CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Zambia’s Higher Education Policy; Policies in Higher Education; Education and Policies in Zambia
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:46:40 CET)
Policies are adopted and implemented to achieve specific goals. In this regard, the Government of Zambia in 2019 adopted the higher education policy with many objectives which include, the expansion of access to higher education; reduction of gender and other forms of inequity in accessing higher education; the improvement of quality of higher education by increasing funding to higher education institutions, construction, and repair of infrastructure in higher and improvement in the provision of learning materials in higher education institutions (HEIs).This paper, therefore, sought to evaluate the higher education policy of 2019. The four criteria were used namely; effectiveness, equity, policy sustainability, and consistency. Other principles such as political and social acceptability of a policy were not used because the policy is already adopted and being implemented. Further, the principle of efficiency was not used because it would have been problematic to gauge the expenditure against the outcomes.The findings have revealed that the policy to some extent has been effective; some of the objectives such as increased access to higher education and reduction of inequality have been partially achieved. It has been established that the number of students pursuing higher education has been increased to 114,049 in 2020 from 91,969 in 2017. Further, in 2021, 48.5% of scholarships in public universities were awarded to female students while 51.5% were awarded to female students. Further, more students are encouraged to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and more women are pursuing studies in STEM-related fields. However, the policy has not helped to achieve the quality of higher education as funding in public HEIs has not improved. Further, infrastructure remains very poor and inadequate; and access to update and relevant learning materials also remains a challenge in HEIs. However, the policy seems to be duplicated by the recent re-launched Technical Education Vocation Entrepreneurship Training (TEVET) national policy.Given the above findings, it has been recommended that the government among other things improve funding and build infrastructure in public HEIs. There is also a need to harmonise the TEVET national policy with the higher education policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: carers; higher education; academics; policies
Online: 5 May 2019 (10:20:37 CEST)
In recent years, it has become common for individuals to juggle employment and unpaid care work. This is just as true for the England-based academic workforce, our focus in this article. We discuss how, in the context of English HE, support for carers is enacted and negotiated through policies and practices of care. Our focus on academics with a diverse range of caring responsibilities is unusual insofar as the literature on care in academia is overwhelmingly concerned with parents, usually mothers. The article is informed primarily by critical and post-structuralist feminist perspectives. We draw on a corpus of 47 interviews conducted with academics representing a broad range of caring responsibilities, subjects, and positions. A thematic analysis reveals how carers’ relationship with the provision and policies of care support at institutional level is characterised by ambiguity. On the one hand, participants approve of societal and institutional policy support for carers. On the other hand, they are often reluctant to position themselves as the beneficiary of such policies, expressing instead a general preference for support from outside the workplace or for workplace-based inter-individual and informal care arrangements. This resistance is particularly noticeable in the case of participants with caring responsibilities other than the parenting of healthy, able-bodied children and of those whose gender, class, racial, or sexual identity do not conform with the figure of the ‘ideal academic’, contributing to their othering in the academic realm. These findings have significant implications for policies supporting carers, pointing to the need for greater visibility and recognition of caring responsibilities in academia, especially in terms of their diverse identities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0551.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; preschool education; inclusion; public policies
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:41:10 CEST)
In this study, we analyze the perspectives of Early Childhood Educators, working in various teaching sectors, on Inclusion in Preschool Education, following the publication of Decree-Law No. 54/2018, of July 6th, at a time when Learning and Inclusion Support Measures are being extended to all children, and when the SARS-CoV-19 (COVID-19) pandemic prevails in Portugal and worldwide. Based on a mixed-methodological approach and the application of a questionnaire survey to 250 Early Childhood Educators, we reflect on the implementation of the legal framework, the involvement of the Multidisciplinary Learning and Inclusion Support Team (EMAEI), teacher training, pedagogical/collaborative work, and support mobilized for Preschool Education children. The results obtained indicate quality and effectiveness in the pedagogical plan and collaborative work between teachers and specialist technicians, although higher education in the field of Inclusive Education does not seem to provide professionals with the necessary and in-depth knowledge on the subject. They also indicate that, alongside dissatisfaction with the insufficient support provided to Preschool Education children, the relevant Diploma is not fully applied, with doubts still remaining about its application.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0075.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: pandemic; social worker; Kerala; policies; education
Online: 3 September 2021 (20:50:56 CEST)
Abstract It is impossible to overstate the importance of social workers as frontline responders to this pandemic. However, it appears that social workers in Kerala are unaware of the many roles they may perform. The study suggests that social work instructors should be more proactive in their course interpretation. The article discusses about the current situation of Novel Corona Virus also called as the COVID-19 that hinder for all human’s life including the education. Rapidly escalating COVID-19, has caused havoc in quality education and every educational institution are closed. As the UNESCO report it showed that 1.6 billion children being affected due to the close of institution across 191 countries. With the alternative method every education institution started blended learning virtual classes in order to continue learning environment in students. The articles investigate COVID-19 impact on student’s quality education in Kerala and social work implication. The findings of the study shows that the COVID-19 has seriously effects on the students learning environment. It showed the huge gap between getting the good education in Kerala. However, Kerala has also made some policies to provide equal quality education to all the children through the ICT and also encourage social work to actively participate on providing education to all the majority of group children in Kerala. Whereas social work applied the micro, messo, and macro level of implication in practice to provide the education for children in remote area of Kerala.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0316.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agritourism; sustainability; rural policies; FADN; Italy
Online: 18 July 2018 (00:29:49 CEST)
