ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0145.v1
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:07:08 CEST)
This research paper aims to unveil the splendor of the diverse architectural heritage of Lahore, one of the most culturally, ethnically and traditionally rich cities in the Indian subcontinent. Lahore is renowned for its Mughal-era grandeurs, British monuments and historic architecture which is meticulously embellished by a unique amalgamation of Islamic, Persian, and Indian architectural styles. The paper discusses some of the most significant historical buildings in Lahore, including the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, and traces their architectural evolution over time.The research also highlights the unprecedented challenges faced by Lahore’s architectural heritage in terms of preservation and its potential by which Lahore could emerge as a tourist attractive city. Due to less proper maintenance, a plethora of Lahore’s historical buildings are deteriorating rapidly. The paper outlines some of the measures that could be taken by the government and NGOs to restore a myriad of these buildings, including the formation of conservation boards and the enforcement of strict laws.Through a detailed and thorough analysis of the structural heritage of Lahore, this research paper calls on the need for greater restoration awareness and appreciation of the city’s mesmerizing historical marvels. The paper concludes that while there are significant challenges in conserving Lahore’s architectural heritage, concerted efforts by the government and the individuals can aid to safeguard these treasures for future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Multi-drug resistance; Tuberculosis; Pakistan
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:24:40 CET)
Introduction Tuberculosis is common in Pakistan. Due to various factors including socioeconomic factors, compliance is poor to anti-tuberculosis drugs, leading to resistance. We aim to determine the prevalence of Multidrug resistance (MDR) tuberculosis in Pakistani population.Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from April 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019, in the Pulmonology department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Culture and sensitivity were assessed using a sputum sample or, in cases of an absent sputum sample, from Broncho alveolar lavage.ResultsApproximately 71.3% percent patients who had tuberculosis were found to be resistant to Isoniazid and around 48.6% did not respond to Rifampin. Multi-drug resistant was found in 29.4% participants.ConclusionMulti-drug resistance tuberculosis is very prevalent in Pakistan, which may increase burden on health care system and may lead to various complications of tuberculosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Malnutrition; association; feeding; practice; infants; Pakistan
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:13:18 CEST)
Breastmilk is the only recommended source of nutrition for infants below six-months of age. However, a significant proportion of children are either on supplemental breastfeeding(SBF) or weaned due to the early introduction of solid/semi-solid/soft food and liquids(SSF) before 6 months of age. There is good evidence that Exclusive Breastfeeding(EBF) in infants below six-months of age protects them from preventable illnesses, including malnutrition. The relationship between infant feeding practices and coexisting forms of malnutrition(CFM) has not yet been explored. This study examined the association of different feeding indicators(continuation of breastfeeding, predominant feeding, and SSF) and feeding practices(EBF, SBF, and complete weaning) with CFM in infants aged below six-months of age in Pakistan. National and regional datasets of Pakistan from the last ten years were retrieved from the Demographic Health Surveys(DHS) and UNICEF data repositories. In Pakistan, 34.5%(n=6131) of infants have some form of malnutrition. Among malnourished infants, 44.7%(~15.4% of the total sample) had a CFM. Continuation of breastfeeding was observed in more than 85% of infants, but less than a quarter were on EBF, and the rest were either SBF(65.4%) or weaned infants(13.7%). Compared to EBF, complete weaning increased the odds of coexistence of underweight with wasting and underweight with both wasting and stunting by 1.96(1.12-3.47) and 2.25(1.16-4.36), respectively. Overall, breastfed children had lower odds of various forms of CFM (compared to non-breastfed), except for the coexistence of stunting with overweight/obesity. Continuation of any breastfeeding protects infants in Pakistan from various types of CFM during the first six months of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: anaesthesia; workforce challenges; qualitative research; Pakistan
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:30:46 CEST)
Global anaesthesia workforce limitations contribute to emigration of skilled anaesthesiologists from lower- to higher-income countries, jeopardizing workforce balance and patient outcomes in Pakistan. This study aims to explore challenges experienced by anaesthesiologists in Punjab, Pakistan’s most populous province, and necessary changes to encourage their retention. We conducted a qualitative study to examine perspectives of anaesthesiologists who chose to serve in Pakistan. We drew data from semi-structured interviews conducted with 25 purposively-sampled consultant anaesthesiologists. We analysed data thematically and distinguished the practice hurdles faced by anaesthesiologists in public and private hospitals of Punjab. The main reasons to work abroad could be broadly categorized under two inductive themes, i.e. practice hurdles in public and private sector. Both had distinct issues which compromised the number and quality of anaesthesia workforce in the country. The key outcomes were workplace security, promotion/incentive issues and gender inequalities in the government sector. The private sector had improper salaries and facilities, anaesthesiologist’s dependency on surgeons for getting work and lack of out-of-theatre practice which minimise the scope and earnings of anaesthesiologist within the country. There is a need to overcome surgeon dependency and hospital manipulation by fixing salary percentages for each surgical case and encouraging direct patient-anaesthesiologist relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Obesity; Garcinia cambogia; Green Coffee; Pakistan
Online: 21 October 2020 (16:52:38 CEST)
Introduction: Various studies have widely documented how weight (being overweight, underweight or obese) plays a significant role in increasing health problems and adversely affects the quality of life. Out of all the weight-related issues, obesity is the number one contributing factor for causing health problems. To overcome this factor, a trial was conducted where a drug 'Lite plus’ (Garcinia Cambogia and Green Coffee bean) was given to a select number of people for a period of three months. Materials and Methods: 'Lite Plus' is a drug which contains Garcinia cambogia 500 mg + Green Coffee Bean Extract 400 mg, with a recommended dosage of 2 tablets/day with or before meals for 3 months. Most of the patients included in our study were females suffering from obesity-related problems such as PCOs and Infertility. During the trial, all patients were given the recommended dosage of 'Lite plus', while those with diabetes had the dose amended accordingly. Results: As a result of this trial, it was found that the use of 'Lite Plus' was very effective in decreasing weight/BMI with continuous use. After 6 weeks, out of the 250 respondents participating in the trial, 232 got a reduction in their BMI, and after 12 weeks (end of the trial), 29 respondents (11.6%) reached the desired level of BMI. Conclusion: Garcinia cambogia and Green Coffee bean are effective and safe in weight reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Pakistan; exponential growth; projection
Online: 29 April 2020 (10:38:30 CEST)
