ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0327.v1
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:24:40 CET)
Introduction Tuberculosis is common in Pakistan. Due to various factors including socioeconomic factors, compliance is poor to anti-tuberculosis drugs, leading to resistance. We aim to determine the prevalence of Multidrug resistance (MDR) tuberculosis in Pakistani population.Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from April 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019, in the Pulmonology department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Culture and sensitivity were assessed using a sputum sample or, in cases of an absent sputum sample, from Broncho alveolar lavage.ResultsApproximately 71.3% percent patients who had tuberculosis were found to be resistant to Isoniazid and around 48.6% did not respond to Rifampin. Multi-drug resistant was found in 29.4% participants.ConclusionMulti-drug resistance tuberculosis is very prevalent in Pakistan, which may increase burden on health care system and may lead to various complications of tuberculosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Malnutrition; association; feeding; practice; infants; Pakistan
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:13:18 CEST)
Breastmilk is the only recommended source of nutrition for infants below six-months of age. However, a significant proportion of children are either on supplemental breastfeeding(SBF) or weaned due to the early introduction of solid/semi-solid/soft food and liquids(SSF) before 6 months of age. There is good evidence that Exclusive Breastfeeding(EBF) in infants below six-months of age protects them from preventable illnesses, including malnutrition. The relationship between infant feeding practices and coexisting forms of malnutrition(CFM) has not yet been explored. This study examined the association of different feeding indicators(continuation of breastfeeding, predominant feeding, and SSF) and feeding practices(EBF, SBF, and complete weaning) with CFM in infants aged below six-months of age in Pakistan. National and regional datasets of Pakistan from the last ten years were retrieved from the Demographic Health Surveys(DHS) and UNICEF data repositories. In Pakistan, 34.5%(n=6131) of infants have some form of malnutrition. Among malnourished infants, 44.7%(~15.4% of the total sample) had a CFM. Continuation of breastfeeding was observed in more than 85% of infants, but less than a quarter were on EBF, and the rest were either SBF(65.4%) or weaned infants(13.7%). Compared to EBF, complete weaning increased the odds of coexistence of underweight with wasting and underweight with both wasting and stunting by 1.96(1.12-3.47) and 2.25(1.16-4.36), respectively. Overall, breastfed children had lower odds of various forms of CFM (compared to non-breastfed), except for the coexistence of stunting with overweight/obesity. Continuation of any breastfeeding protects infants in Pakistan from various types of CFM during the first six months of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: anaesthesia; workforce challenges; qualitative research; Pakistan
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:30:46 CEST)
Global anaesthesia workforce limitations contribute to emigration of skilled anaesthesiologists from lower- to higher-income countries, jeopardizing workforce balance and patient outcomes in Pakistan. This study aims to explore challenges experienced by anaesthesiologists in Punjab, Pakistan’s most populous province, and necessary changes to encourage their retention. We conducted a qualitative study to examine perspectives of anaesthesiologists who chose to serve in Pakistan. We drew data from semi-structured interviews conducted with 25 purposively-sampled consultant anaesthesiologists. We analysed data thematically and distinguished the practice hurdles faced by anaesthesiologists in public and private hospitals of Punjab. The main reasons to work abroad could be broadly categorized under two inductive themes, i.e. practice hurdles in public and private sector. Both had distinct issues which compromised the number and quality of anaesthesia workforce in the country. The key outcomes were workplace security, promotion/incentive issues and gender inequalities in the government sector. The private sector had improper salaries and facilities, anaesthesiologist’s dependency on surgeons for getting work and lack of out-of-theatre practice which minimise the scope and earnings of anaesthesiologist within the country. There is a need to overcome surgeon dependency and hospital manipulation by fixing salary percentages for each surgical case and encouraging direct patient-anaesthesiologist relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Obesity; Garcinia cambogia; Green Coffee; Pakistan
Online: 21 October 2020 (16:52:38 CEST)
