographis paniculate(Ap), Azadirachta indica(Ai), Cinnamomum Verum(Cv), Piper longum(Pl) based on the fuzzy set optimization scoring(0.6-1) that could be further studied in vitro and in vivo level for utilization in the management of lung cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0102.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Zingiber; ginger; essential oil; rhizome; herbal remedies; traditional healing systems; food preservatives
Online: 16 November 2017 (04:38:52 CET)
Plants of the genus Zingiber (Family Zingiberaceae) are widely used throughout the world as food and medicinal plants. They represent very popular herbal remedies in various traditional healing systems; in particular, rhizome of Zingiber spp. plants has a long history of ethnobotanical uses because of a plethora of curative properties. Antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oil has been extensively confirmed in vitro and attributed to its chemical components, mainly consisting in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene. In addition, gingerols have been identified as the major active components in the fresh rhizome, whereas shogaols, dehydrated gingerol derivatives, are the predominant pungent constituents in dried rhizome. Zingiber spp. may thus represent a promising and innovative source of natural alternatives to chemical food preservatives. This approach would meet the increasing concern of consumers aware of the potential health risks associated with the conventional antimicrobial agents in food. This narrative review aims providing a literature overview on Zingiber spp. plants, their cultivation, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: osteoporosis; herbal medicine; Kukoamine B; osteoblast; osteoclast; bone mineral density; ovariectomized mice
Online: 31 October 2017 (15:35:04 CET)
Osteoporosis is an abnormal bone remodeling condition characterized by decreased bone density, which leads to high risks of broken bones. Previous studies have demonstrated that Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) extract inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice by enhancing the osteoblast differentiation. A bioactive compound, Kukoamine B (KB), was identified from a fractionation of LRC extract as a candidate component responsible for an anti-osteoporotic effect. This study investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of KB using in vitro and in vivo osteoporosis models. KB treatment significantly increased the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralized nodule formation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, while it significantly decreased the osteoclast differentiation of primary-cultured monocytes derived from mouse bone marrow. The effects of KB on osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiations under more physiological conditions were also examined. In the co-culture of MC3T3-E1 cells and monocytes, KB promoted osteoblast differentiation but did not affect osteoclast differentiation. For the in vivo experiments, KB significantly inhibited OVX-induced bone mineral density loss and restored the impaired bone structural properties in osteoporosis model mice. These results suggest that KB may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: herbal medicinal products; food supplements; botanicals; normative; phytotherapy; Italian pharmaceutical market; parapharmaceuticals
Online: 28 October 2016 (08:06:07 CEST)
The Italian herbal products market is the most prosperous in Europe. The proof is represented by the use of these products in several marketing categories, ranging from medicine to nutrition and cosmetics. Market and legislation in Italy are at the same time cause and consequence of this peculiar situation. In fact, the legislation on botanical food supplements in Italy is very permissive and at the same time the market shows an overall satisfaction of users and strong feedback in terms of consumption, which brings a widening use of medicinal plants, formerly the prerogative of pharmaceuticals, to other fields such as nutrition. This review summarizes the market and normative panorama of herbal products in Italy, highlighting the blurred boundaries of health indications, marketing authorizations and quality controls between herbal medicines and non pharmaceutical products, such as food supplements, cosmetics and other herbal-based “parapharmaceuticals”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Monochoria angustifolia; Monochoria hastata; Flavonoid; Antioxidant mechanism; Natural populations; Phytochemical profile; Traditional herbal medicine; Phytopharmaceutical
Online: 12 April 2022 (04:08:17 CEST)