The observed data of COVID-19 progression in Pakistan for first 50 days from the first patient been reported has shown quite an unusual trend which is in opposition to clear exponential spread pattern of any infectious disease. The data of positive cases of 50 days of disease progression has been collected from COVID-19 dashboard of Pakistan and analyzed to see the graphical trend and to forecast the behaviour of disease progression for next 30 days. Mathematical equations regarding exponential growth are used to analyse the disease progression and different possible trajectories are plotted to understand the approximate trend pattern. The possible projections estimated 20k-456k positive cases within 80 days of disease spread in Pakistan. Although, the disease progression pattern is not perfectly exponential, it is still threatening a major fraction of susceptible population and demands effective strategic planning and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0095.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pakistan; Climate change; Rice production; ARDL
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:26:03 CET)
This research paper aims to examine the relationship between CO2, temperature, area, fertilizers and rice production in Pakistan. This study used Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) unit root tests to check the order of integration of each variable. The cointegration analysis with ARDL bounds testing approach is used to examine the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan over time series data from the period 1968 to 2014. The parameter stability test of the model is also checked at the end. The results of estimation show that the important variables of the study are cointegrated demonstrating the presence of long-run association among them. Furthermore, climate change factors, e.g. CO2 and temperature have a long-run and short-run positive effect on the production of rice in Pakistan. This present work is original and it is first time empirically tested the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan. The annual time series data of 47 years enhances the validity of the empirical findings. The most fruitful finding of this research is that rice production in Pakistan is positively influenced by emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 5 percent significance level in both long-run and short-run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0225.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Polio; polio immunization; knowledge and perceptions; Pakistan
Online: 12 April 2023 (02:25:39 CEST)
Pakistan is one of the few countries where poliovirus transmission still persists, despite intensive efforts to eradicate the disease. Adequate vaccination coverage is essential to achieve polio eradication, but misconceptions about polio vaccines have hindered vaccination efforts. To address this issue, we conducted a mixed-methods study to explore knowledge and perceptions regarding polio disease and immunization in high-risk areas of Pakistan. We collected quantitative data from 3780, 1258, and 2100 households in Karachi, Bajaur, and Pishin, respectively, and supplemented this with qualitative data from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Our findings reveal a high level of awareness about polio and its immunization; however, misperceptions about the polio vaccine persist, leading to vaccine refusal for both polio and routine immunization. Our study provides up-to-date data on knowledge and perceptions of polio and its immunization and identifies critical gaps. These findings can inform the development of future strategies and innovative approaches to improve the success of the polio program in Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal depression; prognosis; prognostic modeling; nomogram; Pakistan
Online: 10 May 2022 (15:40:48 CEST)
Task sharing approaches are challenged by the barriers fundamental to the use of non-specialists who lack specialist mental health training required to triage the candidates who could benefit from task-shared treatments. However, these challenges could be offset by using standardized and easy-to-implement algorithmic devices (e.g., nomograms) to help with the targeted dissemination of interventions. Therefore, the present investigation posits a prognostic model and a nomogram to predict the prognosis of perinatal depression among women in rural Pakistan. This secondary analysis utilizes data based on 903 pregnant women with depression who participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of the Thinking Healthy Program in rural Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The participants were recruited from 40 union councils in two sub-districts of Rawalpindi and randomly assigned to intervention and enhanced usual care. Sixteen sessions of the THP intervention were delivered by trained community health workers to women with depression over pregnancy and the postnatal period. A trained assessment team used the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-4 current major depressive episode module to diagnose depression at the baseline and post-intervention. The intervention received by the participants emerged as the most significant predictor in the model. Among clinical factors, baseline severity of core-emotional symptoms emerged as an essential predictor, followed by atypical symptoms and insomnia. Higher severity of these symptoms was associated with a poorer prognosis. Other important predictors of a favorable prognosis included living with paternal and maternal grandmothers, financial empowerment, higher socioeconomic class, and living in a joint family system. This prognostic model yielded acceptable discrimination (c-statistic =0.75) and calibration to aid in personalized delivery of psychological treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Newcastle disease; poultry; Pakistan; vaccine; economic affects
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:59:23 CEST)
The poultry industry is affected by many epidemics and Newcastle Disease (ND) is a constant threat, known as a devastating disease for poultry farmers around the world. According to the average death time of chicken embryos, virus strains can be classified as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic. The current research will clarify the vulnerable host range as well as the epidemiology and geographic distribution of ND in Pakistan. The introduction of the virus into poultry can have serious economic consequences, including the loss of production of sick and dying poultry, the cost of control measures (such as population reduction and disinfection measures), and possible trade restrictions in the event of an outbreak. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with sick poultry or carriers. Infected birds can also spread the virus in their feces. It can also be spread through respiratory secretions, contaminated feed, equipment, water, or feces. We will also discuss vaccines that which vaccines are available for NDV in Pakistan and vaccines can fight against this disease or not? In this study, a qualitative risk analysis was carried out to assess Pakistan's vulnerability to the introduction of virulent NDV strains
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0695.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: deoxynivalenol; corn; cultivar; grains; flour; bread; Pakistan
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:15:34 CEST)
The objectives of the current research were to determine the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) in four different cultivars of corn and subsequently to investigate the fate of DON during pro-cessing steps involved for the production of cornbread. The samples (n = 30) of each cultivar which were found positive were selected for the study. The average level of DON was ranged from LOD to 650 µg/kg. The amount of DON in cornflour samples were ranged from LOD to 630 µg/kg and insignificantly lower than the levels found in corn grain samples (p ≥ 0.05). Further-more, the levels of DON in corn dough samples were insignificantly higher than the levels in cornflour samples (p ≥ 0.05), with levels ranged from LOD to 645 µg/kg. However, the amount of DON in cornbread samples was significantly different from the levels found in corn grains sam-ples (p ≤ 0.05), with levels ranged from LOD to 611.5 µg/kg. The percentage reduction of DON in grains to cornbread samples was 22.4%, 35.6%, 44.5%, and 42.6% in type 1, type 2, type 3, and type 4 cultivars, respectively. The highest dietary exposure and hazard quotient (HQ) of DON was 0.13 and 0.17 µg/kg bw/d, in male and female individuals resulted from the consumption of cornbread samples, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0188.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CMIP6; Temperature; Projections; Trends; Pakistan; JJA; DJF