Introduction: Various studies have widely documented how weight (being overweight, underweight or obese) plays a significant role in increasing health problems and adversely affects the quality of life. Out of all the weight-related issues, obesity is the number one contributing factor for causing health problems. To overcome this factor, a trial was conducted where a drug 'Lite plus’ (Garcinia Cambogia and Green Coffee bean) was given to a select number of people for a period of three months. Materials and Methods: 'Lite Plus' is a drug which contains Garcinia cambogia 500 mg + Green Coffee Bean Extract 400 mg, with a recommended dosage of 2 tablets/day with or before meals for 3 months. Most of the patients included in our study were females suffering from obesity-related problems such as PCOs and Infertility. During the trial, all patients were given the recommended dosage of 'Lite plus', while those with diabetes had the dose amended accordingly. Results: As a result of this trial, it was found that the use of 'Lite Plus' was very effective in decreasing weight/BMI with continuous use. After 6 weeks, out of the 250 respondents participating in the trial, 232 got a reduction in their BMI, and after 12 weeks (end of the trial), 29 respondents (11.6%) reached the desired level of BMI. Conclusion: Garcinia cambogia and Green Coffee bean are effective and safe in weight reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0504.v1
Online: 29 April 2020 (10:38:30 CEST)
The observed data of COVID-19 progression in Pakistan for first 50 days from the first patient been reported has shown quite an unusual trend which is in opposition to clear exponential spread pattern of any infectious disease. The data of positive cases of 50 days of disease progression has been collected from COVID-19 dashboard of Pakistan and analyzed to see the graphical trend and to forecast the behaviour of disease progression for next 30 days. Mathematical equations regarding exponential growth are used to analyse the disease progression and different possible trajectories are plotted to understand the approximate trend pattern. The possible projections estimated 20k-456k positive cases within 80 days of disease spread in Pakistan. Although, the disease progression pattern is not perfectly exponential, it is still threatening a major fraction of susceptible population and demands effective strategic planning and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0095.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Pakistan; Climate change; Rice production; ARDL
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:26:03 CET)
This research paper aims to examine the relationship between CO2, temperature, area, fertilizers and rice production in Pakistan. This study used Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) unit root tests to check the order of integration of each variable. The cointegration analysis with ARDL bounds testing approach is used to examine the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan over time series data from the period 1968 to 2014. The parameter stability test of the model is also checked at the end. The results of estimation show that the important variables of the study are cointegrated demonstrating the presence of long-run association among them. Furthermore, climate change factors, e.g. CO2 and temperature have a long-run and short-run positive effect on the production of rice in Pakistan. This present work is original and it is first time empirically tested the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan. The annual time series data of 47 years enhances the validity of the empirical findings. The most fruitful finding of this research is that rice production in Pakistan is positively influenced by emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 5 percent significance level in both long-run and short-run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Perinatal depression; prognosis; prognostic modeling; nomogram; Pakistan
Online: 10 May 2022 (15:40:48 CEST)
Task sharing approaches are challenged by the barriers fundamental to the use of non-specialists who lack specialist mental health training required to triage the candidates who could benefit from task-shared treatments. However, these challenges could be offset by using standardized and easy-to-implement algorithmic devices (e.g., nomograms) to help with the targeted dissemination of interventions. Therefore, the present investigation posits a prognostic model and a nomogram to predict the prognosis of perinatal depression among women in rural Pakistan. This secondary analysis utilizes data based on 903 pregnant women with depression who participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of the Thinking Healthy Program in rural Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The participants were recruited from 40 union councils in two sub-districts of Rawalpindi and randomly assigned to intervention and enhanced usual care. Sixteen sessions of the THP intervention were delivered by trained community health workers to women with depression over pregnancy and the postnatal period. A trained assessment team used the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-4 current major depressive episode module to diagnose depression at the baseline and post-intervention. The intervention received by the participants emerged as the most significant predictor in the model. Among clinical factors, baseline severity of core-emotional symptoms emerged as an essential predictor, followed by atypical symptoms and insomnia. Higher severity of these symptoms was associated with a poorer prognosis. Other important predictors of a favorable prognosis included living with paternal and maternal grandmothers, financial empowerment, higher socioeconomic class, and living in a joint family system. This prognostic model yielded acceptable discrimination (c-statistic =0.75) and calibration to aid in personalized delivery of psychological treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0200.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Newcastle disease; poultry; Pakistan; vaccine; economic affects