Plants of the genus Monochoria have long been utilized in food, cosmetics, and traditional herbal treatment. Thailand has the highest species diversity of this genus and a new member, Monochoria angustifolia (G. X. Wang) Boonkerd & Tungmunnithum has been recently described. This plant is called “Siam Violet Pearl” as a common name or “ไข่มุกสีม่วงแห่งสยาม” as its vernacular name in the same meaning in Thai language. Despite their importance, few researches on Monochoria species have been conducted. This study, thus, provided the results to fill in this gap by: i) determining flavonoids phytochemical profiles of 25 natural populations of M. angustifolia covering the whole floristic regions in Thailand, and ii) determining antioxidant activity using various antioxidant assays to investigate the probable mechanism. The results revealed that M. angustifolia presented a higher flavonoid content than the outgroup, M. hastata. Our results also revealed that flavonoids might be used to investigate Monochoria evolutionary connections and for botanical authentication. The various antioxidant assays revealed that M. angustifolia extracts preferentially act through a hydrogen atom transfer antioxidant mechanism. Pearson correlation analysis indicated significant correlations emphasizing that the antioxidant capacity is most probably the result of a complex phytochemical combinations rather than of a single molecule. Altogether, these results showed that this new species provide an attractive alternative starting material with phytochemical variety and antioxidant potential for the phytopharmaceutical industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0732.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Rosemary; Alzheimer’s disease; cognition; meta-analysis; preclinical study; mild cognitive dysfunction; herbal drugs; rosmarinic acid
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:04:01 CEST)
Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment end up progressing to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) leading to straining burden on public health. R. officinalis long been known as the herb of remembrance and can be a potential cognition enhancer for AD. The aims of the review were to summarize the qualitative and quantitative aspects of R.O and its active constituents in enhancing the cognition. MATERIALS AND METHOD Google scholar and PubMed structured search to find relevant studies that assessed the effect of R.O extract or any of its active constituents on cognitive performance in animals. Data extraction: Following information from each included study was extracted: (1) article information (2) characteristics of study animals (3) type of intervention; type, dose, duration, and frequency of administration of R.O (4) type of outcome measure. Data synthesis: Data were analyzed using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3, 2014] and meta-analysis was performed for the outcome measures on all relevant tasks within the included papers by computing the standardized mean difference ps. RESULTS. 23 studies for qualitative and fifteen for meta-analysis were selected. From fifteen included papers, 22 studies with 35 comparisons were meta-analyzed. Effect sizes for intact animals and impaired animals respectively was (mean g and 95% CI 1.19 [0.74, 1.64; 0.57 [0.19,0.96]. The R. officinalis had positive effect on both groups of animals. The subgroup analyses exhibited substantial unexplained heterogeneity between studies. Mechanisms of R.O was anticholinesterase, procholinergic, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent CONCLUSIONS: R.O improves cognitive function. Limitations: Considerable heterogeneity between studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma; traditional Chinese medicine; Chinese herbal products; complementary and alternative medicine; Gan-Lu-Yin
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:09:08 CEST)
In most countries, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is no more than 1 per 100,000 for both men and women; however, it is much higher for men and women in Taiwan. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of NPC and its treatment-related side effects has been increasing. The National Health Insurance (NHI) covers 99.6% of Taiwan’s residents. In the present population-based cohort study, we aimed to investigate the pattern of utilization of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) for NPC from 2001 through 2011 in Taiwan. We identified a total of 30294 patients with newly diagnosed NPC from the Registry for Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database (RCIPD). Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for CHP utilization. From 2001 through 2011, 17816 patients aged ≥20 years were newly diagnosed with NPC. Of these, 4749 patients used TCM outpatient services for NPC treatment. TCM users were more likely to be women, young, residents of Central Taiwan, and white-collar workers. The most commonly prescribed formula CHP was Gan-Lu-Yin, followed by Xin-Yi-Qing Fei-Tang and Shan-Shen-Mai-Men-Dong-Tang. The most commonly prescribed single CHP was Hedyotis diffusa, followed by Radix Scrophulariae and Radix Ophiopogonis. These findings provide information regarding personalized therapies for NPC and can promote further clinical experiments and pharmacological research on CHPs for NPC treatment in Taiwan. Further well-designed randomized controlled studies and basic mechanistic studies should assess the safety and effectiveness of CHPs for NPC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020045