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:30:55 CET)
The present study analyzed seasonal (i.e., Dec-Jan [DJF] and June – August [JJA]) temperature change for the near (2025-2054) and far future (2070-2099) under SSP245, SSP370, and SSP585 scenarios over Pakistan. The anomalies, Mann-Kendall trend tests, Sequential Mann-Kendall trend test (SQMK), and probability density frequency (PDF) analysis were used to investigate future mean temperature variations. The DJF season projected higher increase in temperature in the northern (3.8 oC, 5.1 oC and 6.5 oC), followed by central regions (3.8 oC, 4.9 oC and 6.4 oC) under SSP245, SSP370 and SSP585 scenarios, respectively. The central region is likely to record significant increase in JJA (3.0 oC, 4.4 oC and 5.4 oC) mean temperature in far future under the given SSP scenarios. Compared to historical (PDF), the far future DJF temperature changes revealed significant higher warming over northern, central and then over southern regions under most of SSP scenarios. The southern regions are projected to possible rise in far future JJA temperatures by 2.7 oC, 3.3 oC and 4.3 oC, under SSP245, SSP370 and SSP585, respectively. The PDFs for JJA further verify the highest positive abrupt shift in temperature across the central region and then southern region. The future diverse seasonal temperature changes supports further examination of the associated mechanisms and factors responsible for temperature changes to address climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0480.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: social stigma; tuberculosis; knowledge; stigma measurement; Pakistan
Online: 20 November 2018 (05:14:44 CET)
Tuberculosis (TB) associated stigma is well-documented phenomenon that may contribute to sub-optimal TB care in Pakistan. The objective of study was to assess TB related knowledge and perceived stigma among community members. This was cross-sectional survey using convenience sample of 183 individuals recruited between October and December 2017. A validated stigma measurement tool developed by Van Rie et al. was adapted. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. 183 individuals (73% males; n = 134) participated in survey. Eighty-seven percent were aware that TB is curable disease (n = 159) and 91% thought that it could be transmitted by coughing (n = 167). However, respondents also thought that TB was spread through contaminated food (73%; n = 134), sharing meals (55%; n = 100), sharing utensils (53%; n = 96) and by having sexual intercourse with a TB patient (51%; n = 93). Fifty-seven percent (n = 104) associated TB with high levels of stigma. Persons who had less than six years of education (crude OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.72) and lacked knowledge that TB is curable (crude OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 9.70) were more likely to associate TB with stigma. In addition, females (crude OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.04) and those who were unemployed (crude OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.74) were also more likely to associate TB with stigma. We found an association between lack of knowledge about TB and perceived stigma. This highlights need for improved education and awareness about TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1498.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Floristic composition; Biological Spectrum; Sultan Khail Valley; Pakistan
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:32:26 CEST)
The present study was conducted to explore the floristic composition, life form, and leaf size spectrum of vegetation, seasonality, and habitat condition of the Sultan Khail valley, Hindu Kush range, Pakistan. Regular trips were arranged during 2017–2019 to collect plant specimens and prepare a checklist of the flora of the area. The life form and leaf size spectrum of vegetation were determined. The plant species were also classified based on their habitat. The area is home to 332 species belonging to 234 genera and 96 families. Asteraceae (32 species) was the dominant family in the area, followed by Rosaceae (28 species) and Lamiaceae (21 species). Therophytes were found to be dominant in the area, followed by phanerophytes, while microphylls were the dominant leaf size class, followed by nanophylls. Seasonal variation in life forms showed that the spring, autumn, and winter seasons' flora was dominated by phanerophytes, while therophytes were dominant in the summer season. Seasonal variation in leaf size spectra showed that microphylls were dominant in the spring and summer, while in the autumn and winter seasons, nanophylls were dominant. The highest numbers of species were found in dry places, followed by forests. The flora of the study area is diverse. The habitat condition of the area is dry. The area's phytoclimate is thero-phanerophytic. The flora of the area is subjected to severe anthropogenic stress and needs proper conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1867.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Polio; IPV; OPV; Intestinal Immunity; Humeral Immunity; Pakistan
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:47:53 CEST)
The OPV is the vaccine of choice in polio eradication, especially in developing countries, as it has eliminated the wild poliovirus type 2. However, the immunity induced by IPV is better than that induced by the OPV. The present study compared the mucosal and humoral response to poliovirus vaccines administered to previously OPV-immunized children to assess the immunity gap in children at-risk of high poliovirus transmission. This was a community-based three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial conducted from June 2013 to May 2014 in healthy children under five years of age living in three high-risk districts of Pakistan, i.e., Karachi, Kashmore, and Bajaur. 387 clusters were randomized (131 to arm A, 127 to arm B, and 129 to arm C); however, 360 remained in the trial until the end (116 in arm A, 122 in arm B, and 122 in arm C). These clusters were randomly allocated using a computer algorithm to receive routine polio program (bOPV) activities (control, arm A), additional interventions with community mobilization and provision of short-term preventive maternal and child health services and routine immunization, including bOPV via health camps, (arm B), or all interventions of arm B with an additional provision of IPV (arm C ~ bOPV and IPV). Blood and stool samples were collected from a sub-sample to estimate humoral and intestinal immunity. Study findings showed that the serum titers were highest in Group C (IPV+OPV) at the baseline for P1, where its increase over time was also more prominent. Titers for P2 and P3 were statistically significantly higher amongst those who had received a routine OPV dose versus those who had not; this was true for all study groups and visits. In populations with high Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) failure rates, administering an Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) booster after a minimum of two OPV doses may effectively bridge immunity gaps. The IPV alone offers limited benefits to humoral immunity and doesn't provide intestinal immunity to prevent the infection and propagation of live poliovirus among unexposed populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1206.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Pandemics; Immunization Programs; Poliovirus; Pakistan; World Health Organization
Online: 17 May 2023 (07:58:04 CEST)
Poliomyelitis, commonly known as “polio” is a paralytic and perilous disease caused by the poliovirus. Due to its highly contagious nature, the virus was a challenge to the world in the late 1980s. . Since 1988 the collective work of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) through immunizations, communication awareness, and monitoring have helped the world exonerate polio. The mission of polio-free Pakistan was herculean and had confronted enormous challenges in different ways but came out with positive results. In 2019, with only two remaining polio-endemic countries, Pakistan and Afghanistan, GPEI launched an “Endgame strategy 2019-2023” which aims to eradicate polio globally, with a targeted focus, especially on polio-endemic countries, the plan emphasizes the early detection of polio cases for complete eradication and to restrict the spread of polio. Pakistan has achieved a milestone in combating polio despite having a web of factors that have thwarted Pakistan’s polio eradication efforts, but this is not the end, the struggle continues until we really get an internationally verified certification of Polio free nation, for this WHO has designed a multidisciplinary strategy 2022-2026 to really end this polio for once and for all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0845.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Menstrual hygiene; knowldge; attitude; practice; Adolescent girls; Pakistan