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:59:23 CEST)
The poultry industry is affected by many epidemics and Newcastle Disease (ND) is a constant threat, known as a devastating disease for poultry farmers around the world. According to the average death time of chicken embryos, virus strains can be classified as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic. The current research will clarify the vulnerable host range as well as the epidemiology and geographic distribution of ND in Pakistan. The introduction of the virus into poultry can have serious economic consequences, including the loss of production of sick and dying poultry, the cost of control measures (such as population reduction and disinfection measures), and possible trade restrictions in the event of an outbreak. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with sick poultry or carriers. Infected birds can also spread the virus in their feces. It can also be spread through respiratory secretions, contaminated feed, equipment, water, or feces. We will also discuss vaccines that which vaccines are available for NDV in Pakistan and vaccines can fight against this disease or not? In this study, a qualitative risk analysis was carried out to assess Pakistan's vulnerability to the introduction of virulent NDV strains
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0695.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: deoxynivalenol; corn; cultivar; grains; flour; bread; Pakistan
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:15:34 CEST)
The objectives of the current research were to determine the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) in four different cultivars of corn and subsequently to investigate the fate of DON during pro-cessing steps involved for the production of cornbread. The samples (n = 30) of each cultivar which were found positive were selected for the study. The average level of DON was ranged from LOD to 650 µg/kg. The amount of DON in cornflour samples were ranged from LOD to 630 µg/kg and insignificantly lower than the levels found in corn grain samples (p ≥ 0.05). Further-more, the levels of DON in corn dough samples were insignificantly higher than the levels in cornflour samples (p ≥ 0.05), with levels ranged from LOD to 645 µg/kg. However, the amount of DON in cornbread samples was significantly different from the levels found in corn grains sam-ples (p ≤ 0.05), with levels ranged from LOD to 611.5 µg/kg. The percentage reduction of DON in grains to cornbread samples was 22.4%, 35.6%, 44.5%, and 42.6% in type 1, type 2, type 3, and type 4 cultivars, respectively. The highest dietary exposure and hazard quotient (HQ) of DON was 0.13 and 0.17 µg/kg bw/d, in male and female individuals resulted from the consumption of cornbread samples, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0188.v1
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:30:55 CET)
The present study analyzed seasonal (i.e., Dec-Jan [DJF] and June – August [JJA]) temperature change for the near (2025-2054) and far future (2070-2099) under SSP245, SSP370, and SSP585 scenarios over Pakistan. The anomalies, Mann-Kendall trend tests, Sequential Mann-Kendall trend test (SQMK), and probability density frequency (PDF) analysis were used to investigate future mean temperature variations. The DJF season projected higher increase in temperature in the northern (3.8 oC, 5.1 oC and 6.5 oC), followed by central regions (3.8 oC, 4.9 oC and 6.4 oC) under SSP245, SSP370 and SSP585 scenarios, respectively. The central region is likely to record significant increase in JJA (3.0 oC, 4.4 oC and 5.4 oC) mean temperature in far future under the given SSP scenarios. Compared to historical (PDF), the far future DJF temperature changes revealed significant higher warming over northern, central and then over southern regions under most of SSP scenarios. The southern regions are projected to possible rise in far future JJA temperatures by 2.7 oC, 3.3 oC and 4.3 oC, under SSP245, SSP370 and SSP585, respectively. The PDFs for JJA further verify the highest positive abrupt shift in temperature across the central region and then southern region. The future diverse seasonal temperature changes supports further examination of the associated mechanisms and factors responsible for temperature changes to address climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0480.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social stigma; tuberculosis; knowledge; stigma measurement; Pakistan
Online: 20 November 2018 (05:14:44 CET)
