BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0006.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Bank Collapse; Barings Bank; Lehman Bank; Derivatives
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:38:17 CEST)
Bank crisis can mostly be traced to a decrease in the value of bank assets. Banks are vulnerable to a number of risks. This happens in one or a combination of the following incidences; when loans turn bad and cease to perform (credit risk), when there are excess withdrawals over available funds (liquidity risk) and rising interest rates (interest rate risk). Bad credit management, market inefficiencies and operational risk, among a host others can trigger panic withdrawals by depositors with a sense of insecurity emanating from the fear of loss of investment. In fact, the failure of Barings Bank and Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc was attributable to varied factors spanning from non-monitoring of employee activities, management’s involvement in dubious accounting practices, unethical business practices by management, over indulging in risky and unsecured derivative trade. To guide against similar bank collapse in the near future, there should be an enhanced communication among international regulators and authorities that exercise oversight responsibilities on the security market. National bankruptcy laws should be invoked to forestall liquidity crisis so as to prevent freezing of margins and positions of solvent customers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0305.v1
Online: 15 October 2018 (11:49:29 CEST)
As the demand for a more sustainable society increases, adopting a sustainable banking approach serves as a competitive advantage for banks that are focused on attaining bank loyalty. This study revolves around understanding the role of sustainable banking practices on bank loyalty, while exploring the mediating effect of corporate image in the relationship between sustainable banking practices and bank loyalty. 511 data derived from customers of the banking sector was adopted for this study. Result from the structural equation modeling shows that sustainable banking practices positively and directly affects bank loyalty and corporate image, corporate image directly and positively affect bank loyalty, and also mediates in the relationship between sustainable banking practices and bank loyalty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Islamic Bank; Banking Performance; Bibliometric Analysis; Cluster
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:51:16 CET)
Islamic banks (IBs) have been criticized as not being genuinely Islamic, and the methods in measuring their performances have been debatable. While the literature on IBs performance has been emerging, such studies precisely assess its recent development remains absent. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the development of scholarly articles that measure IBs’ performances. We employ bibliometric analysis and sample related articles from the Scopus database. We find that the development of IBs performance literature may be understood by 111 peer-reviewed journal articles, 4 conference papers, 1 book, and 1 book series. We analyze these materials based on publication sources, country and institution affiliation, keywords association, and cluster dendrogram. Our model that quantifies the keywords association and cluster dendrogram provides a novelty in assessing IBs performance literature development. Future studies may replicate our model to cluster and identify the keyword associations from the unstructured data sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0441.v1
Online: 31 March 2020 (04:21:07 CEST)
Hymenaea courbaril is an endangered species, promising to reforestation programs and mainly explored as a wood source. The available information concerning long-term storage methods, seed recalcitrance, parental, and substrate influence is scarce. This study focused on the seed behavior according to population origin and during one-year storage, also testing the efficiency of the low-temperature conservation. Variations between the uncertainty indexes were found to the studied populations after long-term storage. There was no significant loss of the germination potential in consequence of the prolonged storage period. Although, older seeds promoted gradually greater delayed germination. Germination speed, synchrony, and uncertainty indexes were substantially different between the -20° conservation and control. H. courbaril seeds are capable of long-term storage without losing their germination potential, indicating an orthodox behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Waqf bank; Cash Waqf; Waqf management; Islamic Endowment
Online: 14 February 2020 (09:20:16 CET)