This paper investigates how and to what extent European and national policies, through the analysis of financial support derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) (First and Second Pillar) and national and local subsidies, have financed Italian agritourism. For this purpose, the authors have proposed a comparative analysis between Italian agritourism and farms without tourism activities, by stressing the distribution of public financial supports concerning the 2007-2013 programming period of the European Union (EU) for Rural Development. The empirical analysis is based on the Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) dataset. The data were stratified by altimetry zone and farm size. Descriptive statistics and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for each group were used. The main results show how the Second Pillar has mainly supported small and medium-sized farms with tourism activities and located in disadvantaged areas. This study could be useful to policymakers regarding evaluation of the mission for diversification in agriculture, represented here by the carrying out of tourist activities on farms and the contribution for the retention of small-scale farms in marginal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Socio-Equity; Urban Transport; Policies; India
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:55:49 CEST)
Public Transport has been seen since ages as the most environmentally sustainable mode of transport. The users of public transport are diverse and have different socio-economic character. Hence the public transport which is not only supposed to be environmentally sustainable but also envisaged to ensure equity amongst various stakeholders of society like the females, elderly and other vulnerable groups through its service. Gender in binary terms of being differentiated based on men and women is a social construct. Public transport systems in developing countries like India witness socio-cultural factors that shape the experience of women in public spaces by social norms extant in society. Along with this, gender-based issues related to public transport are social and behavioural shortcomings as a consequence of a lack of gender sensitivity. On similar lines, elderly have a negative experience involving safety threats, physical and psychological discomfort while accessing public transport systems. The literature published regarding such issues on the gender and elderly question in public transport systems have been studied and has been brought forth under a stand- alone narrative literature review. A literature review is a prerequisite to conducting either stand-alone reviews or as a preliminary study to be supported with quantitative or qualitative analysis. Here, a stand-alone literature review concerning issues in the public transport system in India has been performed. A narrative type of review is conducted to provide an overview of pre- existing published literature. Narrative overviews are useful educational articles as they help present a broad perspective on a topic and often define the development of a problem and/or ways to manage it. The semi-systematic or narrative-review approach is designed for topics that have been theorized differently and studied within diverse disciplines making it unfavourable to study under a full systematic-review process which majorly caters to reviewing quantitative researches. As narrative-styled literature reviews prefer a semi- systematic data collection method, utmost care has been taken to include perspectives from diverse disciplines. The scope of this review is restricted to summarizing the Indian policies, schemes of public transport in light of socio-equity consideration while narrowing the inherent discrepancies within the socio-cultural ethos of the Indian society which influences socio-equity consideration in public spaces in general and the modes of public transport in particular. Research articles from electronic databases were selected based on relevance to understand the issues this viewpoint, their essential findings and possible recommendations are formulated to provide a comprehensive summary of previous researches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Brexit; land use change; Wales; agricultural policies; forestry
Online: 19 November 2020 (12:24:39 CET)
Changes in agricultural policy may have rapid impact even on landscapes which have taken millennia to form. Here we explore the potential of UK leaving the EU as a catalyst for profound changes in pastoral landscapes in Wales. Impending change of the trading regime governing agricultural produce, concurrent to public pressure to use agricultural subsidies for environmental goals, may lead to unforeseen consequences for Welsh natural environment. We employ a combination of change demand modelling and ‘story and simulation approach’ to predict the effect of five hypothetical scenarios on land use and land use change in Wales by 2030. We show that the most extreme trade scenario would result in a near-uniform distribution of broadleaf woodland across most of Wales. Abandonment of marginal and low productivity grazing would likely give way to afforestation, initiating a return to forested landscapes not seen in Wales for several thousands of years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: climate-smart; agriculture; adaptation; policies and practices; indicators
Online: 22 September 2019 (17:10:00 CEST)
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is a new and emerging concept in climate discourse to address the issues of climate change impacts in agriculture. Few researchers and organizations have concentrated on CSA policies and practices in Nepal. This study aims to review and analyze the policies and practices in relation to CSA and define local level CSA indicators in the Central and Western Nepal. This study adopted the scoping review of climate policies and practices in Nepal and also utilized the household survey information particularly focusing on climate adaptation relating to agriculture. Through the scoping review, it is recognized that the number of climate policies in Nepal has specifically prioritized agriculture and food security as an important thematic area. Among those policies, National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), National Framework for Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) and National Adaptation Plan (NAP) have specific sections on CSA practices, however, these policies/plans lack specific indicators. Different categories of CSA practices are common in Nepal, but many of these practices are popular as agricultural and environmental practices prior to the CSA concept and approach. The output indicators specific to CSA practices help the communities and policymakers to measure and monitor the progress of its implementation. Additional researches are required in this field to better understand the CSA concept, approaches, and mechanisms in the Nepalese context.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0670.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: policies; sustainability; waste management; waste sector
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:50:36 CEST)
Solid waste management is a challenge in many countries, especially developing economies. The author identified nine major waste issues reported during the current pandemic period. The impacts of the pandemic continue to be felt and have indicated secondary impacts with respect the waste management. The reflective topics highlighted in the present article are not intended to be exhaustive. Still, they give us a starting point for reﬂecting on how we can construct a more resilient waste management system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0219.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: pollution; cost-effectiveness analysis; Cocody; environmental policies; environmental constraints
Online: 27 August 2016 (11:01:22 CEST)
The pollution of the bays in Abidjan is a major concern for the Ivorian policy makers. In fact, the pollution of the bays induce high costs to the society while impacting population health dramatically. As a result, pollution reduction management of production activities has been undertaken in the Cocody Bay area. To our knowledge, no study has yet proposed a model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these pollution management strategies. A cost-effectiveness model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, was developed to assess the economic and environmental impacts of various scenarios characterized by a set of production practices, both in the short term and in the long term. The authors discuss the steps and input parameters of the model presented. The proposed model may serve as the basis for identifying an optimal production scenario defined as the scenario with the best incremental cost-effectiveness ratio considering a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold. The WTP, to be estimated based on the gross domestic product of Côte d’Ivoire, represents the opportunity costs associated with selecting the optimal scenario. The current framework can also be applied to other settings facing similar challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0046.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Privacy Policies; NLP; benchmark; general language understanding; domain specialization and generalization