Online: 11 May 2023 (10:59:48 CEST)
Introduction Menstrual hygiene is a critical issue encountered by women and girls of the reproductive age, which negatively affects their health and empowerment. It is still deemed a taboo in several parts of the world and girls hesitate to discuss menstruation with their family members, friends, or schoolteachers, which creates hurdles when they attain their menarche. Girls residing in rural areas encounter more problems, since they lack proper resources, and knowledge to manage their menstruation in school as well as at home. Methods The descriptive cross-sectional design was used to assess the study questions. The consecutive sampling techniques was applied to recruit 300 female participants from remote area of Gilgit, Pakistan, who were 13- to 22-year-old. A pre-tested questionnaire was utilized to collect the data, and to analyze the data the SPSS version 21.0 was used. Results The study found that more than half of the participants had poor level of knowledge, practices, and negative attitude towards menstrual hygiene. This could be because of many cultural and social taboos attached to menstrual hygiene. Conclusions The study concluded that the study participants were not knowledgeable about menstrual hygiene. They had poor practices and attitude regarding menstrual hygiene. Hence, it is recommended that frequent sessions should be conducted by health care workers to enhance the knowledge of parents, teachers, and young girls, to increase the positive attitude and practices regarding menstrual hygiene. Keywords menstruation, knowledge, attitude, practices, Adolescents
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; 10-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine; Pakistan
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:50:14 CEST)
The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine was introduced in Pakistan’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2013 as a 3+0 schedule without catchup. We conducted three annual cross-sectional surveys from 2014-2016 to measure vaccine-type (VT) carriage in infants from a rural part of Pakistan. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected by random sampling of infants from 2 union councils of Matiari. Samples were then transported to Infectious Disease Research Laboratory (IDRL) at the Aga Khan University within 6-8 hours of collection. Serotypes were established using sequential multiplex PCR. Of the 665 children enrolled across three surveys, 547 were culture positive for pneumococcus. VT carriage decreased from 21·8% in 2014 to 12·7% in 2016 (p-value for trend <0·001). Those who were not vaccinated or partially vaccinated were found to be at higher risk of carrying a VT serotype (aOR 2·53, 95% CI 1·39, 4·63 for non-vaccinated) and (aOR 3·35, 95% CI 1·82, 6·16 for partially vaccinated). On the other hand, being enrolled in the most recent survey was negatively associated with VT-carriage (aOR 0·51, 95% CI 0·28, 0·93). We found that PCV10 was effective in decreasing the carriage of vaccine-type serotypes in Pakistani infants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Pakistan; Rahim Yar Khan; female employment; gender discrimination
Online: 2 October 2019 (10:52:18 CEST)
As a traditional Muslim country, the problem of gender discrimination in employment among women in Pakistan is more common. If we let it develop without taking measures, it will seriously restrict the speed and quality of Pakistan’s domestic economic development in the long run. In this study, the author obtained the first-hand information on the employment status of professional women in the Rahim Yar Khan region of Pakistan through questionnaire survey, supplemented by the public data of the Federal Statistical Office of Pakistan, and combined with the existing research results of the predecessors. Sex discrimination in employment of professional women in Pakistan. Through the collection of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the author found that economic factors are one of the main factors that cause local women to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, it includes the imbalance of labor supply and demand and the pursuit of maximum profits. At the same time, the traditional Muslim culture, women's own literacy and the imperfect legal system in Pakistan are also the key factors that cause female employees in the local area to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Women’s gender discrimination in employment is a universal problem. In any country in the world, gender discrimination may exist as long as women are involved in the work. Based on Pakistan's basic national conditions and relevant professional knowledge, the author provides several suggestions for eliminating the problem of gender discrimination in employment for local female employees in Pakistan. 1) The Pakistani government should further promote the domestic economic growth, increase the number of jobs, and ease the imbalance between the supply and demand of labor. At the same time, encourage self-employment and provide corresponding policy support. A variety of measures are also intended to address local gender discrimination in employment for women. 2) The government's leadership accelerates the transformation of the concept of the whole society. On the one hand, it requires the whole society to correctly understand the social status and social contribution of women, and strives to bring the concept of equality between men and women into the hearts of the people. It is intended to encourage qualified women to go out of the family to participate in social work. At the same time, correctly guide corporate values. Enterprises should not unilaterally pursue the maximization of interests, and should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities. 3) Women should also actively and consciously improve their literacy. Including not only active learning advanced cultural knowledge and professional skills. For the professional skills that have already been mastered, you must study harder and make yourself more and more progressive. At the same time, families should guarantee that girls of the appropriate age receive the education they deserve, so that they can gather their strengths in the workplace in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: corporate life-cycle; bankruptcy risk; financial sustainability; Pakistan
Online: 21 January 2019 (09:10:39 CET)
In this paper we analyze the relationship between bankruptcy risk and the corporate life cycle in Pakistan from 2005 to 2014. For this purpose, we run a Hierarchical Linear Mixed Model (HLM) for a sample of 301 non-financial listed firms in 12 different sectors. The empirical outcomes reveal that firms during introduction, growth and, decline stages (mature stage) of life-cycle experience higher (lower) bankruptcy risk. Moreover, in juxtaposition with growth stage, bankruptcy risk is higher at the introduction stage of life-cycle. These findings suggest that financial managers should be cautious about the financial fragility of the firm at each stage of corporate life-cycle. The results also entail that Pakistani firms do not follow a sequential pattern in their life-cycle rather they have the tendency to revert to a previous stage or jump to the next stage of life-cycle. This is the first study that empirically examines the association between firm life-cycle stage and corresponding bankruptcy risk and asserts that managers must incorporate the life-cycle effects into their financial planning and decision making for sustainable working of an enterprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1060.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Pakistan; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Elimination; Prevalence; Screening; Refugees