Bridging widening socioeconomic gaps calls for a paradigm shift and the use of effective strategies such as Waqf banks to develop and provide basic services and such as education, shelter, employment opportunities and social amenities to the poor, while reducing the state’s burden and working to constructively address the reasons for the gap. Waqf banks are set-up through the use of cash waqfs and would operate multiple waqf funds alongside an assortment of financial instruments. Their earnings however are issued as low-cost credits to the poor, economically disadvantaged and the underprivileged regardless of their financial status, instead of focusing exclusively on generating shareholder profits. This would significantly aid the economy in steady, sustainable growth; effectively raising the lower bar on per capita income and lifting untold multitudes out of poverty. This study explores how interest-free and affordable loans can be provided to the poor or lower income demographics, while further discussing bank structures such as Shari‘ah compliance, services rendering, investment and waqf distribution. This study shows that there is a need for Shari’ah compliant waqf banks which in addition to providing services for beneficiaries, would also effectively manage investment and waqf funds that contribute to overall national development and economic growth. This inquiry would be of high relevance to experts, financial managers, regulators and policy makers in the fields of waqf, banking and finance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0549.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Near-bank patch; Deformed bed topography; Flow adjustment; Hydrodynamics
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:39:40 CET)
Understanding how the deformed bed topography induced by near-bank vegetation impacts the hydrodynamics is significant for understanding the maintenance condition of bed morphology and further fluvial evolution. This issue has rarely been addressed by current studies. This study with a 2D hydro-morphological model investigates the hydrodynamics over flat and deformed beds with a near-bank vegetation patch. By varying the patch density, the generalized results show that the hydrodynamics for the deformed bed differs a lot from those for the flat bed. It is found that deformed bed topography leads to an apparent decrease in longitudinal velocity and bed shear stress in the open region and longitudinal surface gradient for the entire vegetated reach. However, the transverse flow motion and transverse surface gradient in the region of the leading edge and trailing edge is enhanced or maintained, suggesting the strengthening of secondary flows. Interestingly, the deformed bed topography tends to alleviate the turbulent effect caused by the junction-interface horizontal coherent vortices, indicating that the turbulence-induced flow mixing is highly inhibited by the deformed bed. Alternatively, the enhanced secondary flows might provide compensation for the flow mixing for the deformed bed, confirmed by a faster recovery of the redistributed water discharge for the vegetated and open regions to the normal value (50%). The interior flow adjustment through the patch for the deformed bed requires a shorter distance, which links the vegetative drag length with a logarithmic relation. The tilting bed topographic effect in the open region to accelerate the flow may account for the faster flow adjustment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: customers' brand loyalty; bank; loyalty status; determinants of loyalty
Online: 11 August 2020 (07:46:56 CEST)
The study is carried out on the factors influencing customers’ brand loyalty. The study is aimed at evaluating customers’ brand loyalty status and identifying its determinants. To this end, an explanatory research design is used with the support of descriptive and multiple regression analytical techniques. From the customers of the bank 290 of them are selected using a purposive sampling technique. Questionnaires are administered to collect the primary data. The finding of the study indicates that the loyalty status of the customers is fragmented into hard-core loyalty, split loyalty, shift loyalty, and switching loyalty status with the inclination on the first and second categories of loyalty status. It also reflects that distribution, promotion, reputation, satisfaction and tangible benefits are the predictors of customers’ brand loyalty. A message of sticking on these determinants of loyalty is transmitted to the bank manager with the emphasis on the most predictors, i.e., distribution and promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0314.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Bank; , Debt; Distress; Performance; Credit Management Practice; Z-score
Online: 19 December 2019 (13:05:29 CET)
A robust bank industry is a major player in the stability of an economy. The operational efficiency and stability of banks are therefore paramount. By way of financial ratios and Z-score, this study analysed UT Bank’s financial performance prior to the 2017 bank sector reforms in Ghana. Annual financials over a ten year period (2007-2016) were used. Debt management practices of UT Bank per the results obtained were quite on the hind side and unimpressive. This was reflected in the poor leverage and risk management variables. UT Bank would have been unable to meet creditors’ claims considering the mean average values of debt-to-assets and debt-to equity ratios of 0.76 and 0.90 respectively. The entire bank sector will benefit if credit management practices of individual banks are refreshed and worked on. The bank industry regulator should tighten its supervisory and monitoring role over banks to help detect early signs of non-performing banks. The study further recommends that statutory lending limits of banks be re-enforced to uphold the threshold of 10 percent for unsecured loans and 25 percentage for secured loans of net owned funds of the bank.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0109.v1