Subject: Keywords: adverse drug reactions; antimalarial; Ghana; herbal remedies; malaria; questionnaire; street sale; orthodox; unnatural medicines; patient preference
Online: 12 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Malaria is a serious infection affecting millions of people in Africa. Our study investigated the personal preferences and applications of antimalarial medicines in Ghana. Based on over 1000 questionnaires distributed in Ghana from January to May 2019, we noticed that although Western medications to fight this disease are widely available, most patients in Ghana prefer treatment with locally produced herbal remedies. This preference appears to be due to a combination of traditional venues for obtaining medicines “on the street” rather than in licensed pharmacies, trust in local and “green” products, extensive advertisement of such local products, and an inherent distrust of imported and synthetic or unnatural medicines. Going local and natural is a trend also observed in other countries across the globe, and adds to the acceptance or rejection of drugs regardless of their activity or toxicity. In fact, adverse side effects associated with herbal remedies, such as general weakness and swollen, sore mouth, do not seem to deter the respondents of this study in Ghana. We propose a combination of (a) increasing public awareness of the benefits of modern medicine and (b) an improvement and control of the quality of herbal remedies to raise the standard of malaria treatment in countries such as Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0050.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: antibiotics residue; antimicrobial resistance; ethno-veterinary practices; Herbal formulations; cattle health; dairy farmers; cost effective health care model
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:56:26 CET)
This study demonstrated that antibiotic residue in milk can be reduced when dairy farmers use Ethno-veterinary Practices (EVP) based on herbal alternatives to prevent and cure common clinical conditions in cattle instead of antibiotics. Of the 220 farmers selected for the study, 140 were trained and motivated to use validated herbal formulations, 80 were kept as control. Milk samples from the selected farmers (except Thirukanurpatti milk society) tested positive for antibiotic residue in the baseline survey. One year after interventions, the milk from 123 (87.86%) farmers out of 140, were without any detectable antibiotic residue, while samples from 11 farmers (7.85%) were low positive for either Beta-lactams or sulphonamides and 6 (4.29%) were positive for Beta lactams and/or sulphonamides. These 17 (11 + 6) farmers had used antibiotics along with herbal formulations. The milk samples from the control groups were positive for beta lactam and sulphonamide. There was suggestive significance of change in knowledge, attitude and practice of EVP among the farmers from Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A progressive reduction in the incidence of mastitis, enteritis, repeat breeding and cowpox were observed from 2016 to 2019 among the cows treated with EVP. Use of herbal alternative also resulted in a significant reduction in health care expenditure of cattle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Network pharmacology; GO enrichment analysis; Key target validation; Hyperlipidemia; Hepatic steatosis; herbal combination; combinational effect; Arum ternata; Poria cocos; Zingiber officinale
Online: 20 January 2023 (06:41:44 CET)
The network pharmacology (NP) approach is a valuable novel methodology for understanding the complex pharmacological mechanisms of medicinal herbs. In addition, various in silico analysis techniques combined with the NP can improve the understanding of various issues in natural product research. This study assessed the therapeutic effects of Arum ternata (AT), Poria cocos (PC), and Zingiber officinale (ZO) on hyperlipidemia after network pharmacologic analysis. A protein–protein interaction (PPI) network of forty-one key targets was analyzed to discover core functional clusters of the herbal compounds. The KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis identified significant categories of hypolipidemic mechanisms. The STITCH database indicated a high connection with several statin drugs deduced by the similarity in targets. AT, PC, and ZO regulated the genes related to the energy metabolism and lipogenesis in HepG2 cells loaded with free fatty acids (FFAs). Furthermore, a combinational effect of the mixture of three herbs was found. The herbal combination exerted superior efficacy compared to a single herb, particularly in regulating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1). In conclusion, the network pharmacologic approach was used to assess potential targets of the herbal combination for treatment. Experimental data from FFAs-induced HepG2 cells suggested that the combination of AT, PC, and ZO might attenuate hyperlipidemia and its associated hepatic steatosis.