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:31:50 CEST)
Hepatitis B and C are major health issues in developing countries such as Pakistan and Afghan-istan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and effectiveness of a screening program for hepatitis B and C in a region with no existing programs, and to estimate their prev-alence in the general population in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, as well as in Afghan refugees or migrants. A retrospective cohort study was done in the general population of Peshawar and its adjacent districts, as well as migrants from neighboring provinces of Afghani-stan, who presented to our tertiary-care health facility. A Microsoft Excel registry was created for data collection, which were analyzed using IBM SPSS via descriptive analysis, normal distribution curve histograms, and chi-squared tests. A total of 9563 individuals were screened for hepatitis (5894 males and 3669 females), including Afghan migrants in Peshawar and surrounding districts. 876 individuals tested positive for hepatitis, with 538 positive for hepatitis B (383 males and 155 females) and 330 positive for hepatitis C (198 males and 134 females). Eight individuals had a hepatitis B and C co-infection. Among the study population, the prevalence rates were 2.2% for hepatitis B and 2.3% for hepatitis C, of which the Afghan migrants accounted for 2.7% and 0.5%, respectively. According to the gender-based distribution, hepatitis B was more prevalent in males, whereas there was no significant gender-based difference for hepatitis C. Our results highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to control hepatitis B and C in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Increased awareness, improved healthcare, and preventive measures such as screening and elimination programs to prevent severe liver diseases and eradicate hepatitis are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1107.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Stunting; determinants; children under five; national nutrition survey; Pakistan
Online: 17 July 2023 (12:05:27 CEST)
Introduction: Child stunting remains a public health concern. It is characterized as poor cognitive and physical development in children due to inadequate nutrition during the first 1,000 days of life. Across South Asia, Pakistan has the second-highest prevalence of stunting. This study has assessed the most recent nationally representative data, the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 2018, to identify the stunting prevalence and determinants among Pakistani children under five. Methods: The NNS 2018, a cross-sectional household-level survey, was used to conduct a secondary analysis. Data on malnutrition, dietary practices, and food insecurity was used to identify the prevalence of stunting among children under five years by demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics. The prevalence of stunting was calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) height for age z-score references. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with child stunting. Results: Analysis showed that out % of 52,602 children under five, 40.0% were found stunted. Male children living in rural areas were more susceptible to stunting. Furthermore, stunting was more prevalent among children whose mothers had no education, were between 20 and 34, and were employed. In the multivariable logistic regression, male children (AOR=1.08, 95% CI[1.04-1.14], P<0.001) from rural areas (AOR=1.07, 95% CI [1.01-1.14], P=0.014), with the presence of diarrhea in the last two weeks (AOR=1.15, 95% CI [1.06-1.25], P<0.001), with mothers who have no education (AOR=1.57, 95% CI [1.42-1.73], P<0.001) or lower levels of education (Primary: AOR=1.35, 95% CI [1.21-1.51], P<0.001; Middle: AOR=1.29, 95% CI [1.15-1.45], P<0.001) had higher odds of stunting. Younger children aged <6 months (AOR=0.53, 95% CI [0.48-0.58], P<0.001) and 6-23 months (AOR=0.89, 95% CI [0.84-0.94], P<0.001), with mothers aged 35-49 years (AOR=0.78, 95% CI [0.66-0.92], P=0.003) had lower odds of stunting. At the household level, the odds of child stunting were higher in the poorest households (AOR=1.64, 95% CI [1.46-1.83], P<0.001), with ≥7 members (AOR=1.09, 95% CI [1.04-1.15], P<0.001), with no access to improved sanitation facilities (AOR=1.14, 95% CI [1.06-1.22], P<0.001) and experiencing severe food insecurity (AOR=1.07, 95% CI [1.01-1.14], P=0.02). Conclusion: Child stunting in Pakistan is strongly associated with various factors, including gender, age, diarrhea, residence, maternal age and education, household size, food and wealth status, and access to sanitation. To address this, interventions must be introduced to make locally available food and nutritious supplements more affordable, improve access to safe water and sanitation, and promote female education for long-term reduction in stunting rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0218.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Deccan basalts; Indus Basin (Pakistan); Seismic interpretation; Hydrocarbon potential
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:43:59 CEST)
Due to the use of structural and seismic techniques an attempt has been made in this study to determine the hydrocarbon potential and future exploration in Pakistan's Lower Indus basin area and offshore region. In addition to the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulation, the major goals of this research are to analyze structural patterns in the subsurface of the study region, identify the horizons of various formations using surface seismic, and interpret seismic lines. Seismic data has been used to find and integrate the exposed Cretaceous/Tertiary basalt at Ranikot in the lower Indus basin to the well-known Deccan basalts of the Indo-Pak plate, which is the secondary goal of the current investigation. According to the interpretation of seismic data, the Indo-Pakistan plate has experienced rifting because of tectonic activity. Graben and horst structures have been identified in the study area horizon, which indicates that the area has undergone major structural and depositional changes. While faults provide a pathway for hydrocarbons to migrate from their source to reservoir rock, grabens are principally responsible for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. We further deduce that the prior exploration failures in the area were due to a lack of knowledge of the subsurface formations and structural trends, which are essential for characterizing the hydrocarbon play and trap features. Our results can be productive for the local hydrocarbon drilling projects as well as worldwide tectonic stratigraphy studies on passive continental edges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0393.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Drought indices; SPI; RDI; Climate variables; DrinC; Potwar; Pakistan
Online: 26 October 2021 (15:39:16 CEST)
Drought is treated as a key natural disaster that affects numerous segments of the natural environment and economy throughout the world. Drought indices (DIs) were computed for Potwar region (PR) in Punjab-Pakistan, using DrinC software which are deciles, Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). Drought situation of 12, 9, 6 and 3 months was estimated on temporal basis. DIs obtained by deciles technique showed that for the last 39 years, 8-years are with drought severity in a cycle and are occurring every 2 to 7-years just the once repetitively. The RDI and SPI index showed the analogous trends as of deciles. Though, for RDI and SPI, the extremely dry and severely dry class was merely two years and rest of the drought affected years with respect to deciles were normally and intermediately dry. SPI is better as compared to deciles as the severity is better understood in the context of SPI. Regression analysis revealed that the RDI and SPI indices are mutually interrelated and if first 3 month precipitation is obtainable one can forecast yearly RDI. This investigation is valuable to devise future development plans to contest vulnerable drought incidents, its mitigation and impacts on socio-economic sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0117.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Public Art; Cultural identity; Islamic society; Art history; Pakistan.