Online: 6 September 2018 (04:53:27 CEST)
Over the past decade, the credit quality of loan portfolios across most countries in the world remained relatively stable until the financial crises hit the global economy in 2007–2008. In this paper I discuss, the relationship between non-performing loans and economic landscape. Since 2008, nonperforming loans have been an increasingly hot topic in the international scene, due to their important and rising volume and their impact on the economy as a whole, on the banking system and on its credit supply. Since then, average bank asset quality deteriorated sharply due to the global economic recession. Yet the deterioration of loan performance was very uneven across countries. I am interested in explaining these differences in bank asset quality across countries and over time. In this paper, I therefore study the empirical determinants of non-performing loan (NPL) ratios using a data set for EU countries covering the past decade. The paper assumes that the spatial organization of banking systems and the geographical distribution of comercial banks branches, ATMs and GDP growth are major factors influencing the effectiveness in credit system. The aim of this paper is to construct a continuous and quantifiable model, which will demonstrate a role of economic condition, technology, competition, policy, business climate in Financial Stability. Main hypotheses suggests, that GDP growth, interest rate, new business, FDI, ATMs and geographical distribution of branches have an influences on NPL (non-performing loans).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: bank reporting; country risk; financial stability; panel data modeling
Online: 15 March 2018 (04:46:05 CET)
This paper relies on accounting-based measures of country risk to investigate U.S. global banks' exposure to foreign country risk over the 2017 fiscal year as measured by the sum of cross-border risk, foreign office risk, and derivative risk claims. We achieve this using panel linear modeling methods with country level heterogeneity and time fixed effects, along with a constructed panel data of 284 observations on 71 countries distributed across 6 world regional blocks, and observed over 4 consecutive quarters starting from 4th quarter 2016 and ending with 3rd quarter 2017. The results show that on average, over the four quarters, a 1% increase in foreign banking sector's claims significantly increases U.S. global banks cross border risk exposure by 0.34%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.22%, but have no significant impact on foreign office risk exposure. Similar results are observed with public sector claims which significantly increase banks' exposure to cross border risk by 0.21%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.19%. Conversely however, non-bank financial sector claims are found to have no significant affect on cross-border risk exposure, but significantly reduce foreign office risk exposure by 0.09%, while increasing derivative risk exposure by 0.06%. These results indicate the presence of sectoral heterogeneities in U.S. banks' exposure to foreign counterparties' risk, and also that overall, over the course of 2017 the level of U.S. global banks' cross-border risk exposure increased, while their level of derivative risk exposure decreased, and the level of foreign office risk exposure remained relatively unchanged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0298.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: coastal erosion; beach morphodynamics; beach erosion; flow slide; slope instability; bank erosion; bank collapse; flood risk; breaching; dredging; liquefaction; submarine landslide; turbidity current; dilatancy
Online: 28 August 2019 (15:17:30 CEST)
Retrogressive breach failures or coastal flow slides occur naturally in the shoreface in fine sands near dynamic tidal channels or rivers. They sometimes retrogress into beaches, shoal margins and river banks where they can threaten infrastructure and cause severe coastal erosion and flood risk. Ever since the first reports were published in the Netherlands over a century ago, attempts have been made to understand the geo-mechanical mechanism of flow slides. In this paper we have established that events, observed during the active phase, are characterized by a slow and steady retrogression into the shoreline, often continuing for many hours. This can be explained by the breaching mechanism, as elaborated in this paper. Recently, further evidence has become available in the form of video footage of active events in Australia and elsewhere, often publicly posted on the internet. All these observations justify the new term ‘retrogressive breach failure’ (RBF event). The mechanism has been confirmed in small-scale flume tests and in a large-scale field experiment. With a better understanding of the geo-mechanical mechanism, current protection methods can be better understood and new defense strategies can be envisaged. In writing this paper, we hope that the coastal science and engineering communities will better recognize and understand these intriguing natural events.