Online: 3 March 2023 (01:10:56 CET)
Benchmarks for general language understanding have been rapidly developing in recent years of NLP research, particularly because of their utility in choosing strong-performing models for practical downstream applications. While benchmarks have been proposed in the legal language domain, virtually no such benchmarks exist for privacy policies despite their increasing importance in modern digital life. This could be explained by privacy policies falling under the legal language domain, but we find evidence to the contrary that motivates a separate benchmark for privacy policies. Consequently, we propose PrivacyGLUE as the first comprehensive benchmark of relevant and high-quality privacy tasks for measuring general language understanding in the privacy language domain. Furthermore, we release performances from multiple transformer language models and perform model-pair agreement analysis to detect tasks where models benefited from domain specialization. Our findings show the importance of in-domain pretraining for privacy policies. We believe PrivacyGLUE can accelerate NLP research and improve general language understanding for humans and AI algorithms in the privacy language domain, thus supporting the adoption and acceptance rates of solutions based on it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Psychosocial impact; anxiety; Covid-19 stressors; policies; public health emergencies; pandemics
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:17:13 CET)
Purpose: A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 was identified as the cause of COVID-19 eventually led to the declaration of Public health emergency of international concern and a pandemic by WHO due to its exponential global spread. Present study was conducted to investigate the impact of second wave of pandemic on mental wellbeing and social behaviors among university students of Pakistan during this crucial period of COVID-19 infection. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was designed to evaluate the psychosocial impact during the current COVID-19 outbreak among the students of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Snowball sampling or chain referral sampling procedure was adopted to recruit the participants in the study. Verbal informed consent was taken from all participants before recruitment in the study irrespective of their gender, age and socioeconomic status. Results: Mental health of university students during COVID-19 epidemic was affected to a varying degree revealing that 26.66% were recorded to have mild, 27.15% moderate and 17.04% suffering from severe anxiety out of total 1029 students. Students who were residing in urban areas with parents and having a steady family income were negatively associated and found protective factors against anxiety. However, having a relative or an acquaintance infected with COVID-19 was an independent risk factor for experienced anxiety. Positively associated factors with the level of anxiety symptoms included economic stressors, effects on daily-life, and academic delays whereas social support was negatively correlated with anxiety in COVID-19 related stressors. Conclusion: Public health emergencies and such pandemic are exerting serious psychological impacts on university students. It is recommended that the higher authorities should plan better policies to reduce this impact for the provision of high quality and timely crisis-oriented psychological services to university students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0329.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: psychosocial; institutional; economic factors; Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE); agricultural policies; Tunisia
Online: 14 April 2023 (02:15:57 CEST)
The SSE seems to be subject to certain paradoxes African countries. The current study attempts to understand the factors that motivate farmers to engage in a SSE organization .The findings reveal that one of the most important pillars of the success of the social and solidarity economy is found in informal solidarity groups. Concerning the locking factors that prevent farmers to engage in initiatives of economy and solidarity organizations, the first reason is related to the negative symbolic representation of cooperatives inherited from the Tunisian institutional history, the memorial trauma of the collectivist experience of the 1960s, followed by the institutional and political factors determining this situation: the weak and inadequate intervention of the Tunisian state before and after the revolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: graduate; employer; competencies; employment; labour market; emigration; economic development; educational policies
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:08:33 CEST)
The quality of an educational system is reflected not only in the instructive performances of the educational actors, but also in the degree in which it ensures an adequate professional integration. The undergraduate of today, the graduate of tomorrow needs an as accurate as possible information regarding the labour market, which cannot be achieved only by individual means, but also by resorting to carrier counselling services. The motivation of this research is closely connected to the improvement of the level of communication between the two aspects – on the one hand the academic one, by its finite products, and the economic one, on the other hand – and the opportunities that the cooperation between the two aspects might offer: adjusting the demand-supply ratio on the labor market and above all, stopping massive emigration of young graduates of higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: social engineering; security countermeasures; security awareness; security policies
Online: 5 July 2022 (03:39:36 CEST)
This research paper describes the social engineering concepts, techniques, and security countermeasures. This research aims to study various social engineering techniques to find the best countermeasures that would help to reduce social engineering attacks.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0542.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Health policies; Finance; Systems Thinking
Online: 20 November 2020 (12:15:32 CET)
The Coronavirus pandemic is a major challenge to human wellbeing; it directly affects health, and indirectly involves the economic, politic and social spheres. This, in turn, is going to have major systemic, worldwide health, social and environmental consequences. In this paper, I will briefly sum up the history of the pandemic, the worldwide diffusion, the major different political reactions, as well as health and political countermeasures, and the economic consequences / evaluations for the future. The aim of this paper is to show and address all the different spheres involved and their relationships. Emphasis will be placed on the paradoxical presence of a large amount of data and the big uncertainty for the future. The outcomes will be briefly analyzed on a healthcare, political and socio-economical level. The point of view is systemic with human beings, institutions and the environment seen as a whole. Systemic thinking allows interdisciplinary research to be decisive in understanding the worldwide reaction to the pandemic. The global response to this crisis is of historical significance, and therefore potentially decisive for the multi-layered future of the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: CBD; planning and design policies; sense of safety
Online: 26 February 2018 (12:07:42 CET)