Tuberculosis (TB) associated stigma is well-documented phenomenon that may contribute to sub-optimal TB care in Pakistan. The objective of study was to assess TB related knowledge and perceived stigma among community members. This was cross-sectional survey using convenience sample of 183 individuals recruited between October and December 2017. A validated stigma measurement tool developed by Van Rie et al. was adapted. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. 183 individuals (73% males; n = 134) participated in survey. Eighty-seven percent were aware that TB is curable disease (n = 159) and 91% thought that it could be transmitted by coughing (n = 167). However, respondents also thought that TB was spread through contaminated food (73%; n = 134), sharing meals (55%; n = 100), sharing utensils (53%; n = 96) and by having sexual intercourse with a TB patient (51%; n = 93). Fifty-seven percent (n = 104) associated TB with high levels of stigma. Persons who had less than six years of education (crude OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.72) and lacked knowledge that TB is curable (crude OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 9.70) were more likely to associate TB with stigma. In addition, females (crude OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.04) and those who were unemployed (crude OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.74) were also more likely to associate TB with stigma. We found an association between lack of knowledge about TB and perceived stigma. This highlights need for improved education and awareness about TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0321.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; 10-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine; Pakistan
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:50:14 CEST)
The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine was introduced in Pakistan’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2013 as a 3+0 schedule without catchup. We conducted three annual cross-sectional surveys from 2014-2016 to measure vaccine-type (VT) carriage in infants from a rural part of Pakistan. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected by random sampling of infants from 2 union councils of Matiari. Samples were then transported to Infectious Disease Research Laboratory (IDRL) at the Aga Khan University within 6-8 hours of collection. Serotypes were established using sequential multiplex PCR. Of the 665 children enrolled across three surveys, 547 were culture positive for pneumococcus. VT carriage decreased from 21·8% in 2014 to 12·7% in 2016 (p-value for trend <0·001). Those who were not vaccinated or partially vaccinated were found to be at higher risk of carrying a VT serotype (aOR 2·53, 95% CI 1·39, 4·63 for non-vaccinated) and (aOR 3·35, 95% CI 1·82, 6·16 for partially vaccinated). On the other hand, being enrolled in the most recent survey was negatively associated with VT-carriage (aOR 0·51, 95% CI 0·28, 0·93). We found that PCV10 was effective in decreasing the carriage of vaccine-type serotypes in Pakistani infants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0030.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Pakistan; Rahim Yar Khan; female employment; gender discrimination
Online: 2 October 2019 (10:52:18 CEST)
As a traditional Muslim country, the problem of gender discrimination in employment among women in Pakistan is more common. If we let it develop without taking measures, it will seriously restrict the speed and quality of Pakistan’s domestic economic development in the long run. In this study, the author obtained the first-hand information on the employment status of professional women in the Rahim Yar Khan region of Pakistan through questionnaire survey, supplemented by the public data of the Federal Statistical Office of Pakistan, and combined with the existing research results of the predecessors. Sex discrimination in employment of professional women in Pakistan. Through the collection of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the author found that economic factors are one of the main factors that cause local women to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, it includes the imbalance of labor supply and demand and the pursuit of maximum profits. At the same time, the traditional Muslim culture, women's own literacy and the imperfect legal system in Pakistan are also the key factors that cause female employees in the local area to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Women’s gender discrimination in employment is a universal problem. In any country in the world, gender discrimination may exist as long as women are involved in the work. Based on Pakistan's basic national conditions and relevant professional knowledge, the author provides several suggestions for eliminating the problem of gender discrimination in employment for local female employees in Pakistan. 1) The Pakistani government should further promote the domestic economic growth, increase the number of jobs, and ease the imbalance between the supply and demand of labor. At the same time, encourage self-employment and provide corresponding policy support. A variety of measures are also intended to address local gender discrimination in employment for women. 2) The government's leadership accelerates the transformation of the concept of the whole society. On the one hand, it requires the whole society to correctly understand the social status and social contribution of women, and strives to bring the concept of equality between men and women into the hearts of the people. It is intended to encourage qualified women to go out of the family to participate in social work. At the same time, correctly guide corporate values. Enterprises should not unilaterally pursue the maximization of interests, and should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities. 3) Women should also actively and consciously improve their literacy. Including not only active learning advanced cultural knowledge and professional skills. For the professional skills that have already been mastered, you must study harder and make yourself more and more progressive. At the same time, families should guarantee that girls of the appropriate age receive the education they deserve, so that they can gather their strengths in the workplace in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: corporate life-cycle; bankruptcy risk; financial sustainability; Pakistan