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: value co-creation; National Health Insurance; My Health Bank; Service Ecosystem
Online: 22 January 2020 (02:55:28 CET)
Objective: Taiwan Government’s organizations have endeavored to promote the applications of big data and open data. The “My Health Bank” is one of the measures promoted by the National Health Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare. This study proposes the perspective of the “value co-creation” with the attempt to extend the concept of service ecosystem and apply it on the platform of My Health Bank to examine whether people (patients, families, and caregivers) can promote their health literacy? Method: This cross-sectional study, with people that have registered at “My Health Bank” as subjects. Complying with the inclusion criteria, 401 questionnaires were delivered, with 391 valid ones, excluding those incompletely and inaccurately filled. Result: That the affecting factors of the co-creation of values: age, education level, annual income, and platform operation show to be significant ( p＜0.05); and gender, occupation, and resource exchange do not reach the significant level (p＞0.1). Conclusion: We found My Health Bank changed the inertia of “value creation” in the traditional medical value, it allows the traditional medical and healthcare industry to expose to the impacts of the mega trend of the internet, the transformation of the platform in a necessary trend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Bank Central Asia (BCA) interest rate; Dollar exchange rate (USD); Stock Price
Online: 24 April 2022 (04:55:14 CEST)
This study aims to determine how the effect of interest rates and changes in the dollar exchange rate (USD) on the stock price. The type of research carried out in this research is quantitative research with the object of research, namely Bank Central Asia (BCA). The data used in this study comes from secondary data, namely from books, the internet, documents, and banking sites. This study indicates that the independent variable, namely the interest rate, has a significant negative effect on the joint-stock price index and the other independent variable, namely the dollar exchange rate (USD), has a significant positive effect on the joint-stock price index. The coefficient test results show that interest rates and exchange rates (USD) simultaneously affect stock prices, namely 67.2% while the remaining 32.8% is influenced by other factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0320.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Carbon neutral; Equator Principle; Industrial Bank; "Three Principles"; Factor Analysis; Carbon neutral
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:32:36 CEST)
The Equator Principle is the goal of promoting the harmonious development of my country's economy and society. It promotes the green transformation and upgrading of the industrial structure by strictly controlling the flow of commercial bank funds, so as to achieve the goal of environmental protection and the coordinated development of the national economy. This paper uses factor analysis to reduce the dimensions of 10 financial indicators and non-financial indicators that measure the operating performance and development potential of joint-stock commercial banks, and then compares the comprehensive operating performance, liquidity, and safety of Industrial Bank and comparable banks. And the level of profitability, analyze the difference in comprehensive operating performance of joint-stock commercial banks joining the Equator Principles compared with commercial banks that have not joined the Equator Principles. The results of the study found that joining the Equator Principles of joint-stock commercial banks can improve comprehensive operating performance in the short term. In the long run, the development trend of Industrial Bank will be similar to that of comparable banks in the same category. Joining the Equator Principles of Industrial Bank can improve its liquidity and profitability, but it will not in the long run. Conducive to the improvement of the asset quality of joint-stock commercial banks. In this regard, the government, enterprises and financial institutions should work together to help commercial banks achieve an effective balance between operating performance and social responsibility, so as to achieve the goals of "carbon peak" and "carbon neutral".
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0147.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: position-specific visualization; experimentally uncharted territories; membrane protein structure; protein data bank
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:53:46 CET)
As of today, there is not any direct report yet of the degree to which missing residues exist for experimentally determined membrane protein (MP) structures, which constitute more than half of current drug targets. With a chain- and position-specific visualisation and a statistical analysis of all MP structures inside PDB (as of September 25, 2019), this article argues that the experimentally uncharted territories (EUTs, i.e., consisting of missing residues) within PDB are pluggable and should be plugged with an experimental data-driven hybrid approach, and calls for continued development of MP structural determination with less and less EUTs, in light of MPs' crucial role in biological and biomedical research, both fundamental and pharmaceutical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0112.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: marginal bank; unsteady flow; different slopes; water flow structure; experimentation; Yangtze River
Online: 10 December 2018 (16:42:41 CET)
Unsteady flow is the most common and complicated form of fluid motion in nature. This paper takes the beaches of key waterways in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River as the research object, analyzes the water surface distribution and average flow velocity distribution near the beach, and analyzes the differences. The relationship between the flow pattern of the steep slope and the water flow pattern of the entire survey area and the steep slope of the beach and its nearby water flow structure. The water flow near the beach is divided into four major blocks: the swelling water area, the falling water area, the backwater area and the maximum flow rate area. The water flow structure characteristics and the cause of each block are analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0452.v1