Planning, development and design policies influence sense of safety of people touse the City centre or Central Business District (CBD) and therefore city centres can becomeactive and vibrant during the day and night. This paper reviews past and present planningpolicies relevant for feeling of personal safety in the context of housing, retail, amenities,street infrastructure, building design and transportation aspects. The past development trendsshow that insignificant attention has been paid to people's sense of safety when using publicspaces, particularly at night, a factor identified important in creating attractive city centressince 1960s. Local plans primarily refer to safety in relation to roads, accessibility andworkability. Local policies also show the dominance of CCTV since the 1990s has becomeubiquitous, but changes to sense of safety in urban spaces now may actually be a betterreflection of planning and design decisions made over the past 20 years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0287.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: agroforestry activities; anthropogenic global warming; conservation policies; forest management; forest products
Online: 23 May 2022 (06:09:21 CEST)
Indigenous trees have great economic potential and ecological benefits for enhancing environmental prosperity, mostly in forestry and the forest products sector in the developing countries of Sub-Sahara Africa. The baobab (Adansonia Digitata L.) is known as the African green jewel in both fruit production and medicinal benefits also remarkable for so many forest products exported across the world. Research conducted in the different Sub-Saharan African sub-regions has shown this iconic tree with a majestic outlook has a priority tree species for local and foreign use and conservation. However, data on the benefits and conservation of baobab trees in Africa, especially the Sub-Saharan countries is limited. This study aimed to assess the predominant geo-graphical distribution of the tree, the indigenous (cultural, socio-economic, ecological, and medical/health) benefits, and the conservation strategies of the baobab resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. The baobab tree's succulent roots, bulbs, branches, fruit, pods, foliage, and petals are all nourishing. Baobab parts have been used for diverse reasons in Africa, some countries of Asia, and Europe for the past two centuries due to their medicinal well-being properties. In addition, the medicinal applications of the plant parts are discussed. Many authors have highlighted the baobab tree as one of the most important trees to be saved and localized in Africa because of its high indigenous usage and commercial worth. Anthropogenic global warming may induce a drop in baobab species, which could inflict negative impacts on African economies. As a result, it's critical to research the species' likely future distribution and develop conservation policies. Literature was consulted for records and availability of this tree in the Western, Central, Eastern, and Southern African species records and it was also analyzed what percentage of the current environment would be appropriate in the future. Recent studies suggested that farmers and the locals be provided free seeds and seedlings to encourage biological rejuvenation to maximize the plant's potential, people should be informed about the additional uses of baobab that have been discovered. Individuals must also be educated on simple sustainable agroforestry activities that can be performed in plant and forest management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: school meals; nutrition policies; food preferences; healthy meals; children; norway; qualitative methods
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:53:50 CET)
School meals can have a key function in promoting children’s health. However, simply providing a free school meal is not a guarantee that pupils will actually eat the food. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes in Oslo The study has a qualitative research design, inspired by grounded theory. Data were collected through interviews with pupils, teachers and parents, and participant observations in two schools participating in a pilot project funded by Oslo Municipality. Line-by-line coding, memo writing and a constant comparative technique were used to analyse the data. One primary school and one lower-secondary school in different districts in Oslo that were implementing two different free school meal models. 39 pupils (5th–10th grade), 15 parents and 12 school employees were included. Four main factors related to pupils’ participation to free school meals emerged from the analysis: the popularity of the food served, the attraction to the nearby shopping centre, social aspects and predictability. To promote pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes, schools need to solve the challenges of balancing between healthy food and popular but often unhealthy food. Children and parents involvement, regularity of the meals provision, a good flow of information and the creation of a friendly eating environment are recommended
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0024.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: ICT skills mismatch, guaranteed minimum wage, SME’s sustainable competitiveness, employment, public policies
Online: 1 April 2019 (14:00:29 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to analyze the real impact of ICT skill mismatch on SME’s sustainable competitiveness in presence of minimum wage guaranteed. As part of public policies – the minimum wage need to maintain a balance between increasing employment and not being a burden for the companies, leading them to bankruptcies, especially in times of disruptive change in which economy have to be more resilient. The rapid progress in information and communication technologies has dramatically redefined the rising unemployment as a result of skills mismatch. This paper aims to understand, on one side if, there is a match between the supply demand of ICT skills and how increasingly powerful digital technologies affect skills, jobs, and the demand for human labour. On the other, if increasing productivity and a fair minimum wage could be an integrated approach in stimulating SME’s in increasing sustainable competitiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0481.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Urban regeneration; housing; capabilities approach; real experiment; redistribution policies
Online: 26 January 2023 (16:07:41 CET)
This work presents the results of an experimental socio-economic study conducted in two shanty towns of Messina as part of a systemic urban regeneration and fight against poverty program called Capacity. The study has shown that the development of a positive attitude towards the future and the confidence in others are associated with the development of the riskiest option, which is the one that can give the highest pay-off. The paper also illustrates the expected and unexpected outcomes of projects for individuals and the community, as well as the economic benefits for the public administration and the society of a strategy that reduces the reliance on social welfare measures as well as the local control exercised by organized crime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0031.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Epidemics; Badging, Pool-testing; Group-testing; ODE model; Policies
Online: 6 April 2022 (05:40:04 CEST)
The ABCDEFG Protocol provides an evolving tool for imposing structure on the flow of Covid infection information obtained from community testing, collective policy and individual compliance. ABCDEFG Protocol could not assume soundness, invariance, symmetry and completeness of the available information and relied on signaling game theory to design solutions that could evolve with the variable narratives, theories, individual utilities and pathogen variants. Thus, ABCDEFG Protocol suggests a novel and a very flexible pool-testing and badging protocol in the context of controlling contagious epidemics and tackling the far-reaching associated challenges, including understanding and evaluating individual and collective risks of returning prior infected individuals to normal society and other economic and social arrangements and interventions to protect against disease. AbCDEFG Proto uses both control theoretic and game theoretic mathematical models that may be centralized (an optimizing policy maker mandates behavior based on estimated models) or decentralized (a strategizing individual selects their behavior based on available asymmetric information). ABCDEFG protocol demonstrates how society can continue to carry out plausible economic activities in addition to controlling the prevalence of a contagious disease by keeping the number of infected people below a desired limit without compromising an individuals' privacy despite the presence of deception and selfishness among people, and limitations of available resources. Different types of badges would come with different restrictions. Badges would be reissued periodically by third-party testing centers via suitably frequent pool testing of samples of the participants. The size of the pools, frequency of tests, and allowable activities for people with a given type of badge would depend on the available resources, the prevalence of the disease, and the efficacy of the equipment used in the tests.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: World Trading signals; Fruits; WTO; Foreign Trade Research; Policies