Online: 21 January 2019 (09:10:39 CET)
In this paper we analyze the relationship between bankruptcy risk and the corporate life cycle in Pakistan from 2005 to 2014. For this purpose, we run a Hierarchical Linear Mixed Model (HLM) for a sample of 301 non-financial listed firms in 12 different sectors. The empirical outcomes reveal that firms during introduction, growth and, decline stages (mature stage) of life-cycle experience higher (lower) bankruptcy risk. Moreover, in juxtaposition with growth stage, bankruptcy risk is higher at the introduction stage of life-cycle. These findings suggest that financial managers should be cautious about the financial fragility of the firm at each stage of corporate life-cycle. The results also entail that Pakistani firms do not follow a sequential pattern in their life-cycle rather they have the tendency to revert to a previous stage or jump to the next stage of life-cycle. This is the first study that empirically examines the association between firm life-cycle stage and corresponding bankruptcy risk and asserts that managers must incorporate the life-cycle effects into their financial planning and decision making for sustainable working of an enterprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0218.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Deccan basalts; Indus Basin (Pakistan); Seismic interpretation; Hydrocarbon potential
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:43:59 CEST)
Due to the use of structural and seismic techniques an attempt has been made in this study to determine the hydrocarbon potential and future exploration in Pakistan's Lower Indus basin area and offshore region. In addition to the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulation, the major goals of this research are to analyze structural patterns in the subsurface of the study region, identify the horizons of various formations using surface seismic, and interpret seismic lines. Seismic data has been used to find and integrate the exposed Cretaceous/Tertiary basalt at Ranikot in the lower Indus basin to the well-known Deccan basalts of the Indo-Pak plate, which is the secondary goal of the current investigation. According to the interpretation of seismic data, the Indo-Pakistan plate has experienced rifting because of tectonic activity. Graben and horst structures have been identified in the study area horizon, which indicates that the area has undergone major structural and depositional changes. While faults provide a pathway for hydrocarbons to migrate from their source to reservoir rock, grabens are principally responsible for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. We further deduce that the prior exploration failures in the area were due to a lack of knowledge of the subsurface formations and structural trends, which are essential for characterizing the hydrocarbon play and trap features. Our results can be productive for the local hydrocarbon drilling projects as well as worldwide tectonic stratigraphy studies on passive continental edges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0393.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Drought indices; SPI; RDI; Climate variables; DrinC; Potwar; Pakistan
Online: 26 October 2021 (15:39:16 CEST)
Drought is treated as a key natural disaster that affects numerous segments of the natural environment and economy throughout the world. Drought indices (DIs) were computed for Potwar region (PR) in Punjab-Pakistan, using DrinC software which are deciles, Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). Drought situation of 12, 9, 6 and 3 months was estimated on temporal basis. DIs obtained by deciles technique showed that for the last 39 years, 8-years are with drought severity in a cycle and are occurring every 2 to 7-years just the once repetitively. The RDI and SPI index showed the analogous trends as of deciles. Though, for RDI and SPI, the extremely dry and severely dry class was merely two years and rest of the drought affected years with respect to deciles were normally and intermediately dry. SPI is better as compared to deciles as the severity is better understood in the context of SPI. Regression analysis revealed that the RDI and SPI indices are mutually interrelated and if first 3 month precipitation is obtainable one can forecast yearly RDI. This investigation is valuable to devise future development plans to contest vulnerable drought incidents, its mitigation and impacts on socio-economic sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0117.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Public Art; Cultural identity; Islamic society; Art history; Pakistan.