Subject: Keywords: Financial Liberalization, Agriculture Output, Lending Rate, Inflation Rate, Exchange Rate, Commercial bank credit
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:31:05 CEST)
This study examined the relationship between financial sector liberalization and agricultural sector output in Nigeria using annual data spanning the period 1986-2020. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to examine the relationship between lending rate, exchange rate, commercial bank credit to agriculture, inflation rate and agricultural sector output in Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was employed and the annual time series data were collated from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin. The econometrics methods of unit root, co-integration and error correction mechanism were used for the analyses. The outcome of the ADF unit root test show that the variables were stationary. Also the co-integration result showed that there exist co-integration amongst the variables in the model. The results from Error Correction Model indicates that lending rate and inflation rate have a negative relationship on agricultural sector output while exchange rate and commercial bank credit to agriculture have positive relationship on agricultural sector output. Based on these results, this study recommends that government and policy makers in Nigerian should initial policies that will boost investments in the agricultural sector through direct provision of credits to agriculturist and banks should also lend at a very low and subsidized interest rate to enable farmers’ access agricultural loans that will boost agricultural productivity in the economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Risk management; Laos; livelihood; swidden; upland rice; rice bank; NTFPs; market economy; livestock
Online: 28 January 2018 (16:32:52 CET)
In areas with strongly seasonal climates, local people often use complex strategies to manage agricultural production shortages, including diverse activities such as hunting, selling and consuming non-agricultural products, and wage labor. We surveyed all the households in a village in northern Laos to evaluate how such livelihood activities varied during years with differing agricultural production conditions. We compared two years with normal rice production conditions (2010, 2012) and one year with a severe rice shortage (2011) due to a rodent outbreak. Earning wages inside and outside the village was the most important activity for mitigating rice shortages, followed by selling livestock and using/selling non-timber forest products. Villagers also borrowed rice from a village rice bank. Most cash income was earned from selling rice. We concluded that a balance of traditional risk management activities under the swidden system (e.g., raising livestock) with the more recent rice bank system and wages from the market economy will be critical for the sustainable development of mountain villages in northern Laos. Permanent crops and monocultures tend to make local livelihoods more dependent on a single crop, but maintaining the traditional swidden system will help local people to manage agricultural production shortages.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: risk measure; value at risk; tail conditional expectation; expected shortfall; bank capital; Basel accords
Online: 16 April 2019 (10:48:48 CEST)
The use of risk measures such as the Value at Risk (VaR) or Tail Conditional Expectation (TCE) is required by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in determining a bank’s risk profile. However, both measures can be shown to have shortcomings in the information that they provide to regulators and investors. In this paper we present an introduction to risk measure calculations before demonstrating the weaknesses of these measures. Through the exploration of specific cases we show how familiar yet differing risk profiles have identical values for combinations of these measures. From this evidence we recommend that a sequence of several risk measures should be used to give a more accurate representation of the risk contained on banking balance sheet.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0157.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Disaster Risk Reduction; EO4SD; Official Development Assistance; Actionable Information; World Bank; International Financial Institutions
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:53:46 CET)
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is a high priority on the agenda of main stakeholders involved in sustainable development and Earth Observation (EO) can provide useful, timely and economical information in this context. This short communication outlines the European Space Agency’s (ESA) specific initiative to promote the use and uptake of satellite data in the global development community: ‘Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD)’. One activity area under EO4SD is devoted to Disaster Risk Reduction: EO4SD DRR. Within this project, a team of European companies and institutions are tasked to develop EO services for supporting the implementation of DRR in International Financial Institutions’ (IFI) projects. Integration of satellite-borne data and ancillary data to generate insight and actionable information is thereby considered a key factor for improved decision making. To understand and fully account for the essential user requirements (IFI & Client States), engagement with technical leaders is crucial. Fit-for-purpose use of data and comprehensive capacity building eventually ensure scalability and long-term transferability. Future perspectives of EO4SD and DRR regarding mainstreaming are also highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0333.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Abiotic stress; Biotic stress; Adaptation; Climate change; Diaseases; Diversity; Genetic Resources; Gene bank; Wild relatives
Online: 15 July 2020 (11:21:07 CEST)