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:53:54 CEST)
Fruits play an important role in human diet and to maintain better health. Globally, India ranks second in fruits production after China. Grapes, mangoes, bananas and oranges were the selected fruit crops for study purpose. The study period is from 1990 to 2018. The present study analyzed the growth rates, instability and elasticity of export quantity, prices of selected fruit crops from major producing countries in the world and also dealt with the major export destinations of Indian fruits. The results showed that an exporting countries should export grapes to Peru, Spain and Chile; bananas to the Panama, Philippines and Ecuador; mangoes to Italy, Egypt and Australia; and, oranges to Thailand, Philippines and Mexico for generating higher revenue because in global market those countries were associated with highest export price with the stability. Globally, the export price elasticity was inelastic in all countries of grapes, oranges and bananas except Italy in oranges and panama in bananas. The study found that export price elasticity of mangoes was marginally higher in the Spain and the Netherlands. The study showed that the major destinations for Indian fruits are; USA, Germany and Netherlands for grapes; USA, Belgium and Germany for bananas; USA, the Netherlands and Viet Nam for mangoes; and, Germany, France and Netherlands for oranges. Globally, the current study gave useful data to comprehend competition of prices for fruits to importing countries. This study may assist in preparing major price strategies and policies on fruits and also assisted in foreign earnings for all nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0744.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sustainable economic policy; sustainable economic growth; economic policies; technology.
Online: 31 October 2018 (09:12:00 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which traditional economic policies can be oriented by sound practices. It is becoming widely accepted that sustainable economic growth (and not only economic growth) is the final target of economic policies; but most economic policies are applied just looking to the short-run without taking in account the long-run perspective. Our aim will be to show how a sustainable economic policy-making would be possible, making compatible the stabilization of the economy in the short-run with a sustainable economic growth in the long-run. We confront the design of economic policies with the 17 goals of the 2030 Agenda. We argue that all sustainable development goals can be attained by the design and implementation of sustainable economic policies. Finally, to illustrate this point we will conduct a simulation exercise to show under which combinations of demand policies technological shocks would promote a path of sustainable growth. Our results will provide a reference framework for a sustainable economic policy-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Public Housing; Housing Affordability; Global Cities; Subsidized Ownership; Demand-Side Policies; Social-Welfare
Online: 11 January 2021 (14:35:49 CET)
Affordable Housing, the basic human necessity has now become a critical problem in global cities with direct impacts on people's well-being. While a well-functioning housing market may augment the economic efficiency and productivity of a city, it may trigger housing affordability issues leading crucial economic and political crises side by side if not handled properly. In global cities e.g. Singapore and Hong Kong where affordable housing for all has become one of the greatest concerns of the Government, this issue can be tackled capably by the provision of public housing. In Singapore, nearly 90% of the total population lives in public housing including public rental and subsidized ownership, whereas the figure tally only about 45% in Hong Kong. Hence this study is an effort to scrutinizing the key drivers of success in affordable public housing through following a qualitative case study based research methodological approach to present successful experience and insight from different socio-economic and geo-political context. As a major intervention, this research has clinched that, housing affordability should be backed up by demand-side policies aiming to help occupants and proprietors to grow financial capacity e.g. subsidized rental and subsidized ownership can be an integral part of the public housing system to improve housing affordability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0730.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Prospective analysis; strategic actors; scenarios; objectives; policies; phosphate extraction; mining project; rural communities
Online: 28 April 2021 (07:47:34 CEST)
Followed by the aspect of respect for rights 20, the social and environmental issue has a score of 19.9, the dialogue issue is 19. In short, the proximity plan indicates that the policies used regarding the issue of generating employment and economic growth (Empresa Mantaro Perú SAC), continue to be the strategic variables in the first instance, but they are far from the social actors (rural communities of Aco, Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín environmental dialogue table) and Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor from the Archbishop of Huancayo referred to communication is one of the driving variables of power. The proximity plan shows us that the policies used regarding the issue of generating employment and economic growth (Empresa Mantaro Perú SAC), continue to be the strategic variables in the first instance, but that they are far from the social actors (Rural Communities of Aco , Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor from the Archbishop of Huancayo referred to communication is one of the driving variables of power. The proximity plan shows us that the policies used regarding the issue of generating employment and economic growth (Empresa Mantaro Perú SAC), continue to be the strategic variables in the first instance, but that they are far from the social actors (Rural Communities of Aco , Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor from the Archbishop of Huancayo referred to communication is one of the driving variables of power. but they are far from the social actors (rural communities of Aco, Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and the Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are closer together today. The actor from the Archbishopric of Huancayo referred to communication, is within the driving variables of power. but they are far from the social actors (rural communities of Aco, Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and the Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor of the Archbishopric of Huancayo referred to communication, is within the driving variables of power.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Canada; Pandemic; Stress; Policies; Kübler-Ross Change curve
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:10:08 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic in March 2020, which led to the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions that had inadvertent physical, mental and social effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences and responses of Canadians to these interventions on Twitter using the Kübler-Ross Change Curve (KRCC) during the first six months of the pandemic. Tweets were analyzed using sentiment analysis, thematic content analysis and KRCC. The findings highlight that many Canadians attempted to adapt to the changes but had a predominantly negative outlook on policies due to the financial and social repercussions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0425.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; Restriction policies; Air pollution; Environmental science; Sustainability.