Online: 18 February 2018 (13:16:07 CET)
The significance of arts incorporated with culture inclusion makes the arts a matter of pressing interest. The arts are vital elements of a healthy society that benefits the nations even in difficult social and economic times. Based on the previous studies this research was conducted for the first time in Pakistan to explore the historical background of public art correlated with cultural and religious ethics. Though, Pakistan has a rich cultural history yet the role of modern public art is new and often used unintentionally. Our findings of different surveys conducted in Pakistan including oldest cities such as Lahore, Peshawar and newly developed, the capital city, Islamabad concluded that Public art has a rich cultural and historical background and the local community are enthusiastically connected to it. Different community groups prefer different types of public art in their surroundings depends on the city’s profile, cultural background, and religious mindset of the local community. Overall, the sculptures and depiction of animated beings are not considering right and debatable among the Pakistani societies. On the other hand, the cultural and historical monuments are highly appreciated and welcomed by the local community of Pakistan. This study may create scope for future estimation and development of public art in Pakistan in association with Islamic laws and cultural norms of the local society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0402.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; One Health; poultry; poultry farmers; antibiotic use; Pakistan
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:33:42 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to community carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is highly prevalent in the WHO South-East Asia region. One of the major reasons is the misuse of antibiotics in animal farming practices and at community level, which threatens both human and animal health. However, this multifaceted One Health (OH) problem of antibiotic use (ABU) in poultry farms and respective farmers is not well studied in countries like Pakistan. Therefore, we conducted n OH cross-sectional study in rural Punjab to explore the current practices of ABU in poultry and poultry farmers, associated factors, their healthcare-seeking behaviour and biosecurity practices. We found all the participating farmers using antibiotics for poultry, 60% of which were Colistin sulphate and Amoxicillin trihydrate. The significant consumption of antibiotics in poultry farms (60%) and poultry farmers (50%) was without prescription. Most of the farms (85%) had no wastewater drainage system, causing direct shedding of poultry waste and antibiotic residue in the surrounding environment. Lack of farmers’ education, professional farm training and duration of farming experience were the significantly associated factors with ABU and knowledge of AMR. Our study implies the necessity of an integrated OH-AMR policy with the inclusion of farmers’ education, mass awareness, and strict antibiotic usage guidelines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0040.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Coronaviruses; COVID-19; Pakistan; current situation; human physiology; diagnosis; treatment
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:59:45 CEST)
Coronavirus that is also known as COVID-19 disease is produced by SARSCoV-2. This causative agent is highly contagious and can cause potentially fatal pneumonia worldwide with serious public health concerns. In the beginning among infected individuals, most of them were those who were mainly shown to the wet animal market in a big city of China known as Wuhan. So, it was suggested that this was almost certainly the zoonotic source of COVID-19illness. The transitional source of origin and their mode of transmission to humans were not known obviously. Conversely, from human to human rapidly transformation have been confirmed generally. Currently, there is no availability of FDA approved clinically antiviral drugs and/or vaccines to be used against the COVID-19. Afterward, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 has been manifested as the third sketch of an enormously pathogenic coronavirus into human population globally. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the history of COVID-19 in Pakistan up-to 18th weeks after beginning, current situation, epidemiology, and its impact on the human population. Moreover, we focused on physiological variation during the incubation period, genome analysis of SARS-CoV2, supportive treatment approaches, and safety measures in the Pakistani population, which may be supportive for combating the risk of COVID-19 epidemic. We also reviewed the future approaches for the development of therapeutic interventions and vaccines to cope with the COVID-19 epidemic.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19, Pakistan, Economic Losses, Disease Spread, SARS-CoV-2
Online: 1 April 2020 (09:19:30 CEST)
As of 26 March 2020, Pakistan had 1179 cases of COVID-19, with most 421 cases from Sindh, 394 cases, 131 cases, 123 cases, 84 cases, 25 cases and 01 cases from Punjab, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Gilgit-Baltistan, Islamabad Capital Territory, and Azad Jammu and Kashmir respectively. Travel-related cases were the main source of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the early phase of the pandemic in Pakistan. Nevertheless, cases of local virus transmission are increasing day by day. As of 26 March 2020, nine deaths have been reported from COVID-19. The case fatality rate is 0.8%, which is less compare to China, Italy, USA, and Iran. The SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) model of epidemiological analysis predicts that almost 90 million population will be infected in the coming days with 5% critical cases that need health care facilities. However, the Pakistan health care system cannot provide services to this much population. Hence, we need to act timely to reduce this number by restricting local transmission of the disease. This can be done by mass testing, quarantine, isolation and social distancing of the active coronavirus cases in Pakistan. Moreover, better communication between the authorities is very much required to control disease transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Pakistan; bajra; barley; jowar; crops production; agricultural gross domestic product