Abstract: A large number of collecting expeditions were launched in regions of ‘centers of diversity’ and hundreds of thousands of sample have been collected and stored in gene banks as ‘genetic resources’. So far, only a small number of the samples have been evaluated for their biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Now, their time to become useful has come. A new global phenomenon has arisen – climate change. The crop genetic resources and their wild progenitors that have survived countless years of changing environment during the last 11,000 years could harbor genes that may be useful under the new growing conditions and environmental factors thrown up by climate change and global warming. With the deployment of modern bio-engineering techniques selected genes or gene fragments can be transferred from genetic resources to modern varieties of crop plants to make them well-prepared to mitigate the effects of global warming and climate change. The latter is the most serious issue facing plant breeders today. New pests and diseases could affect crop production. These review paper discusses various impacts and issues as a result of this phenomenon and suggest ways to safeguard our most important crops through better management of crop plant genetic resources in the near future.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0011.v1
Subject: Keywords: antigen-antibody complex structure; interfacial electrostatic feature; Machine Learning-Based Antibody Design; Protein Data Bank
Online: 1 March 2020 (12:39:55 CET)
The importance of antibodies in health care and the biotechnology research and development demands not only knowledge of their experimental structures at high resolution, but also practical implementation of this knowledge for both effective and efficient design and production of antibody for its use in both medical and research applications. While the experimental wet-lab approach is usually costly, laborious and time-consuming, computational (dry-lab) approaches, in spite of their intrinsic limitations in comparison with its experimental (wet-lab) counterpart, provide a cheaper and faster alternative option. For the first time, this article reports a comprehensive set of structural electrostatic features extracted from experimentally determined antigen-antibody-related structures, including especially those structural electrostatic features at the interfaces of all experimentally determined antigen-antibody complex structures as of February 29, 2020, to facilitate effective and efficient machine learning-based computational antibody design using currently available experimental structures inside Protein Data Bank.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: City Marathons; financial stability; corporate sponsors; the Bank of America Chicago Marathon; Marathon Valencia Trinidad Alfonso
Online: 28 July 2022 (03:14:14 CEST)
City marathons have evolved and grown exponentially in type and popularity, managerial complexity, for their financial impact on their host cities and for the attraction of corporate sponsors. Much research has focused on evaluating the broad economic, urban, tourist, social, sporting, and symbolic effects of city marathons on host cities. Research have not examined the importance of the contribution of sponsors to the financial stability and its implications to the overall management and further success of marathons. This article focuses on the cases of the Bank of America Chicago Marathon and the Marathon Valencia Trinidad Alfonso and examines how effective has been the contribution of their sponsors to the financial stability and its implications for the management and success of both races over time. Results show that the international success of both events –in terms of sporting participation, performance and economic impact– is closely related to the design and management of the event; the synergies between the political, business and sporting spheres that the organizational leadership of the event has made it possible to implement and, as a consequence, the support received from sponsors, which has not only provided both races with financial stability, but also has contributed to improve the management of the race.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0071.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Returns, Stocks, Guaranty Trust (GT) Bank, Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH), Persistence, Half-life, Volatility, Backtesting
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:40:29 CET)
In financial time series modelling and forecasting, combining ARMA and GARCH models tend to produce superior and reliable models for volatility persistence, half-life volatility and backtesting (application of model in real life). In Nigeria, banking stocks are mostly traded because of its potential benefits to investors. This study modelled and forecasted the Guaranty Trust (GT) Bank daily stock returns from January 2nd 2001 to May 8th 2017 data set collected from a secondary source. The ARMA-GARCH models, persistence, half-life and backtesting were used to analysed the collected data using student t and skewed student t distributions, and the analyses are carried out R environment using rugard and performanceAnaytics Packages. The study revealed that using the lowest information criteria values only could be misleading rather we added the use of backtesing. The ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) models fitted exhibited high persistency in the daily stock returns while the days it takes for mean-reverting of the models ranges from 5 days to 100 days but unfortunately the models failed backtesting. The results further revealed ARMA(1,1)-eGARCH (2,2) model with student t distribution provides a suitable model for evaluating the GT bank stock returns among the competing models while it takes less than 30 days for the persistence volatility to return back to its average value of the stock returns. This study recommended that researchers should adopt backtesting approach while fitting GARCH models while GT bank stocks investor should be assured that no matter the fluctuations in the stock market, the GT bank stock returns has the ability to returns to its mean price return.