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:06:26 CEST)
The goal of this study is to develop a global analysis, based on data from 2015 to 2022, that clarifies the impact of containment policies (e.g., lockdown and quarantine) for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) on the air pollution between countries of different continents. In this context, average changes of CO, NO2, SO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations based on measurements at ground level in January, February, and March for 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022 are compared with average values of 2015-2018 period between 300 cities of 19 countries in 5 continents. Results show that the maximum reduction in pollutant concentrations during this period is given by: CO (-4,367.5%) in France, NO2 (-150.5%) in China and Australia, SO2 (-154.1%) in Israel, O3 (-94.1%) in China, PM2.5 (-41.4%) in Germany and PM10 (-157.4%) in Turkey. Findings reveal that the effects of containment policies on air quality vary significantly between countries depending on different geographical characteristics of regions. This study has main environmental policy implications because it clarifies the critical role of severe control measure to reduce air pollution and support sustainable environment and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Social vulnerability; Public policies in coastal fisheries; Gulf of Ulloa
Online: 14 July 2022 (04:08:32 CEST)
The social vulnerability approach (SV) has set up that social inequalities and disadvantages have gone beyond monetary poverty in the last years, since the process is built at different scales. In its objectives, the SV multidimensional measurement is contemplated as a priority tool to monitor the compliance of the first goal – eliminate poverty in all its forms. Therefore, the objective of this research is to calculate the SV of the fishing communities of the Gulf of Ulloa (GU), Mexico by macro-markers to subsequently contrast them with field micro-data, and finally perform a behavior scenario, considering the current public policies restrictive to fishing in such areas. The results showed significant differences depending on the type of information used, obtaining a contingency coefficient of 83.42%, which indicates that the calculus depends strongly on the data used and suggesting that macro-data may be masking the true SV values in the area, in such a way they could be severely underestimated. Even though the context at micro-scale is not the only one, SV should be calculated to analyze the fishing communities since coastal fishery represents almost the total livelihood of the inhabitants. Nevertheless, these communities confront numerous local and global threats, and these pressures on SV put their livelihoods, well-being, food security and traditional lifestyle at risk. Therefore, the role of researching human dimensions and governance is not only basic but also urgent to turn to sustainable socioeconomic management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: water management; planning; water resources; water sustainability policies; water laws
Online: 4 September 2019 (03:37:23 CEST)
The growing need for water has pressured society and governments to focus more on preservation, planning and management of this natural resource, in which is fundamental to ecosystems and especially to humans. In this sense, the goal of this study was to analyze the national policy of water resources in Brazil and Italy, figuring out aspects that could promote its improvement, aiming at the preservation of water sources, guaranteeing satisfactory quantity and quality. They were carried out in 2019 by the environmental agencies of both countries, listing the main disciplinary regulations. The results show that although they are countries with different realities, they resemble similarities in managerial aspects of water resources, with legislation addressing qualitative and quantitative aspects of water, with guiding principles, instruments and actions aimed at the defence of this natural resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0292.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: scenarios; world views; values; policies; models and modes of science
Online: 22 May 2018 (08:26:23 CEST)
In situations of uncertainty, scenarios serve as input for evidence-based decision making. However, past experience shows that not all scenarios are treated equally, and we hypothise that only those based ion a world view shared by decision makers are perceived as credible and receive full attention. While intuitively plausible, this hypothesis has not been analysed by quantitative correlation analyses, so instead of drawing on quantitative data the paper analyses the archetypical scenarios developed in the ALARM project to substantiate the plausibility by a comparative analysis of world views, value systems and policy orientations. Shock scenarios are identified as a means to explore the possibility space of future developments beyond the linear developments models and most scenario storylines suggest. The analysis shows that the typical scenarios are based on mutually exclusive assumptions. In conclusion, a comparison of storyline and empirical data can reveal misperceptions, policy failures and the need to rethink world views as a necessary step to open up to new challenges. Deeply held beliefs will make this a transition unlikely to happen without severs crises, if not dedicated efforts to reveal the role of world views for scenarios and policies are undertaken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0100.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biodiversity; climate change; climate refugia; forest conservation policies; forest conversion
Online: 3 August 2017 (06:11:35 CEST)
A scenario-based approach to the impacts of land use and climate change can help in identifying future policy directions. This study models the impacts of different land use and climate change scenarios on the forest ecosystems of South Korea to identify national-scale forest policy options. Climatically suitable forest areas for 1,031 climate vulnerable plant species were identified for current time and for 2050. We calculated change in species richness under four climate projections. We built forest conversion models and created four 2050 forest scenarios: (1) forest loss continues at current rates; (2) similar loss, but with conservation in areas with suitable future climates; (3) a reduction of loss by 50%; and (4) a combination of preservation and overall reduction of loss by 50%. We then crossed the forest conversion models with the climate-driven change in species richness, and categorized current forest areas into four classes to offer forest policy alternatives. By deploying the scenarios which preserve climatically suitable forests, the average species richness where forests converting to other land uses reduced significantly. We suggest conserving forests with suitable climates for biodiversity conservation and the establishment of forest plantations targeted to areas where species richness will decline based on our results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Urban Development Plans; Climate Change; Adaptation and Mitigation Policies; Tehran Metropolis
Online: 21 May 2021 (07:53:50 CEST)