Online: 18 February 2018 (13:16:07 CET)
The significance of arts incorporated with culture inclusion makes the arts a matter of pressing interest. The arts are vital elements of a healthy society that benefits the nations even in difficult social and economic times. Based on the previous studies this research was conducted for the first time in Pakistan to explore the historical background of public art correlated with cultural and religious ethics. Though, Pakistan has a rich cultural history yet the role of modern public art is new and often used unintentionally. Our findings of different surveys conducted in Pakistan including oldest cities such as Lahore, Peshawar and newly developed, the capital city, Islamabad concluded that Public art has a rich cultural and historical background and the local community are enthusiastically connected to it. Different community groups prefer different types of public art in their surroundings depends on the city’s profile, cultural background, and religious mindset of the local community. Overall, the sculptures and depiction of animated beings are not considering right and debatable among the Pakistani societies. On the other hand, the cultural and historical monuments are highly appreciated and welcomed by the local community of Pakistan. This study may create scope for future estimation and development of public art in Pakistan in association with Islamic laws and cultural norms of the local society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0259.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: prediction; risk factors; falls risk; Muslim; community-dwelling; elders; Pakistan
Online: 4 May 2023 (10:38:49 CEST)
Falls are the third-leading cause of disabilities among the elderly population worldwide. In Pakistan, the prevalence is 44%; out of them, 8% develop injuries, placing them at high risk for hospitalization or even premature death. Interestingly, fall is multifactorial, and fall risk depends on individual characteristics (intrinsic factors) and environmental features (extrinsic factors), which can be different from context to context. Therefore, regular assessment of fall risk factors is required to develop a strategy for fall prevention. This study aimed to identify intrinsic risk factors for falls in Pakistani elders living in the communities, and provide evidence for preventive strategies of falls in elderlies. Data were collected from 140 Muslim elders from two residential areas of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, from July 2022 to August 25, 2022, after taking permission from Zhengzhou University Ethical Review Board (ZUIRB #202254), and District Health Department Office (DHO #14207).Participants were informed and concern was taken before collect data. Data were collected using the Time Up and Go Test (TUGT), the Mini-Mental Status Examination, and interviews regarding the prayer practice. Factors associated with falls were; age, gender, education, cognitive status, TUGT level, incorrect prayer postures, poor vision, and history of falls with a significance of (P.<0.05). Poor cognition, low vision, poor walking speed, and prayers without body movements have good membership with falls risk prediction as (P<0.005) in Omnibus, Lemeshow score (0.77). Hence, our study provides a road map for future risk assessment for falls by adding the four mentioned risk factors as offered in the proposed model to facilitate taking timely action to prevent fall-related ailments in Pakistani elders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0402.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; One Health; poultry; poultry farmers; antibiotic use; Pakistan
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:33:42 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to community carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is highly prevalent in the WHO South-East Asia region. One of the major reasons is the misuse of antibiotics in animal farming practices and at community level, which threatens both human and animal health. However, this multifaceted One Health (OH) problem of antibiotic use (ABU) in poultry farms and respective farmers is not well studied in countries like Pakistan. Therefore, we conducted n OH cross-sectional study in rural Punjab to explore the current practices of ABU in poultry and poultry farmers, associated factors, their healthcare-seeking behaviour and biosecurity practices. We found all the participating farmers using antibiotics for poultry, 60% of which were Colistin sulphate and Amoxicillin trihydrate. The significant consumption of antibiotics in poultry farms (60%) and poultry farmers (50%) was without prescription. Most of the farms (85%) had no wastewater drainage system, causing direct shedding of poultry waste and antibiotic residue in the surrounding environment. Lack of farmers’ education, professional farm training and duration of farming experience were the significantly associated factors with ABU and knowledge of AMR. Our study implies the necessity of an integrated OH-AMR policy with the inclusion of farmers’ education, mass awareness, and strict antibiotic usage guidelines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Coronaviruses; COVID-19; Pakistan; current situation; human physiology; diagnosis; treatment
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:59:45 CEST)
Coronavirus that is also known as COVID-19 disease is produced by SARSCoV-2. This causative agent is highly contagious and can cause potentially fatal pneumonia worldwide with serious public health concerns. In the beginning among infected individuals, most of them were those who were mainly shown to the wet animal market in a big city of China known as Wuhan. So, it was suggested that this was almost certainly the zoonotic source of COVID-19illness. The transitional source of origin and their mode of transmission to humans were not known obviously. Conversely, from human to human rapidly transformation have been confirmed generally. Currently, there is no availability of FDA approved clinically antiviral drugs and/or vaccines to be used against the COVID-19. Afterward, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 has been manifested as the third sketch of an enormously pathogenic coronavirus into human population globally. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the history of COVID-19 in Pakistan up-to 18th weeks after beginning, current situation, epidemiology, and its impact on the human population. Moreover, we focused on physiological variation during the incubation period, genome analysis of SARS-CoV2, supportive treatment approaches, and safety measures in the Pakistani population, which may be supportive for combating the risk of COVID-19 epidemic. We also reviewed the future approaches for the development of therapeutic interventions and vaccines to cope with the COVID-19 epidemic.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19, Pakistan, Economic Losses, Disease Spread, SARS-CoV-2
Online: 1 April 2020 (09:19:30 CEST)
As of 26 March 2020, Pakistan had 1179 cases of COVID-19, with most 421 cases from Sindh, 394 cases, 131 cases, 123 cases, 84 cases, 25 cases and 01 cases from Punjab, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Gilgit-Baltistan, Islamabad Capital Territory, and Azad Jammu and Kashmir respectively. Travel-related cases were the main source of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the early phase of the pandemic in Pakistan. Nevertheless, cases of local virus transmission are increasing day by day. As of 26 March 2020, nine deaths have been reported from COVID-19. The case fatality rate is 0.8%, which is less compare to China, Italy, USA, and Iran. The SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) model of epidemiological analysis predicts that almost 90 million population will be infected in the coming days with 5% critical cases that need health care facilities. However, the Pakistan health care system cannot provide services to this much population. Hence, we need to act timely to reduce this number by restricting local transmission of the disease. This can be done by mass testing, quarantine, isolation and social distancing of the active coronavirus cases in Pakistan. Moreover, better communication between the authorities is very much required to control disease transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0291.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Pakistan; bajra; barley; jowar; crops production; agricultural gross domestic product
Online: 24 May 2019 (09:02:30 CEST)
This paper investigates and explores the minor crops production in Pakistan and its association with the agricultural gross domestic product. The agriculture sector of Pakistan has a rich contribution to the economic growth and development. Like major crops; minor crops also have a vital role to boost up the agriculture sector. Time span data was used in this study and it was collected from the Economy Survey of Pakistan annual reports. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was used to analyze the data and results were interpreted by employing the Johansen co-integration test. Study results reveal that bajra, barely and jowar has a significant impact on the agricultural gross domestic product, while the total cropped area has a negative impact on AGDP. On the basis of the study results, we recommend the policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0344.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Landsat8; multi-temporal; crops statistics; land use land cover; Pakistan
Online: 21 August 2018 (12:25:17 CEST)
