Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Brief Overview: The Persistence and Pandemic of Virulent Newcastle Disease in Birds as Well as Role in Pakistan

Version 1 : Received: 11 October 2021 / Approved: 13 October 2021 / Online: 13 October 2021 (11:59:23 CEST)

How to cite: Baksh, M.; Ali, Z.; Ali, G. A Brief Overview: The Persistence and Pandemic of Virulent Newcastle Disease in Birds as Well as Role in Pakistan. Preprints 2021, 2021100200 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202110.0200.v1). Baksh, M.; Ali, Z.; Ali, G. A Brief Overview: The Persistence and Pandemic of Virulent Newcastle Disease in Birds as Well as Role in Pakistan. Preprints 2021, 2021100200 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202110.0200.v1).

Abstract

The poultry industry is affected by many epidemics and Newcastle Disease (ND) is a constant threat, known as a devastating disease for poultry farmers around the world. According to the average death time of chicken embryos, virus strains can be classified as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic. The current research will clarify the vulnerable host range as well as the epidemiology and geographic distribution of ND in Pakistan. The introduction of the virus into poultry can have serious economic consequences, including the loss of production of sick and dying poultry, the cost of control measures (such as population reduction and disinfection measures), and possible trade restrictions in the event of an outbreak. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with sick poultry or carriers. Infected birds can also spread the virus in their feces. It can also be spread through respiratory secretions, contaminated feed, equipment, water, or feces. We will also discuss vaccines that which vaccines are available for NDV in Pakistan and vaccines can fight against this disease or not? In this study, a qualitative risk analysis was carried out to assess Pakistan's vulnerability to the introduction of virulent NDV strains

Keywords

Newcastle disease; poultry; Pakistan; vaccine; economic affects

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