Online: 24 May 2019 (09:02:30 CEST)
This paper investigates and explores the minor crops production in Pakistan and its association with the agricultural gross domestic product. The agriculture sector of Pakistan has a rich contribution to the economic growth and development. Like major crops; minor crops also have a vital role to boost up the agriculture sector. Time span data was used in this study and it was collected from the Economy Survey of Pakistan annual reports. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was used to analyze the data and results were interpreted by employing the Johansen co-integration test. Study results reveal that bajra, barely and jowar has a significant impact on the agricultural gross domestic product, while the total cropped area has a negative impact on AGDP. On the basis of the study results, we recommend the policy implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0344.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Landsat8; multi-temporal; crops statistics; land use land cover; Pakistan
Online: 21 August 2018 (12:25:17 CEST)
Developing countries like Pakistan is among those where lack of adoption to science and technology advancement is a major constraint for Satellite Remote Sensing use in crops and land use land cover digital information generation. Exponential rise in country population, increased food demand, limiting natural resources coupled with migration of rural community to urban areas had further led to skewed official statistics. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the possible use of freely available satellite data like Landsat8 under complex cropping system of Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. An Integrated approach has been developed for the satellite data based crops and land use/cover spatial area estimation. The resultant quality was found above 96% with Kappa statistics of 0.95. Land utilization statistics provided detail information about cropping patterns as well as land use land cover status. Rice was recorded as most dominating crop in term of cultivation area of around 0.165 million ha followed by autumn maize 0.074 million ha, Fallow crop fields 0.067 million ha and Sorghum 0.047 million ha. Other minor crops observed were potato, fodder and cotton being cultivated on less than 0.010 million ha. Population settlements were observed over an area of around 0.081 million ha of land.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: maternal mortality; Pakistan; Millenium development goals; sustainable development goals; antenatal care
Online: 30 June 2020 (07:15:28 CEST)
Background: Maternal mortality (MM) is a matter of serious concern in low income developing countries (LDCs). Perspective: A great reduction has been observed regarding the maternal deaths globally after huge efforts since 1990 todate. However, the situation continues to be either stagnant or worsening in developing countries, suggesting that the efforts to cope with this issue are either insufficient or not properly implemented. We need to first diagnose the problem areas that are a great hurdle in the road to success towards the reduction of MM. Postpartum haemorrhage and preeclampsia are one of the most common causes of MM. Malnutrition, neurological dysfunction and cancer are among the non-obstetric causes. Trained medical and paramedical staff can be of great help in this regard by increasing awareness among masses at grass root level. Target set by Millennium Development goal has minimized the MM by 44%. But it has not met the target set by Millenium Development Goals 5 and a lot of measures need to be taken in this regard. Conclusions: Majority of the MDs are preventable and can be avoided by adopting appropriate frameworks, linked data sets, surveillance, birth attendants training, preparation for births, etc. Delay in decision to get healthcare, access to healthcare center and receiving these facilities are the main factors in MM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0438.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: nuclear; detonations; trauma; thermal burn; radiation; fallout; New Delhi; India; Pakistan
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:06:50 CEST)
The human casualties from simulated nuclear detonation scenarios in New Delhi, India are analyzed, with a focus on the distribution of casualties in urban environments and the theoretical application of a nuclear-specific triage system. Model estimates of nuclear war casualties employed ESRI's ArcGIS 9.3, blast and prompt radiation were calculated using the Defense Nuclear Agency's WE program, and fallout radiation was calculated using the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA's) Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) V404SP4, as well as custom GIS and database software applications. ESRI ArcGISTM programs were used to calculate affected populations from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's LandScanTM 2007 Global Population Dataset for areas affected by thermal, blast and radiation data. Trauma, thermal burn, and radiation casualties were thus estimated on a geographic basis for New Delhi, India for single and multiple (six) 25 kiloton (kt) detonations and a single 1 megaton (1000kt) detonation. Major issues related to the emergency management of a nuclear incident are discussed with specific recommendations for improvement. The consequences for health management of thermal burn and radiation patients is the worst, as burn patients require enormous resources to treat, and there will be little to no familiarity with the treatment of radiation victims.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0288.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: eHealth Literacy; digital health literacy; sense of coherence; COVID-19; COVID-HL-Q; Pakistan.