Developing countries like Pakistan is among those where lack of adoption to science and technology advancement is a major constraint for Satellite Remote Sensing use in crops and land use land cover digital information generation. Exponential rise in country population, increased food demand, limiting natural resources coupled with migration of rural community to urban areas had further led to skewed official statistics. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the possible use of freely available satellite data like Landsat8 under complex cropping system of Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. An Integrated approach has been developed for the satellite data based crops and land use/cover spatial area estimation. The resultant quality was found above 96% with Kappa statistics of 0.95. Land utilization statistics provided detail information about cropping patterns as well as land use land cover status. Rice was recorded as most dominating crop in term of cultivation area of around 0.165 million ha followed by autumn maize 0.074 million ha, Fallow crop fields 0.067 million ha and Sorghum 0.047 million ha. Other minor crops observed were potato, fodder and cotton being cultivated on less than 0.010 million ha. Population settlements were observed over an area of around 0.081 million ha of land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0405.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Balochistan; Bias correction; CORDEX‐SA; droughts; Pakistan; standardized precipitation index (SPI)
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:35:09 CEST)
Water resources planners and policymakers often ask questions about the future projections of drought characteristics (events, intensity, severity, duration, and peak) under different climatic scenarios. This study focused on quantifying the historical (1951-2005) and future (2026-2100) drought characteristics using the Standardized precipitation index (SPI) under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate scenarios for the Balochistan province of Pakistan, an arid and drought-vulnerable region. Precipitation data of MPI-ESM-LR_RCA4 RCM was obtained from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment South Asia (CORDEX-SA). The CORDEX-SA data was interpolated at 12-gauge stations and bias-corrected by the distribution mapping method using Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation (APHRODITE) data. The drought characteristics were calculated based on standardized precipitation index (SPI), and intercompared between northern Balochistan (NB) and southern Balochistan (SB). It was found that the northern Balochistan (NB) region has suffered more droughts in the historical period and is also projected to have more severe and intense droughts than SB region. It was also found that with the increase of drought events, the duration reduces, which means that the higher the drought events at a station, the lower the drought duration. Government officials should focus more on managing the already few freshwater resources sustainably, given the increased likelihood of droughts in Balochistan due to climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0703.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Cytochrome P450 (CYP450); Pharmacogenetics; CYP2C9*2 Allele; sulphonylurea; hypoglycaemia; Pashtun; Pakistan
Online: 11 July 2023 (11:57:32 CEST)
Polymorphism in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 enzyme is known to cause significant inter-individual differences in drug response and occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Different alleles of the CYP2C9 gene have been identified but the notable alleles responsible for reduced enzyme activity are CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. No pharmacogenetic data is available on CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles in Pakistani population. In Pakistan pharmacogenetics which examines the relationship between genetic factors and drug response, are in the early stages of development. We for the first time investigated the association between the CYP2C9 variant alleles CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 and the incidence of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients who were receiving the sulfonylurea medications. A total of n=400 individuals of Pashtun ethnicity were recruited from ten different districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to participate in the study. The study participants were divided into two distinct groups: the case group (n=200) and the control group (n=200). The case group consisted of individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) who were receiving sulfonylurea medications and experience hypoglycaemia with it whereas the control group included individuals with T2DM who were receiving sulfonylurea medication but did not experience sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia (SIH). Blood samples were obtained from study participants following informed consent. DNA was isolated from whole blood samples using Wiz-Prep DNA extraction kit. Following DNA isolation, CYP2C9 alleles were genotyped using MassARRAY sequencing platform at centre of genomics Rehman Medical Institute (RMI). The frequency of CYP2C9*2 (low activity allele) was more frequent in the diabetic patients with sulphonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia (SIH) compared to the control group (17.5% vs. 6.0%, p=0.021). The frequency of its corresponding genotype CYP2C9*1/*2 was higher in cases compared to control group (10% vs. 6% with P=0.036), same was true for genotype CYP2C9*2/*2 (7% vs. 3.5 % with P=0.028). Logistic regression analysis evident potential association of CYP2C9*2 allele and its genotypes with SIH. When adjusted for confounding factors such age, weight, sex, daily dose of sulphonylurea and triglyceride level the association between the CYP2C9*2 allele and hypoglycemia remains consistent. Confounding factors played no role in SIH because both groups (cases and controls) were closely matched in term of age, weight, sex, mean daily dose of sulphonylurea and trigyleride levels. Our study suggests that genetic information about a patient's CYP2C9 gene/enzyme can potentially assist physicians in prescribing the most suitable and safest drug based on their genetic make-up.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: maternal mortality; Pakistan; Millenium development goals; sustainable development goals; antenatal care
Online: 30 June 2020 (07:15:28 CEST)
Background: Maternal mortality (MM) is a matter of serious concern in low income developing countries (LDCs). Perspective: A great reduction has been observed regarding the maternal deaths globally after huge efforts since 1990 todate. However, the situation continues to be either stagnant or worsening in developing countries, suggesting that the efforts to cope with this issue are either insufficient or not properly implemented. We need to first diagnose the problem areas that are a great hurdle in the road to success towards the reduction of MM. Postpartum haemorrhage and preeclampsia are one of the most common causes of MM. Malnutrition, neurological dysfunction and cancer are among the non-obstetric causes. Trained medical and paramedical staff can be of great help in this regard by increasing awareness among masses at grass root level. Target set by Millennium Development goal has minimized the MM by 44%. But it has not met the target set by Millenium Development Goals 5 and a lot of measures need to be taken in this regard. Conclusions: Majority of the MDs are preventable and can be avoided by adopting appropriate frameworks, linked data sets, surveillance, birth attendants training, preparation for births, etc. Delay in decision to get healthcare, access to healthcare center and receiving these facilities are the main factors in MM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0438.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: nuclear; detonations; trauma; thermal burn; radiation; fallout; New Delhi; India; Pakistan
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:06:50 CEST)
The human casualties from simulated nuclear detonation scenarios in New Delhi, India are analyzed, with a focus on the distribution of casualties in urban environments and the theoretical application of a nuclear-specific triage system. Model estimates of nuclear war casualties employed ESRI's ArcGIS 9.3, blast and prompt radiation were calculated using the Defense Nuclear Agency's WE program, and fallout radiation was calculated using the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA's) Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) V404SP4, as well as custom GIS and database software applications. ESRI ArcGISTM programs were used to calculate affected populations from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's LandScanTM 2007 Global Population Dataset for areas affected by thermal, blast and radiation data. Trauma, thermal burn, and radiation casualties were thus estimated on a geographic basis for New Delhi, India for single and multiple (six) 25 kiloton (kt) detonations and a single 1 megaton (1000kt) detonation. Major issues related to the emergency management of a nuclear incident are discussed with specific recommendations for improvement. The consequences for health management of thermal burn and radiation patients is the worst, as burn patients require enormous resources to treat, and there will be little to no familiarity with the treatment of radiation victims.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0288.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: eHealth Literacy; digital health literacy; sense of coherence; COVID-19; COVID-HL-Q; Pakistan.