Climate change has emerged as one of the defining issues of the early 21st century. It is now more certain than ever and poses a serious threat to sustainable urban development. Climate change has many destructive effects on cities. Land subsidence, rising air pollutants, severe storms, dust and water scarcity are just some effects of this phenomenon in the urban area of Tehran. Urban management must be prepared to deal with these effects and adopt policies to mitigate and adapt to climate change. One of these tools in urban planning is urban development plans. The plans can have a great impact on controlling and counteracting with the effects of climate change. In this research, using content analysis method, 6 dimensions and 31 indicators have been used to evaluate 8 city and region development plans of Tehran from the view of reflecting the effects of climate change. Indicators were scored after studying the content of the plans. Findings indicate that among the reviewed plans, the second and third five-year development plans of Tehran with 61.9% and 61.3% as the highest rate and plan to reduce air pollution in Tehran and the transportation master plan with 20.6% and 23.2%, respectively have the least attention to the effects of climate change. Also, among the indicators, the urban transportation sector with 54.3% as the highest and the energy sector with 20.5% have the least attention to mitigation and adaptation policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0243.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Political Economy; Economic Policies; European Green Deal; Recovery Plan; Green Jobs; Wellbeing Economics; Tourism & Hospitality Sector
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:20:01 CEST)
This is a paper on Political Economic and Economic Policies into the European Green Deal framework and the Spanish recovery plan, with special attention to the tourism sector. First, there is a literature review, combining the scientific production with professional and institutional literature, to understand the topic development, from the former restrictive point to the current view at large. Second, it is offered a case study about the green jobs opportunity, according to wellbeing economics, for the Spanish tourism sector renewal. The paper provides valuable information to improve sectorial recovery plan, to coordinate the policymakers and the business managers and entrepreneurs.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: universal basic income (UBI); labour supply; inequality; poverty; sustainability of social policies
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:33:41 CEST)
The objective of this article is to determine as conclusively as possible if the implementation of a UBI (universal basic income) would lead to a significant reduction in the working age population labour supply. If this were true, implementation of a UBI would be unsustainable. To do this, we will compile empirical evidence from studies over the last few decades on the effects of implementation of a UBI on employment. We apply the PRISMA methodology to better judge their validity, which ensures maximum reliability of the results by avoiding biases and making the work reproducible. Given that the methodologies used in these studies are diverse, they are reviewed to contextualize the results taking into account the possible limitations detected in these methodologies. While many authors have been writing about this issue citing experiences or experiments, the added value of this article is that it performs a systematic review following a widely tested scientific methodology. Over 1,200 documents that discuss the UBI/employment relationship have been reviewed. We found a total of 50 empirical cases, of which 18 were selected, and 38 studies with contrasted empirical evidence on this relationship. The results speak for themselves: despite a detailed search, we have not found any evidence of a significant reduction in labour supply; instead we found evidence that labour supply increases globally among adults, men and women, young and old; and the existence of some insignificant and functional reductions to the system such as a decrease in workers from the following categories: children, the elderly, the sick, those with disabilities, women with young children to look after, or young people who continued studying. These reductions do not reduce overall supply because it is largely offset by increased supply from other members of the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Fair and sustainable well-being; rural area; complementarities; policies multidimensionality; terri-torial differentials
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:06:31 CET)
Predominantly rural areas make up half of Europe and account for about 20 per cent of the population. Yet most of them are among the least privileged regions in the European Union, with a GDP per capita significantly below the European average and with an average population age higher than in urban areas, although this gap will only slowly begin to narrow in the next decade. Together with a lack of connectivity, inadequate infrastructure, lack of diversified job opportunities and limited access to services, this makes rural areas a less attractive place to live and work. At the same time, however, rural areas actively participate in the EU's green and digital transition. Achieving the EU's digital goals for 2030 can offer more opportunities for the sustainable development of rural areas in areas other than agriculture, livestock and forestry, opening up new perspectives for the growth of manufacturing and, even more, service industries, and contributing to a better geographical distribution of services and industries. In this context, the objective of this work is the construction of a synthetic index of the welfare of European nations, through the Wroclaw taxonomic method and through the use of logit models, for the identification of best practices of local realities and the interpretation in a more im-mediated way of the fair and sustainable welfare of each European nation at a rural level
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: androgens; athletic performance; cross-hormone therapy; gender dysphoria; muscle; sex hormones; sporting policies; strength; transgender men; transgender women
Online: 13 May 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
Sex dimorphism starts during early embryogenesis and is further manifested in response to hormones during puberty. As this leads to physical divergence that is measurably different between sexes, males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. While this advantage is the underlying basis of the segregation into male and female sporting categories, these sex-based categories do not account for transgender persons who experience incongruence between their biological sex and their experienced gender identity. Accordingly, the International Olympic Committee determined criteria by which a transgender woman may be eligible to compete in the female category, requiring total serum testosterone levels to be suppressed below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to and during competition. Whether this regulation removes the male performance advantage has not been collectively scrutinized. Here, we aim to review how differences in biological characteristics between biological males and females affect sporting performance and assess whether evidence exists to support the assumption that testosterone suppression in transgender women removes the male performance advantage. In this review, we report that the performance gap between males and females amounts to 10-50% depending on sport. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and strength, particularly in the upper body. Longitudinal studies examining the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 1 year of treatment. Thus, current evidence shows that the biological advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is suppressed. Sports organizations may therefore be compelled to reassess current policies regarding participation of transgender women in the female category of sport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Religion; migration; Political Economy; demographic economic policies; sanctuary movement; persecution; civil disobedience; The United States of America (USA/US).