Online: 10 March 2021 (15:07:22 CET)
Amid to the COVID-19 pandemic, digital health literacy (DHL) has become a significant public health concern. This research aims to assess information seeking behavior, as well as the ability to find relevant information and deal with DHL among university students in Pakistan. An online-based cross-sectional survey, using a web-based interviewing technique, was conducted to collect data on DHL. Simple bivariate and multivariate linear regression was performed to assess the association of key characteristics with DHL. The results show a high DHL related to COVID-19 in 54.3% of students. Most of the Pakistani students demonstrated ~50% DHL in all dimensions, except of reliability. Multivariate findings showed that gender, sense of coherence and importance of information were found to be significantly associated with DHL. However, a negative association was observed with students’ satisfaction with information. This led to the conclusion that critical operational and navigations skills are essential to achieve COVID-19 DHL and cope with stress, particularly to promote both personal and community health. Focused interventions and strategies should be designed to enhance DHL amongst university students to combat the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: COVID-19 and Stock Market; Pakistan Stock Market and Pandemic; Financial Markets and Pandemics
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:23:36 CEST)
The objective of this study is to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the performance of Pakistani Stock Market. This study uses the data of COVID-19 related positive cases, fatalities, recovers and the closing prices of PSX 100 index of the first half of 2020. The findings of the study suggest that only COVID-19 recoveries are influencing the performance of the index and the daily positive cases and fatalities are insignificantly related to the performance. Further studies can be performed by incorporating other variables such as economic growth, interest rate and inflation rate along with the COVID-19 related variables at a cross-country level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0126.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: anemia; iron deficiency; pregnancy; serum ferritin; mean corpuscular volume (mcv); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); Northern Pakistan
Online: 27 January 2017 (03:46:07 CET)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of anemia in pregnant women of Swat District; to analyze the iron variations and its dietary effects.Data were collected during the periods of January – September 2016. The study of samples comprised of 250 pregnant women in the different trimester. Blood sample from each woman was collected and full blood count (FBC) was conducted through Mindray BC-3000 plus hem analyzer for all pregnant individuals. Confirmed anemic cases were then examined for IDA with serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) through Randox kit and serum transferrin saturation was estimated by formula (serum ferritin saturation =serum iron ×100/TIBC). The total number of participants in the first trimester were 50, among them 26 women were suffer from iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with 52% weightage of prevalence rate, (mean Hb concentration 9.602 ± 0.87 g/dl). The rates of IDA were 63.3%; ( mean Hb concentration 8.48 ± 1.24 g/dl) and 54%; ( mean Hb concentration 9.18 ± 1.28 g/dl), among 150 and 50 participants in the second and third trimester, respectively. A significant correlation was found between serum ferritin and Hb, serum ferritin against MCV and serum ferritin against MCH. The high prevalence of anemia was found 78.2% in the age group from 26-30 followed by 78.2% in the age group 36-40 years compared to those of other age groups in the second trimester. In this study the prevalence of IDA in third trimester is lower compared to first and second trimester.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0353.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; Epidemiology; COVID-19 Analysis and Forecast in Pakistan; Forecasting; Estimation; ARIMA; Prophet; SIRD; Diffusion; Analysis
Online: 29 June 2020 (10:50:47 CEST)
The COVID-19 infections in Pakistan are spreading at an exponential rate and a point may soon be reached where rigorous prevention measures would need to be adopted. Mathematical models can help define the scale of an epidemic and the rate at which an infection can spread in a community. I used ARIMA Model, Diffusion Model, SIRD Model and Prophet Model to forecast the magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan and compared the numbers with the reported cases on the national database. Results depicts that Pakistan could hit peak number of infectious cases between June 2020 and July, 2020.