Online: 10 March 2021 (15:07:22 CET)
Amid to the COVID-19 pandemic, digital health literacy (DHL) has become a significant public health concern. This research aims to assess information seeking behavior, as well as the ability to find relevant information and deal with DHL among university students in Pakistan. An online-based cross-sectional survey, using a web-based interviewing technique, was conducted to collect data on DHL. Simple bivariate and multivariate linear regression was performed to assess the association of key characteristics with DHL. The results show a high DHL related to COVID-19 in 54.3% of students. Most of the Pakistani students demonstrated ~50% DHL in all dimensions, except of reliability. Multivariate findings showed that gender, sense of coherence and importance of information were found to be significantly associated with DHL. However, a negative association was observed with students’ satisfaction with information. This led to the conclusion that critical operational and navigations skills are essential to achieve COVID-19 DHL and cope with stress, particularly to promote both personal and community health. Focused interventions and strategies should be designed to enhance DHL amongst university students to combat the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: COVID-19 and Stock Market; Pakistan Stock Market and Pandemic; Financial Markets and Pandemics
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:23:36 CEST)
The objective of this study is to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the performance of Pakistani Stock Market. This study uses the data of COVID-19 related positive cases, fatalities, recovers and the closing prices of PSX 100 index of the first half of 2020. The findings of the study suggest that only COVID-19 recoveries are influencing the performance of the index and the daily positive cases and fatalities are insignificantly related to the performance. Further studies can be performed by incorporating other variables such as economic growth, interest rate and inflation rate along with the COVID-19 related variables at a cross-country level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: anemia; iron deficiency; pregnancy; serum ferritin; mean corpuscular volume (mcv); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); Northern Pakistan
Online: 27 January 2017 (03:46:07 CET)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of anemia in pregnant women of Swat District; to analyze the iron variations and its dietary effects.Data were collected during the periods of January – September 2016. The study of samples comprised of 250 pregnant women in the different trimester. Blood sample from each woman was collected and full blood count (FBC) was conducted through Mindray BC-3000 plus hem analyzer for all pregnant individuals. Confirmed anemic cases were then examined for IDA with serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) through Randox kit and serum transferrin saturation was estimated by formula (serum ferritin saturation =serum iron ×100/TIBC). The total number of participants in the first trimester were 50, among them 26 women were suffer from iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with 52% weightage of prevalence rate, (mean Hb concentration 9.602 ± 0.87 g/dl). The rates of IDA were 63.3%; ( mean Hb concentration 8.48 ± 1.24 g/dl) and 54%; ( mean Hb concentration 9.18 ± 1.28 g/dl), among 150 and 50 participants in the second and third trimester, respectively. A significant correlation was found between serum ferritin and Hb, serum ferritin against MCV and serum ferritin against MCH. The high prevalence of anemia was found 78.2% in the age group from 26-30 followed by 78.2% in the age group 36-40 years compared to those of other age groups in the second trimester. In this study the prevalence of IDA in third trimester is lower compared to first and second trimester.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0353.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; Epidemiology; COVID-19 Analysis and Forecast in Pakistan; Forecasting; Estimation; ARIMA; Prophet; SIRD; Diffusion; Analysis
Online: 29 June 2020 (10:50:47 CEST)
The COVID-19 infections in Pakistan are spreading at an exponential rate and a point may soon be reached where rigorous prevention measures would need to be adopted. Mathematical models can help define the scale of an epidemic and the rate at which an infection can spread in a community. I used ARIMA Model, Diffusion Model, SIRD Model and Prophet Model to forecast the magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan and compared the numbers with the reported cases on the national database. Results depicts that Pakistan could hit peak number of infectious cases between June 2020 and July, 2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1723.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Mango tree; SSR markers; mango varieties; genetic diversity; cultivar identification diagram, loci, polymorphism; genetic resources in Pakistan; breeding; cultivar development
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:48:00 CEST)
Assessment of the genetic distinctiveness of a cultivar through morphological descriptors is an important tool for both the registration and the protection. New mango genotypes have been improved using valuable diverse germplasm resources to ensure food security. DNA fingerprinting based simple sequence repeats (SSR)-markers have been the most broadly used, effective and accurate in evaluation of genetic characterization of a cultivar. Molecular breeding is an effective source of genetic gain after improvement of fruit trees using marker assisted genomic selection. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an allotetraploid (2n = 4X= 40) drupe fruit and has high nutritional value belongs to genus Mangifera and family Anacardiaceae. Mango cultivars are used with worldwide acceptance to pharmacological, ethnomedical, and phytochemical industries. This study investigated the molecular evaluation of a new mango cultivar ‘Azeem Chaunsa’ using a set of the most effective 50 hyper-variable polymorphic SSR markers. Highly specific DNA fingerprints were identified in the genome of this mango cultivar, ‘Azeem Chaunsa’ compared with three standard cultivars such as Sindhri, Samar Bahisht (S.B) Chaunsa and Sufaid Chaunsa. Our results showed that SSR markers could efficiently assess genetic diversity in mango. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering method was used to construct dendrogram based on the ‘Unweighted Pair- Group Method with Arithmetic Mean’ (UPGMA). The genetic similarity coefficients were recorded between the mangos cultivars ranged from 0.49 to 0.67. Cultivar identification (CID) evaluates association among standard cultivars and Azeem Chaunsa and further concludes significant variations. CID results concluded that cultivar ‘Azeem Chaunsa’ varied significantly from the check cultivar, Sindhri (46.2%), S.B Chaunsa (45%) and Sufaid Chaunsa (46.7%). The results obtained in this study will orient cultivar identification strategies for a successful future mango breeding programmes in the context of climate change.