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:27:59 CEST)
This is a study of Political Economy on religion and migration management in the United States of America (USA). This paper offers a review of migrants-citizens relations in the USA, with attention to the pendulum effect, moving from integration policies (open doors and melting pot agenda) to official persecution (raids and deportations), with a high social opportunity cost. There has been a split between the State and civil society, causing civil disobedience and sanctuary network across the country. Also, it is paid attention to the American post-modern paradox, as a result of culture wars and identity politics that imply a violation of American constitutional principles (i.e. religious liberty, freedom of movement, to pursuit the happiness). Special attention is paid to the development of the Sanctuary Movement, as an ongoing example of the sociocultural upheaval bringing grassroots society into confrontation with powerful elites by promoting resistance and offering help to the needy, even if this results in sanctions. This movement was revitalized after the values crisis of 2008, but it has also been polarized between those who follow the traditional approach to socio-religious action in the form of peaceful civil disobedience, and those who follow the ideological anti-system and communitarian approach, which causes greater tension for the immigrants themselves
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: proactive policies; land protection; inter-generational solidarity; land sustainability; economic valuation; imputed preferences; imputed expenses; gis; cost-benefit analysis, social discount rate
Online: 31 October 2017 (02:47:04 CET)
Although floods, as well as other natural disasters, can be considered relevant causes of intra-generational inequalities, the frequent catastrophes and the resulting damages to territory reflect the generalized indifference about inter-generational justice. Societal concerns, such as land protection, typically involve the administrative system performing proactive policies in the perspective of inter-generational solidarity, but subsidiarity has made more and more independent the local communities. As a consequence, the attention toward the long run effects – typically concerning the territorial system, as a whole, at the geographical scale – has been dispersed, and the proactive policies coming from the central government has became more ineffective. Regarding the case of the flood happened in 2009 in the Fiumedinisi-Capo Peloro hydraulic basin, in the northeastern part of Sicily, Italy, we propose an economic valuation – carried out by performing the method of the imputed preferences – in order to compare the expenses incurred by the public authorities responsible for protecting the territory to the costs of the rehabilitation of the damaged areas. Some considerations about the economic significance of the proactive policies for the arrangement of territory are addressed according to the role played by the social discount rate in the inter-temporal economic calculation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1847.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: ship emissions; air pollution; ship emission control policies; emission reduction; non-cooperative game; green shipping; low sulfur fuel
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:29:39 CEST)
To accomplish IMO's emissions reduction targets, the Chinese government has established emission control areas and implemented strict sulfur limitation policies. Faced with the downturn in the shipping industry and the challenge of insufficient supply of compliant fuel, Hong Kong and Shenzhen in China have implemented different low-sulfur fuel subsidy policies. Therefore, it is particularly important to study the air pollution control mechanism considering low sulfur fuel subsidy policy. Firstly, the non-cooperative game models considering low-sulfur fuel subsidies are constructed. Secondly, the mechanisms of various factors affecting port pricing, throughput and profit are analyzed. Then, a case study is conducted by using AIS data of container ships in Shanghai Port and Ningbo Zhoushan Port. The study reveals that whether the container service price of the leader port increases or decreases, the follower port always take corresponding follow-up measures. In both sequential and simultaneous game, the profit difference of the leader port is positively related to the subsidy ratio of the port’s own and negatively related to the coefficient of the competitor's subsidy. In conclusion, the low-sulfur fuel subsidy policy has a significant positive impact on the step-by-step implementation of more stringent pollution reduction policies in port waters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0227.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: optimal parking occupancy rate; macroscopic traffic and parking model; multiple vehicle types; electric vehicles; cruising-for-parking; parking policies
Online: 18 June 2020 (08:29:48 CEST)
A very high parking occupancy can negatively influence the traffic performance of an area by causing very long cruising times. A very low parking occupancy, on the other hand, is inefficient from a space utilization perspective. Thus, this paper proposes a framework to compute the optimal parking occupancy rate over a given time horizon based on a macroscopic traffic and parking model. This rate is set high enough to ensure an efficient usage of the parking infrastructure. However, it should also guarantee a high likelihood of finding parking in order to eliminate the drivers’ time wasted in cruising for parking and the added congestion it causes. The model outputs are based on small data collection efforts and low computational costs, and they can be generated without complex simulation software using a simple numerical solver. Multiple vehicle types are included into our methodology allowing us to generate insights about the optimal parking occupancy with or without differentiated parking (i.e., parking for specific vehicles, such as fuel and electric vehicles). In times of a modal shift towards electric vehicles, cities can use our model to evaluate how much parking supply (with battery charging opportunities) they would like to dedicate to electric vehicles in order to achieve optimal traffic and parking results, and whether a differentiated or semi-differentiated parking policy is desirable. We illustrate our framework in a case study of a central area within the city of Zurich, Switzerland, showing the traffic and parking impacts (e.g., average searching time for parking, total revenue created by parking fees, optimal parking occupancy rate) for different proportions of fuel and electric vehicles in the parking demand and/or supply. Our results confirm that optimal occupancy rates are between and for most realistic scenarios. We then discuss how these rates might change depending on various demand and supply relationships, and according to different parking policies. We show that equal proportions between electric vehicles in the demand and their parking spaces in the supply lead to the best traffic performance in the area. We also provide the tools for cities to analyze their loss in performance if they do not react, e.g., to an increasing demand for electric vehicles over time. Moreover, we illustrate how some of these risks can be mitigated by having more flexible parking policies, e.g., allowing electric vehicles to use parking spaces for fuel vehicles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.